Karen Pechilis

Karaikkal Ammaiyar

KARAIKKAL AMMAIYAR TIMELINE

ca. 500 CE: Karaikkal Ammaiyar nyob hauv dab tsi tam sim no lub npe hu ua xeev Tamilnadu nyob rau sab qab teb Is Nrias teb. Nws yog tus poj koob rau ntawm tus vajtswv Hindu ntawm Shiva, thiab tus kws sau plaub lub ntsiab lus ua haujlwm ntawm kev mob siab nyob rau hauv lus Tamil rau nws.

11-12 xyoo pua CE: Nws lub neej tau piav qhia hauv kev tso cai keeb kwm me ntsis hauv lus Tamil.

Xyoo pua 11th rau: Nws tau pom los ntawm cov duab hlau ua yeeb yam hlau thaum ub tsim los rau kev teev tiam hauv lub tuam tsev.

Tam sim no: Nws tau tshaj tawm pej xeem hauv ntau lub tuam tsev ua koob tsheej hauv Tamilnadu, sab qab teb Is Nrias teb, thiab lwm qhov chaw uas muaj cov neeg tseem ceeb ntawm Hindu Tamils ​​tau mob siab rau Shiva.

KEEB KWM / TXHEEJTXHEEM

Karaikkal Ammaiyar revered yog ib tug Tamil Shiva-bhakti neeg dawb huv los ntawm Tamil neeg nyob rau sab qab teb Is Nrias teb thiab lwm qhov chaw uas yog Shaivas (lawvteev hawm Shiva ua lawv tsev neeg deity thiab / los yog xaiv deity). [Saib duab ntawm sab xis los ntawm tus sau; Cov npe ntawm qhov nws paub (Karaikkal Ammaiyar) txhais tau hais tias Tamil lus "tus muam niam Karaikkal." Nws cov neeg txawj sau ntawv thiab nws tus txiv neej suav hais txog lub nroog tam sim no hu ua Karaikal hauv Tamil Nadu nyob rau sab qab teb Is Nrias teb raws li nws lub tsev nyob. Karaikal nyob ze li ntawm 300 mais sab qab teb ntawm ntug dej hiav txwv ntawm Is Nrias teb los ntawm Chennai, thiab muaj kev ua koob tsheej rau Karaikkal Ammaiyar muaj txhua lub rau hli ntuj-Lub Xya hli ntuj.

Hauv Tamil qab teb sab qab teb neeg Asmeskas, Karaikkal Ammaiyar (Kāraikkāl Ammaiyār) yog nco txog ib tug poj niam kws sau paj huam uas nyob ntau tshaj li ib txhiab xyoo dhau los nyob rau hauv tam sim no yog lub xeev Tamilnadu, India. Muaj, nws tau tsim 143 nqe uas hais txog nws kev qhuas thiab kev rau siab (bhakti) mus rau Hindu deity Shiva (Śiva): Xenox-verse zaj paj huam muaj npe Cov lag luam kev sib tw (Cov lag luam tawm tswv yim; Kev Cuam Tshuam Tseem Ceeb ntawm Cov Lus Qhia); zaj kwv huam li nees nkaum verse Tiru Irattai Manimalai (Tiru Iraṭṭai Maṇimālai; Sacred Garland ntawm Ob Chav Gems); thiab ob zaj nkauj qhuas Vajtswv rau cov nkauj nyob rau hauv kaum ib nqe lus cai Tiruvalankattut Tiruppatikam 1 thiab 2 (Tiruvālaṅkāṭṭut Tiruppatikam 1 thiab 2; Dawb Hymns rau [qhov chaw hu ua] Tiruvalankatu). Nws yog ib tus ntawm tsuas yog peb tug poj niam hu ua Saints nyob rau hauv cov cai Tamil Shiva-bhakti kev cai dab qhuas (Śiva-bhakti; kev sib koom siab sib koom siab rau tus vaj tswv Shiva), thiab tsuas yog poj niam ntawm cov neeg ntseeg tau sau cov kev ua hauj lwm sib koom tes. [Saib duab ntawm sab xis; cov qhab nia tshwm sim hauv qab no.]

Muaj cov lus nug tseem ceeb ntawm historicity txog Karaikkal Ammaiyar uas yuav tsum tau xav txog.

Yog Karaikkal Ammaiyar ib tus neeg tiag tiag? Kev lig kev cai suav tias nws tau yog ib tus neeg keeb kwm uas tau sau plaub lub ntsiab lus paj nruag. Los ntawm kaum ib thiab kaum ob xyoo pua CE, cov neeg sau keeb kwm piav qhia txog nws li poj niam tus neeg uas muaj kev sib txuas tshwj xeeb rau Shiva. Thaum no cov kws sau txog kev ua neej nyob ntau pua xyoo tom qab Karaikkal Ammaiyar's, nws tus kws sau ntawv tau txheeb ze rau lub sijhawm rau nws ntau dua li peb tam sim no. Txawm hais tias muaj qhov laj thawj tsis txaus ntseeg los cuam tshuam lossis ib qho sib txawv ntawm qhov kev nco tau ua ib txwm muaj, peb yuav coj li cas kev lig kev cai hais tias yog qhov kev xav ua haujlwm.

Thaum twg Karaikkal Amasiyar ua neej nyob? Cov kws tshawb fawb pom zoo tias Karaikkal Ammaiyar nyob ib ncig ntawm 550 CE (Nilakanta Sastri 1955: 35; KNet; 1982; 1956; 19, 1982; Zvelebil 1956: 8; Cutler 13: 1973; Dehejia 186: 1987). Tag nrho ntawm cov kws tshawb fawb taw tes rau ob daim pov thawj: 118) Cov cim xeeb nyob rau hauv nws yog li keeb kwm thawj zaug ntawm rau caum-peb npe hu ua Tamil Shiva- bhakti cov neeg ntseeg; thiab 2) Cuntarar (Sundarar), ib qho ntawm peb lub npe neeg nto moo tshaj plaws nyob rau hauv Tamil Shiva-bhakti pab pawg neeg sib tam ua 700 CE, tau sau paj huam cov npe ntawm tag nrho peb caum peb tug neeg ntseeg uas nws siv rau ib tug neeg dawb huv raws li "pey"(psy; ghoul) yog to taub los ntawm kev lig kev cai kom xa mus rau Karaikkal Ammaiyar; Yog li, nws nyob ua ntej 700 CE

Txawm li cas los xij, tsis muaj cov kws tshawb fawb no muab ib qho kev xav paub ntxiv txog qhov kev sib tham ntawm Karaikkal Ammaiyar rau 550 CE; thaum hnub no qhib rau kev hloov kho, nws yog plaus tau ntau yam tseem ceeb (Pechilis 2012; 2013). Kev ntseeg pom Karaikkal Ammaiyar raws li tsim cov ntaub ntawv sau paj nruag tshiab, thiab nws siv nws yog tsawg dua qhov kev coj ua thiab paub meej txog cov syntax thiab qauv dua tom qab cov kws sau paj huam uas siv cov ntaub ntawv, xws li Cuntarar, uas pom zoo tias nws tau pib cov ntawv tshiab ntawm paj huam thiab tom qab cov paj huam zoo tag nrho cov ntaub ntawv. Tsis tas li ntawd, nws tseem txhawj xeeb txog cov ntsiab lus nyob hauv lwm cov phau ntawv txhais lus Tamil ntawm nws lub sijhawm, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cov Cankam (academy) kev sau paj nruag (ca. 200 BCE rau 500 CE) thiab cov lus paj huam (lossis "epics") Cilappatikaram (Cilappatikāram, ca. 300-400 CE) thiab Manimekalai (Maimēkheev, ca. thib rau xyoo pua). Xws li cov ntsiab lus muaj xws li lub heroic tagnrho, lub neej ntawm pey (ghouls), Shiva tus npau suav, thiab qhov tseem ceeb ntawm sab ntsuj plig ntawm qhov chaw faus neeg. Tsis tas li ntawd, Karaikkal Ammaiyar cov paj huam qhia pom cov lus paub txog kev piav qhia ntawm Shiva los ntawm cov dab neeg Greek cov lus dab neeg hais txog dab neeg, paub tias yog ib hom ntawv nyeem raws li purana (purTswva), uas tau redacted thaum lub sij hawm Gupta dynasty era (ca. 320-550 CE). Ntsig, qhov zoo ntawm bhakti (kev sib haum xeeb) paj huam uas Karaikkal Ammiyar ua yog qhov txawv ntawm lub suab, qauv, kev xaiv ntawm cov ntxhais thiab kev sawv cev ntawm bhakti piv rau cov ncauj lus ntawm peb lub npe nto moo tshaj plaws txiv neej (Appar, Campantar thiab Cuntarar, ca. 700 CE); nws yog qhov tsis ntseeg, muab lawv lub hwjtxwv thiab kev cai lijchoj bhakti, tias Karaikkal Ammaiyar yuav ua raws li, es tsis dhau, lawv.

Karaikkal Ammaiyar nyob rau lub sijhawm thaum Alexis Sanderson (2009) tau hu ua "Age of Age" nyob rau hauv Is Nrias teb, thaum lub sij hawm tus Shivism (kev teev ntuj ntawm vajtswv lub Shiva) feem ntau nyob thoob plaws Is Nrias teb, txij li lub thib tsib mus rau lub thib kaum peb centuries CE tsis yog thawj tus poj niam los ua Compost Tamil paj huam, los yog thawj tus kws sau paj lug los piav txog Shiva hauv qee yam qhia; Piv txwv li, tsawg kawg yog 10 poetesses contributed rau lub classical Tamil poetic anthology, tus Purananuru (Puranānūru ; Lub Plaub Pua [Paj Huam] Hais Txog Sab Nrauv; sau hnub tim rau thawj peb txog rau pua pua CE), thiab ntau cov lus hauv cov ntawv sau tau piav qhia txog yam ntawm Shiva paub los ntawm Sanskrit cov lus dab neeg, suav nrog nws lub qhov muag thib peb, nws lub caj dab xiav xiav, thiab nws qhov kev puas tsuaj ntawm lub nroog tronic (egv 55; saib Hart thiab Heifetz 1999, xv: 41). Txawm li cas los xij, kev coj ua ib txwm muab qhab nia Karaikkal Ammaiyar nrog kev ua thawj tus kws sau paj lug Tamil kom muaj kev kub siab txog kev ntseeg rau Shiva. Qee tus kws tshawb fawb sib cav hais tias Karaikkal Ammaiyar lub hom phiaj yog los hloov kev pe hawm ntawm vajtswv poj niam Tamil poj niam Korravai nrog kev pe hawm tus vajtswv Shiva raws li tau piav qhia hauv Sanskrit mythology. raws li ib tug tsis muaj thematic sawv cev nyob rau hauv cov paj huam ntawm Karaikkal Ammaiyar (Pechilis 2000: 2011-2010). Txoj kev muaj txiaj ntsig zoo ntxiv yog saib nws cov haujlwm li kev sib tham ntawm kev sib tham nrog cov ntawv dhau los xws li paj huam Tamil Cankam thiab cov lus dab neeg Sanskrit, nrog rau cov neeg nyob hauv Tamil cov ntaub ntawv xws li “epics” Cilappatikaram thiab Manimekalai, thiab nrog contemporaneous sawv ntawm kev xyaum xws li Shaiva Tantra.

Ob tsab ntawv pov thawj los ntawm Tamil Shiva-bhakti kev lig kev cai tau sau txog nws nyob rau hauv 600 xyoo ntawm nws lub neej, ua koob tsheej Karaikkal Ammaiyar ua ib tug piv txwv ntawm kev rau siab thiab raws li ib tug neeg sau ntawm devotional paj huam. Lub sijhawm ntev tshaj los ntawm ntau tus neeg sau tsab ntawv no tau sau nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua kaum ob los ntawm ib tus kws lij choj pabcuam uas yog Cekkilar (Cēkkilār), uas muaj cov dabneeg ntawm txhua tus caum-peb npe hu ua Tamil Shiva-bhakti kev lig kev cai, suav nrog Karaikkal Ammaiyar. Nyob rau lub sijhawm no, Karaikkal Ammaiyar cov lus tau sau cia ua ke hauv Tamil Shiva-bhakti kev lig kev cai los ntawm koom nrog nyob rau hauv lub thib kaum ib volume ntawm canon ntawm kev nyiam sib raug zoo mus rau Shiva; qhov canon no yog hu ua "Collection Collection" (Tirumurai)). Cekkilar cov ntawv sau txog tus neeg ntseeg tau tsim lub kaum ob thiab zaum kawg ntim ntawm no canon.

Cekkilar's biography ntawm Karaikkal Ammaiyar tau muaj kev cuam tshuam ntau heev nyob rau hauv Shiva-bhakti lub zej zog xav txog nws. Piv txwv li, cov ntaub ntawv sau txog keeb kwm tau muaj kev cuam tshuam zoo rau kev ua koob tsheej thaij duab ntawm Karaikkal Ammaiyar ua los ntawm cov hlau tsim los ntawm thib kaum ib xyoo dhau los, xws li cov duab tam sim no ntawm Nelson-Atkins Tsev khaws puav pheej thiab kaum-xyoo-kaum-xyoo pua cov duab tam sim no ntawm Metropolitan Museum of Art. [Saib cov duab ntawm sab xis ntawm MET Tsev khaws puav pheej; cov qhab nia tshwm sim hauv qab no.] Cov duab ntawm keeb kwm ntawm cov neeg dawb huv no tuaj yeem pom nyob rau hauv cov tuam tsev loj ntawm Hindu ua rau lub nroog Shiva hauv Tamil qab teb Is Nrias teb niaj hnub no, nrog rau cov tuam tsev Hindu nyob hauv cov teb chaws uas Tamils ​​nyob, xws li Sri Lanka, South Africa, Fiji, thiab Western tiag. Cov duab zoo li niaj hnub no tseem ua rau ob qho tuam tsev thiab kev khaws tus kheej hauv tsev teev ntuj. Ib qho ntxiv, Cekkilar's biography ntawm Karaikkal Ammaiyar muab cov lus piav qhia rau cov kev ua koob tsheej txhua xyoo uas ua kev zoo siab rau nws txoj kev mob siab, suav nrog: 1) Lub koob tsheej ua kev zoo siab rau nws ua tiav ntawm kev dim sab ntsuj pligmukti) ntawm cov tuam tsev Vadaranyeswarar nyob hauv Tiruvalankatu (tseem spelled Tiruvalangadu, txog rau caum km sab hnub poob ntawm Chennai) txhua lub Ob Hlis - Lub Peb Hlis; 2) Lub koob tsheej ntawm rau caum-peb ntseeg (aruppattumūvar tiruvilā), nyob rau ntawm lub tuam tsev Kapaleeshvara (Kapālīśvara) hauv Mylapore, Chennai txhua lub ob hlis ntuj-Lub Peb Hlis; thiab 3) Cov Txiv Neej Ntsuas Tshoj (maṅgani tiruvi lā) ua kev zoo siab rau nws lub neej nyob ntawm lub tuam tsev lub nroog Karaikal (li nees nkaum km. sab qaum teb ntawm Nagapattinam) txhua lub Rau Hli-Xya Hli. Niaj hnub no, Cekkilar cov lus dab neeg txog cov neeg ntseeg tau paub thoob plaws hauv cov neeg hais lus Tamil, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cov uas pom tias yog Shaiva. Tseeb, zaj dab neeg ntawm Karaikkal Ammaiyar yog ntau ntau nrov npe dua nws tus kheej cov paj huam. Nws ob zaj nkauj qhuas Vajtswv tau raug paub los ntawm ib co neeg hu nkauj hauv tuam tsev (Tshawb nrhiav) ntawm Shiva-bhakti zaj nkauj qhuas Vajtswv, tab sis lawv tsis yog ib feem ntawm kev ua haujlwm zoo.

BIOGRAPHY 

Cekkilar kaum ob-xyoo pua phau ntawv me me ntawm cov ntseeg, hu ua tus Periya Puranam (Periya PurTswvam; Zaj Dab Neeg Keeb Kwm Loj), tau muaj kev cuam tshuam loj heev, thiab nws tau txiav txim siab tshaj plaws hauv kev taw qhia pej xeem Tamil txoj kev xav ntawm rau caum-peb lub npe hu ua tus ntseeg 'tus kheej niaj hnub no, raws li cov xov tooj ntawm cov phau ntawv, ntawv sau thiab cov vev xaib ua qauv qhia. Cov xwm txheej ntawm Karaikkal Ammaiyar, cov lus dab neeg txog feem ntau tau paub txog nws tus kheej cov paj huam. (Yog xav paub ntxaws ntxiv ntawm txhais lus Askiv ntawm Karaikkal Ammaiyar zaj dab neeg tshaj tawm, saib Pechilis 2012: 199-205. Periya Puranam saib McGlashan 2006.) Tab sis tseem muaj qhov laj thawj txaus siab tsis ntseeg ib qho ntawm Cekkilar lub cim xeeb, vim tias cov ntsiab lus uas nws tau muab rau hauv nws phau ntawv sau txog keeb kwm, xws li Karaikkal Ammaiyar tus kheej los ua tus poj niam, tsis yog cov uas pom nyob hauv nws tus kheej cov paj huam thiab zaj nkauj qhuas Vajtswv. Ntawd yog, Karaikkal Ammaiyar tus kheej sawv cev hauv nws cov paj huam hauv qee txoj kev cuam tshuam txawv ntawm Cekkilar tus sawv cev ntawm nws hauv nws phau ntawv sau txog tus kheej.

Nws yog li tsim nyog yuav tsum pib nrog Karaikkal Ammaiyar tus kheej cov paj huam thiaj li yuav nrhiav tau cov hauv kev uas nws sawv cev rau nws tus kheej hauv nws cov nkauj. Thawj qhov yuav tsum nco ntsoov yog tias muaj qhov ntse bifurcation hauv nws cov nkauj. Nws ob zaj paj lug, uas yog 101-nqe lus Arputat Tiruvantati (Lub cim tseem ceeb ntawm kev xav txog cov lus qhia; txij no mus "Tshaj Lij") thiab nees nkaum nqe TiruIrattai Manimalai (Sacred Garland of Double Gems; txij no mus "Garland"), zoo ib yam li lub suab, lub ntsiab lus thiab kev xav hauv lawv cov kev xav rau ntawm Shiva. Nws ob zaj nkauj ntawm Tiruvalankatu (Tiruvalankattut Tiruppatikam 1 thiab 2; Txawm li ntawd los, "Lub Xya hli ntuj-1" thiab "Decade-2") yog qhov tseem ceeb vim yog lawv qhov kev sib tham ntawm Shiva ua tus Tswv Kev Ua Dance uas ua rau thaj av ua kev puas tsuaj (Pechilis 2012: 40-42). Qhov sib txawv no yuav raug tshawb hauv cov seem hauv qab ntawm Kev Ntseeg thiab Cov Kev Xyaum hauv qhov Profile.

Hauv "Wonder" thiab "Garland," Karaikkal Ammaiyar siv ntau nqe lus los piav qhia kev qhuas ntawm Shiva uas yog heroic. Shiva cov yeeb yam tseem ceeb, paub los ntawm Sanskrit mythology, yog sawv cev, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cov uas qhia Shiva ua tus tiv thaiv ntawm tib neeg (Pechilis 2012: 53), xws li nws hlawv cov dab ntawm lub nroog triple thiab nws nqos tau cov tshuaj lom, zoo li hauv qab no. ob qho piv txwv:

Lub ntsia ntawm nws qhov muag peb,
uas tuaj yeem tshwm raws li
ntev nplaim hluav taws,
lub hli muag cua txias
los yog hnyav rays ntawm lub hnub,
tam sim ntawd hlawv mus rau ashes
peb lub fortresses
ntawm nws lub hwj chim ntxim ntxub. ("Wonder" v. 84; Pechilis 2012: 30)

Nyob rau hauv lub sij hawm ntawm yore
tus tswv uas Dais lub cobra
haus cov tshuaj lom los ntawm dej hiav txwv
churned los ntawm lub celestials,
uas darkened nws caj dab
zoo li ib tug duab ntxoov ntxoo nyob saum lub hli silvery
uas nws crowns nws liab, snake-bearing matted locks. ("Wonder" v. 55; Pechilis 2012: 28)

Tawm hauv qhov sib txawv ntawm qhov uas tus kws sau paj lug piav txog lub cev ntawm Vajtswv, nws tsis qhia peb txog tej yam tshwj xeeb lossis cov ntsiab lus ntawm nws tus kheej lub cev: Nws tsis qhia nws tus poj niam txiv neej, nws tus caste, los yog nws cov neeg txom nyem lub neej, tiam sis nws hloov nws tus tib neeg, raws li nyob rau hauv thawj nqe lus ntawm "Zaj Dab Neeg," nws zaj paj huam ntev tshaj plaws:

Yug hauv lub cev no
ua rau kuv xav ua
kuv txoj kev hlub tshua
los ntawm kev hais lus,
thiab kuv tau txais koj txoj hlua khi dawb ceev.

Thiab tam sim no kuv nug,
huag, tus tswv ntawm vajtswv
nws lub caj dab shimmers dub,
thaum yuav muaj kev txom nyem
qhov kev yug hauv lub ntiaj teb no kuj ua kom tas mus ib txhis? ("Wonder" v. 1; Pechilis 2012: 26)

Yog tias tsis muab cov lus qhia txog nws tus kheej, tus kws sau paj huam tau tshawb nrhiav lub suab nrov hauv nws zaj paj huam uas nws piav qhia txog kev ncaj ncees rau txhua tus tib neeg thiab tsis txwv cov neeg uas nyiam nws tus cwj pwm. Nws lub suab yog li ntawd ntawm tib neeg raws li koom nyob rau hauv contemplation ntawm divine. Ib qho teeb meem nyuab siab yog tias peb ntawm nws cov hauj lwm, "Wonder" thiab ob zaj nkauj ntawm Tiruvalankatu, xaus nrog nqe kos npe uas tus sau hais txog nws tus kheej li Karaikkālpey (pēy), uas txhais mus rau "lub ghoul ntawm qhov chaw uas hu ua Karaikkal." Nyob hauv tag nrho nws cov hauj lwm, tus kws sau paj lug piav txog ghouls (pey tuaj yeem yog cov lus lossis ntau qhov sib txawv) raws li txaus ntshai, capricious quavntsej uas tuaj koom ntawm Shiva cov seev cev ntawm cov kab nrib pleev hauv av. Cov teeb meem hauv kev nkag siab txog tus kws sau paj huam kev coj los siv pey raws li tus cim qhia tias yog leejtwg tau tham txog nyob rau hauv tshooj ntawm qhov profile no. Tab sis kev sib raug zoo ntawm Karaikkal Ammaiyar piav qhia txog "Wonder" thiab "Garland" yog qhov tseeb ntawm cov tib neeg uas xav paub txog Shiva.

Raws li nws phau ntawv sau txog neeg lub neej, Cekkilar suav nrog kev qhia tus kheej cov ntaub ntawv hais txog Karaikkal Ammaiyar tias tus kws sau paj huam nws tus kheej tawm tsis tau. Raws li nws hais, nws yug los rau hauv tsev neeg muaj nyiaj tub luam coj los ntawm nws txiv Tanatattan nyob hauv lub nroog Karaikkal (Tamils ​​hnub no nkag siab "tus tub lag luam" los qhia txog Chettiar caste), thiab nws lub npe hu ua Punitavati (Punitavati; "Pure One"). Tus hlub thiab zoo nkauj, nws tau nthuav qhia kev mob siab rau Shiva los ntawm nws cov hluas; thaum nws muaj hnub nyoog nws tsev neeg tau npaj nws txoj kev sib yuav rau Paramatattan, tus tub ntawm ib qho kev ua lag luam zoo hu ua Nitipati. Muaj ib hnub, Punitavati tau muab ib qho Shaiva ua ib qho ntawm ob lub txiv nkhaus taw uas nws tus txiv tau cawm, vim tias tus kws kho mob tau tshaib plab thiab nws tseem tsis tau ua su noj. Tom qab, thaum nws tus txiv Paramatattan tau thov txawm tias lub thib ob txiv nkhaus taw raws li nws cov khoom noj qab zib noj su, nws thov kom Shiva muab lwm. Tus txiv tau saj qhov txawv ntawm thawj txiv thiab thawj txiv nkhaus taw, thiab tau thov kom paub lub tom kawg keeb kwm. Thaum nws piav qhia, Paramatattan tsis ntseeg nws thiab xav tau lwm lub txiv nkhaus taw ntxiv; Shiva muab nws rau nws tus txiv txoj kev xav tsis thoob, tab sis nws ploj mus raws li Punitavati sim cev nws rau nws tus txiv. Nkag siab tias nws tus poj niam yog ib tug vajtswv poj ua yawg koob, Paramatattan tau tso nws txoj sia nyob hauv qab coj mus ncig ua lag luam. Tom qab qee lub sijhawm, nws cov neeg txheeb ze nrhiav nws qhov chaw nyob thiab coj Punitavati rau nws. Kom lawv xav tsis thoob, Paramatattan, nws tus poj niam tshiab, thiab lawv tus ntxhais (uas nws tau tis npe hu ua Punitavati) ua rau lawv tus kheej tawm tsam ua ntej Punitavati, vim hais tias xyoo Paramatattan tau rov los xav txog nws tus poj niam qub los ua tus vajtswv zoo. Nws tus poj niam yav dhau los Punitavati tau thov rau Shiva kom tso nws ntawm nws lub cev zoo nkauj uas nws tau tswj tseg rau nws tus txiv xwb, thiab muab nws lub cev pey, uas cov ntawv nyeem piav txog “lub cev pob txha” (nqe 50, 57; Pechilis 2012: 203–04); Raws li qhov kev pauv hloov no nws tau hu zaj nkauj “Tsis Zoo,” taug “Garland.” Hauv lub ntsej muag no, nws tau mus ncig Shiva lub chaw nyob ntawm Mount Kailash hauv Himalayas, qhov chaw nws taug kev pem roob ntawm nws txhais tes. Shiva thiab nws tus poj niam Parvati ua tim khawv pom qhov txawv ntawd, thiab tus Tswv tau hu "Niam!" (ammai) mus rau pey, thiab nws teb los ntawm hais nws li "Txiv" (appā). Thaum tus Tswv ua siab dawb siab zoo nug nws tias nws xav tau dabtsi, nws teb hais tias: "Cov neeg uas xav kom koj nrog kev ua yeeb yam zoo siab tsis muaj zog; yog tias kuv tau yug dua tshiab, kuv yuav nco ntsoov nej; kuv tuaj zaum ntawm koj txhais ko taw, zoo siab hlo hu nkauj thaum koj, qhov tsim txiaj, nws "ua las voos" (vv 59-60; Pechilis 2012, 204). Shiva hais kom nws mus rau hauv lub zos ntawm Alankatu (Tiruvalankatu) thiab tau cog lus tias nws yuav pom nws tus seev cev ntawd. Thaum nws tau pom qhov kev zoo nkauj ntawm nws cov seev cev hauv Alankatu, nws tau sau nws ob zaj nkauj ("Decade-1" thiab "Decade-2").

Cekkilar biography ci ntsa iab ua ntau yam. Nws muab cov xwm txheej hauv zej zog rau cov neeg dawb huv, hais txog cov ntsiab lus ntawm tus kheej (tsev neeg, chav kawm, kev sib yuav) uas ua rau tus kws sau paj huam tuaj yeem nyeem tau yooj yim. Nws muab qhov kev xav tau los hu nws Karaikkal Ammaiyar, nkag siab raws li kev xa mus rau nws lub hom phiaj thiab mus rau Shiva qhov chaw nyob rau nws ntawm Mount Kailash. Nws muab rau peb pom ib zaug ntawm qhov txiav txim siab kev xav ua zoo rau cov poj niam, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog los ntawm nws qhov tseem ceeb rau kev ua neeg ncaj ncees, thaum tib lub sijhawm nws lees tias tus poj niam tuaj yeem dhau los ua kev cai dab qhuas ntawm kev mob siab rau Shiva (Pechilis 2014; 2012: 82-105) )). Nws muab cov keeb kwm kev tshwm sim thiab cov xwm txheej hauv qhov chaw los nrhiav nws cov nkauj. Nws muab kev txhais lus ntawm nws embodiment li a pey: Nws yog qhov nws xav tau, qhia rau Shiva teb rau nws tus txiv qhov kev ua, kom tawm hauv nws lub cev thaum tseem hluas thiab dhau los ua "lub cev ntawm pob txha." Thaum phau ntawv sau txog yam muaj tswv yim nthuav tawm cov duab thiab cov ntsiab lus los ntawm Karaikkal Ammaiyar tus kheej cov paj huam, nws tseem txawv heev ntawm nws cov paj huam. Feem ntau glaringly, lub biography sawv cev rau tus kws sau paj lug los ua neeg sib txawv ntawm lwm tus neeg: nws tus txiv tau tso nws tseg, nws hloov mus rau a pey yog ib qho txuj ci tseem ceeb tshwm sim, neeg muaj kev ntshai los ntawm nws lub cev zoo li ib tug pey, nws taug kev los ntawm nws tus kheej mus rau Mount Kailash, thiab nws ib leeg pom ntawm Shiva cov seev cev ntawm Tiruvalankatu. Cekkilar txhawb nqa kev tsis tseem ceeb ntawm Karaikkal Ammaiyar; nyob rau hauv sib piv, nyob rau hauv nws tus kheej paj huam nws lees tias nws ib txwm muaj tib neeg thiab es tsis txhob txhawb nqa lub singularity ntawm Shiva.

DOCTRINES / TXHEEJ TXHEEM

Karaikkal Ammaiyar cov paj huam piav txog qhov kev sib ntsib hawm tus kheej uas muaj kev koom siab nrog Shiva. Hers yog kev tshawb nrhiav kev sim ua rau muaj kev cuam tshuam qhov kev sib txuas ntawm mystical sib raug zoo ntawm Vajtswv thiab tib neeg (Pechilis 2013, 2016c), thiab raws li xws li, hauv nws cov lus sib txuas nws xav txog ob qhov xwm ntawm tus los saum ntuj thiab qhov xwm ntawm tib neeg tus kheej, feem ntau tsa. cov lus nug ntau dua li muab cov lus teb. Ib txoj hauv kev los txhais nws lub corpus yog yuav tsum sau XNUMX lub ntsiab lus hauv nws cov lus sib dhos.

1) Ua ib tug tub qhe. Nyob rau ntau qhov ntawm nws tus "Wonder" thiab "Garland" nqe, tus kws sau paj lug qhia txog nws tus kheej li "tub qhe" (Tswv) mus rau Shiva, los yog hais txog "cov tub qhe" hauv plural, los sis hais lus ntawm kev ua hauj lwm rau Shiva. Yog hais tias Karaikkal Ammaiyar yog tiag thawj Shiva-bhakti poet, raws li kev cai lij choj claims thiab scholarship rau hnub yug, ces nws yog tus thawj tsim kom muaj dab tsi los ua tus kos npe rau tus kheej, tus qhev, nyob rau hauv Tamil devotional paj huam.

Kuv vam kom tsuas yog ib yam;
Kuv tswm rau nws thiab tawm mus so

Kuv khaws cia rau hauv kuv lub siab tias tsuas yog tus tswv
uas nws qoob loo coj Ganga
uas nws cov xauv mog
yog adorned nrog lub hnub thiab lub hli
nws xibtes tuav cov nplaim taws-

thiab kuv tau ua nws tus tub qhe. ("Wonder" v. 11; Pechilis 2012, 26)

2) Tus Tswv Heroic. Lub hierarchy sau nyob rau hauv lub siab ntsws ntawm lub luag hauj lwm ntawm "tub qhe" yog pom nyob rau hauv lub heev pom pom nqe uas qhia txog Shiva raws li ib tug heroic tus tswv, xws li cov kwv huam tau muab ntxov ua nyob rau hauv qhov profile. Cov nqe lus no, pom nyob rau hauv nws "Wonder" thiab "Garland" kwv huam, kos rau ntawm kev ua haujlwm ntawm Shiva uas paub los ntawm Sanskrit mythology. Karaikkal Ammaiyar tshwj xeeb tshaj yog nyiam tus duab ntawm Shiva ua Swallower Poison nrog rau Shiva ua Tus Yeej Ganga. Raws li tus qub, Shiva tau nqos cov tshuaj lom uas tshwm sim tshwm sim li cov tswv ntuj thiab cov ntsujplig phem ua rau dej hiav txwv ntawm cov mis nyuj nyob rau hauv kev ua neej kom tsim tau lub tswv yim ntawm kev tsis txawj tuag; nws lub caj dab ris lub cev xiav-dub ntawm qhov kev tshwm sim no. Raws li tus Bearer of Ganga, Shiva tau tso cai rau Goges Ganga (Ganges) River los rau hauv ntiaj teb los muab nqi zog rau nws tus devotee, tab sis nws lub hwj chim yog tias nws yuav rhuav tshem lub ntiaj teb yog tias nws poob rau hauv nws unobstructed; Shiva txwv tus dej kom dhau los ntawm nws cov log uas muaj txav sib xyaw, thiab ib kwj deg tau los ua Ganga Dej hauv lub ntiaj teb. Memorializing qhov kev tshwm sim, Shiva hnav lub cim me me ntawm tus vajtswv nkauj Ganga hauv nws cov xauv khov. Ob qho tib si ntawm cov dluab Shiva ua tus tiv thaiv deity uas nws lub cev cim nrog lub cim ntawm cov kev ua heroic. Karaikkal Ammaiyar kuj nquag qhuas Shiva ua tus Destroyer ntawm Triple Cities, referring rau thaum nws lethally thuam cov ntsujplig phem lub nroog nrog ib tus taws flaming xub. Nws zaj nkauj ntawm Tiruvalankatu ("Decade-1" thiab "Decade-2") tshwj xeeb qhuas qhuas Shiva ua tus Dancer, uas tau sib tham nyob rau hauv lub ntsiab lus ntawm The Other Side hauv qab no.

3) Cov Lus Nug. Karaikkal Ammaiyar nug ntau cov lus nug ntawm Shiva, zoo li ua rau lub hierarchy ntawm tus tswv thiab raug hais tias tus tub qhe tus kheej thiab kev qhuas ntawm tus heroic tus tswv yuav qhia. Hauv “Tsis Zoo” thiab “Garland,” nws nug txog tus vaj tswv ntau hom thiab txhais tau li cas. Nws kuj nug tias vim li cas nws tseem raug kev txom nyem hauv lub neej thiab vim li cas Shiva tsis tau ua kom nws zoo nrog nws txoj kev tshav ntuj. Cov nqe lus nug no, pom nyob thoob plaws nws ob lub kwv huam, piav qhia txog lub peev xwm ntawm nws lub neej kev sib raug zoo - nws txoj kev sib raug zoo nrog Shiva tsis tau nyob nrog tab sis tsuas yog ib qho muaj kua thiab hloov ib qho, nrog tus devotee qee zaum muaj kev paub tseeb thiab qee zaum muaj kev ntxhov siab thiab xav tsis thoob. Qhov no oscillation yog los ua ib tug hallmark ntawm bhakti paj huam.

4) Lwm Sab. Nyob rau hauv pawg no muaj nqe nyob rau hauv "Wonder" thiab "Garland" uas hais txog Shiva li ntshai rau qee leej, feem ntau piav raws li "lwm tus." Tus kws sau paj huam qee zaus nug Shiva kom tshem tau cov cua daj cua dub, xws li hloov qhov cobra tias nws ris nws lub hauv siab nrog ib txoj hlua kub, yog li ntawd nws muaj kev sib txawv ua piv txwv zoo dua rau cov neeg saib xyuas. Lwm nqe hauv nqe no qhia txog cov neeg uas ua siab phem rau kev teev hawm Shiva; kab tias cov no yog tib tug neeg uas yuav tsum tau ntshai los ntawm nws lub cim xeeb. Tiam sis tus kws sau paj huam kuj tseem hais tias ib qho ntawm Shiva mas yog ib tus neeg ua yeeb yam hauv cov av ua thaum ib tag hmo; cov duab no, thaum hais hauv "Wonder" thiab "Garland," yog tib qho duab ntawm tus Tswv nyob rau hauv nws zaj nkauj qhuas Vajtswv rau Tiruvalankatu.

Nyob rau hauv no miserable burning hauv av
hluas nkauj ghouls (pey) scavenge lub desolate theatre,
disappointedly nrhiav tsis muaj dab tsi noj
thiab khom nqi pw tsaug zog;

thaum lub sijhawm thaum twilight,
flawlessly nyob rau lub sij hawm rau cov atherosclerosis
ntawm cov ceeb tsheej saum ntuj ceeb tsheej
effortlessly bearing hluav taws nyob rau hauv nws xibtes
qhov zoo nkauj ib qho seev cev. ("Decade-2" v. 7; Pechilis 2012: 34)

Nyob rau hauv nws zoo siab rau Shiva ua tus Dancer nyob rau hauv tag nrho, tab sis ib qho ntawm nees nkaum ob nqe ntawm nws zaj nkauj ntawm Tiruvalankatu, Karaikkal Ammaiyar distinctively contributed rau cov duab thaum ntxov ntawm Shiva uaCov ua las voos raws li nws tus kheej raug tsim nyog ntawm kev mob siab, kev xav thiab kev hais lus, thiab yog li ntawd rau nws cov ncig ncig raws li pom ib daim duab ntawm nws lub hwj chim. Tshwj xeeb, nws cov paj huam tau coj lub luag haujlwm los nthuav lub ntsiab lus ntawm Shiva cov seev cev los ntawm cov dab neeg ntawm zaj dab neeg ntawm kev yeej los ntawm kev seev cev rau hauv lub ntiaj teb cosmic seev cev. Ntxiv mus, dhau los ntawm nws qhov kev mob siab rau ntawm kev kawm txog kev sib raug zoo, tus kws sau paj huam tau tsim kev sib txuas ntawm tus Tswv Huab Tais Zoo Nkauj thiab ntawm no-thiab-tam sim no ntawm tib neeg lub neej (Pechilis 2013, 2016b). Tus bronze Nataraja (Naarāja) cov duab ntawm Shiva ua tus Dancer tau tsim nyob hauv Tamil qab teb sab hnub poob nyob rau hauv lub xyoo pua kaum (Kaimal 1999), thiab hnub no nws yog ib qho ntawm cov koob nto moo tshaj plaws thiab kev pom zoo ntawm cov qauv kos duab ntawm Is Nrias teb. [Saib duab ntawm txoj cai los ntawm MET Museum; cov qhab nia tshwm sim hauv qab no.]

5) Kev ruaj ntseg. Muaj ntau ntawm Karaikkal Ammaiyar cov nqe lus qhia tias nws xav tias nws tus kheej thiab tag nrho lwm tus tub qhe ntawm Shiva tau txais nws txoj kev tshav ntuj ua txoj kev cawm seej los ntawm lawv cov kev nyuaj siab, suav nrog kev tu siab ntawm kev rov yug dua tshiab (lub voj voog ntawm sasāra) raws lawv qhov lawv ua (txoj cai ntawm karma). Xws li cov nqe lus no yog interspersed thoob plaws hauv "Wonder" thiab "Garland," tsim lub siab ntawm oscillation ntawm kev ruaj siab thiab kev txhawj xeeb yam ntxwv ntawm bhakti paj huam. Txawm li cas los xij, nqe vaj lug kub kawg, hu ua nqe lus kos npe, pom nyob rau ntawm qhov xaus ntawm "Wonder" thiab nws ob zaj nkauj nyob rau hauv Tiruvalankatu, muab qhov xaus ntawm kev ntseeg siab tias Shiva tau ua rau sab ntsuj plig txoj kev cawm seej.

Rituals / kev xyaum

Karaikkal Ammaiyar qhov sib ntsib hawm thawj yog los ua kom Shiva ib txwm nyob hauv siab. Nws cov paj huam tsis tau piav qhia txog kev ua yeeb yam ntawm kev ua yeeb yam rau Shiva, tab sis hloov txoj kev xav kom tib neeg tsom mus rau kev xav txog nws daim ntawv, xwm, qhov tseem ceeb thiab lub zog. Nws cov lus sib txuas muab cov mloog lossis nyeem nrog cov lus rau kev xav zoo li no, thiab nws kos npe kos npe, pom nyob rau tom kawg ntawm zaj dab neeg "Wonder" thiab nws ob zaj nkauj ntawm Tiruvalankatu, yaum cov neeg mloog lossis nyeem nyeem nws tus kheej cov nqe lus thiaj li mus cuag Shiva thiab kev paub bliss thiab txoj kev cawm seej.

Nws ob zaj nkauj qhuas Vajtswv ntawm Tiruvalankatu, txawm li cas los xij, muab qhov sib txawv kom pom qhov tau hnov ​​txog Shiva: Lawv nyeem raws li muaj neeg pom ntawm Shiva cov seev cev hauv qhov chaw faus neeg. Qhov xwm txheej no piav txog kev txwv tsis pub noj, nrog tus tswv seev cev thaum ib tag hmo hauv lub ntsej muag ntawm lub ntees tuag uas lom zem kawg ntawm qhov chaw ua yeeb yam tsis muaj neeg nyob ntawm cov ntoo qhuav thiab tsob ntoo uas tsis muaj neeg xav tau. Cov noog prey thiab scavenger tsiaj laij ntawm yuav, screeching thiab howling lawv xub ntiag. Pey (ghouls), uas paub los ntawm Sanskrit mythology los ua tus neeg tsav nkoj ntawm misshapen quavntsej uas ua haujlwm ua tus neeg saib xyuas ntawm Shiva, tshwm sim ntawm no thiab muaj, noj nrog lawv tus kheej cov kev ua si txaus ntshai.

Whirling,
lawv lub qhov muag thiab qhov ncauj zoo nkauj,
tus ghouls ua tus tunankai seev cev hauv lub voj voos;
lawv cov seev cev yog ntshai-inducing,
nyob rau hauv uas lawv noj cov nqaij ntawm hlawv corpses.

Seev cev hauv qhov kev ua si hauv av
nrog ceg nyom thiab npuaj ankoob
Revolving lub cev erect
emitting taws uas ua rau scatter faus
peb txiv nyob ntawm Tiru Alankatu. ("Decade-1" v. 7; Pechilis 2012, 191)

Thiab tseem tus observer, "Karaikkal pey"Raws li nws tus kheej-qhia nyob rau hauv txhua ntawm ob nqe kos npe rau zaj nkauj Tiruvalankatu, tseem nyob hauv qhov chaw eerie. Yog nws nws tus kheej ib pey? Cov neeg ntseeg hais tias taw tes rau thawj nqe ntawm "Decade-1," uas yog ib tug neeg thib peb piav qhia ntawm ib tug poj niam pey , laim nws daim ntawv raws li hollowed thiab bony. Cov nqe lus no muaj peev xwm ua rau nws tus kws sau keeb kwm Cekkilar, uas piav txog Karaikkal Ammaiyar tau hloov kho lub cev mus rau hauv "hnab pob txha," thiab cov tuam txhab tsim cov duab hlau ntawm nws nrog cov yam ntxwv zoo li no yuav coj mus ua kev cai dab qhuas kev ua yeeb yam. Thaum no cov lus txhais tseem ceeb yog plausible, muaj ib qho teeb meem nrog nws ua tsis tau zoo li Karaikkal Ammaiyar zaj nkauj hais txog qhov pey raws li kev coj cwj pwm txawv uas tsis muaj lus zoo, uas yog lub ntsiab lus ntawm kev sib raug zoo ntawm Karaikkal Ammaiyar piav txog "Wonder" thiab "Garland." Qhov no yuav qhia tias nws koom nrog pey ntawm qhov chaw faus neeg los ua pov thawj Shiva cov seev cev, tab sis nws tsis dhau los ua pey nws tus kheej. Nws yog qhov tsim nyog tias hauv kev taug mus rau thiab tshuav ntawm kev sib raug zoo ntawm lub chaw so tsis muaj chaw nyob rau hmo ntuj Karaikkal Ammaiyar tau xaiv qhov tsim nyog thiab hloov rau nws tus kheej txoj kev mob siab rau yav dhau los-tam sim no Tantric kev coj ua, uas koom nrog mus rau hauv qhov chaw faus neeg los ua neeg zoo li Shiva (Pechilis 2016a) Cov. Hauv Karaikkal Ammaiyar cov nkauj, nws tau ntsib Shiva nws tus kheej nyob ntawd, es tsis txhob ua zoo li Shiva. Nws zaj nkauj hais tias kev teev hawm tus kheej ua rau muaj kev hloov pauv ntawm txoj kev nco qab uas ua rau tus devotee txaus siab rau txhua yam ntawm Vajtswv, suav nrog nws lub hwj chim txaus ntawm lub neej thiab kev tuag. Coj los ua ib qho tseem ceeb, Karaikkal Ammaiyar cov ntawv sau tau lees tias cov kev paub txog visceral ntawm tus neeg ntawm lub neej txoj sia yuam kom ua lub neej kom zoo li sai tau hauv kev qhia tawm thiab kev pabcuam rau Shiva.

TEEB MEEM / CHALLENGES

Ib qho kev sib tw tseem ceeb hauv kev kawm Karaikkal Ammaiyar yog kom pom nws qhov kev xam pom los ntawm nws tus kheej cov paj huam, sib cais thiab tsis sib nrug ntawm nws tus kws sau keeb kwm Cekkilar piav qhia txog nws lub neej. Qhov kev tshawb fawb no, txog niaj hnub ua haujlwm dhau los, qhia tias tus kws sau paj huam muaj qhov tsis sib xws ntawm tib neeg hauv nws txoj kev tsim ua lub neej tus kheej. Ib qho kev sib tw thib ob yog xav paub ntxiv kom to taub thaum ntxov puag ncig ntawm keeb kwm txheej xwm ntawm Karaikkal Ammaiyar, suav nrog keeb kwm kev nom tswv (Ali 2004) raws li keeb kwm kev cai dab qhuas thiab keeb kwm. Ib qho kev sib tw thib peb yog kom nkag siab txog kev paub zoo thiab keeb kwm kev nthuav dav Karaikkal Ammaiyar tus yam ntxwv thiab lub neej ntawm cov keeb kwm yav dhau los hauv Tamil Shiva-bhakti Cov. Ib qho kev sib tw thib plaub yog kev koom ua ke Karaikkal Ammaiyar lub suab rau hauv ntiaj teb kev paub ntawm ob tus poj niam keeb kwm thiab poj niam keeb kwm (Pechilis 2014).

DLAWS

Duab # 1: Shiva li Nataraja nyob rau sab hnub poob ntawm phab ntsa sab qab teb ntawm lub tuam tsev ntawm Gangaikondacholapuram, Is Nrias teb xyoo pua kaum ib. Karaikkal Ammaiyar yog rau tus saib sab laug ntawm lub hauv qab nta hauv qab Nataraja, zaum nrog peb ntawm Shiva's bhutaganas. Nws yog xwm li ua si ua yeeb yam rau Shiva cov seev cev. Duab coj los ntawm thiab © tus sau.
Image 2: Nthuav duab ntawm 1. Diam duab noj thiab © tus sau.
Image # 3: Karaikkal Ammaiyar. Is Nrias teb Chola Dynasty bronze ca. kaum peb caug xyoo lig, approx. cuaj nti qhov siab. MET Museum sau, www.metmuseum.org.
Image # 4: Shiva Nataraja. Is Nrias teb Chola Dynasty bronze ca. xyoo pua 11, approx. nees nkaum xya inches qhov siab. MET Museum sau, www.metmuseum.org.

ua tim khawv

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Hnubtim:
13 Plaub Hlis Ntuj 2016

Qhia