Lus Askiv Intro

Swedenborgianism thiab Kev Ua Yeeb Yam Sib Ntsib

VISUAL ARTS TIMELINE 

1688 (Lub Ib Hlis 29): Emanuel Swedenborg yug hauv Stockholm.

1755 (Lub Xya Hli 6): John Flaxman yug hauv York, England.

1757 (Lub Kaum Ib Hlis 28): William Blake yug hauv London.

1772 (Lub Peb Hlis 29): Swedenborg tuag hauv London.

1783 (Lub Kaum Ob Hlis 5): Ib lub koom haum (lub npe hu ua "Theosophical Society" hauv 1784) mob siab rau kev txhawb nqa Swedenborg cov lus qhia tau tsim nyob rau hauv London. Tsawg kawg xya ntawm nws thawj cov tswv cuab yog cov kws ua yeeb yam.

1789 (Lub Plaub Hlis): Thawj Lub Rooj Sab Laj General ntawm Swedenborg–inspired New Church tau tuav hauv London. William Blake yog cov koom nrog.

1793: Prussian sculptor John Eckstein tsiv mus rau Philadelphia thiab koom nrog lub koom txoos hauv zos ntawm Lub Koom Txoos Tshiab nyob ntawd.

1805 (Lub Rau Hli 29): Hiram Powers yug hauv Boston, Vermont.

1825 (Tsib Hlis 1): George Inness yug hauv Newburgh, New York.

1826 (Lub Kaum Ob Hlis 7): John Flaxman tuag hauv London.

1827 (Lub Yim Hli 12): William Blake tuag hauv London.

1847 (Lub Kaum Hli 15): Ralph Albert Blakelock yug hauv New York.

1865: Lub tsev teev ntuj Swedenborgian ntawm San Francisco tau tsim nrog kev koom tes ntawm ntau tus kws kos duab Swedenborgian.

1873 (Lub Rau Hli 27): Hiram Powers tuag hauv Florence, Ltalis.

1894 (Lub Yim Hli 3): George Inness tuag hauv Choj ntawm Allan, Scotland.

1902: Paul Gauguin pleev xim rau Swedenborg-inspired Sib tw barbares.

1909: Swedenborgian architect Daniel H. Burnham tau tsim lub npe hu ua 1909 Plan for the City of Chicago.

1913–1919: Bryn Athyn Cathedral tau tsim tsa hauv Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania.

1919 (Lub Yim Hli 9): Ralph Albert Blakelock tuag hauv Elizabethtown, New York.

1932: Jean Delville pleev xim rau Sérapita, raws li homonymous Swedenborgian tshiab los ntawm Honoré de Balzac.

1949–1951: Lub Wayfarers Chapel hauv Rancho Palos Verdes, California, tsim los ntawm tus kws kos duab Lloyd Wright, tus tub ntawm Frank Lloyd Wright, tau tsim.

Thaum ntxov 1980s–1988: Lee Bontecou nyob hauv Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania.

1985 (Lub Plaub Hlis): Thawj qhov kev teeb tsa / kev ua haujlwm hauv Chicago ntawm Angels ntawm Swedenborg, los ntawm Ping Chong coj qhov chaw.

2011 (Lub Peb Hlis 30-Lub Plaub Hlis 30): Pablo Sigg nthuav tawm hauv Los Angeles lub installation Lub tsev Swedenborg.

2012 (Lub Ib Hlis 26): Kev ua haujlwm / kev teeb tsa ntawm La Chambre de Swedenborg nyob rau hauv Tsev khaws puav pheej ntawm Niaj hnub nimno thiab Kawm Txuj Ci hauv Strasbourg, Fabkis tau tshwm sim.

VISUAL ARTS QHIA TXOG / DOCTRINES 

Hauv ntau dua 13,000 nplooj ntawv ntawm nws cov ntawv sau, qhov uas nws tau tham ntau ntau yam ntawm cov ncauj lus sib txawv, Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772) [Duab ntawm txoj cai] tsis muaj kev xav txog kev zoo nkauj lossis kos duab. Txawm li cas los xij, raws li American art historian Joshua Charles Taylor (1917–1981), ntawm cov ntaub ntawv tshiab ntawm sab ntsuj plig, nyob rau xyoo pua cuaj "tsuas yog Swedenborgian kev qhia tau muaj kev cuam tshuam ncaj qha rau kev kos duab" (Dillenberger thiab Taylor 1972: 14).

Taylor cov lus yuav tsum tsim nyog txij li thaum, nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua puv XNUMX, tsawg kawg yog Rosicrucianism yuav tsum tau ntxiv, thaum. Theosophy thiab Christian Science muaj lawv qhov cuam tshuam loj tshaj plaws rau kev kos duab hauv xyoo pua nees nkaum. Muaj, txawm li cas los xij, tsis ntseeg me ntsis tias Swedenborg muaj kev cuam tshuam rau cov kws ua yeeb yam uas tsuas yog tsim nyog tau txais txiaj ntsig tshwj xeeb, ntau dua yog tias peb xav tias Swedenborgian txav yog, thiab tseem tshuav, sib piv me me thiab muab faib ua ntau ceg. Qhov no ua tau li cas?

Hauv kev ua haujlwm ntawm ntau tus kws qhia sab ntsuj plig - suav nrog Theosophy's Madame Helena Blavatsky (1831–1891) thiab Christian Science's Mary Baker Eddy (1821–1910)—tsis muaj meej heev txoj kev xav ntawm kev zoo nkauj, tab sis muaj dab tsi Jane Williams-Hogan (1942-2018), tus kws tshawb fawb Asmeskas uas thawj zaug tshawb fawb txog kev cuam tshuam ntawm Swedenborg ntawm kev kos duab kos duab, suav tias yog lub tswv yim zoo nkauj (Williams-Hogan 2012, 2016). Qhov kev xav zoo nkauj implicit no tuaj yeem muab sau ua plaub lub ntsiab lus.

Ua ntej, Swedenborg khaws cia tias kev zoo nkauj yog qhov tseeb ntawm qhov tseeb (Arcana Cœlestia § 3080, 3821, 4985, 5199, thiab 10,540: Kuv ua raws li Swedenborgian kev lig kev cai ntawm quoting Swedenborg cov hauj lwm los ntawm kab lus). Qhov no yog raws li kev coj noj coj ua. Rau Thomas Aquinas (1225–1274), "pulchrum proprie pertinet ad rationem causae formalis" ("qhov kev zoo nkauj, nruj me ntsis hais lus, yog txuas nrog vim li cas nws yog vim li cas," Summa Theologiae, I, q.5, a.4, ad1). Qhov ntawd "verum et bonum et pulchrum convertuntur" ("qhov tseeb, qhov zoo, thiab kev zoo nkauj converge") feem ntau rov qab los ntawm cov kws ntseeg siab tom qab, txawm hais tias tsis yog Aquinas thiab nws cov thawj coj tau siv cov lus no.

Qhov thib ob, qhov tseeb rau Swedenborg muaj ob lub hauv paus, ib qho los ntawm Lo Lus, piv txwv li los ntawm Vajtswv Tshwm Sim, thiab lwm yam los ntawm xwm. Thawj cov tib neeg muaj peev xwm pom tam sim ntawd qhov tseeb ntawm Tshwm Sim, thiab pom xwm raws li ib tug tshwm sim ntawm los saum ntuj los. Hmoov tsis zoo, peb tau poob lub peev xwm no. Tiamsis peb tsis muaj kev cia siab.

Thib peb, rau Swedenborg, lub cuab yeej rau kev rov qab los ib yam dab tsi ntawm qhov poob ntsia ntawm ancients yog txoj kev xav ntawm kev sib tham. “Tsis muaj ib yam dab tsi tuaj yeem muaj nyob txhua qhov chaw hauv ntiaj teb cov khoom uas tsis muaj kev sib txuas lus nrog lub ntiaj teb sab ntsuj plig—vim yog nws ua li ntawd, nws yuav tsis muaj laj thawj uas yuav ua rau nws los ua tau thiab cia nws nyob mus ntxiv. Txhua yam hauv ntiaj teb cov khoom siv yog qhov tshwm sim. Qhov laj thawj ntawm txhua qhov cuam tshuam nyob hauv lub ntiaj teb sab ntsuj plig, thiab cov laj thawj ntawm cov laj thawj ntawd tig mus (uas yog lub hom phiaj uas ua rau muaj kev pabcuam) nyob hauv lub ntuj tseem tob dua” (Secrets ntawm Saum Ntuj Ceeb Tsheej § 5711 ZPO).

Plaub, kos duab yog nyob rau hauv nws tus kheej lub lag luam los saum ntuj los. Thaum Swedenborg txoj kev xav ntawm cov ntawv xov xwm tuaj yeem siv tau los ntawm txhua tus neeg uas xav kawm nws rau kev txhais phau Vajlugkub thiab lub neej ntawm sab ntsuj plig, cov kws ua yeeb yam tiag tiag yog qhov tsim nyog rau kev nkag siab, thiab qhia rau lwm tus, los saum ntuj los ua rau muaj kev cuam tshuam ntawm ntuj tsim.

COV LUS NEEG TSIS PUB MENYUAM 

Anshutz, Thomas (1851–1912). American painter.

Blake, William (1757–1827). English painter thiab poet

Blakelock, Ralph Albert (1847–1919). American painter.

Bontecou, ​​Lee (1931–). Asmeskas sculptor.

Burnham, Daniel Hudson (1846–1912). Asmeskas kws kes duab vajtse.

Byse, Fanny Lee (1849–1911). Swiss sculptor thiab painting.

Chazal, Malcolm de (1902–1981). Mauritian neeg pleev kob.

Clark, Yauxej (1834–1926). Tus neeg pleev kob Askiv.

Clover, Joseph (1779–1853). Tus neeg pleev kob Askiv.

Cosway, Richard (1742–1821). British portrait neeg pleev kob.

Cranch, Christopher Pearse (1813–1892). American painter.

Duckworth, Dennis (1911–2003). British New Church Minister thiab neeg pleev kob.

Eckstein, Frederick (1787–1832). Tus tub ntawm John Eckstein, American sculptor.

Eckstein, John (1735–1817). German painting thiab sculptor.

Emes, John (1762–1810). English engraver thiab painting.

Flaxman, John (1755–1826). Askiv sculptor.

Fry, Henry Lindley (1807–1895). British-American woodcarver.

Fry, William Henry (1830–1929). British-American woodcarver, tus tub ntawm Henry Lindley Fry.

Gailliard. Jean-Jacques (1890–1976). Tus neeg pleev kob Belgian.

Gates, Adelia (1825–1912). American painter.

Giles, Howard (1876–1955). American painter.

Girard, André (1901–1968). Fabkis tus neeg pleev kob.

Hyatt, Winfred (1891–1959). Canadian stained-iav artist.

Inness, George (1825–1894). American painter.

Keith, William (1838–1911). Scotland-American neeg pleev kob.

Khnopff, Fernand (1858–1921). Tus neeg pleev kob Belgian.

Loutherbourg, Philippe-Jacques de (1740–1812). Tus neeg pleev kob Fabkis-British.

Page, William (1811–1885). American painter.

Pitman, Benn (1822–1910). British-American ntoo engraver.

Porter, Bruce (1865–1953). San Francisco paintings thiab stained-glass artist.

Powers, Hiram (1805–1873). Asmeskas sculptor.

Pyle, Howard (1853–1911). American illustrator.

Pyle, Katharine (1863–1938). American illustrator, tus muam ntawm Howard Pyle.

Richardson, Daniel (active 1783–1830). Irish neeg pleev kob.

Roeder, Elsa (1885–1914). American painter.

Sanders, John (1750–1825). Cov neeg pleev kob Askiv.

Sewall James, Alice Archer (1870–1955). American poet thiab painting.

Sharp, William (1749–1824). Lus Askiv engraver.

Sigstedt, Thorsten (1884–1963). Swedish woodcarver.

Smit, Philippe (1886–1948). Tus neeg pleev kob Dutch.

Spencer, Robert Carpenter (1879–1931). American painter.

Worcester, Yauxej (1836–1913). Swedenborgian Minister thiab Arts thiab Craft architect thiab decorator.

Warren, H. Langford (1857–1917). Asmeskas kws kes duab vajtse.

Yardumian, Nishan (1947–1986). American painter

Kev txav mus los cuam tshuam tsis yog-tus tswv cuab ARTISTS 

Aguéli, Ivan (1869–1917). Swedish neeg pleev kob.

Bergman, Oskar (1879–1963). Swedish neeg pleev kob.

Birgé, Jean Jacques (1952–). Fabkis multimedia artist.

Bistram, Emil (1895–1976). Hungarian-yug Asmeskas neeg pleev kob.

Chong, Ping (1946–) Toronto-yug Asmeskas cov yeeb yaj kiab thiab kev ua yeeb yam.

Čiurlionis, Mikalojus Konstantinas (1875–1911). Lithuanian painting thiab composer.

De Morgan, Sophia (1809–1892). Tus sau lus Askiv ntawm cov haujlwm tseem ceeb ntawm cov duab kos duab; tsim sketches ntawm nws lub zeem muag.

Delville, Jean (1867–1953). Tus neeg pleev kob Belgian, feem ntau yog Theosophist.

Ensor, James (1860–1949). Tus neeg pleev kob Belgian.

Gallen-Kallela, Akseli (1865–1931). Finnish neeg pleev kob.

Gauguin, Paul (1848–1903). Fabkis tus neeg pleev kob.

Jonsson, Adolf (1872–1945). Swedish sculptor.

Milles, Carl (1875–1945). Swedish sculptor.

Munch, Edvard (1863–1944). Norwegian neeg pleev kob.

Powers, Preston (1843–1931). Tus tub ntawm Hiram Powers, American sculptor.

Rossetti, Dante Gabriel (1828–1882). Cov neeg pleev kob Askiv.

Shawk Brooks, Caroline (1840–1913). Asmeskas sculptor.

Sigg, Pablo (1974–). Mexican video artist.

Simberg, Hugo (1873–1917). Finnish neeg pleev kob.

Strindberg, Lub Yim Hli (1849–1912). Swedish kws sau ntawv thiab neeg pleev kob.

Tholander, Carl Lub Yim Hli (1835-1910) Swedish neeg pleev kob.

Vedder, Eliuh (1836–1923). American painting thiab illustrator.

Willcox Smith, Jessie (1863–1935). American illustrator.

Wyeth, Newell Conwers (1882–1945). American illustrator.

Wright, Lloyd (1890–1978). Tus kws kes duab vajtse Asmeskas, tus tub ntawm Frank Lloyd Wright.

TXOJ HAUJLWM NTAWM LUB VISUAL ARTS

Swedenborg lub zeem muag ntawm kev kos duab thiab kev zoo nkauj pom tseeb tau thov rau cov kws ua yeeb yam. Peb muaj peev xwm paub qhov txawv peb concentric voj voog: cov neeg ua kev cai raus dej rau hauv ib lub tsev teev ntuj Swedenborgian los yog tswj ntawm ib tug npaum li cas Swedenborgianism yog ib tug tseem ceeb txaus siab rau lawv lub neej; cov ncaj qha cuam tshuam los ntawm Swedenborg cov ntawv sau; thiab cov uas tau mus txog Swedenborg tsis ncaj, piv txwv li los ntawm lwm cov kws ua yeeb yam lossis cov kws sau ntawv.

Peb tsis tuaj yeem piav qhia ntawm no ntawm lub voj voog thib peb. Ib daim ntawv teev npe tiav yuav tsum suav nrog ntau pua lub npe. Ib qho piv txwv yuav yog Belgian tus kws kos duab kos duab Jean Delville (1867–1953). Tej zaum nws tsis tau nyeem Swedenborg tus kheej, tab sis tau cuam tshuam los ntawm cov neeg sau xov xwm tshiab thiab cov neeg pleev kob nyiam hauv Swedenborg, xws li Balzac (1799–1850)—hauv 1932, Delville pleev xim Séraphitus-Séraphita, zoo kawg nkaus androgynous yug los rau Swedenborgian niam txiv nyob rau hauv 1834 Balzac tus tshiab Sérapita (saib Introvigne 2014:89)— [Duab ntawm sab xis] thiab Fernand Khnopff (1858–1921).

Lwm qhov piv txwv yog Lithuanian tus neeg pleev kob thiab tus sau Mikalojus Konstantinas Čiurlionis (1875–1911). Cov kws tshawb fawb ntawm Čiurlionis, suav nrog Genovaitė Kazokas (1924-2015), pom hauv nws cov haujlwm cuam tshuam ntawm Swedenborg txoj kev xav ntawm kev sau ntawv thiab cov tubtxib saum ntuj (txawm hais tias nws, tsis zoo li Swedenborg, muaj tis), uas muaj peev xwm mus txog tus kws kos duab los ntawm Charles Baudelaire (1821; saib Kazokas 1867:2009).

Ib qho piv txwv ntxiv ntawm lub voj voog thib peb yog Norwegian tus neeg pleev kob Edvard Munch (1863-1944), uas tau kawm ntawm Swedenborg thaum nws lub xyoo Berlin los ntawm Swedish kws sau ntawv thiab cov neeg pleev kob August Strindberg (1849-1912). Strindberg, uas muaj kev txaus siab rau lub neej nyob rau hauv Swedenborgianism, nyob rau hauv lem tau sau tseg tias Munch cov paintings "rov qab lub zeem muag ntawm Swedenborg" (Steinberg 1995: 24).

Nina Kokkinen kawm Finnish tus kws kos duab kos duab Hugo Simberg (1873-1917) ua ib tus kws kos duab uas tau xa mus rau Swedenborg nkaus xwb ib zaug, tseem tau txais kev cuam tshuam los ntawm Swedenborgian cov tswv yim los ntawm Finnish tus tswv Akseli Gallen-Kallela (1865-1931), uas tau nyeem ntau yam ntawm Swedenborg's. ua haujlwm (Kokkinen 2013).

Lwm qhov piv txwv yog Newell Convers Wyeth (1882–1945). Ua kev zoo siab ua ib tus neeg ua yeeb yam zoo tshaj plaws hauv Asmeskas, nws nco qab tias Swedenborg tau nyeem nws li cas los ntawm nws tus kws qhia ntawv thiab tus cob qhia, Swedenborgian Howard Pyle (1853–1911); Lamouliatte 2016; Swedenborgian Lub Koom Txoos North America 2017).

Tej zaum tus neeg sawv cev zoo tshaj plaws ntawm lub voj voog thib ob yog Paul Gauguin (1848–1903). Nws kawm txog Swedenborg los ntawm kev nyeem Balzac thiab Baudelaire, tab sis tau kawm Swedish mystic cov ntawv ncaj qha, thiab lees paub meej meej Swedenborg lub hwj chim. Jane Williams-Hogan tau txheeb xyuas nws cov duab paub tab Sib tw barbares (1902) ua piv txwv meej txog nws kev siv Swedenborg txoj kev xav ntawm kev sau ntawv (Williams-Hogan 2016: 131–32). [Duab ntawm txoj cai]

Ib qho piv txwv ntxiv ntawm lub voj voog thib ob yog Pre-Raphaelite British neeg pleev kob Dante Gabriel Rossetti (1828-1882). Hauv 2013, Anna Francesca Maddison tau ua qauv qhia hauv nws Ph.D. dissertation uas Rossetti yog ib feem ntawm lus Askiv lub voj voog kawm ob sab ntsuj plig thiab Swedenborg, nws lub hwj chim yog pom tseeb nyob rau hauv paintings xws li Beata Beatrix (1864–1870) (Maddison 2013).

Qhov tseem ceeb hauv qhov Addison hu ua "Swedenborgian-Spiritualist" milieu ntawm London yog Sophia de Morgan (1809-1892), leej niam ntawm potter William de Morgan (1839-1917), uas nws tus poj niam Evelyn (1855-1919), ib tug Ntsuj Plig, yog ib tug neeg. hu ua tus kws kos duab Pre-Raphaelite kawg. Sophia muaj kev txaus siab rau lub neej hauv Swedenborg thiab dhau mus rau nws tsev neeg nws tus kheej Swedenborgian kev txhais lus ntawm Spiritualist phenomena (Lawton Smith 2002: 43–45).

Cov kws tsim qauv ntawm lub voj voog thib ob suav nrog Lloyd Wright (1890–1978), tus tub ntawm Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959). Thaum nws txiv nto moo dua muaj ntau yam kev nyiam esoteric, tus yau Wright paub txog nws tus kheej Swedenborg thaum nws tsim lub Swedenborgian Wayfarers Chapel nyob rau hauv Rancho Palos Verdes, California, nws masterpiece, ua ntawm 1949 thiab 1951. [Duab ntawm sab xis]

Symbolists feem ntau txaus siab rau Swedenborg, ob qho tib si hauv Tebchaws Europe thiab Asmeskas Elihu Vedder (1836-1923) muaj nws "Swedenborg lub sijhawm" nyob rau xyoo tom qab Tsov Rog Tsov Rog, txawm hais tias nws qhov kev txaus siab rau Swedish mystic zoo li tau ploj mus hauv nws xyoo tom qab ( Dillenberger 1979; Colbert 2011: 159; saib Vedder 1910: 345).

Hauv Sweden, cov kws ua yeeb yam nrog Swedenborgian kev sib txuas suav nrog sculptors Adolf Jonsson (1872–1945) thiab Carl Milles (1875–1945), thiab cov neeg pleev kob Carl August Tholander (1835–1910), Ivan Aguéli (1869–1917: Sorgenfrei eventuallyed 2019), rau Islam, thiab Oskar Bergman (1879-1963). Bergman kuj tau sau cov ntawv tseem ceeb ntawm Swedenborg tab sis, thaum Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie (1892-1975) tuaj xyuas Sweden hauv 1954, nws tau muab tag nrho cov phau ntawv no rau nws, ntseeg tias nws tau txuas nrog Swedenborg cov lus faj lem (Carlsund 1940; Westman 1997).

Hauv Belgium, ntau tus kws kos duab kos duab tau nyiam nyob hauv Swedenborg ua ib feem ntawm lawv qhov kev tshawb nrhiav esotericism. Lawv suav nrog James Ensor (1860–1949), uas tau sau ib lub neej ntawm Swedenborg (Gailliard thiab Ensor 1955), thaum Fernand Khnopff, uas tau ob peb xyoos tau koom nrog Swedenborgian cov kev pabcuam hauv Brussels (Librizzi 2012), nyob rau thawj lub voj voog.

Cov tom kawg, suav nrog cov kws ua yeeb yam uas koom nrog ib lub tsev teev ntuj Swedenborgian tsawg kawg rau lub sijhawm ntawm lawv lub neej, lossis suav lawv tus kheej li Swedenborgians, tsis yog me me. Ntawm cov tswv cuab ntawm Theosophical Society, tsim nyob rau hauv London nyob rau hauv 1783 los txhawb Swedenborg (tsis txhob yuav tsis meej pem nrog Blavatsky's Theosophical Society, nrhiav tau nyob rau hauv 1875 nyob rau hauv New York), tsawg kawg yog xya tus kws ua yeeb yam (Gabay 2005: 71). Ib tug yog John Flaxman (1755–1826), tus kws kos duab Askiv zoo tshaj plaws ntawm nws lub sijhawm (Bayley 1884, 318–339) thiab ib tug uas piav txog Swedenborg's Arcana Cœlestia (Gyllenhaal 2016, 2014).

Tus kws sau keeb kwm kos duab Horst Waldemar Janson (1913–1982) tau thov tias, hauv nws txoj haujlwm funerary muaj txiaj ntsig, Flaxman yog thawj tus uas piav txog tus ntsuj plig hauv tib neeg, lub tswv yim uas tom qab ntawd tau tshwm sim tab sis tau meej meej raws li Swedenborg (Janson 1988). Jane Williams-Hogan tau tshuaj xyuas cov duab kos Dab Ntxwg Nyoog Txhaum Los Ntawm Me Me los ntawm Flaxman, [Duab ntawm txoj cai] npaj los piav qhia Arcana Cœlestia §1271 thiab §1272, raws li muaj tseeb rau ob tsab ntawv (xws li cov duab ntawm "cov poj niam hnav lub kaus mom dub" raws li ib feem ntawm cov dab phem) thiab lub ntiaj teb saib ntawm Swedenborg (Williams-Hogan 2016: 125-26).

Ntawm lwm cov tswv cuab thaum ntxov ntawm Swedenborgian Theosophical Society yog cov neeg pleev kob Richard Cosway (1742–1821), Philippe–Jacques de Loutherbourg (1740–1812), Daniel Richardson (active 1783–1830), thiab John Sanders (1750–1825), thiab engravers John Emes (1762–1810) thiab William Sharp (1749–1824) (Gabay 2005: 71).

William Blake (1757–1827), yog ib tus thawj coj ua yeeb yam koom nrog Swedenborg, yog phooj ywg ntawm Flaxman thiab Sharp. Ob leeg nws thiab nws tus poj niam, Catherine Boucher (1762–1831), tau kos npe rau cov ntawv sau npe ntawm Lub Rooj Sab Laj General, uas tau sib tham hauv 1789 raws li kev txhim kho ntawm Theosophical thaum ntxov. Lub koom haum, los tsim ib lub koom txoos raws li Swedenborg cov ntawv sau (Gabay 2005: 77).

Tom qab ntawd, txawm li cas los xij, Blake loj hlob tsis txaus ntseeg nrog Swedenborg, thiab hauv 1790-1793 tau sau ntawv tawm tsam-Swedenborgian satire, Kev sib yuav ntawm ntuj ceeb tsheej thiab ntuj txiag teb tsaus (Bellin thiab Ruhl 1985). Ntawm qhov tod tes, Blake tseem cuam tshuam los ntawm Swedish mystic cov lus qhuab qhia, suav nrog txoj kev xav ntawm kev sau ntawv, mus txog thaum kawg ntawm nws lub neej (Deck 1978; Rix 2003). [Duab ntawm sab xis

Lwm tus tswv cuab thaum ntxov ntawm Lub Rooj Sab Laj Loj yog Joseph Clover (1779–1853), ib tug neeg pleev kob Askiv thiab tus txiv ntxawm ntawm Victorian pioneer ntawm tshuaj loog, Joseph T. Clover (1825–1882), kuj yog ib tug Swedenborgian. Clover yog ib tus tsim ntawm Norwich Tsev Kawm Ntawv ntawm kev kos duab toj roob hauv pes (Line 2012: 43).

Joseph Clark (1834–1926), ib tug tswv cuab ntawm Argyle Square thiab tom qab Willesden Swedenborgian pawg ntseeg hauv London, feem ntau paub zoo rau nws cov duab ntawm tsev neeg lub neej. Txawm li cas los xij, nws kuj tau sawv cev rau biblical scenes. Nyob rau hauv nws painting thiab etching Hagar thiab Ishmael (1860), piv txwv li, Clark tau txhais zaj dab neeg hauv phau Vajlugkub raws li Arcana Cœlestia § 2661, nrog rau kev siv rau lub Koom Txoos Ntsuj Plig (Galvin 2016). [Duab ntawm txoj cai]

John Eckstein (1735–1817) tej zaum yuav yog thawj tus kws kos duab Asmeskas Swedenborgian. Ib tug kws kos duab Prussian uas paub zoo, nws tau tsiv mus rau Philadelphia xyoo 1793, qhov chaw uas nws tau los ua ib tug tswv cuab ntawm pawg ntseeg Tshiab hauv zos ua ke nrog nws tus tub, Frederick Eckstein (1787–1832). John Eckstein kuj sculpted thawj lub bust ntawm Swedenborg, nyob rau hauv 1817. Eckstein Jr. kuj yog ib tug kws kos duab thiab tus xib fwb ntawm Hiram Powers (1805-1873), uas yuav los ua tus thawj American neoclassical sculptor (Ambrosini thiab Reynolds 2007). Hiram yog tus mob siab rau Swedenborgian (Williams-Hogan 2012: 113–15), tsis zoo li nws tus tub, Preston Powers (1843–1931), leej twg, txawm li cas los xij tau tsa los ua ib tug Swedenborgian thiab sculpted nyob rau hauv 1879 lwm nrov bust ntawm Swedenborg (Gyllenhaal. 2015: 201–08).

Sculptors feem ntau coj Swedenborg ua ib qho kev kawm. Lawv suav nrog Caroline Shawk Brooks (1840–1913), nto moo rau nws cov duab puab hauv butter (Simpson 2007), uas tsis yog Swedenborgian, thaum Swedish sculptor Adolf Jonsson (1872–1945), uas nws bust yog nyob rau Chicago's Lincoln Park los ntawm 1924 txog 1976. (thaum nws raug nyiag lawm; ib daim ntawv luam los ntawm Magnus Persson hloov nws hauv 2012) yog tus nyeem ntawv ntawm Swedenborg, thiab Swiss Fanny Lee Byse (1849–1911), leej twg kuj sculpted lub bust ntawm Swedish mystic, yog ib tug devout Swedenborgian (Gyllenhaal 2015: 208–29).

Hiram Powers tau siv ib feem zoo ntawm nws lub neej nyob rau hauv Ltalis thiab tuav thawj lub Koom Txoos Tshiab cov kev pab cuam nyob rau hauv nws lub tsev nyob rau hauv Florence (Bayley 1884:292–300). [Duab ntawm sab xis] Ntawm cov neeg tuaj koom yog American painter William Page (1811–1885) (Lines 2004: 40), uas tau txais kev cuam tshuam los ntawm Swedenborg cov lus qhuab qhia ntawm kev sau ntawv, txawm hais tias nws kuj yog ib tug Ntsuj Plig (Williams-Hogan 2012: 115– 117; Taylor 1957).

Qee tus kws kos duab Swedenborgian tuaj rau Tebchaws Meskas los ntawm Askiv. Xyoo 1851, cov kws ntoo ntoo Henry Lindley Fry (1807–1895) thiab William Henry Fry (1830–1929), leej txiv thiab tus tub, cov mej zeej ntawm lub Koom Txoos Tshiab hauv Bath, England, nyob hauv Cincinnati, thiab tsis ntev tau koom nrog lub koom txoos Tshiab Yeluxalees. Xyoo 1853, lwm tus mej zeej ntawm lub Koom Txoos Bath New, tus sau ntoo Benn Pitman (1822–1910), tau koom nrog lawv hauv Cincinnati. Pittman thiab Frys yog qhov cuab yeej cuab tam hauv kev pib ua Kev Ua Yeeb Yam thiab Craft hauv Asmeskas Midwest (Trapp 1982).

Lwm cov neeg ua yeeb yam Swedenborgian perpetuated kev lig kev cai ntawm ib tug kos duab tshwm sim los ntawm Swedenborg nyob rau hauv lub tebchaws United Kingdom. Dennis Duckworth (1911–2003) yog ib tug neeg pleev kob thiab lub Koom Txoos Tshiab Minister, ua hauj lwm nyob rau hauv lub kawg muaj peev xwm rau ntau tshaj tsib caug xyoo. Qhov tseeb, Duckworth tau raug caw tuaj koom Royal College of Arts tab sis tsis kam vim nws nyiam mus kawm txog Swedenborgian kev ntseeg (Glencairn Tsev khaws puav pheej Xov Xwm 2017). [Duab ntawm sab xis] Kev sib txuas ntawm Swedenborgianism thiab kev ua yeeb yam hauv tebchaws United Kingdom kuj tau lees paub los ntawm kev ua haujlwm ntawm Ralph Nicholas Wornum (1812–1877), ib tug tswv cuab ntawm Lub Koom Txoos Tshiab uas tau los ua tus Keeper ntawm National Gallery hauv London (Cov kab. 2012: 43).

Ib rooj plaub tshwj xeeb ntawm tus kws kos duab Swedenborgian yog Adelia Gates (1825-1912). Ib tus kws kos duab tshwj xeeb botanical uas nws cov duab kos (tam sim no ntawm Smithsonian Institution) tau pab kev tshawb fawb ntawm botany, Gates yog ib tug pious Swedenborgian uas tau mus los ntawm ntau lub teb chaws hauv kev tshawb nrhiav cov nroj tsuag, ib txwm sim nthuav tawm tib lub sijhawm kev paub txog Swedenborg (Silver 1920). : 250–56).

Tej zaum Asmeskas tus kws tshaj lij Swedenborgian zoo tshaj plaws yog George Inness (1825–1894), ua kev cai raus dej hauv lub Koom Txoos Tshiab xyoo 1868. Nws muab nws tus kheej Swedenborgian txhais qee yam ntawm nws cov duab, suav nrog Lub hav ntawm tus duab ntxoov ntxoo ntawm kev tuag (1867), uas nws tau piav qhia los ntawm Swedenborg txoj kev xav ntawm kev yug dua tshiab ntawm sab ntsuj plig (Promey 1964; Jolly 1986). [Duab ntawm txoj cai]

Ralph Albert Blakelock (1847–1919), ib tug tswv cuab ntawm lub tsev teev ntuj Swedenborgian ntawm East Orange, New Jersey, tau rov tshawb pom tsis ntev los no thiab qhuas tias yog Asmeskas sib npaug ntawm Vincent Van Gogh (1853–1890), ob qho tib si rau nws cov xim palette thiab qhov tseeb. uas nws tau siv ib feem ntawm nws lub neej nyob rau hauv Cov tsev kho mob hlwb (Davidson 1996; Vincent 2003). [Duab ntawm txoj cai]

Tus neeg pleev kob Asmeskas Christopher Pearse Cranch (1813-1892) nyeem Swedenborg nrog kev txaus siab thiab suav nws tus kheej li Swedenborgian ywj pheej. Nws lees txim tias nws “yuav ua tau ib tug txiv neej lub Koom Txoos Tshiab, puas yog nws tsis yog rau cov lus qhuab qhia ntawm Yexus thiab Vajtswv” (Ohge 2014: 23).

Pennsylvania impressionist thiab toj roob hauv pes neeg pleev kob Robert Carpenter Spencer (1879–1931) tau tsa los ua ib tug Swedenborgian (nws txiv tau tsim thiab kho cov ntawv xov xwm Swedenborgian Cov ntseeg tshiab: Peterson 2004:3–4). Txawm hais tias tom qab hauv lub neej nws tau tshwj tseg rau nws cov tswv yim kev ntseeg, ib qho ntawm nws cov hauj lwm zoo tshaj plaws, Tus Evangelist (ca.
[Duab ntawm txoj cai]

Kev tsim kho ntawm Swedenborgian Lub Koom Txoos ntawm San Francisco xyoo 1867 pom kev koom tes ntawm ntau tus kws kos duab Swedenborgian: Joseph Worcester (1836–1913), tus thawj coj ntawm lub koom txoos thiab tus kws kho kom zoo nkauj; Bruce Porter (1865–1953), tus kws kos duab thiab tus kws kos duab iav, thiab William Keith (1838–1911), tus kws kos duab Scottish-American (Swedenborgian Church of San Francisco 2019; Zuber 2011).

Ib tug kws kos duab Canadian koom nrog ntau qhov haujlwm Swedenborgian yog Winfred Hyatt (1891-1959), tus thawj coj iav tsom iav rau Bryn Athyn Cathedral thiab tom qab ntawd Glencairn, lub tsev fuabtais zoo li lub tsev loj ntawm Swedenborgian Pitcairn tsev neeg muaj nyiaj, tam sim no yog tsev cia puav pheej, hauv Bryn Athyn. , Pennsylvania. Nws kuj tau tsim cov yeeb yam Nativity, suav nrog ib qho rau Eisenhower Dawb Tsev (Gyllenhaal thiab Gyllenhaal 2007). Bryn Athyn tuav lub hauv paus hauv paus ntawm lub General lub Koom Txoos ntawm tus Tshiab Yeluxalees, uas tau sib cais nyob rau hauv 1890 los ntawm Swedenborgian Lub Koom Txoos ntawm North America tshaj cov lus qhuab qhia tsis pom zoo. Bryn Athyn tau nyiam ntau yam Swedenborgian cov kws ua yeeb yam, thiab ob qho tib si nws Cathedral (Glenn 2011) [Duab ntawm txoj cai] thiab Glencairn Tsev khaws puav pheej tuav cov haujlwm tseem ceeb ntawm Swedenborg-inspired art.

Ib tus kws kos duab Swedenborgian nyiam Bryn Athyn yog Swedish woodcarver Thorsten Sigstedt (1884-1963). Sigstedt khaws ib lub studio nyob rau hauv Bryn Athyn thiab nyob rau hauv 1950s tau los ua tus paub zoo txog nws Chaw Nres ntawm Ntoo Khaublig rau St. Timothy's Episcopal Lub Koom Txoos hauv Roxborough, ib cheeb tsam hauv Northwest Philadelphia (Glencairn Tsev khaws puav pheej Xov Xwm 2013). Nws kuj tau koom nrog hauv 1937 schism nyob rau hauv lub Koom Txoos General ntawm lub New Jerusalem, uas coj mus rau lub hauv paus ntawm tus Tswv lub Koom Txoos Tshiab uas yog Nova Hierosolyma raws li ib tug cais denomination (Sigstedt 2001 [1937]).

Feem ntau, architects tsis tau tuaj ntawm Swedenborgian artists. H. Langford Warren (1857–1917), tus tub ntawm ib tug txiv plig ntawm lub Koom Txoos Tshiab, yog ib tug neeg ua haujlwm Swedenborgian thiab tsim ob lub tsev teev ntuj Swedenborgian. Thaum nws tuag, nws yog tus thawj tswj hwm ntawm Harvard Tsev Kawm Ntawv ntawm Architecture thiab tus thawj tswj hwm ntawm Society of Arts thiab Crafts (Meister 2003). Daniel H. Burnham (1846–1912) yog ib tug tswv cuab ntawm lub Koom Txoos Swedenborgian Chicago rau plaub caug xyoo. Hais tias yog "tus txiv ntawm kev npaj hauv nroog," nws xyoo 1909 Txoj Kev Npaj ntawm Chicago tau cuam tshuam los ntawm Swedenborg lub tswv yim hais tias cov qauv ntawm lub nroog yuav tsum muaj kev cuam tshuam los ntawm Vajtswv txoj kev txiav txim. Nws kuj tau hu ua "txiv ntawm Chicago skyscraper." Nws tej hauj lwm suav nrog kev ua koob tsheej (tab sis tam sim no rhuav tshem) lub tsev Rand McNally (Silver 1920:247–50).

Thomas Pollock Anshutz (1851–1912: Gyllenhaal, Gladish, Holmes thiab Rosenquist 1988), Howard Pyle (Carter 2002), Alice Archer Sewall James (1870–1955) (Skinner 2011), thiab Howard Giles (1876–1955equin: 2000–20: 21–1895. 1976–2000), yog Swedenborgian cov kws ua yeeb yam uas feem ntau ua tau zoo ua cov kws qhia kos duab. Giles muaj ntawm nws cov tub ntxhais kawm Hungarian-Asmeskas tus neeg pleev kob Emil Bistram (2013-XNUMX), uas tau khaws cia thoob plaws nws lub neej muaj kev txaus siab rau Swedenborg, txawm hais tias nws feem ntau xav txog Theosophy thiab Agni Yoga (Pasquine XNUMX). Nws encaustics tau npaj los ua cov portals uas ua rau lub hnub nyoog tshiab uas yuav tshwm sim (Shaull, Parsons thiab Bottigheimer [Boettigheimer] XNUMX).

Howard Pyle cov tub kawm suav nrog Swedenborgian tus neeg pleev kob Elsa Roeder (1875–1914), tus ntxhais ntawm New Church Minister Adolph Roeder (1857–1931) (Silver 1920, 260–261), thiab Jessie Willcox Smith (1863–1935), ib tug mej zeej ntawm Philadelphia lub Koom Txoos Tshiab (Silver 1920:261) uas yuav los ua ib tug neeg paub zoo txog neeg Amelikas. [Duab ntawm sab xis] Pyle kuj qhia nws tus muam Katharine Pyle (1863–1938). Katharine nws tus kheej yog ib tug mej zeej ntawm lub Koom Txoos Tshiab raws li Ednah C. Silver (1838–1928), uas tsis raug xa mus rau nws li “Margaret” (Silver 1920:261). Qhov tseeb, Margaret yog lub npe ntawm Howard thiab Katharine Pyle niam, Margaret Churchman Painter (1828–1885), uas tsis yog ib tug neeg pleev kob txawm nws lub xeem.

Ntawm cov tub kawm ntawv ntawm Alice James yog John William Cavanaugh (1921–1985), "xyoo pua 20th tus tswv ntawm hammered lead." Tus kws kos duab kawm ntawm Swedenborgian Theological School hauv Cambridge, txawm tias tom qab ntawd nws tau dhau los ntawm kev ntseeg kev ntseeg (Alt, Strange thiab Thorson 1985).

Tus neeg pleev kob Belgian Jean-Jacques Gailliard (1890-1976), tus tub ntxhais kawm ntawm Delville, yog ib tug tswv cuab ntawm lub Koom Txoos Swedenborgian thiab dai nws lub tsev teev ntuj Brussels nyob rau hauv Rue Gachard, inaugurated nyob rau hauv 1925 (Clerbois 2013). [Duab ntawm txoj cai]

Tej zaum tus kws ua yeeb yam hauv xyoo pua nees nkaum tshaj plaws ntawm Mauritius yog tus kws sau paj huam Malcom de Chazal (1902-1981). Nws tau tsa ib tug Swedenborgian thiab tseem tuaj koom ntau xyoo Mauritius 'Swedenborgian Lub Koom Txoos (Hallengren 2013: 23), uas tus tsim tau yog nws tus txiv ntxawm, Joseph Antoine Edmond de Chazal (1809–1879).

Hauv tebchaws Netherlands, tus neeg pleev kob Philippe Smit (1886–1948) tau paub nrog lub Koom Txoos Tshiab thaum Theodore Pitcairn (1893–1973) txib nws los pleev xim rau ob peb daim duab ntawm Swedenborgian cov thawj coj. Nws tau ua kev cai raus dej hauv 1926, thiab ntseeg tias Swedenborg tau daws cov teeb meem uas nws tau tawm tsam hauv nws txoj kev kawm dhau los ntawm phau Vajlugkub (Gyllenhaal 2014).

Fab Kis tus neeg pleev kob André Girard (1901–1968) kuj tau ntsib Pitcairn, dhau los ntawm Swedenborgian tus kws sau ntawv Richard Yardumian (1917–1985), thiab tuaj txais Swedenborg cov ntawv sau ua "qhov kaj tiag." Tus kws sau ntawv tus tub, Nishan Yardumian (1947–1986), kawm nyob rau hauv Girard thiab tom qab ntawd qhia kos duab ntawm Bryn Athyn College, ua nws tus kheej ib tug neeg pleev kob Swedenborgian (Gyllenhaal, Gladish, Holmes thiab Rosenquist 1988; Glencairn Tsev khaws puav pheej Xov Xwm 2018). [Duab ntawm sab xis, hauv qab no]

Thaum ntxov xyoo 1980, ua kev zoo siab rau American sculptor Lee Bontecou (b. 1931) tau tsiv mus rau Bryn Athyn, nws nyob qhov twg mus txog rau xyoo 1988 (Williams-Hogan 2016:132–37). Nws tau piav qhia hauv kev xam phaj hauv zej zog li "Swedenborg-tswj," qhov zoo rau nws txij li Swedenborg yog "tus cwj pwm zoo" (Ashton 2009). Nws tau raug suav hais tias los ntawm New York cov neeg ua yeeb yam "tsis ploj hauv kev nqis tes ua" (Tomkins 2003) thiab tau txais qhov kev xav tseeb uas cov neeg thuam tsis nyiam tias tus kws kos duab avant-garde tau koom nrog ntau yam ntawm sab ntsuj plig esoteric.

Swedenborg, txawm li cas los xij, tseem yog qhov kev siv txaus nyiam rau cov neeg ua yeeb yam tam sim no, raws li pov thawj los ntawm Angels ntawm Swedenborg (1985) los ntawm American video thiab installation artist Ping Chong (Neely 1986), Lub tsev Swedenborg installation (2011) los ntawm Mexican artist Pablo Sigg (Mousse Magazine 2011), thiab 2012 multimedia qhia hauv Strasbourg Lub Chambre de Swedenborg los ntawm Fab Kis tus kws kos duab Jean-Jacques Birgé (Birgé 2011).

Jane Williams-Hogan nco ntsoov peb, hais txog kev kos duab keeb kwm Abraham A. Davidson (1935–2011), tias Swedenborg tsis tau muab "cov tshuaj zoo nkauj." Tab sis nws hais ntxiv tias "nws cov ntawv sau tau muab txoj hauv kev tshiab pom qhov tseeb," uas suav nrog "kev txiav txim siab zoo" (Williams-Hogan 2012: 107–08; saib Davidson 1996: 131). Tsis muaj "Swedenborgian art," ib yam li tsis muaj "Theosophical art" lossis "Catholic art." Tab sis muaj thiab muaj Swedenborgian kos duab, leej twg tau txais kev tshoov siab los ntawm kev sib txawv, thiab nrog cov txiaj ntsig sib txawv, los ntawm Swedenborg lub ntiaj teb kev pom, tshwj xeeb yog los ntawm nws txoj kev xav ntawm kev sau ntawv, los tsim ib qho kev kos duab nrog kev cuam tshuam ntawm sab ntsuj plig.

DAWB **
** Tag nrho cov duab yog cov yeeb yaj duab uas siv tau mus rau cov duab kos tau.

Image # 1: Portrait ntawm Emanuel Swedenborg, los ntawm tsis yog-Swedenborgian Swedish artist Carl Frederik von Breda (1759-1818).
Duab #2: Jean Delville (1867–1953), Sérapita (1932).
Duab #3: Paul Gauguin (1848–1903), Sib tw barbares (1902).
Duab #4: The Wayfarers Chapel, Rancho Palos Verdes, California, raws li tau piav qhia hauv daim ntawv xa tuaj, kwv yees li xyoo 1960.
Duab #5: John Flaxman (1755–1826), Dab Ntxwg Nyoog Txhaum Los Ntawm Me Me (hnub tsis paub).
Image #6: William Blake (1757–1827), los ntawm Kev sib yuav ntawm ntuj ceeb tsheej thiab ntuj txiag teb tsaus (1790).
Duab #7: Joseph Clark (1834–1926), Agar thiab Ishmael, etching ntawm 1862 sib raug rau cov painting ntawm 1860.
Image #8: Hiram Powers (1805–1873), Proserpine (1844)
Duab #9: Dennis Duckworth (1911–2003). Lub Pulpit - Lub Tedium ntawm Perpetual pe hawm (ca. 1940). Lub painting yog raws li Swedenborg's Kev ntseeg tseeb § 737: Nyob rau hauv lub neej tom qab, qee cov ntseeg uas ntseeg hais tias kev xyiv fab nyob mus ib txhis yuav muaj nyob rau hauv kev hnov ​​​​cov lus qhuab qhia uas tsis muaj qhov kawg yuav pom tias qhov no yog qhov tseeb boring heev.
Duab #10: George Inness (1825–1894), Lub hav ntawm tus duab ntxoov ntxoo ntawm kev tuag (1867).
Duab #11: Ralph Albert Blakelock (1847–1919), Moonlight (1885-1889).
Duab #12: Robert Carpenter Spencer (1879–1931), Tus Evangelist (ca. 1918–1919).
Duab #13: Bryn Athyn Cathedral, Bryn Athyn, Pennsylvania.
Duab #14: Jessie Willcox Smith (1863–1935), npog rau Jessie Willcox Smith Niam Goose (New York: Dodd, Mead and Company, 1914).
Duab #15: Jean-Jacques Gailliard (1890–1976), Memorable Swedenborg (hnub tsis paub).
Duab #16: Nishan Yardumian (1947–1986), Tshaj tawm rau Cov Neeg Yudais (1977).

ua tim khawv

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Daim Ntawv Qhia Hnub:
27 Cuaj hlis 2019

 

 

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