Cult ntawm cov tuag (Naples)

Elizabeth Harper

Qhia

CULT NTAWM DEJ TIMELINE

1274:  Purgatory was formally accepted as Catholic doctrine and defined by the Church as “the place of purification through which souls pass on their way to paradise” at the second Council of Lyons.

1438-1443:  The Council of Florence added that “the suffrages of the faithful still living were efficacious in bringing [souls in purgatory] relief from such punishment…”

1563:  An additional decree concerning purgatory was passed at the Council of Trent, delineating Church-sanctioned ideas about purgatory from “those things that tend to a certain kind of curiosity or superstition, or that savor of filthy lucre”.

1476:  Pope Sixtus IV confirmed that indulgences might be earned by the living for souls in purgatory, thus shortening individual souls’ time there.

1616:  A group of Neapolitan noblemen founded the Congrega di Purgatorio ad Arco, a group dedicated to burying the poor and praying for their souls in purgatory.

1620s:  St. Robert Bellarmine taught that souls in purgatory could help the living because they are closer to God than people on Earth; however souls in purgatory cannot hear specific prayer requests.

1638:  The church of Santa Maria delle Anime del Purgatorio ad Arco was completed and consecrated. Below the church was a hypogeum which is used by the Congrega di Purgatorio ad Arco for burying the city’s poor.

1656-1658:  The Black Death, or Bubonic plague (Yersinia pestis), devastated Naples, killing roughly half of the city’s inhabitants. Of the estimated 150,000 dead, many were hastily buried in pits or existing tufa caves without markers.

1780s:  Neapolitan priest, St. Alphonsus Maria de’ Liguori of Naples, built on St. Robert Bellarmine’s teaching on purgatory. Liguori taught that God makes the prayers of the living known to souls in purgatory, which made it possible for the dead to help the living with specific matters on Earth.

1837:  Victims of a cholera epidemic in Naples were buried in the mass graves around the city, including the Fontanelle cemetery.

1872:  Father Gaetano Barbati sorted and catalogued the bones in the Fontanelle Cemetery with volunteers from the city, who prayed for the dead while they completed the work.

1940-1944:  A number of the tufa caves used as burial grounds served as bomb shelters during World War II, giving new reason for the living to pray to the souls in purgatory, who were represented by the bones buried there.

1969:  Archbishop of Naples, Corrado Ursi decreed that “expressions of cult addressed to human remains” were“ arbitrary, superstitious, and therefore inadmissible.”

1969:  The Fontanelle cemetery was closed, and the Cult of the Dead was suppressed.

1980:  The Irpinia earthquake struck Naples, closing the church of Santa Maria delle Anime del Purgatorio ad Arco, effectively suppressing remaining activities of the Cult of the Dead.

1980s (Late):  I Care Fontanelle was formed to give tours and counteract “degradation” to the Fontanelle cemetery, both the structure of the cave itself and the lingering activities of the Cult of the Dead.

1992:  The church of Santa Maria delle Anime del Purgatorio ad Arco was reopened after restoration work was completed.

2000-2004:  More restoration work at Fontanelle Cemetery took place.

2006:  The Fontenelle Cemetery was reopened on a limited basis.

2010:  The Fontenelle Cemetery was reopened full time.

FOUNDER / GROUP KEEB KWM

Rau nws cov neeg sawv cev, Neapolitan Cult of the Dead yog ib feem ntawm txoj kev ntseeg Catholic. Qhov tseeb, cov neeg tuaj yeem feem ntau tsis paub lawv txoj kev ntseeg kev ntseeg li lwm yam uas tsis yog Catholic los yog siv lub npe "Cult of the Dead." Tiam sis mus rau lub Koom Txoos Catholic, qhov kev cai dab qhuas yog kev ntseeg thiab muaj nyob hauv kev ntseeg. Cov kev ntseeg tseem ceeb ntawm kev coj tau zoo tshaj yog to taub txog kev sib sau ntawm Catholic kev qhia txog purgatory thiab ua ntej pej xeem-kev ntseeg nyob rau hauv lub qub tub rog ntawm Naples (tam sim no Southern Ltalis). Nyob rau hauv lub regional pej xeem-kev ntseeg, lub neej sim los tsim kev sib raug zoo nrog tus ntsuj plig ntawm cov neeg tuag. Lawv pom cov kev sib raug zoo no yog ib txoj hauv kev los txais tau txuj ci tseem ceeb thiab ua kom zoo dua txhua txhua hnub.

Yuav kom nkag siab tias Lub Cult ntawm Neeg Tuag tuag tawm los ntawm kev sib raug zoo ntawm Catholic nrog cov ntsuj plig ntawm cov neeg tuag, ib tug yuav tsum xub to taub lub tswvyim thiab keeb kwm ntawm purgatory.

Raws li Jaques Le Goff tau sau tseg cia hauv nws phau ntawv seminal, Yug Purgatory, nyob rau hauv lub kaum ob thiab kaum peb centuries, lub tswvyim ntawm lubafterlife became increasingly specific due to a number of cultural shifts. One particularly important shift was the evolution of the concept of justice; punishments for crimes began to be tailored to individual circumstances. This concept eventually extended into the afterlife and a person’s fate after death reflected the magnitude of his or her sins. This was accomplished through the conception of a third place, other than heaven and hell. It was a temporary place for punishment and atonement thought to be adjacent to hell. All souls marred by sin were believed to go there for a time that corresponded to the number and severity of an individual’s sins before being admitted into heaven. The place was called “purgatory” [Image at right is Fresco of souls in purgatory], and the concept was formally accepted as doctrine in 1274 at the second Council of Lyons.

Thaum txog thawj tsib caug xyoo, Catholic cov lus qhuab qhia pub rau cov neeg ua haujlwm kom tau txais kev txom nyem rau cov neeg txom nyem nyob hauv purgatory raws li lawv tau txais yav dhau los indulgences rau lawv tus kheej. (Qhov kev poob siab no yog kev zam txim rau lossis kev txo hwjchim ntawm kev txhaum, kev ua haujlwm ntawm sab ntsujplig thiab kev ua dejnum.) Qhov no ua rau lub hwjchim ntawm tus neeg txiv plig puav leej yog leej twg tso lub ntiajteb no mus rau thawj qhov chaw. Vim li no, lub tswvyim ntawm indulgences rau cov neeg tuag tau ceev nrooj los ntawm cov neeg cog lus rau cov neeg siab nyiam kom nthuav dav papal. Txawm li cas los, tus cwj pwm zoo siab hlo daim ntawv tshiab ntawm kev siab hlub rau cov neeg tuag rau ntau yam.

Thoob plaws hauv lub Nceeg Vaj ntawm Naples, cov neeg Nplog Lom Zem tau ua haujlwm nyob rau hauv txoj kev tsis ncaj ncees, los ntawm ib lub npe ntawm kev thov Vajtswv ntawm kev thov Vajtswv los ntawm kev sib pauv rau Vajtswv zoo. Qhov no pej xeem Catholicism tshwm sim orthodox rau cov txiv plig tab sis yog heterodox nyob rau hauvxyaum. Nws yog tib neeg kev xav, cov ntsiab lus ntawm kev teev hawm uas tau koom nrog kev ntseeg hauv kev ua neeg zoo nkauj thiab kev ua khawv koob, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cov qib qis. Lub cim tshwj xeeb ntawm Madonna, thiab cov kev ntseeg ntawm cov neeg ntseeg tau tshwm sim los ntawm kev sib haum xeeb nyob rau hauv txoj kev ncaj ncees (los ntawm kev thov Vajtswv nrog lub cim los sis kev cuam tshuam, tsis yog rau nws), tiam sis tej kev thov Vajtswv tau ua, hauv kev xyaum, hais tias rau lub cim los sis neeg dawb huv. Nyuam qhuav pom cov duab no thiab cov khoom yuav tsum tau siv lawv lub hwj chim supernatural los pab cov venerator. Thaum tau teb cov lus thov, tus neeg uas tau thov yuav coj tus token ntawm kev ris txiaj, hu ua ib tug ex voto, mus rau tom qhov chaw uas qhov kev thov tau ua [Duab ntawm txoj cai]. Nyob rau hauv orthodox Catholicism, ex votos raug muab pub dawb rau hauv thanksgiving; Txawm li cas los, nyob rau hauv Neapolitan pej xeem txoj kev ntseeg, cov khoom plig no tsim kom muaj kev sib raug zoo ntawm tus neeg thiab lub ntsiab lus dawb ceev (lub cim los yog txuas). Txij ntawm lub sijhawm no ntawm kev sib raug zoo, qhov kev sib raug zoo yuav tsum tau muaj kev sib raug zoo thiab yuav tsum tau ntxeev dua tshiab txhua lub sij hawm yuav tsum ua qhov khoom dawb ceev tsis ua los yog tus venerator tsis qhia kev tsim nyog.

When the Catholic Church eventually permitted prayers to be said on behalf of souls in purgatory, these reciprocal relationships, formerly limited to saints and the Virgin Mary, expanded to include the dead even though the Church remained adamant that souls in purgatory had no supernatural powers. This dissenting belief, that the souls of ordinary dead people had the power to help the living, formed the basis of the Cult of the Dead in the Kingdom of Naples. Prominent Catholic theologians and clergy such as St. Robert Bellarmine and St. Alphonsus Maria de’ Liguori attempted to expand the orthodox relationship with souls in purgatory to include addressing prayers directly to them. The hope was to include the heretical Neapolitans instead of ostracizing the faithful in a region that had historically been a stronghold for the papacy. However these measures failed to fully bring the Neapolitan concept of purgatory into orthodoxy since the logic of purgatory with its approved system of indulgences neatly meshed with the existing logic of folk Catholicism.

Qhov tshwm sim ntawm Cult of the Dead rau Catholicism nyob rau hauv Ltalis tau ua thiab ua kom zoo dua, tiam sis nws lub xub ntiag tau pom ntau lub sijhawm thaum muaj kev sib cav sib ceg: tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cov poj niam uas cuam tshuam los ntawm tus kab mob, kev puas tsuaj, los yog kev ua tsov ua rog uas tsis muaj peev xwm siv tau hluav taws xob Catholic lub Koom Txoos. Txawm hais tias Cult cov neeg tuag los nyob thoob plaws hauv lub Nceeg Vaj ntawm Naples uas muaj ntau ntawm Southern Italy hnub no, nws tau tuav ruaj khov nyob hauv lub nroog Naples vim tias nws cov keeb kwm muaj kev puas tsuaj loj heev. Qhov no yog qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws nyob rau ntawm qhov kev ntseeg no tseem muaj hnub no.

DOCTRINES / TXHEEJ TXHEEM

Thaum thov Vajtswv rau cov ntsuj plig nyob hauv lub Koom Txoos Catholic, muaj ob lub ntsiab sib txawv uas cais qhov kev ntseeg ntawm Cov Neeg Cawm ntawm Cov Tuag los ntawm cov neeg ntawm lub Koom Txoos. Thawj yog txoj kev sib raug zoo ntawm cov neeg tuag thiab cov neeg nyob. Catholic doctrine does not allow the souls in purgatory the power to bestow favors on the living, nor does it believe they ought to be venerated as one would venerate saints or the Virgin Mary. For orthodox Catholics, the relationship between the living and souls in purgatory is strictly one-sided and charitable: prayers said by the living are intended to shorten the dead’s time in purgatory without the expectation of reward. In contrast, members of the Cult of the Dead expect the souls in purgatory to hear their prayers and affect change quickly in their lives. This added benefit explains the unique preoccupation with purgatory in Naples, from the unusually high number of confraternities devoted to caring and praying for the dead, such as the Arciconfraternita dei Bianchi and the Congrega di Purgatorio ad Arco, to the Neapolitan practice of building shrines to souls in purgatory in niches on the street, [Image at right] often complete with terra cotta figurines of people standing in flames and photos of deceased family members.

Qhov thib ob qhov sib txawv yog nyob rau hauv lub txim uas Cult cov neeg tuag ua ntawm tus paub thiab tsis paub tuag. Nyob rau hauv lub Koom Txoos Catholic, tej lus thov hais rau cov ntsuj plig hauv purgatory yuav ua rau ib tug neeg los yog rau cov ntsuj plig nyob rau hauv purgatory feem ntau. Tog twg los kuj yog ib txoj kev pabcuam pub kom tau sijhawm luv hauv purgatory rau qhov kev npaj. Txawm li cas los cov Cult ntawm cov Tuag muab faib tib neeg los ua ob pawg: cov neeg tuag paub thiab tuag tsis paub. Cov pawg ob yog venerated txawv thiab ntseeg tau tias muaj ob yam sib txawv heev.

Tug ntsuj plig uas paub txog yog los ntawm kev thov Vajtswv los ntawm lub npe. Tej lus thov lawv hais rau lawv tias xav kom lawv lub sij hawm nyob rau hauv purgatory, tab sis thaum nws los txog kev sib raug zoo, cov ntsujplig no xav tias yuav tsis muaj hwjchim tsawg dua thiab tsis tshua yuav pab tau txuj ci tseem ceeb rau lawv cov neeg tau txais kev pab.

Cov tsis paub tus ntsuj plig tseem ceeb tshaj plaws rau Cult ntawm cov Tuag, thiab hauv qhov chaw noj mov no ua rau neeg khiav tawm ntawm kev qhia Catholic. Lubcult believes that souls whose names remain unknown, typically people who died in plagues, wars, or natural disasters, are doomed to an eternity in purgatory. These souls are represented by the anonymous bones in Naples’ numerous mass graves and burial caves which have been entombed without markers. [Image at right]. Within the Cult of the Dead, these souls are collectively venerated and are thought to be extremely powerful when it comes to bestowing miracles on the living. For this reason, the dead are often commemorated collectively, through the stacking and cataloguing of their bones (as in the case of the Fontanelle Cemetery), building churches above the places they were buried (as in the cases of Santa Maria del Pianto and Santa Croce e Purgatorio al Mercato which replaced the original plague column memorial), or in the preservation of anonymous bodies within the church (as are on display at the Chiesa del Santissimo Crocifisso detta la Sciabica).

Nyob rau hauv lub koom txoos, txoj kev sib raug zoo ntawm cov neeg tuag nyob thiab tsis muaj npe yuav tsum tseem nyob ua ke. Tab sis tsis muaj peev xwm tso tawm ib tug ntsuj plig los ntawm purgatory, cov neeg thov Vajtswv rau refrisco rau cov tsis paub tus ntsuj plig. Refrisco yog xav tau ib ntus nyem los ntawm cov hluav taws kub ntawm purgatory, zoo li ib tug txias dej haus rau ib hnub kub. Lub tswv yim no tau piav qhia txog daim duab ntawm Madonna of Graces, ib tus duab nrov ntawm Mary Virgin tsuas yog muab kua mis tso rau hauv purgatory. Txawm hais tias muaj qee tus qauv tseem muaj nyob, qhov no tau siv qhov duab los ntawm lub Koom Txoos rau lub sij hawm Tawm Tsoom-Reformation vim nws txoj kev xav thiab kev sib raug zoo nrog cov neeg nyiam, tab sis heretical views ntawm purgatory.

Rituals / kev xyaum

Raws li nyob rau hauv nws txoj kev ntseeg, nyob rau hauv nws cov kev ua, Lub Cult ntawm cov tuag tuag ib co sib tshooj nrog Catholicism. Cov kev sib koom tes no muaj xws li muaj cov ntsiab lus uas tau hais rau cov neeg tuag thiab nyiaj ua haujlwm rau cov ntsuj plig nyob hauv kev txhim kho ntawm kev thov Vajtswv thiab kev ua txhaum (txawm tias lub tswv yim ntawm kev ua haujlwm refrisco rau cov neeg tsis paub hais tias cov ntsuj plig yog ib feem ntawm cov pej xeem pom ntawm purgatory uas Cult ntawm cov neeg tuag, uas tsis yog kev cai dab qhuas Catholic kev qhuab qhia).

Txoj kev cai ritual nrog Cult of the Dead uas tsis muaj nyob rau hauv hauv lub Koom Txoos Catholic yog kev saws thiabveneration of anonymous human remains. This can take several forms. In the broadest sense, an entire town may adopt a mass grave site such as a prisoner’s cemetery, plague pit or potter’s field and erect a monument where people can come to pray to the souls and leave ex votos. In other instances, specific anonymous remains are adopted by a community and elevated to folk-saint status, as in the case of a mummy nicknamed “Uncle Vincent” [Image at right] in the town of Bonito.

However, this practice of adoption and veneration is most closely associated with the city of Naples and its burial caves and hypogea. This is where members of the Cult of the Dead come to adopt skulls called “pezzentelle,” which means “poor little ones” in Neapolitan dialect. Though considered heretical by the Church, this practice of petitioning a found skull can be understood as a logical outgrowth of the Catholic practice of veneration of saints’ relics.

Tseeb, qhov skulls nto moo ntau nyob rau hauv Naples xws li "Lucia nkauj xwb nkauj nyab" (uas yog nyob rau hauv lub hypogeum ntawm Santa Maria del"Tus Khixatia" (ob leeg ntawm lub Fontanelle Cemetery) raug kho zoo li kev ntseeg ntawm cov neeg ntseeg, vim tias lawv suav hais tias yog pej xeem cov khoom thiab tsis tuaj yeem raug txais yuav los ntawm ib tug neeg . Lawv tau txais tej lus thov thiab ua tsaug los ntawm ntau tus neeg thiab sau ex votos, rau cov lus thov teb, ib yam li cov neeg ntseeg ua nyob rau hauv cov thaj chaw uas lawv cov qub txeeg qub teg.

Thaum cov skulls nto moo nyiam cov xim devotees thiab tourists xwm yeem, lwm tus pob txha taub veneration yog ntau raug nyob hauv Cult cov neeg tuag nyob hauv Naples. Thaum lub sijhawm tsis muaj kev ntseeg nyob rau hauv qhov kev coj noj coj ua, cov neeg tsis muaj kev vam meej tau raug kev qaug zog, kev ntshai nws yuav ua rau kev pe mlom lossis fetishism, thiab yuav luag txhua zaus tshwm sim los ntawm cov neeg muaj nplua nuj ua kom muaj kev ywj pheej ntawm tsev neeg. Nyob rau hauv sib piv, tus kheej kev vication veneration hauv Cult of the Dead tseem tshwm sim nyob rau hauv pej xeem, feem ntau ntawm lub ossuary xws li lub Fontanelle tojntxas los yog ib qho ntawm cov hypogena me uas tseem tawg nyob ncig Naples, xws li ib tug ntawm Santa Maria delle Anime al Purgatorio ad Arco.

Cov txheej txheem pib nrog kev saws me nyuam. Qee zaum cov pob txha taub hau raug xaiv los ntawm cov neeg ncaj ncees uas tau thov Vajtswv rau nws, taws teeb tsom,los yog muab ib qho npib rau nws [Duab ntawm txoj cai]. Hauv lwm tus neeg, tus neeg tau txais los ntawm ib pob txha taub hau uas nws tuaj cuag tus neeg nyob hauv npau suav kom thov kev veneration. Kev sib txuas lus ntawm cov neeg ciaj thiab cov neeg tuag feem ntau tshwm sim los ntawm kev npau suav thiab tus ntsuj plig uas tsis muaj npe yuav tau qhia nws lub npe mus rau qhov no.

Nyob hauv kev ua tau zoo, tus pob txha taub hau thiab nws tus ntsuj plig sib luag hauv purgatory nkag rau hauv kev sib raug zoo nrog tus neeg venerator. Cov neeg ua neej muab kev thov Vajtswv thiab refrisco for the soul in purgatory, and the soul responds by seeing that the person’s prayers are answered. Adopted skulls are often said to cure infertility or other health problems, provide winning lottery numbers, or solve domestic problems. When the living receive answers to their prayers, they reward the skull with ex votos xws li rosaries, paj, los me me chaw feem ntau ua ntawm marble, iav, Plexiglas, lossis ntoo. [Duab ntawm txoj cai] Cov no txhais tau hais tias tsis tsuas yog pov hwm lub pob txha taub hau xwb, tab sis kuj xa cov lus mus rau lwm qhov kev nyiam-cov neeg nrhiav uas lub pob txha taub yognot available for adoption. Skulls that do not answer prayers can be stripped of their gifts and sometimes re-abandoned in favor of a skull with a more generous soul. (Though this vengeful behavior isn’t limited to the Cult of the Dead in Naples, the bust of the city’s most famous patron saint, San Gennaro, was thrown into the sea in 1799 for traitorously granting the wishes of an occupying French general.)

Neapolitan followers ntawm Cult of the Dead feem ntau xav tias tuaj nrog khoom plig rau lawv cov skulls hauv cov Mondays, tshwj xeeb tshaj yog nyob rau ntawm Fontanelle toj ntxas. Thaum lub sij hawm no tej zaum tau muaj tseeb thaum yav tas los thaum lub koom txoos ntau dua, cov tim khawv ntawm Cult of the Dead tau tshwm sim tshwm sim.

TUS NEEG UA HAUJ LWM / KOOM HAUM

While there are Church officials who have certainly advanced the orthodox concept of purgatory particularly in Naples, such as St. Alphonsus Maria de’ Liguori (who first theorized that God could make the specific prayer requests of the living known to the dead) and Fr. Gaetano Barbati, there is no leadership or organization specifically for the Cult of the Dead. The traditions are passed down and often turned to during times of particular strife and hardship.

Txawm tias cov mej zeej ntawm lub Koom Txoos Catholic tau koom nrog thiab tham txog Neapolitan Cult of the Dead, qhov kev ntseeg ntawm tus kheej tsis tau muaj lub qauv tsim, taub hau, los yog tus neeg sawv cev. Nws tsuas yog ib pawg ntawm kev sib haum xeeb uas feem ntau pom lub tuam tsev ntawm lub Koom Txoos los ntawm lawv tus kheej, tab sis lawv cov kev coj hais txog kev coj noj coj ua nyob rau qhov sib txawv.

TEEB MEEM / CHALLENGES

Niaj hnub no tus Cult ntawm cov tuag yog tsuas yog me ntsis kom nquag plias thiab tshwj xeeb tshaj yog nyob rau hauv Naples, muaj pov thawj ntawm nws yog feem ntau downplayed los yog blamed ontourists los ntawm cov neeg hauv zos uas muaj ntau qhov kev pom zoo. Thaum ob peb ntawm qhov chaw loj thiab cov teebmeem faus qhov teebmeem tau raug kaw rau cov pejxeem nkaus, chaw xws li cov catacombs ntawm San Gennaro thiab lub tsev teev ntuj ntawm Santa Maria delle Anime del Purgatorio ad Arco yog tam sim no feem ntau lub tsev cai tswj hwm los ntawm Council of Naples. Cov neeg tuaj ncig xyuas yuav tsum tau them tus nqi nkag nkag thiab raug txwv rau cov kev coj ua kom tsis txhob tuaj koom nrog rau hauv pawg ntseeg. Txawm hais tias qhov no tau muab tshem tawm cov pliaj thiab cov pob txha pob txha tawm ntawm cov catacombs thiab hypogea, tseem tuaj yeem nrhiav kev pom ntawm qhov chaw nyob hauv daim ntawv ntawm cov votos, cov tsiaj ntawv thiab tswm ciab uas nyob ze cov chaw no, los yog nyob rau hauv cov ntaub ntawv ntawm Santa Maria delle Anime del Purgatorio ad Arco, nyob ze ntawm lub qhov rais grated rau lub hypogeum ntawm txoj kev. [Duab ntawm txoj cai].

Lub hom phiaj tseem ceeb ntawm kev ua ub no nyob rau tom qab ntawm Fontanelle tojntxas uas tsis muaj tus nqi nkag thiab cov kev taw qhia ntawm cov kev qhia tsis yog tam sim no. Pawg neeg zej zog, Kuv Saib Fontanelle, tsim nyob rau hauv 1980s nyob rau hauv ib qho kev sim kom tshem tawm cov tub sab thiab txav ntawm pob txha, thiab tsis txhob thuam cov neeg los ntawm erecting tshiab shrinesand leaving devotional items that could damage the site. Over the years, the group has also addressed ongoing structural issues with the tufa cave (most recently a cave-in that closed the cemetery for several months in 2011 and water leaks that persist today). While I Care Fontanelle’s leadership has successfully addressed these pressing issues, the ongoing lack of funds has left the lighting and video surveillance systems in disrepair. Without these safeguards, the Cult of the Dead still operates. Its adherents leave rosaries, prayer cards, candles, lottery tickets, coins, and even plastic dolls and religious figurines for specific skulls; and new housings for skulls still occasionally show up.

DLAWS

Image # 1: Lub fresco ntawm souls nyob purgatory hauv lub Catacombe di Dan Gaudioso Naples, Ltalis. Kos duab los ntawm thiab siv nrog kev tso cai ntawm Elizabeth Harper.
Image # 2: Ib qho kev cog ntawm ib tsob ntoo thiab ib daim ntawv sab nraum lub Koom Txoos ntawm Santa Maria delle Anime del Purgatorio ad Arco. Naples, Ltalis. Kos duab los ntawm thiab siv nrog kev tso cai ntawm Elizabeth Harper.
Image # 3: Ib lub tsev zoo nkauj txoj kev ua rau cov neeg hauv purgatory. Naples, Ltalis. Kos duab los ntawm thiab siv nrog kev tso cai ntawm Elizabeth Harper.
Image #4: An alley dedicated to the “fig tree of purgatory.” Naples, Italy. Photograph taken by and used with the permission of Elizabeth Harper.
Image #5: The anonymous mummy, nicknamed “Uncle Vincent” or “Vincenzo Camuso.” He is said to be a “soul in purgatory” and was adopted by the town of Bonito, Italy. Photograph taken by and used with the permission of Elizabeth Harper.
Image # 6: Ib qho ntawm nto moo, un-sauv pob txha taub hau ntawm Fontanelle Cemetery, Donna Concetta. Naples, Ltalis. Kos duab los ntawm thiab siv nrog kev tso cai ntawm Elizabeth Harper.
Image # 7: Npib muab tso rau ntawm pob txha taub hau los pib qhov kev saws ua ke, nrog rau daim pib xaiv. Naples, Ltalis. Kos duab los ntawm thiab siv nrog kev tso cai ntawm Elizabeth Harper.
Image # 8: Ib lub tsev qiv ntawv me me rau ib lub taub hau me me nrog cov votos ntawm Fontanelle Cemetery. Naples, Ltalis. Kos duab los ntawm thiab siv nrog kev tso cai ntawm Elizabeth Harper.
Image # 9: Lub qhov rais grated rau lub hypogeum ntawm lub tsev teev ntuj ntawm cov raug Maria delle Anime del Purgatorio ad Arco. Naples, Ltalis. Kos duab los ntawm thiab siv nrog kev tso cai ntawm Elizabeth Harper.
Image # 10: Ib qho kev xaiv ntawm nyuam qhuav dhau votos ntawm qhov nkag ntawm lub Fontanelle Cemetery. Naples, Ltalis. Kos duab los ntawm thiab siv nrog kev tso cai ntawm Elizabeth Harper.

ua tim khawv

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Carroll, Michael P. 1996. Veiled hem: Lub Logic ntawm nrov Catholicism nyob rau hauv ltalis. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Xovxwm.

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