Tim Rudbøg

Helena Petrovna Blavatsky

HELENA PETROVNA BLAVATSKY TIMELINE

1831 (Lub Yim Hli 11/12): Helena Petrovna von Hahn yug hauv Ekaterinoslav, Ukraine, Russia (Lub Xya Hli 31 raws li Julian daim ntawv qhia hnub).

1849 (Lub Xya Hli 7): Helena Petrovna von Hahn sib yuav General Nikifor V. Blavatsky (b. 1809).

1849–1873: Helena Petrovna Blavatsky tau pib mus ncig thoob ntiaj teb, suav nrog Russia, Greece, Qaib ntxhw, Egypt, Canada, Tebchaws Meskas, South America, Nyiv, Is Nrias teb, Ceylon, tej zaum Tibet, Fabkis, Ltalis, United Kingdom, Lub teb chaws Yelemees, Serbia, Syria, Lebanon thiab Balkans.

1873 (Lub Xya Hli 7): Helena Petrovna Blavatsky tuaj txog hauv New York thiab pib nws txoj haujlwm sau ntawv pej xeem.

1875 (Kaum Ib Hlis 17): Helena Petrovna Blavatsky tau koom nrog Theosophical Society hauv New York.

1877 (Cuaj Hlis 29): Helena Petrovna Blavatsky luam tawm nws thawj txoj haujlwm loj, Isis nthuav tawm.

1879 (Lub Ob Hlis 16): Helena Petrovna Blavatsky tuaj txog hauv Is Nrias teb, nrhiav tau ib phau ntawv tshiab cov Theosophist, thiab nrog Henry Steel Olcott tau hloov lub tsev hauv paus ntawm Theosophical Society los ntawm New York City ua ntej mus rau Bombay (tam sim no Mumbai), thiab nyob rau hauv 1882 mus rau Adyar, Madras (tam sim no Chennai), Is Nrias teb.

1880–1884: Cov ntawv sau los ntawm Blavatsky ob tus thawj Masters, Koot Hoomi (KH) thiab Morya, tau txais hauv Is Nrias teb los ntawm AP Sinnett thiab AO Hume. Sinnett cov ntawv tau luam tawm tom qab ntawd Cov ntawv Mahatma rau AP Sinnett (1923).

1884–1886: Blavatsky tau mus ncig teb chaws Europe thiab mus xyuas Nice, Paris, Elberfeld, London thiab Naples ua ntej nyob hauv Ostend tau ze li ib xyoos los ua haujlwm. Cov Lus Qhuab Qhia.

1884: Alexis thiab Emma Coulomb, ib khub niam txiv ua haujlwm ntawm Theosophical Society lub hauv paus chaw haujlwm hauv Adyar, tau tshaj tawm cov lus sib liam tias Blavatsky tau sau "Mahatma Letters" es tsis txhob "ua nag" kev sib txuas lus los ntawm nws cov xib fwb, Masters of the Wisdom. Richard Hodgson ntawm Lub Koom Haum rau Kev Tshawb Fawb Txog Kev Nyuaj Siab tau mus rau Is Nrias teb los tshawb xyuas.

1885: Phau Ntawv Qhia Hodgson, "Txoj Kev Tshawb Fawb Txog Tus Kheej hauv Is Nrias teb, thiab Kev Sib Tham Txog Kev Sau Ntawv ntawm 'Koot Hoomi' Cov Ntawv," tau luam tawm. Hodgson xaus lus tias Blavatsky tau dhau los ntawm nws tus kheej cov ntawv sau ua txuj ci tseem ceeb xa cov ntawv los ntawm nws tus Masters.

1887 (Tsib Hlis – Cuaj Hlis): Helena P. Blavatsky tau tsiv mus rau London, nrhiav tau phau ntawv journal Lucifer thiab Blavatsky Lodge, uas nyob rau xyoo 1890 tau los ua European lub hauv paus hauv paus ntawm Theosophical Society.

1888 (Lub Kaum Hli Ntuj-Lub Kaum Ob Hlis): Helena P. Blavatsky luam tawm nws txoj hauj lwm loj thib ob, Cov Lus Qhuab Qhia, thiab tshaj tawm rau pej xeem qhov kev tsim ntawm Esoteric Section ntawm Theosophical Society.

1889 (Lub Peb Hlis 10): Annie Besant tau mus ntsib Helena P. Blavatsky tom qab nws nyeem thiab tshuaj xyuas Cov Lus Qhuab Qhia thiab koom nrog Theosophical Society. Besant lub tsev nyob rau London tau los ua Blavatsky Lodge ntawm Theosophical Society, qhov twg Blavatsky nyob mus txog thaum nws tuag.

1891 (Tsib Hlis 8): Helena P. Blavatsky tuag los ntawm tus kab mob khaub thuas uas cuam tshuam rau nws tus mob raum mob thaum muaj hnub nyoog tsib caug cuaj.

1986: Vernon Harrison, tus tswv cuab ntawm Lub Koom Haum rau Kev Tshawb Fawb Txog Kev Nyuaj Siab, luam tawm "J'Accuse: Kev Tshawb Fawb ntawm Hodgson Report of 1885," uas nws thuam Hodgson Report.

1997: Vernon Harrison tau luam tawm "J'Accuse d'autant plus: Ib Txoj Kev Kawm Ntxiv ntawm Hodgson Report," uas nws tau txiav txim siab tias Hodgson Daim Ntawv Qhia yog kev tsis ncaj ncees thiab ua raws li cov txheej txheem tsis muaj kev tshawb fawb.

BIOGRAPHY

Helena Petrovna Blavatsky [Duab ntawm txoj cai] (née von Hahn) feem ntau suav hais tias yog ib tus neeg muaj kev cuam tshuam tshaj plaws uas ua rau muaj kev tshwm sim ntawm lwm txoj kev ntseeg thiab kev coj noj coj ua niaj hnub no. Nws tau muab piv rau Martin Luther thiab Emperor Constantine nyob rau hauv cov nqe lus ntawm nws lub hwj chim nyob rau hauv niaj hnub kev cai dab qhuas toj roob hauv pes (Hammer thiab Rothstein 2013: 1). Blavatsky qhov cuam tshuam suav nrog kev txhawb nqa lub tswv yim ntawm sab ntsuj plig uas tsis yog lub koom haum ntawm kev ntseeg; thiab cov kev xav ntawm sab ntsuj plig evolution nyob rau hauv kev twb kev txuas nrog nws popularization ntawm Asian lub tswv yim ntawm reincarnation thiab karma raws li lwm txoj kev piav qhia rau lub ntsiab lus thiab kev ua hauj lwm ntawm lub cosmos (Hanegraaff 1998: 470-82; Chajes 2019).

Blavatsky lub neej yog qhov zoo tshaj plaws thiab tsis zoo, hais qhov tsawg kawg nkaus. Cov ntaub ntawv keeb kwm txog nws lub neej ua ntej nws hloov chaw nyob rau New York City thaum Lub Xya Hli 7, 1873 yog, txawm li cas los xij, qee qhov nyuaj rau kev tsim kho dua vim tsis muaj cov khoom siv txaus; qee qhov xwm txheej tom qab xyoo 1873 kuj muaj qee lub sijhawm tsis meej.

Helena von Hahn yog neeg Lavxias teb sab qhovntsej thiaj tsis mob, tus ntxhais ntawm Peter Alexeyevich von Hahn (1798-1873), uas yog tus thawj coj ntawm nees artillery nyob rau hauv Lavxias teb sab pab tub rog, thiab nto moo novelist Helena Andreyevna (1814-1842). Nws niam pog yog Ntxhais fuabtais Helena Pavlovna Dolgorukov (1789–1860), tus ntxhais ntawm Tub Vaj Ntxwv Pavel Dolgorukov (1755–1837), ib tug xeeb ntxwv ntawm ib tsev neeg laus tshaj plaws hauv tebchaws Russia. Nws txiv yawg yog Lieutenant Alexis Gustavovich von Hahn uas nws tsev neeg German tuaj yeem taug qab mus rau lub npe nrov Crusader Count Rottenstern nyob rau hauv Nruab Nrab Hnub nyoog thiab Countess Elizabeth Maksimovna von Pröbsen, ntawm qhov sib npaug ntawm qhov tseem ceeb.

Txij li thaum nws niam tuag hauv 1842 thaum Helena tsuas yog kaum xyoo, thiab nws txiv feem ntau nyob deb ntawm kev ua tub rog, nws lub neej thaum ntxov yog siv los ntawm ib qho chaw mus rau nws txiv lossis nyob ntev nrog nws niam pog yawg. Raws li Vera Petrovna de Zhelihovsky (1835-1896), Helena tus viv ncaus, Helena yog ib tug me nyuam txawv txawv uas tau ntsib txhua yam xwm txheej raws li lub neej thiab ntsuj plig. (Sinnett 1976:35; Cranston 1993:29). Ntau qhov kev lees paub tias thaum nws tseem yog menyuam yaus nws twb tau nthuav tawm cov txuj ci ntawm sab ntsuj plig thiab qhov tsis zoo (Sinnett 1976:20, 32, 42–43, 49–50).

Lub Kaum Hli 1849 thaum muaj hnub nyoog kaum yim, ob peb lub hlis tom qab nws sib yuav rau Nikifor V. Blavatsky, [Duab ntawm txoj cai] los ntawm leej twg nws tau txais nws lub xeem Blavatsky, nws pib nws thawj zaug ntawm kev mus ncig thoob ntiaj teb. Qhov no yog qhov txawv heev rau tus poj niam thaum lub sijhawm. Nws zoo nkaus li tias nws tuaj txog hauv Cairo, Tim lyiv teb chaws los ntawm Constantinople hauv 1850-1851 qhov chaw uas nws thiab nws tus phooj ywg, tus kws sau ntawv Asmeskas thiab tus kws kos duab Albert Leighton Rawson (1828-1902), tau ntsib Copt magician Paulos Metamon nrog leej twg Blavatsky xav tsim. zej zog rau kev kawm ntawm kev tshawb fawb occult hauv Cairo. Thaum lub sijhawm xyoo 1850s Blavatsky tseem zoo li tau nyob hauv Tebchaws Europe sab hnub poob, tshwj xeeb yog London thiab Paris qhov chaw uas nws tau mus ncig ntawm Spiritualist thiab mesmerist. Tom qab taug kev ntxiv hauv Canada, Tebchaws Meskas, Mexico, South America, West Indies, Ceylon, India, Nyiv, Burma, thiab tejzaum nws yog Tibet, Blavatsky tau rov qab los rau Paris hauv 1858. Los ntawm qhov ntawd nws rov qab mus rau Russia thaum lub Kaum Ob Hlis 1858 qhov twg. zoo li nws tau nyob mus txog rau xyoo 1865 (Sinnett 1976:75–85; Cranston 1993:63–64).

Qee lub sij hawm xyoo 1865 Blavatsky [Duab ntawm sab xis] tawm ntawm Russia thiab taug kev hla lub Balkans, Egypt, Syria, Ltalis, Is Nrias teb, tej zaum Tibet, thiab tim Nkij teb chaws, mus txog thaum kawg nws tuaj txog hauv Cairo thib ob thaum xyoo 1871. Hauv Cairo, Blavatsky dua. mingled nrog Spiritualists ntawm kev mus ntsib lub pyramids (Algeo 2003: 15-17), thiab nws tsim ib lub zej zog hu ua "Société Spirite" rau kev tshawb xyuas ntawm nruab nrab thiab phenomena raws li kev xav thiab lub tswv yim ntawm Allan Kardec (1804-1869) ( Algeo 2003:17–23; Godwin 1994:279–80; Caldwell 2000:32–36). Lub zej zog no, txawm li cas los xij, ua pov thawj kev poob siab rau Blavatsky vim muaj ntau qhov kev dag ntxias koom nrog, thiab nws thiaj li tawm Cairo rau Paris thaum lub caij nplooj ntoo hlav xyoo 1873 uas nws npaj yuav nyob nrog ib tus kwv tij von Hahn (Godwin 1994: 280) . Nws nyob, txawm li cas los xij, tsuas yog ob lub hlis xwb, raws li Blavatsky tus kheej cov lus piav qhia, nws raug txib los ntawm nws cov Masters, uas tau sib txuas lus nrog nws los ntawm kev ua phem, mus rau Tebchaws Meskas "rau ua pov thawj cov phenomena thiab lawv qhov tseeb thiab — qhia qhov fallacy ntawm Spiritualistic theories ntawm 'Spirits'” (Godwin 1994:281–82, italics in original).

Ib qho tshwj xeeb niaj hnub esoteric cov ntsiab lus cuam tshuam nrog Blavatsky yog nws lub tswv yim ntawm lub ntiaj teb cov kwv tij tsis pub leej twg paub txog Masters pab tib neeg nrog nws txoj kev loj hlob ntawm sab ntsuj plig. Blavatsky tau thov kom muaj kev sib cuag nrog cov kwv tij no thiab, ntawm lwm tus, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cuam tshuam nrog Masters hu ua Koot Hoomi thiab Morya. Nws hais tias nws tau ntsib Morya thawj zaug hauv 1851 hauv London. Blavatsky pom nws lub luag haujlwm los pab cov Masters no nrog ntau yam haujlwm ntsig txog ntawm sab ntsuj plig, nrog rau kev tsim cov koom haum thiab sau phau ntawv thiab cov ntawv nrog lawv cov kev pab. Cov Masters feem ntau hais txog cov tib neeg uas muaj siab ntseeg nrog lub cev zoo li lub cev nyob hauv lub cev, xws li Tibet lossis Luxor, Tim lyiv teb chaws thiab ua "cov kws qhia ntawm sab ntsuj plig" thiab cov ntsuj plig zoo lossis "mahatmas" (Blavatsky 1972: 348; Blavatsky 1891: 201) . Blavatsky kuj tseem hais ntxiv, txawm li cas los xij, qhov tseeb ntawm mahatmas yog dhau ntawm lub cev, raws li nws txhais tau tias lawv yog cov koom haum ntawm sab ntsuj plig, siab dua cov koom haum hauv lub ntiaj teb ntawm kev xav tsis meej tsuas yog pom qhov tseeb kev txawj ntse pom (tsis yog lub cev) tom qab kev cob qhia ntau. thiab kev loj hlob ntawm sab ntsuj plig (Blavatsky 1950–1991, vol. 6:239). Cov Masters no tau dhau los ua tus yam ntxwv tshwj xeeb ntawm kev txhim kho Theosophy hauv Is Nrias teb qhov twg Alfred Percy Sinnett (1840–1921) thiab Allan Octavian Hume (1829–1912), uas xav ntsib lawv thiab kawm txog lawv cov tswv yim, tau txais thawj lub npe hu ua Mahatma Letters .

Raws li cov lus qhia los ntawm nws tus Masters, Blavatsky tuaj txog hauv New York City thaum Lub Xya Hli 7, 1873. Ib xyoos tom qab nws ntsib New York tus neeg sau xov xwm thiab tus kws lij choj Henry Steel Olcott (1832–1907) thaum Lub Kaum Hli 14, 1874 ntawm ib qho kev sib tw tuav los ntawm cov kwv tij William Eddy thiab Horatio Eddy ua cov nruab nrab ntawm lawv lub tsev ua liaj ua teb hauv Chittenden, Vermont (Olcott 2002: 1–26). Blavatsky thiab Olcott tau dhau los ua cov neeg koom tes nrog lub neej thiab, pib xyoo 1876, nyob ua ke hauv New York City chav tsev hu ua "Lamasery," los ntawm tus kws tshaj xov xwm. Lub Lamasery tau txais ntau tus qhua los ntawm ze thiab deb.

Thaum lub Cuaj Hlis 8, 1875, ntau tus neeg muaj siab nyiam, suav nrog Blavatsky thiab Olcott, tau tsim lub Koom Haum Theosophical rau kev tshawb nrhiav qhov tsis meej ntawm lub ntiaj teb thiab qhov tseeb ntawm sab ntsuj plig tshwm sim. Henry Steel Olcott tau raug xaiv tsa tus thawj tswj hwm, Helena P. Blavatsky tus tuav ntaub ntawv, thiab William Q. Judge (1851–1896) tus lwm thawj.

Lub Koom Haum Theosophical tom qab tau los coj los ntawm cov lus qhuab qhia thoob ntiaj teb hais tias "Tsis muaj kev ntseeg siab dua qhov tseeb." Pab pawg tau txais peb lub hom phiaj tseem ceeb:

Tsim kom muaj ib lub hauv paus ntawm kev ua kwv tij thoob ntiaj teb ntawm tib neeg yam tsis muaj kev sib txawv ntawm haiv neeg, kev ntseeg, poj niam txiv neej, caste, lossis xim.

Txhawm rau txhawb kev kawm txog kev ntseeg sib piv, kev xav, thiab kev tshawb fawb.

Txhawm rau tshawb xyuas cov kev cai tsis tau piav qhia ntawm xwm thiab lub hwj chim latent hauv tib neeg.

Ob peb xyoos tom qab nrhiav tau ntawm Theosophical Society, Blavatsky thiab Olcott txoj kev mloog [Duab ntawm txoj cai] tau coj mus rau Is Nrias teb thiab nws cov kev cai dab qhuas. Lawv tau tawm hauv New York City thaum lub Kaum Ob Hlis 17, 1878, tsuas yog ob peb lub hlis tom qab Blavatsky tau los ua neeg Amelikas thaum Lub Xya Hli 8, 1878. Hauv Is Nrias teb, Lub Koom Haum Theosophical tau nthuav dav nrog kev vam meej thiab tsim cov ntawv xov xwm. Lub Theophophist edited los ntawm Blavatsky. Xyoo 1884, Blavatsky tau tawm mus rau Paris, London, thiab Elberfeld hauv lub teb chaws Yelemees tsuas yog rov qab mus rau Is Nrias teb xyoo 1885; Tom qab ntawd nws tau tawm hauv Is Nrias teb kom zoo, caij nkoj mus rau Naples thiab mus rau Würzburg, Lub Tebchaws Yelemees thiab Ostend, Belgium, thaum Lub Xya Hli 1886 los ua haujlwm ntawm nws qhov kev ua yeeb yam thib ob. cov Zais cia Lus Qhuab Qhia.

Nws xyoo kawg ntawm xyoo 1887 tau siv nyob hauv London. Nyob rau hauv 1887 Blavatsky pib ib phau ntawv sau npe Lucifer, uas nws kho thiab rau qhov uas nws sau. Xyoo tom ntej nws tau tsim Esoteric Tshooj ntawm Theosophical Society txhawm rau qhia cov neeg mob siab rau tshaj plaws kom koom ua ke nrog Ib Tus Kheej Universal thiab txhim kho lub hwj chim ntawm sab ntsuj plig. Ob lub ntim ntawm Cov Lus Qhuab Qhia tau luam tawm xyoo 1888.

Xyoo 1889, tus poj niam hais lus Askiv tsis zoo, Fabian socialist, freethinker, thiab feminist, Annie Besant (1847-1933), nrhiav Blavatsky tom qab nws tau nyeem thiab tshuaj xyuas. cov Cov lus qhuab qhia zais cia. [Duab ntawm txoj cai] Blavatsky tau mus nyob hauv Besant lub tsev, uas kuj tau los ua qhov chaw ntawm Blavatsky Lodge. Txij li thaum Blavatsky txoj kev noj qab haus huv ua tsis tiav, nws thiab Besant tau sib koom ua ke Luv Tseem Ceeb. Ntau ntawm nws cov thwj tim mob siab tshaj plaws thiab cov npoj yaig nyob nrog Blavatsky txog thaum nws tuag hauv 1891.

KEV QHIA TXOG / DOCTRINES

Blavatsky lub sijhawm sau ntawv nquag pib txij li xyoo 1874 txog thaum nws tuag. Lub sijhawm no nws nquag koom nrog esoteric, kev ntseeg, thiab kev txawj ntse tam sim no xws li evolutionism, keeb kwm ntawm kev ntseeg, thiab kev txhais lus ntawm Eastern philosophy thiab mythology. Nws feem ntau koom nrog xya lub ntsiab lus hauv qab no.

Ua ntej, Theosophy, uas nws nkag siab tias yog Qhov Tseeb nrog lub peev T. Theosophy yog, ntawm ib sab, [Duab ntawm txoj cai] ib qho kev txawj ntse, nyob mus ib txhis, thiab los saum ntuj los uas peb tuaj yeem kawm paub txog kev paub ntawm sab ntsuj plig siab dua thiab, ntawm qhov lwm yam tes, lub hauv paus keeb kwm ntawm tag nrho cov loj ntiaj teb kev ntseeg. Qhov Kev Txawj Ntse-Kev ntseeg no, raws li nws hu ua nws, ntawm lub hauv paus ntawm txhua txoj kev ntseeg, kuj yog vim li cas vim li cas kev ntseeg dab neeg qhia ntau yam zoo sib xws. Lub tswv yim ntawm kev txawj ntse thoob ntiaj teb thaum ub uas tuaj yeem taug qab txhua lub ntiaj teb kev ntseeg yog ib yam uas Blavatsky tau sau ntau txog thiab sim ua pov thawj los ntawm kev sib piv. Piv txwv li, nws sau rau hauv Isis Unveiled (1877):

Raws li lub voj voog ua tiav lub voj voog, thiab ib lub teb chaws tom qab lwm tus tuaj rau hauv lub ntiaj teb theem los ua nws qhov luv luv hauv kev ua yeeb yam zoo nkauj ntawm tib neeg lub neej, txhua tus neeg tshiab tau hloov zuj zus los ntawm cov poj koob yawm txwv kev cai dab qhuas nws tus kheej, muab cov xim hauv zos, thiab ntaus nws nrog nws. tus yam ntxwv ntawm tus kheej. Txawm hais tias txhua qhov kev ntseeg no muaj nws qhov txawv txav, los ntawm qhov uas, tsis muaj lwm yam vestiges archaic, lub cev thiab kev puas siab puas ntsws ntawm nws cov neeg tsim tuaj yeem kwv yees, txhua tus tau khaws cia ib qho zoo ib yam rau ib qho qauv. Cov niam txiv txoj kev ntseeg no tsis muaj lwm yam tshaj li qhov qub "kev ntseeg-kev ntseeg" (Blavatsky 1877, vol. 2: 216).

Peb txoj hauj lwm, yog li ntawd, yog ib qho kev thov rau kev lees paub ntawm Hermetic lub tswv yim, kev txawj ntse thoob ntiaj teb thaum ub, uas yog tib qho tseem ceeb ntawm Kev Tshawb Fawb thiab Kev Ntseeg (Blavatsky 1877, vol. 1:vii).

 Qhov thib ob, Blavatsky kuj tau sau ntau txog kev ntseeg, mesmerism, thiab occult rog, sim kom paub qhov txawv ntawm Theosophy thiab occultism los ntawm cov tam sim no ntawm Spiritualism nrov thaum lub sijhawm. Ib qhov sib txawv uas nws tau hais txog yog qhov sib txawv ntawm kev ua siab ntev los ntawm tus ntsuj plig, ib yam li hauv Kev Ntseeg Ntsuj Plig, uas nws poob siab, tawm tsam kev cog qoob loo ntawm lub siab nyiam kom tau txais lub hwj chim siab dua, uas nws suav hais tias yog lub hauv paus rau occultism (Rudbøg 2012: 312-64. ). Blavatsky yog ib tus thawj coj siv lub npe "occultism" hauv lus Askiv, thiab feem ntau siv lo lus los xaiv qhov kev ntseeg qub los yog kev ntseeg tseeb; nyob rau hauv lwm yam lus, ib tug ancient science txog lub sab ntsuj plig rog nyob rau hauv cov xwm. Raws li Blavatsky, txhua tus tib neeg yog "koom nrog tag nrho cov kev xav ntawm lub hlwb, lub cev nqaij daim tawv, cosmical, lub cev, thiab sab ntsuj plig tshwm sim" (Blavatsky 1891: 238).

Qhov thib peb, Blavatsky tsom ntsoov rau qhov nws pom tias yog teeb meem nrog kev ntseeg kev ntseeg, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog lub Koom Txoos Roman Catholic thiab nws txoj kev ntseeg dogmas. Nws saib feem ntau ntawm cov dogmas no yog qhov tsis sib xws ntawm qhov tseeb uas tau los ntawm cov laus, ntau dua qub, cov kab lig kev cai pagan. Qhov no kuj yog, raws li Blavatsky, vim li cas feem ntau cov kev ntseeg tsis muaj kev ntseeg thiab tsis tuaj yeem tiv thaiv lawv sab ntsuj plig nyob rau hauv lub ntsej muag ntawm kev thuam niaj hnub no. Nyob rau hauv sib piv, Theosophy yuav tsum yog lub rational kev cai dab qhuas kev kho mob qhov tseeb esoteric core tam sim no nyob rau hauv tag nrho cov kev ntseeg, nrog rau cov ntseeg Vajtswv, rau nws thawj lub yeeb koob (Rudbøg 2012: 206-51).

Plaub, Blavatsky kuj tau tsom ntsoov rau qhov nws pom tias yog cov khoom siv txaus ntshai ntawm kev tshawb fawb niaj hnub thiab nws txoj cai cuav.

Dab Ntxwg Nyoog ntawm Materialism tam sim no luag txhua yam, thiab tsis lees paub qhov pom thiab qhov tsis pom. Pom nyob rau hauv lub teeb, tshav kub, hluav taws xob, thiab txawm nyob rau hauv lub phenomenon ntawm lub neej, tsuas yog cov khoom muaj nyob rau hauv qhov teeb meem, nws luag thaum twg lub neej yog hu ua VITAL PRINCIPLE, thiab derides lub tswv yim ntawm nws yog ywj siab ntawm thiab txawv ntawm lub cev (Blavatsky 1888, vol. 1:602–03).

Tawm tsam qhov no, Blavatsky tau ua haujlwm los ua kom muaj kev sib txuas ntawm tus ntsuj plig thiab qhov teeb meem hauv kev kawm ntawm tib neeg thiab xwm txheej uas yav tas los muaj nyob hauv kev sib koom ua ke ntawm kev ntseeg, kev xav, thiab kev tshawb fawb los ntawm kev hais txog kev xav ntawm lub hauv paus ntsiab lus ntawm sab ntsuj plig thiab cov tsiaj nyob tom qab lub cev rog (Rudbøg 2012: 252–311).

Thib tsib, Blavatsky qhov kev txhawj xeeb tshaj plaws yog tsim kom muaj kev sib raug zoo ntawm tib neeg cov kwv tij, thiab qhov no yog ib qho ntawm cov ntsiab lus uas nws tau hais txog qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws hauv nws ntau cov ntawv thiab hauv nws txoj haujlwm Theosophical hauv Is Nrias teb. Blavatsky qhia meej txog kev sib koom ua ke ntawm qhov tseeb, ntsuj plig, lub cosmos, thiab tag nrho cov muaj sia nyob, suav nrog tib neeg. Nws tau sib cav tias ntev npaum li qhov tsis ncaj ncees los yog tib neeg tsim hierarchies muaj nyob nruab nrab ntawm tib neeg nyob rau hauv daim ntawv ntawm sectarian kev ntseeg, kev coj noj coj ua, thiab cov qauv, tib neeg yuav tsis muaj kev ywj pheej (Rudbøg 2012: 409-43).

Thib rau, nws kuj tau sau ntau heev los txhim kho lub cosmological loj, uas suav nrog ob sab ntsuj plig thiab lub cev qhov ntev; Nws tau thov tias cov txheej txheem no yog qhov zais cia "trans-Himalayan" cov lus qhuab qhia paub rau nws cov Masters nyob hauv Tibet.

Xya thiab thaum kawg, nws tau sau txog kev txhim kho ntawm sab ntsuj plig ntawm tib neeg thiab yuav ua li cas kom muaj kev nkag siab thiab kev pom rau hauv lub ntiaj teb zais (Rudbøg 2012: 397–408).

Cov ntsiab lus no tau tsim los ntawm nws cov ntawv sau. Nws sau feem ntau ua lus Askiv, tab sis kuj tau luam tawm ua lus Fab Kis thiab Lavxias. Qhov loj tshaj plaws ntawm nws oeuvre muaj cov ntawv sau rau ntau yam ntawv xov xwm thiab Spiritualist thiab occult journals, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog nyob rau hauv cov ncauj lus hais txog mesmerism, Spiritualism, Western Esoteric kab lig kev cai, ancient religions, Asian religions, science thiab Theosophy. Cov ntawv xov xwm Lub Theophophist, nrhiav tau hauv 1879, thiab Lucifer, nrhiav tau nyob rau xyoo 1887, kuj hais txog cov ncauj lus no, thiab Blavatsky tau pab txhawb rau lawv mus txog thaum nws tuag. Nws kuj tau sau occult thiab travel-related ntawv tseeb, xws li nws Npau suav phem Tales (1892) thiab Los ntawm Qhov tsua thiab Jungles ntawm Hindustan (1892), thawj zaug luam tawm nyob rau hauv cov phau ntawv journal thiab tom qab posthumously luam tawm nyob rau hauv phau ntawv daim ntawv. Txhua yam ntawm nws cov ntawv thiab cov dab neeg tau sau thiab rov luam tawm hauv nws Sau Cov Ntawv Sau, kho los ntawm Boris de Zirkoff, muaj kaum plaub lub ntsiab ntim ntxiv rau cov ntim ntxiv (1950–1991).

Nws cov haujlwm tseem ceeb (Isis Unveiled (1877) thiab Cov Lus Qhuab Qhia (1888)) tau tsim nrog kev pab los ntawm ib tug xov tooj ntawm nws theosophically-oriented lug txhawb cov miv. [Duab ntawm txoj cai] Lawv cov ntsiab lus feem ntau tau lees tias tau tshaj tawm rau Blavatsky los ntawm Masters of the Wisdom, "the Mahatmas," los ntawm txhais tau tias occult. Ob leeg ua haujlwm txhua qhov txuas ntxiv tshaj 1,300 nplooj ntawv thiab tau tshaj tawm hauv ob ntim. Ob leeg tau npaj los ua pov thawj qhov muaj nyob ntawm cov lus qhuab qhia thoob ntiaj teb thaum ub los yog kev txawj ntse. Isis Unveiled tshwj xeeb tshaj yog txhais tau tias yog kev thuam ntawm Christian theology thiab niaj hnub science, thaum Cov Lus Qhuab Qhia ua piv txwv nws txoj kev sim siab tshaj plaws los tsim lub cosmological loj ntawm sab ntsuj plig thiab lub cev evolution ntawm qhov loj. Cov txheej txheem no yog tsim los ntawm cov ntsiab lus los ntawm ntau yam kev coj noj coj ua thiab los ntawm ntau lub hnub nyoog, suav nrog lub npe hu ua Phau ntawv Dzyan, Ib tug neeg Esxias cov ntawv sau thaum ub pom tau tias tsuas yog Blavatsky. Ua ke cov haujlwm no tau tsim thawj qhov kev nthuav qhia ntawm Theosophical cov tswv yim thiab cov lus qhuab qhia rau thawj tiam Theosophists.

Blavatsky kuj tau sau ob peb lwm yam haujlwm, xws li Tus yuam sij rau Theosophy (1889), npaj los ua ib qho kev nthuav tawm nrov hauv nqe lus nug thiab teb daim ntawv ntawm cov kev xav tseem ceeb ntawm Theosophists, hais txog karma, kev rov qab los, xeev tom qab tuag, thiab cov qauv ntawm sab ntsuj plig ntawm txhua tus tib neeg. Tib lub xyoo, Blavatsky luam tawm ib lub ntim me me uas muaj cai Lub Suab Ntsuag (1889), uas nws tau hais tias nws tau txhais los ntawm kev ua haujlwm esoteric muab rau cov thwj tim tab tom pib ntawm sab ntsuj plig hauv Tibet. Nws suav nrog cov ntsiab lus los ntawm Mahayana thiab Vajrayana Buddhism, xws li kev cog qoob loo ntawm bodhisattva zoo tagnrho ntawm kev txi lub attainment ntawm Nirvana txhawm rau coj lwm tus los ntawm kev txom nyem mus rau kev nkag siab. Nws Theosophical Glossary tau luam tawm posthumously hauv 1892.

Cov nram qab no peb cov lus pom los ntawm Cov Lus Qhuab Qhia (1888, vol. 1:14–18) qhia txog Blavatsky lub cosmological system. Nws quotes ntau los ntawm ntau qhov chaw, suav nrog los ntawm qhov tsis meej Phau ntawv Dzyan. 

(a) Ib qho Omnipresent, Nyob Mus Ib Txhis, Tsis Muaj Txhaum, thiab Hloov Tsis Taus Txoj Cai uas txhua qhov kev xav tsis tuaj yeem ua tsis tau, txij li nws hla lub hwj chim ntawm tib neeg lub tswv yim thiab tsuas yog tuaj yeem dwarfed los ntawm tib neeg kev qhia lossis kev sib piv. Nws yog dhau qhov ntau thiab ncav cuag kev xav. . . .

(b) Lub Ntiaj Teb Nyob Mus Ib Txhis hauv toto raws li lub dav hlau tsis muaj kawg; Ib ntus "qhov chaw ua si ntawm lub ntiaj teb uas tsis muaj nuj nqis tsis tu ncua tshwm sim thiab ploj mus," hu ua "cov hnub qub tshwm sim," thiab "tshwj xeeb ntawm Eternity." "Lub Eternity ntawm Pilgrim" yog zoo li ib lub qhov muag ntawm lub qhov muag ntawm tus kheej-existence (Phau ntawv Dzyan). "Qhov tshwm sim thiab ploj mus ntawm Ntiaj Teb yog zoo li lub tidal ebb ntawm flux thiab reflux."

(c) Lub hauv paus tseem ceeb ntawm txhua tus Ntsuj Plig nrog Universal Over-Soul, tom kawg yog nws tus kheej ib yam ntawm Unknown Root; thiab qhov yuav tsum tau mus ncig ua si rau txhua tus Ntsuj Plig-ib lub txim ntawm lub qub-los ntawm Cycle of Incarnation (los yog "tseem ceeb") raws li txoj cai Cyclic thiab Karmic, nyob rau hauv tag nrho lub sij hawm…. Cov lus qhuab qhia tseem ceeb ntawm Esoteric lub tswv yim lees paub tsis muaj cai lossis khoom plig tshwj xeeb hauv tus txiv neej, cawm cov neeg yeej los ntawm nws tus kheej Ego los ntawm kev siv zog ntawm tus kheej thiab kev ua tau zoo thoob plaws lub sijhawm ntev ntawm kev xav thiab kev rov ua dua tshiab.

Yeej, Cov Lus Qhuab Qhia qhia tias muaj kev sib koom ua thawj ntawm txhua tus. Nyob rau tib lub sijhawm, tag nrho lub ntiaj teb tau yug los lossis los rau hauv kev tshwm sim, muaj sia nyob thiab, tom qab qee lub sijhawm, tuag thiab rov qab los rau nws qhov chaw. Cov txheej txheem no zoo li tsis muaj qhov kawg. Raws li ib feem ntawm kev yug me nyuam ntawm lub ntiaj teb nrog nws xya lub dav hlau txawv los yog lokas (ob leeg micro- thiab macrocosmically), tus ntsuj plig metaphorically maj mam nqis los rau hauv qhov teeb meem (involution) los ntawm nws cov ntsiab lus siab, thiab tom qab ib tug ntev txheej txheem ntawm evolution nyob rau hauv lub qis dav hlau attains siab dua thiab siab dua cov ntaub ntawv ntawm kev paub nyob rau hauv teeb meem thiab thaum kawg rov qab mus rau nws qhov chaw.

Cov txheej txheem evolutionary li no tshwm sim nyob rau ntau theem, nrog rau theem ntawm lub hnub ci tshuab, ntiaj chaw, thiab lub ntuj lub nceeg vaj uas nyob rau hauv ib lub ntiaj teb.

Ua ntej rov qab mus rau qhov chaw thiab ua tiav, tib neeg monad yuav tsum dhau los ntawm kev hloov pauv ntev li cov ntxhia, nroj tsuag, tsiaj txhu, tib neeg (hauv paus ntsiab lus suav nrog xya qhov sib txawv evolutionary "kab haiv neeg" thiab evolution ntawm xya lub teb chaws sib txawv hauv ntiaj teb, suav nrog yav dhau los "ntiaj teb. ” xws li cov lus dab neeg Atlantis), thiab tom qab ntawd hauv daim ntawv superhuman. Tag nrho cov no yog qhia los ntawm universal thiab impersonal txoj cai ntawm karma (Chajes 2019: 65-86).

Rituals / kev xyaum 

Blavatsky yog ib tug devoted anti-ritualist thiab tsis nyiam feem ntau cov txheej txheem ntawm kev ntseeg, yog li tsis muaj kev cai rituals los yog ceremonies tau xyaum nyob rau hauv thaum ntxov Theosophical Society. Uas tau hais tias, Blavatsky thiab cov theosophists thaum ntxov nyob ib puag ncig nws tau xav txog ntau yam kev coj ua, xws li kev mus ncig astral thiab kev siv lub cev. Tom qab ntawd hauv lub neej, Blavatsky tau hais txog ntau yam kev coj ncaj ncees nrog rau kev ua kwv tij, kev tsis qias neeg, thiab kev noj zaub mov raws li txoj hauv kev ntawm lub neej. Cov kev cai no, uas kuj suav nrog kev xav txog kev xav thiab kev siv xim, txawm li cas los xij feem ntau yog rau cov tswv cuab ntawm Esoteric Section.

coj noj coj ua

Tej zaum los ntawm kev tsim, Blavatsky yeej tsis yog tus thawj tswj hwm ntawm Theosophical Society, ib txoj haujlwm Henry Steel Olcott tuav txog thaum nws tuag hauv 1907, tab sis nws yog tus tuav ntaub ntawv sib raug zoo. Hauv kev xyaum, txawm li cas los xij, nws yuav raug suav hais tias yog nws thawj thawj coj yam tsawg kawg peb lub laj thawj. Ua ntej, Blavatsky yog qhov tseem ceeb ntawm kev sib txuas ntawm Theosophical Society thiab Mahatmas zais cia, cov thawj coj ntawm sab ntsuj plig uas yog qhov xav tau tiag tiag ntawm Theosophical Society thiab nws cov lus qhia. Cov Masters yog cov tub ceev xwm tseeb thiab, los ntawm kev txuas ntxiv, yog li Blavatsky. Qhov thib ob, nws kuj zoo nkaus li yog ib tug poj niam uas muaj siab mos siab muag thiab muaj lub siab nyiam uas tib neeg hwm. Qhov thib peb, Blavatsky yog tus thawj xav thiab tus tsim ntawm cov lus qhia ntawm lub Koom Txoos Theosophical thaum ntxov. Kev sib xyaw ua ke ntawm peb yam no tau ua rau nws qhov chaw nyob mus ib txhis raws li txoj cai nyob rau niaj hnub sab ntsuj plig thiab esotericism.

Nyob rau hauv cov ntsiab lus tswv yim Blavatsky tau ua, txawm li cas los xij, dhau los ua tus thawj coj ntawm Esoteric Section ntawm Theosophical Society (1888-1891), [Duab ntawm txoj cai] uas yog ib lub koom haum ywj pheej rau cov kws tshaj lij Theosophists; nws kuj yog tus thawj coj ntawm cov neeg tseem ceeb "Inner Group" uas tshwm sim nyob rau tib lub sijhawm. Raws li Blavatsky qhov piv txwv rau cov qauv ntawm txhua tus tib neeg, "Inner Group" yog tus manas los yog kev txawj ntse siab dua ntawm Theosophical Society, Esoteric Section the qis manas, thiab Theosophical Society lub quaternary lossis tus kheej instinctive xwm (Spierenburg 1995:27). Qhov kev faib no muab ib qho kev qhia txog cov qauv ntawm Theosophical Society thaum lub sij hawm thiab tej zaum qhia qhov txawv ntawm Blavatsky lub zog tseem ceeb ntawm occultism thiab Olcott lub downplaying ntawm occultism, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog tom qab lub Coulomb Affair nyob rau hauv 1884, nyob rau hauv kev pom zoo ntawm kev cog qoob loo ntawm Buddhism thiab exoteric. lub koom haum nrog lub hauv paus loj hauv Is Nrias teb (Wessinger 1991).

TEEB MEEM / CHALLENGES

Thaum lub sijhawm nws lub neej, Blavatsky muaj ntau tus neeg qhuas thiab cov thwjtim, tab sis nws kuj tau ntsib ntau yam kev sib tw thiab kev thuam ntau. Qhov kev sib tw loj tshaj plaws uas nws tau ntsib, raws li rov hais dua nyob rau hauv feem ntau ntawm nws lub neej, yog daim ntawv tshaj tawm tsis zoo uas tau tshaj tawm los ntawm Lub Koom Haum rau Kev Tshawb Fawb Txog Kev Nyuaj Siab (SPR) hauv 1885.

SPR tau tsim tsa hauv London xyoo 1882 los ntawm Sir William Fletcher Barrett (1844–1925), tus kws kho mob Askiv, thiab Edmund Dawson Rogers (1823–1910), tus neeg sau xov xwm nrog keeb kwm yav dhau los ntawm kev ntseeg niaj hnub no. Muab qhov muaj koob meej ntawm Spiritualism, Barrett thiab Rogers xav tsim lub rooj sab laj rau kev kawm tsis ncaj ncees rau kev tshawb fawb ntawm cov xwm txheej zoo li no. Yog li, tsis ntev tom qab kev tsim ntawm SPR, nws cov thawj coj tau xav txog Blavatsky raws li lawv xav tshuaj xyuas cov lus xaiv ntawm lub hlwb uas nyob ib puag ncig nws. Xyoo 1884, lawv tau tsim ib pawg neeg los sau cov ntaub ntawv thiab pov thawj. Cov ntaub ntawv sau tseg feem ntau tsis tuaj yeem hais txog qhov tshwm sim tsis zoo thiab, vim tias muaj lub koob npe zoo ntawm ntau tus Theosophists xam phaj, SPR pawg neeg txiav txim siab tshaj tawm "Kev Qhia Ua Ntej thiab ib ntus" nyob rau lub Kaum Ob Hlis ntawm tib lub xyoo (Society for Psychical Research Committee 1884). Daim ntawv tshaj tawm ib ntus no, tshaj tawm ntiag tug, tau qhib siab ncaj thiab tsis muaj hnub kawg hauv nws cov lus xaus.

Txawm li cas los xij, tib lub sijhawm hauv Adyar, Is Nrias teb ntawm Theosophical Society lub hauv paus chaw haujlwm, hu ua Coulomb rooj plaub, lossis Coulomb Affair, tab tom yuav nthuav tawm. Thaum Blavatsky thiab Olcott nyob hauv Tebchaws Europe tau ntau lub hlis thaum Lub Peb Hlis thiab Lub Kaum Hli 1884, Emma thiab Alexis Coulomb, ib khub niam txiv, tau tawm tsam Blavatsky. Nrog kev pab los ntawm Rev. George Patterson, editor ntawm lub Madras Christian College Magazine, lawv tau luam tawm ob peb tsab ntawv, purportedly sau los ntawm Blavatsky. Lub npe "Lub Collapse ntawm Koot Hoomi," cov ntawv tau tshwm sim hauv lub Cuaj Hlis thiab Lub Kaum Hli 1884 cov ntawv xov xwm. Raws li Mme. Coulomb, nws tau pab Blavatsky hauv kev tsim cov occult phenomena ntawm ib tug loj scale (Vania 1951:238–41; Gomes 2005:7–8). SPR pom qhov xwm txheej tshiab no nthuav dav heev thiab xav tshuaj xyuas nws ua ntej txiav txim qhov tseeb ntawm cov ntawv tsis ntev los no. Lub SPR tau xaiv ib tug tub ntxhais hluas Cambridge kws tshawb fawb thiab cov tub ntxhais kawm ntawm lub hlwb tshwm sim, Richard Hodgson (1855-1905), mus rau Is Nrias teb thiab tshawb xyuas qhov xwm txheej ua ntej.

Hodgson qhov kev tshawb pom tau muab tso rau hauv ob puas nplooj ntawv uas yog tam sim no hu ua Hodgson Report, "Account of Personal Investigations in India, and Discusion of the Authorship of the 'Koot Hoomi' Letters" (Hodgson 1885:207–380) . Ib feem loj ntawm tsab ntawv ceeb toom yog tsom rau Blavatsky qhov kev liam tias kev dag ntxias ntawm Mahatma cov ntawv. Hauv luv luv, Hodgson Report xaus lus:

Rau peb tus kheej, peb suav hais tias nws [Helena P. Blavatsky] tsis yog lub qhov ncauj ntawm cov neeg pom zais, thiab tsis yog ib qho kev lom zem xwb; peb xav tias nws tau ua tiav lub npe rau kev nco qab mus tas li raws li ib qho ntawm cov ua tiav tshaj plaws, txawj ntse, thiab ntxim nyiam impostors hauv keeb kwm. — Cov Lus Qhia thiab Cov Ntsiab Lus ntawm Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas (Hodgson 1885: 207).

Kev ntsuam xyuas ntawm Hodgson Report tau ua los ntawm Vernon Harrison (1912–2001) nyob rau xyoo pua nees nkaum. Harrison yog tus thawj tswj hwm ntawm Royal Photographic Society (1974–1976), co-founder ntawm Lub Liszt Society, ib tug neeg ua haujlwm ntev ntawm SPR, thiab tus kws sau ntawv thiab cov kws tshaj lij. Tau ntau xyoo, Harrison tau ntiag tug nyob nrog Hodgson Daim Ntawv Qhia thiab "Blavatsky rooj plaub" tsis yog vim nws xav tias nws nthuav, tab sis kuj vim nws pom tias nws muaj teeb meem heev. Nyob rau hauv 1986, nws thawj qhov tseem ceeb cov lus xaus ntawm Hodgson Report tau luam tawm nyob rau hauv lub Phau ntawv Journal of the Society for Psychical Research nyob rau hauv lub npe: "J'Accuse: Kev Tshawb Fawb ntawm Hodgson Daim Ntawv Qhia ntawm 1885." Harrison sim txiav txim siab seb Blavatsky tau tsim cov ntawv Mahatma thaum ntxov tau txais los ntawm Alfred Percy Sinnett thiab Allan Octavian Hume hauv Is Nrias teb hauv kev sau ntawv tsis tseeb.

Xyoo 1997, Harrison txuas ntxiv nws txoj kev tshawb fawb nrog kev tshaj tawm ntawm "J'Accuse d'autant plus: Ib Txoj Kev Kawm Ntxiv ntawm Hodgson Report." Nyob rau hauv Harrison txoj kev tshawb fawb txuas ntxiv nws tau txheeb xyuas txhua qhov ntawm 1,323 slides suav nrog cov ntawv ua tiav ntawm cov ntawv pom hauv British Library. Nws xaus lus tias Hodgson Report yog unscientific. Harrison sau tau tias:

Kuv yuav tsum qhia tias, ntawm qhov tsis sib xws, Hodgson Report yog cov ntaub ntawv muaj feem cuam tshuam rau txhua qhov kev thov rau kev tsis ncaj ncees rau kev tshawb fawb. [. . .] Kuv tsis tau sim hauv daim ntawv no los ua pov thawj tias Madame Blavatsky tsis muaj txim txhaum rau nws nyiam. [. . .] Kuv lub hom phiaj tam sim no yog qhov txwv tsis pub tshaj: kom pom tias rooj plaub tawm tsam Madame Blavatsky hauv Hodgson Report tsis muaj pov thawj—hauv Scots lub siab (Harrision 1997:Part 1).

YUAV TSUM PAUB TIAS yog li ntawd nws yog kuv txoj kev xav tau los ntawm kev tshawb fawb txog qhov xwm txheej no txuas ntxiv mus rau ntau tshaj kaum tsib xyoos, uas yav tom ntej cov keeb kwm thiab cov kws sau keeb kwm ntawm Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, cov sau phau ntawv siv, encyclopaedias thiab dictionaries, raws li zoo li cov pej xeem sawv daws, yuav tsum los paub tias Phau Ntawv Qhia ntawm Pawg Neeg Saib Xyuas Kev Tshawb Fawb Txog Phenomena Txuas Nrog Theosophical Society, luam tawm xyoo 1885 los ntawm Lub Koom Haum rau Kev Tshawb Fawb Txog Kev Nyuaj Siab, yuav tsum tau nyeem nrog ceev faj, yog tias tsis saib xyuas. Nyob deb ntawm kev ua qauv ntawm kev tshawb nrhiav tsis ncaj ncees feem ntau tau thov rau nws ntau tshaj li ib puas xyoo, nws yog qhov tsis zoo thiab tsis muaj kev ntseeg siab (Harrision 1997: Ntawv pov thawj).

Cov kev tshawb fawb ua los ntawm SPR tau ua rau muaj kev cuam tshuam rau Blavatsky thiab Theosophical Society, thiab cov kev txiav txim siab tseem ceeb tau ua lub luag haujlwm rau ntau qhov kev tshaj tawm tsis zoo uas tau tshaj tawm txij thaum ntawd los. Txawm hais tias daim duab ntau dua tau raug pov rau qhov teeb meem nyob rau xyoo tas los no, tshwj xeeb nrog kev ua haujlwm ntawm Harrison, qhov no tsuas yog tam sim no pib tshaj tawm mus rau hauv kev paub ntau ntxiv.

Lwm qhov kev tsis sib haum xeeb cuam tshuam txog Blavatsky thiab nws cov ntawv sau yog cov lus iab liam ntawm plagiarism uas twb tau pib thaum nws lub neej. "Lub Hauv Paus ntawm Madam Blavatsky sau" (1895) los ntawm William Emmette Coleman (1843-1909) tau ua haujlwm tshwj xeeb hauv qhov no (Coleman 1895). Raws li Coleman qhov luv kaum rau-nplooj analytical tract, ze li ntawm tag nrho cov Blavatsky tej hauj lwm yog ib tug loj plagiarizing assemblage. Coleman tau sib cav tias nws cov ntawv sau muaj ntau txhiab nqe uas tau luam tawm ncaj qha los ntawm lwm phau ntawv yam tsis muaj kev lees paub thiab tias txhua lub tswv yim uas nws siv thiab tsim tau raug coj los ntawm lwm tus thiab ntau yam uas nws coj nws hloov pauv (Coleman 1895: 353–66; Rudbøg 2012: 29). —32). Coleman coj qhov tseem ceeb rau Blavatsky cov peev txheej, uas tseem yog qhov teeb meem tseem ceeb, tab sis tsis ntev los no, cov neeg keeb kwm kab lis kev cai Julie Chajes tau hais txog Coleman qhov kev thuam. Chajes sau hais tias, "Nyob rau hauv tag nrho, Coleman yog ib tug plagiarism yos hav zoov" los yog ib tug neeg nyob rau hauv lub sij hawm uas ua ib tug kev ua si nawv ntawm nrhiav qiv thiab allusions nyob rau hauv lwm yam hauj lwm (Chajes 2019: 27) thiab hais tias mus txog rau thaum xaus ntawm lub kaum cuaj caug xyoo muaj ib tug. trend nyob rau hauv teb chaws Aas Kiv, uas pom tau hais tias nws yuav tsum tau qiv thiab xyaum ua tej hauj lwm ntawm lwm tus neeg (Chajes 2019: 27). Chajes yog li no hais tias, "Thaum lub sijhawm nws [Coleman] tau sau nws cov ntawv ntawm Blavatsky, tsis yog txhua tus tau qhia nws txoj kev xav ntawm kev coj ua zoo. Zoo li yog los ua pov thawj qhov no, thiab hauv kev ua yeeb yam zoo nkauj, Coleman tau raug liam tias nws tus kheej raug liam ntawm kev ua phem rau nws lub neej" (Chajes 2019: 28).

Raws li Coleman, lub thiaj li hu Stanzas ntawm Dzyan, uas Cov Lus Qhuab Qhia yog raws, Nws kuj yog ib yam khoom ntawm Blavatsky tus kheej lub hlwb es tsis yog cov ntawv qub uas muaj nyob rau hauv qee lub ces kaum ntawm lub ntiaj teb (Coleman 1895: 359). Thaum cov ntawv tsis tau nyob, David thiab Nancy Reigle ntawm Eastern Tradition Research Archive txuas ntxiv mus nrhiav cov ntawv sau thiab cov ntawv Sanskrit thiab Tibetan (Reigle [2019]).

Cov lus nug ntawm cov peev txheej sab hnub tuaj kuj tau ua rau muaj kev thuam ntawm Blavatsky uas yog ib tug bricoleur uas tau tsim los yog tsis tsim nyog cov ntsiab lus ntawm ntau yam kev cai dab qhuas sib txawv nyob rau hauv ib txoj kev distorting (Clarke 2002: 89-90). Txawm hais tias qhov kev thuam hauv qee qhov xwm txheej muaj tseeb, daim duab ntawm Blavatsky qhov kev tsim nyog ntawm cov tswv yim sab hnub tuaj yog qhov nyuaj dua thaum nyeem txog kev cuam tshuam rau lub xyoo pua kaum cuaj (Rudbøg thiab Sand 2019).

Lwm qhov teeb meem tsis sib haum xeeb uas tshwm sim nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua nees nkaum muaj kev txhawj xeeb txog Blavatsky lub tswv yim ntawm xya lub hauv paus haiv neeg tshwj xeeb yog haiv neeg thib tsib hauv qhov kev xav ntawd, uas Blavatsky tau xaiv "Aryan-haiv neeg" (lub ntsiab lus tau muab los ntawm Sanskrit, Max Müller txoj kev tshawb fawb thiab lwm tus. thaum lub sijhawm), thiab kev sib txuas ntawm cov lus qhuab qhia haiv neeg no yuav muaj nrog kev ntxub ntxaug thiab Nazism. Cov ntaub ntawv nrov tau txuam nrog ob (Blavatsky thiab Nazism). Thaum cov lus qhuab qhia ntawm xya lub hauv paus haiv neeg yog ib nqe lus ntawm kev ntxub ntxaug lwm haiv neeg, los yog kev ntseeg hais tias tib neeg muaj ntau haiv neeg, kev ntseeg kev tshawb fawb kws tshawb fawb James A. Santucci tau sib cav tias Blavatsky txoj kev xav tau feem ntau cuam tshuam txog kev piav qhia txog kev hloov pauv ntawm kev nco qab hauv cosmos thiab hom. ntawm sab ntsuj plig kev paub lub sab ntsuj plig monad yuav evolve los ntawm (Santucci 2008: 38). Hauv qhov kev sib txuas no, lub tswv yim ntawm haiv neeg yog theem nrab lossis siv los ua ib lo lus yooj yim los piav txog qhov kev hloov pauv no tsis yog los txhawb kev sib cav txog kev ntxub ntxaug. Qhov kev soj ntsuam no txuas nrog txoj kev xav ntawm tib neeg ib leeg, uas yog ib qho tseem ceeb rau Blavatsky (Santucci 2008: 38), thiab Theosophical ua hauj lwm los txhawb kev sib koom ua ke ntawm tib neeg los ntawm "universal brotherhood," uas yog ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm Theosophy (Rudbøg 2012). :409–43; Ellwood and Wessinger 1993). Lubelsky kuj tseem muaj keeb kwm sib cav hais tias kev ntxub ntxaug lwm haiv neeg tuaj yeem pom yuav luag txhua qhov chaw hauv Tebchaws Europe ua ntej xyoo 1930s thiab hais tias "cov lus qhuab qhia haiv neeg ntawm Theosophists tau txais los ntawm kev sim tsim lwm yam keeb kwm rau lawv cov thwjtim. . . los ntawm kev xav txog kev tshawb fawb thiab kev coj noj coj ua ntawm lub sijhawm "(Lubelsky 2013: 353). Muaj pov thawj tias qee lub tswv yim tsim los ntawm Blavatsky, ua ke nrog lwm cov kev txawj ntse sib tham txog haiv neeg thiab lub tswv yim ntawm haiv neeg Aryan thaum lub sijhawm, lim rau hauv cov haujlwm ntawm Guido von List (1848-1919) thiab Jörg Lanz von Liebenfels ( 1874–1954). Nrog lawv qee cov tswv yim no tau hloov pauv los ntawm lawv cov ntsiab lus theosophical qub (Goodrick-Clarke 1985: 33–55, 90–122), tab sis tsis muaj qhov txuas ncaj qha txuas cov tswv yim no hauv ib qho kev ntseeg hauv keeb kwm nrog Hitler lossis Nazism (Goodrick-Clarke 1985: 192–225; Lubelsky 2013: 354).

COJ RAU TXOJ KAWM RAU COV POJ NIAM NYOB HAUV KEV SIB HLUB

Txawm hais tias muaj kev tsis sib haum xeeb no, Helena P. Blavatsky tseem yog ib qho ntawm cov neeg muaj kev ntseeg siab tshaj plaws ntawm lub xyoo pua puas xyoo; yog li ntawd nws thiaj li feem ntau hu ua niam los yog niam tais yawm txiv ntawm New Age, niaj hnub occultism, thiab niaj hnub sab ntsuj plig (Chajes 2019: 1; Cranston 1993: 521–34; Lachman 2012). Nws tau pab qhia cov neeg Esxias kev cai dab qhuas thiab kev xav tswv yim rau sab hnub poob thiab txuas ntxiv cuam tshuam rau txoj kev cov tswv yim no tau nkag siab thiab nthuav tawm. Blavatsky thiab, los ntawm kev txuas ntxiv, Theosophical zog, txhawb thiab nrov Buddhism thiab Hinduism nyob rau ntau lub tebchaws Western, nrog rau hauv Is Nrias teb thiab Sri Lanka. Lawv tau ua ntau cov lus qhuab qhia (xws li karma thiab kev rov ua dua tshiab) nkag mus rau cov neeg tuaj saib dav. Blavatsky kuj tau pab txhawb qhov kev txaus siab niaj hnub no hauv paranormal, occultism, subjectivity, sab ntsuj plig lub cev, mus ncig astral, thiab lub tswv yim ntawm "tib neeg muaj peev xwm." Peb pom lub hauv paus ntawm kev ntseeg nyob rau hauv lub neej ntawm universal qhov tseeb nyob rau hauv tag nrho cov kab lig kev cai, eclecticism, universal brotherhood, sab ntsuj plig evolution, cia siab rau nws tus kheej kev paub thiab nws tus kheej txoj kev mus rau qhov tseeb, thiab txawm lub hauv paus pib ntawm lub New Age txav nyob rau hauv nws cov lus qhia (Wessinger , deChant, and Ashcraft 2006:761; Chajes 2019:189; Hanegraaff 1998:442–82; Goodrick-Clarke 2004:18). Thaum kawg, nws tau tshoov siab rau txoj kev xav kom hais txog kev ntseeg ntawm sab ntsuj plig ntawm lub koom haum kev ntseeg, uas tau dhau los ua qhov tshwm sim thoob plaws hauv lub xyoo pua nees nkaum.

DLAWS:
Duab #1: Helena P. Blavatsky hauv London, 1889.
Duab #2: Helena P. Blavatsky, ca. Xyoo 1860.
Duab #3: Helena P. Blavatsky, ca. Xyoo 1868.
Duab #4: Helena P. Blavatsky hauv Is Nrias teb nrog Subba Kab thiab Bawaji, ca. Xyoo 1884.
Duab #5: Helena P. Blavatsky nrog James Morgan Pryse thiab GRS Mead hauv London, 1890.
Duab #6: Helena P. Blavatsky, 1877.
Duab #7: Helena P. Blavatsky hauv London xyoo 1888, nrog nws tus muam Vera Petrovna de Zhelihovsky ntawm sab xis (s zaum), thiab qhia sawv ntsug rau sab laug, Vera Vladimirovna de Zhelihovsky, Charles Johnston, thiab Henry Steel Olcott.
Duab #8: Helena P. Blavatsky nrog Henry Steel Olcott hauv London, 1888.

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