Ananda Marga Yoga Society

magbahagi

Ananda Marga Yoga Society

Founder : He is known to his followers as Marga Guru Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (which means “He who attracts others as the embodiment of bliss”), but is also known as Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar (his birth name), or Ba’Ba (which means father). 1

Petsa ng Kapanganakan: Mayo 21, 1921-Oktubre 21, 1990. 2

Lugar ng Kapanganakan: Ang maliit na bayan ng Jamalpur sa Bihar, India. 3

Taong Itinatag: 1955 sa Jamalpur, Bihar, India. 4

Sacred or Revered Texts : Although there aren’t any sacred texts in Ananda Marga, there are works by the founder of Ananda Marga and other writers that are used as a philosophical skeleton to help guide the members. The founder used the name Shrii Shrii Anandamurti when he wrote books on spiritual topics and the name Shrii Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar when he authored books on other areas. The first book was Ananda Marga- Elementary Philosophy that was written by Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, and outlines the philosophy of Ananda Marga. Besides this book, there are many more books that outline the philosophy of Ananda Marga and other important doctrines written by Anandamurti and others. These books can be found on the Ananda Marga Homepage. 5

Size of Group : The largest concentrations of Ananda Marga are located in India and in the Phillipines, but members are found throughout the world and can be found in most countries. “Though it has been suggested that this ‘revolutionist’ movement has several million adherents, the actual membership is undoubtedly very much smaller” 6 . Worldwide, there are spiritual and social activity centers in over 160 countries. 7

kasaysayan

Prabhat Rainjan Sarkar was born on May 21, 1921 on Vaesha’Khii Pu’rn’ima’, or Buddha Pu’rn’ima’ (the day of the full moon of the lunar month). He was the fourth child in a family of eight. 8

He was a bright student who eventually went to Vidyasagar College in Calcutta, and it was here that his spiritual powers manifested. The story of his first disciple is said to have taken place when he was a freshman in college in 1939. One night Sarkar took his usual walk along the banks of the Ganges and sat down to rest and there went into a state of meditation. A man by the name of Kalicharan came up to him and tried to rob him. Sarkar acted very calmly and began to talk to Kalicharan and finally asked him if he was interested in changing his life. As Sarkar continued to talk, Kalicharan became captivated and ended up bathing in the river and becoming the first sadhaka (spiritual aspirant) initiated to the spiritual path by Sarkar. Kalicharan then changed his name to Kalikananda. This event occurred on a full moon in August, Shra’van’ii Pu’rn’ima’, and every year this date is celebrated. 9

In 1941 Sarkar passed the intermediate science exam and went to work on the railway where his father had worked. During this time before the establishment of the Ananda Marga Yoga Society, Sarkar built up a following. He was evidently able to look over his followers with his “omniscient power” and the ability to see whether they correctly observed yama and hiyama (the ten cardinal principles of morality). 10

In 1954 Sarkar told his senior sadhakas that he would be establishing a new organization and preparations went under way for the inauguration (by-laws and articles of association were drawn up), which would take place on January 1, 1955. On this date, Sarkar and his followers met at house 339 at the Rampur Rail Colony where he was instated as the organization’s founder-president. The organization took the name of Ananda Marga Pracaraka Samgha, “The Society for the Propagation of Ananda Marga Ideology,” which would be better known as the Ananda Marga Yoga Society. 11

The name “Ananda Marga” came from a relationship with saint Brghu. Saint Brghu had attained Brahma (infinite consciousness) after a long period of penance. From this infinite bliss, the universe and its entities were created. In this bliss (Ananda) everything flourishes and in the end everything also returns to Ananda and merges with it. Because of this, Ananda is the same as Brahma. 12

After the founding of Ananda Marga, Sarkar started to train missionaries to spread his teaching of “self-realization and service to humanity” (which became the motto of Ananda Marga) into India and the rest of the world, and in 1962 initiated the first monk (called Dada, meaning elder brother) of Ananda Marga. He followed this with the creation of an order of nuns (called Didis, meaning elder sister) in 1966. 13 In 1963, Sarkar established the Education Relief and Welfare Section (ERAWS) of Ananda Marga. ERAWS has created schools, colleges, homes for children, hospitals all over the world. 14 Sarkar also created the theory of PROUT (Progressive Utilization Theory) in 1959 which is a theory of how to end social and economic injustice in society and the world. 15

In December 1971 Sarkar was arrested and charged with murder which was later reduced to the charge of “abetment to murder” and had no trial for four years. When he finally had a trial he was found guilty and sentenced to life in prison. After Indira Gandhi fell from power in 1978 he was granted a new trial and found innocent. Sarkar and Ananda Marga have sparked much controversy due to its political activism. In the early and mid- 1970s, the Indian government considered the organization a terrorist organization that taught its members ritual murder. He continued to work to expand his philosophy and also Ananda Marga to the rest of the world until his death in 1990. 16

Because Sakar’s philosophy of “service to humanity” covers such a broad base of ideas, his organization is made up of numerous branches dedicated to different aspects that Ananda Marga focuses on, such as environmental awareness and disaster relief. Under environmental awareness, he used the term “Neo-Humanism” to define his belief that one should extend humanism to love for animals and plants as well as people. 17 With this belief, he established a global plant exchange program to save plant species around the world and also established animal sanctuaries around the world. Under disaster relief, Ananda Marga has created two organizations to help with disaster relief efforts. AMURT (Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team) and AMURTEL (Ananda Marga Universal Relief Team Ladies) were created in 1965 and 1977 respectively.

AMURT was first founded to help victims of the numerous floods in India but has eventually expanded globally to 80 countries. Each sector is independent (choice of projects and obtaining funds) but can obtain technical help from other sectors. In each country that AMURT exists, it not only helps with disaster relief but also works with helping to develop the country. They follow the method called “co-operative development” which is when workers of AMURT work with the people to help improve their situation through construction, agriculture, and water preservation. It also participates in social programs such as owning and running schools, renovating schools, training teachers, running children’s homes, and providing medical aid. 18

Ang AMURTEL ay ang sister organization ng AMURT at nakatuon sa mga partikular na pangangailangan ng kababaihan at kanilang mga pamilya at pinatatakbo din ng mga kababaihan. Ang AMURTEL ay nagbibigay ng medikal na pangangalaga para sa mga buntis at mga ina ng ina, tumutulong sa pagtuturo sa mga kababaihan sa industriya ng bahay tulad ng pag-angkop, pagyari sa kamay, at paggawa ng komersyal na pagkain, at nagtataguyod din ng epektibong kontrol ng kapanganakan. Ang AMURTEL ay nagtatatag din ng mga kampo ng relief at refugee, namamahagi ng pagkain, gamot at damit, nagbibigay ng mga murang kitchens at mga klase sa nutrisyon, at tumulong sa mga batang walang kaya ang mga bata sa pamamagitan ng pagtakbo ng mga mababang paaralan ng pagtuturo. Nag-iisponsor din ito ng mga bahay at mga bahay sa gitna para sa mga bata, mga matatanda, mga may kapansanan, mga kababaihan, at nagpapatakbo din ng mga murang hostel para sa mga kulang na karapatan sa mga mag-aaral. 19

Ngayon, ang Ananda Marga ay isang pandaigdigang organisasyon na may mga sentro sa paglipas ng mga bansa sa 160, kabilang ang Estados Unidos. 20
paniniwala

Ang ideolohiya ng pangkat ay pangkalahatan at binibigyang diin nito ang pagkakaisa ng lipunan ng tao. Ang mga kritikal na relihiyon at iba pang espirituwal na landas ay lubhang nasiraan ng loob at ang grupo ay may matibay na pangako na magdala ng progreso sa buong lipunan ng tao (at iba pang nilalang) sa pamamagitan ng paglilingkod sa paghihirap sa lahat ng uri ng mga paraan. Sa ganitong epekto, nilikha ng Sakar ang mga samahan tulad ng AMURT, AMURTEL, at pilosopiya ng PANUKALA upang maisagawa ang mga aktibidad upang makamit ang pag-unlad na ito.

His philosophy of PROUT called for economic democracy, which is maintaining human rights, and giving control of the economy to the local level rather than “a handful of leaders [who] misappropriate the political and economic power of the state.” He also called for the election of competent, educated, and moral people into public office rather than candidates who rely on money to win an election, a balanced economy by controlling industry on the local level, redistributing cultivatable land, and putting money into productive ventures such as railroads. Sakar said that science and technology should be guided by Neo- humanistic principles. He wanted the establishment of a welfare system and fair taxation, social and economic justice, women’s rights, and the creation of a world government with a global bill of rights, global constitution, and global justice system. 21

Ang pag-uugali ng grupo ng makitid ang isip ay maliwanag sa pilosopiya ng Neo-Humanismo, na kung saan ay ang paniniwala na ang isang tao ay dapat magpalawak ng humanismo sa pag-ibig sa mga hayop at halaman pati na rin sa mga tao. Ang pilosopiya ng Neo-Humanism ay ginagawa sa edukasyon sa pamamagitan ng mga paaralan ng Ananda Marga, na matatagpuan sa buong mundo, kabilang ang Estados Unidos. 22

Ananda Marga practices Tantra Yoga, and since it is considered a practical science (intuitional science of the mind). Yoga is an important practice in following Ananda Marga. Tantra yoga was founded by Lord Sadashiva who was also the interpretor of the Tantra which is a mystical tradition of Eastern India. Tantra means “liberation through expansion” and so the practice of Tantra yoga is to free one’s mind. Tantra yoga the universe is a part of Brahma which is the Supreme Conscious Being. It is said that Brahma is split up into two parts, the Eternal Consciousness (Shiva) and creative power (Shakti). All living things apparently identify with material and mental goods made by Shakti and are not fully connected with Shiva. When one becomes human they can increase their identification with Shiva, the Eternal Consciousness through meditation. By reestablishing equilibrium between Shakti and Shiva, a person can return to a state of Eternal Bliss or the state of Brahma. Brahma can be experienced through Tantra Yoga by exploring and mastering the mind to the point where it realizes its connection with Brahma. Tantra Yoga uses two ways to connect with Brahma. One way is by releasing a person from addictive activities and the other is to practice yoga. Yoga helps a person overcome their addictions and also deepen a person’s feeling of connection with Brahma. The end product is the experience of the Eternal Bliss. The correct ways of meditating are taught by Acharyas who give initiation and lessons on yoga as representatives of the Guru (God). 23

Ananda Marga uses the Sixteen Points 24 , created by P.R. Sarkar, which is an important system of spiritual practices, to help guide its followers to maximize their own personal growth. Although few people can actually follow the Sixteen Points perfectly, these practices can help balance the physical, mental, and spiritual parts of human life. Members of Ananda Marga are encouraged to try and follow these points as strictly as possible. Below is a basic outline of the Sixteen Points, provided by “Ananda Marga: Social and Spiritual Practices” edited by Tarak, but it is suggested that they should be learned from a person who has experienced them. The Sixteen Points are split up into two sections and are as follows:

Jaeva Dharma (Maintenance of Existence)

Paggamit ng Tubig
Ang tubig ay dapat na ibuhos sa genital area pagkatapos makapasa ng ihi. Ang pagbubuhos ng malamig na tubig sa lugar na ito ay nakakahadlang sa init na ito ng init at nagiging sanhi ng kontrata ng mga kalamnan, sa gayo'y lubusang tinatapon ang urinary bladder. Ang dahilan para sa praktis na ito ay dahil ang anumang natitirang ihi sa pantog ay maaaring maging sanhi ng kawalan ng timbang ng glandula at magreresulta sa sakit, labis na sekswal na pagpapasigla, at pangkalahatang pag-aaksaya ng pisikal at mental na enerhiya. 25

balat
Kung maaari, ang mga lalaki ay dapat tuliin. Pinipigilan nito ang maraming sakit at pinapanatili ang kalinisan ng lahat. Kung hindi tuli, dapat malinis at ibabalik ng lalaki ang regular na balat ng masama, upang maiwasan ang pagdami ng ihi ng ihi. 26

Pinagsamang Buhok
Ang buhok sa ilalim ng mga armas, sa mga binti at sa bulit na lugar ay hindi dapat makapag-ahit. Ito ay lumalaki nang natural upang magbigay ng balanse sa init ng katawan at mahalaga para sa mabuting kalusugan. Ang pinagsamang buhok (armpits at maselang bahagi ng katawan) ay dapat na malinis na sabon araw-araw at may langis ng langis. 27

Damit na panloob
Ang mga lalaki ay dapat magsuot ng laungota upang maprotektahan ang lugar ng pag-aari, maiwasan ang labis na sekswal na pagpapasigla at ilihis ang dumaloy na daloy. Ang mga kababaihan ay dapat magsuot ng bra at damit na panloob upang protektahan ang genital area, maiwasan ang labis na sekswal na pagpapasigla at maiwasan ang mga impeksiyon. 28

Vya’Paka Shaoca (Half Bath)
Ang pagsasanay na ito ay ginagawa bago ang pagmumuni-muni, pagkain, at pagtulog. Ang pagkuha ng isang half-bath ay isang systematically cleans ilang mga lugar ng katawan na may cool na tubig, ang genital area, tuhod, binti, paa, elbows, mas mababang mga armas, bibig, mata, ilong, likod ng bibig, lalamunan, dila, tainga, at likod ng leeg. Ginagawa ito upang maiwasan ang pagtaas ng init ng katawan; Tinutulungan din nito ang pag-relax sa katawan na lumikha ng isang perpektong kalmado na estado para sa pagmumuni-muni. 29

Paliguan
Ang isang buong paliguan ay dapat kunin nang hindi bababa sa isang beses sa isang araw. Ang malamig na tubig (ang lahat ng tubig na ginamit ay hindi dapat mas mataas kaysa sa temperatura ng katawan) ay dapat gamitin maliban kung ang isa ay may malamig. Kung ang isang tao ay may malamig, malamig na tubig ay dapat gamitin sa saradong lugar. Ang mga banyo ay dapat na kinuha apat na beses sa isang araw sa napaka tiyak na mga oras, sa umaga, tanghali, gabi, at hatinggabi. Ang basang balat ay dapat na tuyo alinman sa pamamagitan ng sikat ng araw o liwanag mula sa isang puting bombilya. 30

Pagkain
“It is preferable to eat sentient food rather than mutative food, while static food should be avoided.” The reason for this is that mutative foods contain stimulants and static foods requires one to kill an animal and is unhealthy for the body. Meals should be eaten at regular times throughout the day and no more than four meals should be eaten. Other meal etiquette should be followed such as not eating when one is not hungry, drinking plenty of water throughout the day, and eating with others rather than alone. 31

Bha’Gavad Dharma (The Path to Salvation)

Upavasa
Members of Ananda Marga should fast the eleventh day after the full or new moon (Ekadshii), and should not eat food or drink water during this time. A person that is pregnant or suffers from medical ailments does not need to fast. “Fasting generates willpower” and “generates empathy with the sufferings of the poor and also of animals and plants.” 32

Sa’Dhana’
This word defines the conscious effort that a person takes to achieve the goal of enlightenment. “An aspirant enters the realm of Sadhana by receiving initiation into the process of meditation.” This initiation is important to the life of a spiritual seeker as he/she learns about meditation, which is made up of a system of six lessons. Meditation is taught by an Acarya, or teacher and it should be done twice a day. As well as meditation, Sadhana is also made up of other spiritual practices. 33

Madhuvidya (also called Guru mautra) – It is the second lesson in Ananda Marga’s system of meditation. It should be performed before sleeping, eating, meditating, and bathing. 34

Sarva’tmaka Shaoca – Meaning “all round cleanliness.” A person’s body, clothes, and environment should be kept clean. A person should keep their mind clear. 35

Tapah – Meaning service. Sarkar outlines four services and one should try and perform all four types of service every day. 36

Bhuta Yajina – “Service to the created world.” One should be kind to animals, plants, and inanimate objects. 37

Pitr Yajina – “Service to ancestors.” 38

Nr Yajina – “Service to humanity.” There are four different ways to perform this: physical labor, giving financial support, physical strength and courage, and using one’s intellectual strength. Paincaseva (five services) should be done daily and can be accomplished by distributing free food, selling cheap vegetarian food, distributing clothing, medical supplies, or books and educational supplies. 39

Adhya’tma Yajina – “Spiritual Service.” An internal form of service throughout the day and during meditation. 40

Sva’dhya’ya – To understand spiritual materials fully. By reading Sarkar’s books, one is able to clearly understand what the goal to reach for is. By reading, one is also able to understand one’s own spiritual experiences. 41

Asanas (or Innercises) – These yoga postures should be done in the presence of an Acarya and done twice a day (morning and evening). 42

Pashas and Ripus – Individuals acquire eight pa’shas (bondages) as they interact with the world around them. These bondages are shame, fear, doubt, hatred, pride of decent, pride of culture, egoistic feeling, and hypocrisy. There are also six internal bondages, which are physical desire, anger, greed, attachment, pride, and envy. To control the internal bondages, Sadhana is used and Yama and Niyama are used to control the societal bondages. 43

Kiirtan – A spiritual dance that should be done before Sadhana. This dance loosens the body to help the ease of movement and also helps create a calm state of mind. 44

Pa’incajanya – Every morning at 5 a.m. one should follow the yoga routine of kiirtan and sadhana. This is the time when spiritual elevation can be optimized. 45

Guru Saka’sha – This means to be near the Guru. At dawn, when one rises, one should think of Guru and do internal service to him. 46

Is’ta – This term defines “the chosen ideal.” It is the goal of the Absolute, which is personalized for us. “No negative remarks against the Guru should be tolerated and duties given by the Guru should be followed.” 47

A’darsha – The term means ideology. “The path by which [a person] move[s] towards [their] chosen goal. [A person] should not compromise [their] ideology nor allow others to ridicule it without making an effort to explain [their] position properly and logically. One should read Baba’s books and become competent in the spiritual and social philosophy of Ananda Marga.” 48

Conduct Rules – One should strictly follow the Conduct Rules. These rules help during Sadhana by helping keep one’s ideation. Understanding and following of Yama, Hiyama, the 15 Shiilas (Social Conduct rules), the Supreme Command, the One Point Local (one should not compromise the sanctity of Is’ta, A’darsha, the Conduct Rules, and Supreme Command) and the 40 Social Norms will help one maintain mental equilibrium. 49

Supreme Command – This is the “fundamental guidepost for all Margiis to follow.” One should follow the Supreme Command strictly. 50

Dharmacakra – This is the weekly collective meditation sessions. In these sessions, one can be in the company of the Absolute Entity, or the Lord. “If one misses Dharmacakra, one should go to the jagriti (house of spiritual awakening) and perform sadhana that day.” If jagriti is also missed, a meal should be missed and given to a needy person. 51

Oaths – Every morning one should think about the oaths that they have taken and make the conscious effort to put them into practice. 52

C.S.D.K – Each letter stands for a practice that will help increase one’s knowledge of Ananda Marga as well as reinforces their spirituality.

C. Pag-uugali ng Mga Panuntunan: Dapat alam at sundin ng mga ito ang mga alituntuning ito.

S. Seminar: “One should try to attend all seminars and retreats which are available.”

D. Duty: Any duty that is given by one’s acarya or another superior should be done happily.

K. Kiirtan, Tandava, at Kaoshikii: Dapat i-dancer ang Kiirtan araw-araw. Ang Tandava ay dapat din sa pagsayaw ng mga lalaki nang dalawang beses sa isang araw at sa Kaoshikii ng mga babae. Ang Tandava ay hindi dapat gawin ng isang babae. 53

Sarkar also called himself the “Leader of the New Renaissance.” In 1958 he established Renaissance Universal (RU). It was created to help raise social awareness of humankind and strives for universal peace. It is believed that art and science should be used for service and self-realization rather than negative uses (i.e. money and creating weapons), that the gap between the rich and the poor should shrink by improving the condition of the lower class, improving education, and promoting unity and cultural diversity. RU accomplishes this by participating in service projects around the world. RU is a global organization and has sectors in about 150 countries around the world. 54

Ang mga kasanayan ni Ananda Marga ay hindi karaniwan sa ibang mga relihiyon. Ang isang ganoong grupong ito ay ang Self-Realisation Fellowship. Ang grupong ito ay mas luma kaysa sa Ananda Marga (itinatag sa 1920), ngunit ang pagkakatulad ay maliwanag. Ang Ananda Marga at ang Self-Realisation Fellowship ay parehong nakikibahagi sa pilosopiya ng Self-Realisation (maaaring makamit ang fufillment mula sa loob) at pareho din ang pagsasanay yoga at isaalang-alang ito ng isang mahalagang kasanayan sa kanilang espirituwal na buhay. 55
Biblyograpya

Ananda Marga. 1981. Ang Espirituwal na Pilosopiya ng Shrii Shrii Anandamurti. Denver, CO: Ananda Marga Publications.

Ananda Marga. 1993. Shrii PR Sakar at Kanyang Misyon. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.

Anandamitra, Didi. Ang Pilosopiya ng Shrii Shrii Anandamurti, Isang Komentaryo sa Ananda Sutram. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.

Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii. 1973. Baba’s Grace; Discourses of Shrii Shrii Anandamurti. Los Altos Hills, California: Ananda Marga Publications.

Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii. 1973. Ang Great Universe: Discourses on Society. Los Altos Hills, California: Ananda Marga Publications.

Anandamurti, Shrii Shrii. 1993. Mga diskurso sa Tanrta. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.

Avadhuta, Ácárya Vijayánanda. 1994. Ang Buhay at Mga Turo ni Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.

Avadhuta, Shraddhananda. 1991. Ang Aking Espirituwal na Buhay na may Baba. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.

Avt., Tadbhavananda. 1990. Shraddhainjali. New Delhi: PROUT Research Center.

Bowler, John. 1997. Okspord Dictionary of World Religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Devadatta at Nandita. 1971. Mga Landas ng Bliss, Ananda Marga Yoga. Wichita, KS: Ananda Marga Publications.

Dhruvananda. 1991. Ang Kataas-taasang Kaibigan: Aking Mga Araw na may Baba. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.

Kamaleshvahananda, Dada Acarya. 1999. Yogic Treatment at Natural Remedies. Chiang Mai, Thailand: (transcript ng kanyang presentasyon sa 33rd World Vegetarian Congress).

Melton, J. Gordon. 1978.Ang Encyclopedia of American Religions. Wilmington, NC: Mcgrath Publishing Co.

Sarkar, PR [isinalin ni Vijayananda Avadhuta at Jayanta Kumar]. 1990. Yoga Psychology. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.

Tarak, ed. 1990. Anada Marga, Social at Espirituwal na Kasanayan. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications.
Mga sanggunian

1. Vijayananda, Acarya. Ang Buhay at Mga Turo ni Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P78.

2. Vijayananda, Acarya. Ang Buhay at Mga Turo ni Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P7.

3. Vijayananda, Acarya. Ang Buhay at Mga Turo ni Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P7.

4. Vijayananda, Acarya. Ang Buhay at Mga Turo ni Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P77.

5. http://www.anandamarga.org/books/index.html

6. Bowler, John. Okspord Dictionary of World Religions . Oxford, Oxford University Press, p.62.

7. http://www.anandamarga.org/- click on “BRIEF STORY” paragraph five.

8. Vijayananda, Acarya. Ang Buhay at Mga Turo ni Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p6&10.

9. Vijayananda, Acarya. Ang Buhay at Mga Turo ni Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p31&35-36.

10. Vijayananda, Acarya. Ang Buhay at Mga Turo ni Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P40.

11. Vijayananda, Acarya. Ang Buhay at Mga Turo ni Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P77.

12. Vijayananda, Acarya. Ang Buhay at Mga Turo ni Shrii Shrii Anandamurti . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P81-83.

13. http://www.anandamarga.org/- click on “BRIEF STORY” paragraph two.

14. Ananda Marga Shrii PR Sarkar at Kanyang Mission. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P2.

15. Ananda Marga Shrii PR Sarkar at Kanyang Mission. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P4-5.

16. Bowler, John. Okspord Dictionary of World Religions . Oxford, Oxford University Press, p.62 at Melton, J. Gordon. Ang Encyclopedia of American Religions . Wilmington, NC: McGrath Publishing Co., p381.

17. Ananda Marga Shrii PR Sarkar at Kanyang Mission. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P7.

18. Ananda Marga Shrii PR Sarkar at Kanyang Mission. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P3 at http://www.amurt.org/About.html, http://www.amurt.org/development.html, at http://www.amurt.org/disaster. html.

19. http://www.amurt.org/Women.html, http://home1.pacific.net.sg/~rucira/amurtel/relief.html, http://home1.pacific.net.sg/~rucira/ amurtel / children.html, at http://home1.pacific.net.sg/~rucira/amurtel/women.html.

20. http://www.anandamarga.org/- click on “BRIEF STORY”

21. Ananda Marga Shrii PR Sarkar at Kanyang Mission. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P4-5 at http://www.prout.org/Summary.html.

22. Ananda Marga Shrii PR Sarkar at Kanyang Mission. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P7.

23. http://www.abhidhyan.org/Teachings/Tantra_Yoga_Tradition.htm.

24. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P3-4.

25. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P5.

26. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P5.

27. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P5.

28. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P6.

29. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P6-7.

30. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P7-8.

31. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P8-9.

32. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P10-11.

33. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P11-12.

34. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P12-13.

35. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P13.

36. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P13.

37. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P13.

38. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P13.

39. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P13-14.

40. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P14.

41. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P14.

42. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P14.

43. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P15.

44. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P15.

45. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P15.

46. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P.15-16.

47. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P16.

48. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P17.

49. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga

Mga Publikasyon., P17-18.

50. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P18.

51. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P18-19.

52. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P19.

53. Ini-edit ni Tarak. Ananda Marga: Social at Espirituwal Pracices . Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., P19-20.

54. Ananda Marga Shrii PR Sarkar at Kanyang Mission. Calcutta: Ananda Marga Publications., p2 and http://www.ru.org/ru.html under “Principles of Renaissance Universal.”

55. http://religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/SelfReal.html under “Beliefs.”
Nilikha ni Angela An
Para sa Soc 257, New Religious Movements
University ng Virginia
Spring Term, 2000
Huling binago: 07 / 17 / 01

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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