David G. Bromley Caitlin St. Clair

Bikram Yoga

BIKRAM YOGA TIMELINE

Xyoo 1944 lossis 1946 (Lub Ob Hlis 10): Bikram Choudhury yug hauv Kolcata (Calcutta), Is Nrias teb.

Xyoo 1951: Choudhury pib kawm Hatha Yoga nrog Bishnu Ghosh.

Xyoo 1959-1962: Choudhury yeej lub Tebchaws India Yoga Championship peb xyoos sib law.

Xyoo 1963: Choudhury raug mob lub hauv caug nyhav uas cov kws kho mob ntseeg tias yuav txwv tsis pub nws taug kev mus tas li.

Xyoo 1964: Rau lub hlis tom qab nws raug mob mob, Choudhury lub hauv caug twb zoo zoo.

1970 (Lub Ob Hlis): Choudhury qhib cov tsev kawm ntawv hauv Nyij Pooj thiab tsim nws nees nkaum-rau hauv no.

Lub sijhawm xyoo 1970: Choudhury tau tsiv mus nyob rau Tebchaws Asmeskas.

Xyoo 1974: Choudhury qhib kev kawm qib siab yoga hauv Is Nrias teb hauv Beverly Hills.

Xyoo 1977 (Lub Ib Hlis 1): Choudhury thawj phau ntawv, Bikram Pib yoga Chav Kawm, tau luam tawm.

Xyoo 1979 (Lub Ib Hlis 1): Choudhury xa txoj cai luam tawm rau cov ntawv sau tag nrho ntawm Bikram Pib yoga Chav Kawm .

Xyoo 1984: Bikram thiab Rajashree Chakrabarti tau sib yuav.

Xyoo 1994: Choudhury tau qhia cov kws qhia ntawv ceev nrawm.

1998: Cov neeg muaj koob npe Madonna tshwm sim nyob hauv Oprah TV program thiab txhawb kev xyaum yoga.

2002 (Lub Kaum Hlis 24): Choudhury tau sau ntawv tso cai ntxiv rau nws nees nkaum-yim tus tswv yim hauv kab ntawv.

Xyoo 2012 (Lub Rau Hli): Tsoomfwv Meskas Lub Chaw Haujlwm Copyright ua tus txiav txim tias ib theem zuj zus ntawm cov ua tsis muaj cai txwv tsis pub coj mus ua lwm yam.

2013-2015: XNUMX rau kev foob kev sib daj sib deev tau foob Choudhury.

2016: Bikram thiab Rajashree Choudhury sib nrauj tom qab peb caug-ob xyoos ntawm kev sib yuav.

 

 

FOUNDER / GROUP KEEB KWM

Yoga tau dhau los ua neeg nyiam hauv tebchaws Meskas. A 2017 Yoga Journal kev sojntsuam tau kwv yees tias muaj tsawg ntawm yogis thiab yoginis tau txog 20,000,000, nce 4,000,000 txij ib qho kev tshawb nrhiav xyoo 2012 ua ntej. (YJ Cov Neeg Hloov 2017). [Duab ntawm sab xis] Raws li lub hauv paus no, ntau tshaj yim caum feem pua ​​ntawm cov kws qhia yog cov poj niam; dhau rau caum feem pua ​​yog nruab nrab ntawm kaum yim thiab plaub caug plaub. Ib feem peb ntawm cov neeg xyaum ua haujlwm tau xyaum rau peb lub xyoo los yog luv dua. Kev sib txuas ntawm Yoga rau kev tawm dag zog tam sim no thiab lub cev qoj ib ce muaj nyob hauv qhov kev tshawb pom tias kev noj qab haus huv, kev nyab xeeb, kev tawm dag zog, thiab kev ntxhov siab yog txhua yam hais txog kev mob siab los ntawm ntau dua ib nrab ntawm cov kws kho mob tau soj ntsuam.

Kub Yoga, (uas feem ntau hais txog yoga xyaum hauv qhov chaw muaj cua sov), yog qhov tsim ntawm Bikram Choudhury. Nws pib sim ua dab tsi ua Kub Yoga thaum qhia hauv Nyij Pooj ncig xyoo 1970, maj mam nce cov cua sov hauv chav yoga yoga rau nws qib txog plaub caug degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit) thiab tsim nws tshwj xeeb kev sib xyaw ntawm nees nkaum-rau asanas hauv Hatha Yoga. kev lig kev cai. Muaj, ntawm chav kawm, ntau cov piv txwv ntawm kev siv cov chaw sov rau kev kho tus kheej thiab kev hloov pauv, los ntawm chav dej Turkish rau neeg Asmeskas cov chaw nyob hws. Choudhury kev tawm tswv yim yog los txuas yoga thiab qhov chaw muaj cua sov, nrog rau nws qhov sib xyaw ua ke ntawm nees nkaum-asanas hauv Hatha Yoga kab ke (Hall 2019).

Tsawg heev ua tau paub txog Bikram Choudhury, tus tsim ntawm Bikram Yoga. Nws yug los thaum Lub Ob Hlis 10, 1944 lossis 1946 hauv Kolkata (Calcutta), Is Nrias teb. Ntau ntawm cov ntaub ntawv muaj tsawg tsawg muaj tuaj ntawm Choudhury nws tus kheej. Raws li daim ntawv sau tseg txog tus kheej lub neej thiab hagiographic pib no, nws tau qhia ua ntej rau Hatha yoga tus cwj pwm thaum nws muaj hnub nyoog peb xyoos. Thaum muaj hnub nyoog tsib xyoos, nws pib kawm tiag nyob rau hauv Bishnu Ghosh, tus tij laug ntawm Paramahansa Yogananda. Yogananda tau tsiv tawm ntawm Is Nrias teb mus rau Asmeskas hauv 1920 thiab nrhiav lub koomhaum Self-Realization Fellowship hauv 1925. Nws ceeb toom tias nws tau qhia kev coj ua thiab Kriya Yoga rau cov neeg sab hnub poob loj thiab tau sau phau ntawv muaj feem, Autobiography ntawm Ibi Yogi (1998). Choudhury kev cob qhia suav nrog plaub mus rau 1959 teev txhua hnub, ua cov kev kawm nruj thiab kev coj ua txawv ntawm Hatha poses, lossis Asanas. Raws li Bishnu Ghosh, Choudhury cov lus tshaj tawm, nws tau pib sib tw ntawm National India Yoga Championship thiab yeej thawj qhov chaw rau peb lub xyoo sib tw pib xyoo XNUMX. Tom qab nws yeej thib peb, nws hais tias nws so raws li tsis muaj peev xwm "All-India National Yoga Champion" thiab tau mus ncig ua si nrog Ghosh, muab cov khoom nqa ua kom yuag. Txawm li cas los xij, nws raug yuam kom tsum tsis pub hla nws txoj kev mus ncig thaum, thaum muaj hnub nyoog kaum xya, nws tau mob hauv caug ntau vim raug mob nyhav. Choudhury nrhiav cov kws kho mob zoo tshaj plaws hauv Tebchaws Europe; nws qhia hais tias lawv tau ceeb toom rau nws tias nws yuav tuaj yeem mus tsis taus kev ntxiv, cia nyob ib leeg rau kev nqa khoom hnyav. Choudhury tsis kam lees txais qhov kev kuaj mob no; hloov, nws nrhiav kev pab ntawm nws tus kws qhia ntawv, Bishnu Ghosh. Tom qab rau lub hlis ntawm Ghosh lub tsev kawm ntawv, Choudhury lub hauv caug twb zoo kho. Tsis ntev tom qab, Ghosh tau txhawb kom Choudhury pib nws tus kheej cov tsev kawm ntawv hauv Is Nrias teb, thiab tom qab ntawd Nyij Pooj, qhia txoj hauv kev ntawm Hatha Yoga. Choudhury qhia tias nws cov neeg Asmeskas pab nws ntseeg nws kom nws yuav tuaj nyob hauv Amelikas thiab qhib lub tsev kawm ntawv. Ntau ntawm tus lej hagiographic no tau sib tw thiab pom zoo (Saib, Teeb Meem / Nyuaj).

Nws tau tsim muaj tias Choudhury tuaj txog Asmeskas hauv 1973 thiab tsim cov Yoga College ntawm Is Nrias teb hauv Beverly Hills xyoo tom ntej no. Nyob rau xyoo ob, Choudhury zoo nkaus li tau nyiam feem ntau hauv kev qhia Yoga (MacGregor 2002):

Emmy Cleaves hais tias, "Xyoo ntawd nws tau sim ua lub yogi ntshiab," uas Emmy Cleaves, uas yog Bikram tus menyuam kawm qib 15 hauv Los Angeles thiab tam sim no yog tus xibfwb qhia ntawv siab. “Nws pw hauv pem teb. Qhov ntawd yog qhov kev txi uas nws txaus siab ua. Nws tau nqis peev ntau hauv qhov no, vim tias nws tus yawg hais kom nws tawm mus thiab qhia yoga. Los ntawm kev xav ntawm Indian, nws tau ua qhov yog. "

Hauv cov hnub Choudhury yog celibate. Nws tsis haus dej, tsis haus tam sim no. Ib txhia nco qab tias tus hluas Choudhury txaj muag heev nws yuav luag tsis tau ntsib tib neeg lub qhov muag thaum nws hais lus. Nws tau khiav nws lub tsev kawm yoga txhais tau hais tias nws tau nyob hauv Calcutta, es tsis yog Beverly Hills. "Koj puas paub, txhua lub tsev kawm yoga hauv Is Nrias teb yog pub dawb?" Bikram nug. “Kuv lub tsev kawm ntawv tau dawb. Peb tsis xav kom them nyiaj. Rau peb, lub tsev kawm yoga yog zoo li ib lub tuam tsev. Kuv muaj ib lub thawv me me, thiab tib neeg tuaj yeem tso nyiaj rau hauv. Zoo li lub tsev teev ntuj. ”

Siv qhov chaw no nyob hauv Beverly Hills los ua haujlwm ntawm nws, Choudhury pib nthuav dav ua nws lub teb chaws thiab nws luam tawm thawj phau ntawv, Bikram Pib yoga Chav Kawm, hauv 1977. Tsis ntev tom qab ntawd, Choudhury pom nws cov chav kawm nce zuj zus thiab muaj koob meej. Nws cov chav kawm tuaj yeem haum raws li ib puas tus neeg hauv lub sijhawm, muaj ntau yam ntau dua li chav kawm yoga. Raws li qhov kev thov rau cov chav kawm tau nce, yog li ntawd qhov kev thov rau cov tsev kawm ntawv thiab cov kws qhia. Cov npe ntawm ntau tus neeg ua muaj koob npe (Martin Sheen, Candice Bergen, Raquel Welch, Quincy Jones, Shirley MacLaine, Madonna, Michael Jackson, George Clooney, Tiger Woods), tau txuas nrog Bikram Yoga (Larsen 2018)Choudhury tseem tau hais tias Thawj Tswj Hwm Richard Nixon tau caw nws mus rau tom White House kom pab tswv yim seb yuav daws nws cov teeb meem phlebitis li cas.

Choudhury lub neej ntiag tug tau hloov pauv xyoo 1984 thaum Bishnu Ghosh tus tub tau pab npaj nws txoj kev sib yuav rau thaum nws muaj cuaj xyoos. Rajashree Chakrabarti. (Duab nyob sab xis) Chakrabarti tau yeej qhov National India Yoga Championship. Qhov ob peb muaj ib tug ntxhais, Laju, thiab ib tug tub, Anurag. Rajashree Choudhury yog kws kho yoga thiab nrhiav lub koom haum Asmeskas yoga Federation thiab International yoga Sports Federation. Ib qho ntawm nws lub hom phiaj tau ua kom tau txais kev lees paub ntawm Yoga yog qhov kev tshwm sim Olympic.

Nyob rau xyoo 1994, Choudhury tau txiav txim siab los tawm kev kawm ceev nrawm ntawm kev qhia tus kws qhia. Qhov no yuav tso cai cov tub ntxhais kawm mob siab kawm kaum teev hauv ib hnub rau cuaj lub lim tiam nrog Choudhury, nws tus poj niam, thiab qee tus xibfwb qhia. Thaum kawg ntawm kev kawm qhia cuaj lub lim tiam, cov tub ntxhais kawm uas dhau Choudhury qhov kev soj ntsuam tus kheej tau txais lawv daim ntawv pov thawj qhia ntawv thiab tuaj yeem qhia hauv ib qho ntawm nws lub studio lossis qhib ib qho ntawm lawv tus kheej. Xyoo 1998, Madonna, uas tau los ua tus kws tshaj lij Bikram Yoga rau lub sijhawm, tau tshwm sim rau ntawm Oprah TV yeeb yaj kiab thiab txhawb kev xyaum yoga, uas tau coj ntau dua rau Choudhurh. Raws li Choudhury, nws tau tshaj tawm 11,000 tus kws qhia ntawv. Raws li xyoo 2011, muaj tshaj 500 Bikram yoga chav nyob thoob ntiaj teb, thiab tus lej ntawd tau txuas ntxiv nce mus.

DOCTRINES / TXHEEJ TXHEEM

Muaj yim lub ntsiab ntawm yoga: kev nqus (samadhi), kev ua pa (pranayama), kev kub siab (dharana), kev xav (dhyani), kev soj ntsuam (niyamas), postures (asana), kev txwv (yamas), thiab tshem tawm ntawm kev hnov ​​(pratyahara). Lub hom phiaj ntawm qhov kawg yog mus cuag kev ywj pheej lossis kev pom. Cov kev kawm yoga uas hais txog asana yog qhov nrov tshaj plaws ntawm cov kws qhia yoga hauv sab hnub poob. Hatha Yoga, los ntawm qhov twg Bikram Yoga muab tau los, hais txog qhov tsis sib luag ntawm lwm tus (xws li txiv neej thiab poj niam, kub thiab txias, zoo thiab tsis zoo), thiab tsim kom muaj kev sib npaug. Cov asanas yog xav kom sib npaug yooj yim thiab lub zog, ua kom lub cev huv, thiab qhib lub cev lub cev kom lub zog thiaj li ntws tau ywj pheej.

Bikram Yoga yog ib qho qauv ntawm qhov uas tau paub ua "Kub Yoga" lossis "Haib Flow Yoga." Raws li twb tau hais tseg, Lub Cev yoga yuav siv los piav txog cov kev xyaum yoga nqa tawm ntawm cov khoom cua sov. Cov neeg txhawb ntawm Kub Yoga hais tias kub thiab ua tawm hws yog ntxuav thiab plam cov leeg nruj. Cov neeg txhawb nqa pom lub siab / zog siab hais tawm los ntawm Kub Yoga ua quintessentially Asmeskas. Raws li ib tus kws qhia yoga tau sau rau nws: “Nyob rau qee theem, peb tau ua tus lej American. Cov neeg tau nyob lub neej frenetic heev, thiab peb cov leeg xaib siv los rau ntawd…. nws tsuas yog muaj txiaj ntsig tias ib lub teb chaws ntawm cov neeg ua haujlwm ntau yuav xav ua ntau yam ntawm ib zaug: kev ua haujlwm, tawm hws, ntsuas thiab ncab (Theiss 2013).

Bikram Yoga yog ib daim qauv tsim muaj ntau ntawm Kub Yoga. Choudhury tau tso tseg ib tus thiab ib pab pawg qhia me me uas coj tus cwj pwm qhia yoga thaum ub rau chav loj hauv cov tsev kawm ntawv loj. Hom ntawv no tau tshaj tawm nws txoj kev qhia lub npe menyuam yaus McYoga. Txhua lub studio yuav tsum yog cov ntaub pua tsev, cov sijhawm khiav cuaj caum feeb, tsis muaj suab paj nruag raug tso cai thaum lub sijhawm kawm, cov tshooj nkauj yog tso rau kub txog 90-105 degrees, thiab, qhov tseem ceeb tshaj plaws, muaj nees nkaum-rau tus neeg ua yeeb yam uas ib txwm ua hauv qhov kev ua kom raug. Choudhury feem ntau tau nug txog qhov tshwj xeeb ntawm nws kev ua ntu zus. Nws tau nug seb nws yuav ua li cas thiaj txawv yog tias lwm tus uas qhia Hatha Yoga ntiav cov duab tib yam. Bikram lees paub tias cov ua lawv tus kheej tsis yog tus tshwj xeeb. Hloov chaw, nws lees tias, nws yog qhov kev txiav txim siab ntawm kev ua tus thawj thiab kev ua pa uas ua rau nws lub cev ua hauj lwm zoo.

Bikram Choudhury ntseeg tau hais tias qhov kev kho mob zoo ntawm Hatha Yoga raws li nws tus kheej kev paub. Nws hais tias, thaum nws lub hauv caug raug mob thiab cov kws kho mob hais rau nws tias nws yog dhau kev kho, yoga yog dab tsi rov qab nws kom huv huv. Nws hais tias nws yog qhov kev kawm no tau tshwm sim rau nws los pib qhia ntawv thiab tsim kom muaj zog ntawm Asanas thiab pranayamas tias nws tau dubbed Bikram Yoga. Qhov sib lawv liag no muaj zog heev, Choudhury hais tias, nws yuav tsim tau txuj ci tseem ceeb. Muaj ntau yogis thiab yoginis uas tau pom tias muaj kev mob nkeeg hauv lub cev, los ntawm kev ua rau lub tsheb raug mob mus rau lub cev tsis zoo, qhia txog kev ua kom zoo thiab zoo kawg nkaus. Lawv lees txais lawv cov ntaub ntawv rov qab mus rau kev xyaum ntawm Bikram Yoga.

Rituals / kev xyaum

Txhua qhov ntawm Bikram Yoga nta ob txoj kev ua pa (pranayama) thiab nees nkaum rau poses (asanas) uas muab los ntawm yim caum plaub hom yoga thim zoo nkauj thiab ib txwm ua nyob hauv tib qho kev txiav txim. [Duab nyob sab xis] Thaum cov tub ntxhais kawm mus taug kev hauv chav studio nrog lawv cov phuam da dej thiab ntxuav tes hauv tes, lawv tau tam sim ntawd los ntawm cua kub, vim hais tias cov tub ntxhais no khaws cia hauv qhov kub thiab txias txij li 90 txog 105 degrees Farenheit. Choudhury ntseeg tias qhov no ua rau cov leeg yuav ua kom sov sai dua, uas, nyeg, yuav pab nws cov tub ntxhais kawm nyob rau hauv lawv cov poses.

Choudhury thiab nws cov xib fwb qhia lawv cov chav kawm tib yam nkaus, los ntawm sab xub ntiag ntawm chav tsev nrog lub microphone, es tsis txhob nyob rau hauv pem teb uas qhia cov poses. Choudhury ntseeg hais tias yog tus menyuam kawm ntawv yog tias nws mloog tiag tiag, ces nws yuav tsum muaj peev xwm ua kom qhov teeb meem ua raws li qhia. Yog tias tus tub kawm ntawv tsis ua qhov teeb meem kom raug, tus kws qhia yuav qhia rau lawv tias yuav hloov li cas thiab yuav ua li cas, tab sis tsuas yog tus kws qhia ntawv yuav tsum kho qhov teeb meem.

Chav kawm pib nrog thawj zaug ntawm kev ua pa tawm ntawm ob lub cev, hu ua Pranayama. Hauv thawj thawj Pranayama no, cov tub ntxhais kawm yuav sawv ntsug thaum txav lawv txhais tes nrog lub sijhawm ua pa nrog kev ua pa thiab ua kom lub ntsws ploj mus. Qhov no yog ua raws los ntawm kaum ob qhov kev ua tau zoo uas yog cov feem ntau hauv Hatha cov kev qhuab qhia ntawm yoga. Nws pib nrog Half Moon Pose, uas koom nrog sawv nrog caj npab ncav dav thiab xib teg nias sib xyaw ua ke thaum khoov hauv txhua qhov kev qhia. Qhov no rub tawm hauv plab thiab sab nraub qaum thaum nce ntxiv. Qhov no ncab thiab sawv ntsug nyo hau yog cov tib neeg hauv cov teeb nrog qaum khoov; tag nrho lwm tus puav leej yog khoov mus rau tom ntej los yog ntsuas qhov ntsuas. Lub cev sib luag sib luag, xws li Eagle Pose, yog qhov kev xav tau ntawm lub cev, thiab feem ntau cov pib pom lawv tus kheej sib tw hauv vib nas this. Txawm li cas los xij, Bikram hais tias cov kev tsim no tuaj yeem muaj nuj nqis, thaum lawv tsim kom pom tseeb thiab tsom ntsoov.

Tom qab kawm tiav tag lawm, cov menyuam kawm ntawv mus rau Corpse Pose, los yog Savasana, uas yog luv luv, tab sis yuav tsum tau, sijhawm rau cov tub ntxhais kawm tawv nqaij. Tom ntej no los muaj kev ncaj nce-legged sit-up thiab ib tug rau pem hauv ntej khoov ua ntej yuav txav mus rau tus tom ntej teeb. Qhov sib lawv liag ntawm Savasana, zaum-up thiab tom ntej khoov yog tso ntawm txhua qhov ntawm ob peb qhov sib ntxiv tom ntej no. Thawj ua ntej ntawm lub nkoj ntawm Backbends, Cobra Pose, Half Locust, Full Locust and Bow Pose. Tom ntej no yog tom qab khoov, Ib Nrab Tortoise teeb, backbend, Camel Pose thiab thaum kawg ib tug Pranayama txhos caug. No pranayama marks kawg ntawm koob, raws li lub cev empties thiab nyob nrog huv, huab cua noj qab nyob zoo.

ORGANIZATION / LEADERSHIP

Bikram Yoga yog thawj tus neeg nyob rau hauv Nyiv, tom qab Bikram Choudhury pib nws Hatha Yoga Tsev Kawm Ntawv muaj nyob rau hauv 1970. Thaum nws ua ntej pib qhia nyob rau hauv lub caij ntuj no hauv Nyiv, nws tau thov tias nws lub studio yog li txias tias nws cov leeg tsis ua hauj lwm zoo. Txawm li cas los xij, thaum nws rhuav lub chav me me, nws pom tias nws cov leeg tau txav ntau dua. Tom qab ntawd, thaum nws tabtom qhia nyob rau Hawaii, sov tshaj tawm sab nraum Tokyo, nws pom zoo li ntawd. Lub studio tau ua kom cua txias tias nws cov leeg nqaij tsis txav li qhov nws xav kom lawv. Yog li, nyob nruab nrab ntawm kub thiab tshav ntuj Hawaii, Bikram tua tawm AC thiab muab cov cua sov. Tsis tas li ntawd, "Raws li ib qho txiaj ntsig tau ntxiv, qhov kev sov siab kub hnyiab tau ua rau lawv lub siab zoo thiab kev huv huv tom qab kev ua hauj lwm" (Martin 2011). Qhov kev hloov pauv no yooj yim yog ib qho tseem ceeb ntawm kev nrhiav ntawm Bikram Yoga.

Lwm qhov tseem ceeb hauv kev nthuav dav ntawm Bikram Cov Pib Kawm Yoga yog cov qib uas nws tau tsim rau Asana thiab Pranayama. Thaum nws raug mob, Bikram teev txog kev nrhiav kom paub qhov zoo tshaj plaws uas yuav ua rau nws kho tau. Nws tom qab ntawd tshwm sim rau nws hais tias tej zaum yuav muaj cov kev ua tawm suab uas hais txog cov kev mob nkeeg ntawm cov pej xeem. Yog li, hauv Nyij Pooj nws tau teeb tsa txog kev tsim thiab hloov chaw ntawm cov npe tias, thaum ua tiav qhov kev txiav txim tshwj xeeb, muab cov nyiaj pab ntau tshaj ntawm kev ncab thiab ntxiv dag zog. Thaum qhov ua tiav no tiav, nws tau txhawb nqa los ntawm qee cov tub ntxhais kawm nto moo ntawm nws kom coj cov txheej txheem no mus rau Asmeskas. Hauv Asmeskas, txoj kev qhia sai thiab muaj txiaj ntsig tau khaws tau nrawm los ntawm ntau qhov kev txiav txim siab Hollywood hauv kev sim kom noj qab haus huv thiab zoo li.

Lub suab npe nrov hauv "Kub Yoga" txhais tau tias nws xav tau ntau tus xibfwb. [Duab ntawm t Bikram coj lub sijhawm no los nthuav nws lub zog los ntawm allowing cov tub ntxhais kawm

kom dhau los ua daim ntawv pov thawj ua cov xibfwb. Tom qab lawv ua tiav kev cob qhia nruj thiab kim, cov naiskhu no tuaj yeem ua haujlwm rau nws hauv nws cov tsev kawm lossis qhib lawv lub tsev muag nyiaj uas yuav them nyiaj rau nws txoj cai. Tam sim no, Bikram tau txais feem ntau ntawm nws cov nyiaj khwv tau, tsis yog los ntawm franchises lawv tus kheej, tab sis hloov los ntawm cov chav kawm ntawv pov thawj tus kws qhia ntawv, uas Bikram thov nqa nyiaj ntau.

Hauv 1973, muaj peb qhov chaw Bikram Yoga nyob rau hauv Tebchaws Meskas (Honolulu, San Francisco, thiab Beverly Hills). Tus thawj studio hauv BeverlyToj twb nyob hauv qab daus ntawm lub tsev txhab nyiaj qub. Txog xyoo 2002, muaj 500 Cov Chav Bikram Yoga. Nws tsis yog kiag li meej yog dab tsi tsim ua lub koob xav tau nyob rau hauv tus naj npawb ntawm Bikram Yoga studios. Chramhury nws tus kheej tau hais tias "Nws zoo li no rau xyoo," Choudhury hais tias, kos ib kab ncaj nraim hauv huab cua. “Tom qab xyoo dhau los nws tau tsim, zoo li qhov no! Zoo li pob zeb! ”Qee yam. Cov neeg Asmeskas nyiam nrog cov xibfwb Asian sab ntsuj plig, kev paub txog kev tawm dag zog lub cev uas ua rau Amelikas, qhov chaw nyob hauv avant guarde California, thiab cov neeg muaj npe nrov uas Bikram nyiam txhua tus tuaj yeem pab txhawb.

TEEB MEEM / CHALLENGES

Choudhury thiab nws lub Bikram Yoga tau ntsib kev sib cav thiab kev tawm tsam ntawm ntau txoj kev sib tw: nws qhov kev tso tawm ntawm kev ua lag luam ntawm Yoga, cov neeg sib tw hauv khw "kub yoga", thiab cov lus sib liam ntawm kev sib deev tsis raug cai, thiab cuam tshuam txog kev cuam tshuam ntawm yoga studios tswj kom pom kev sib raug zoo nrog Bikram lub npe.

Choudhury ntsib kev zuj zus ntawm tus kheej thaum kev sib cav ntau ntxiv nyob ib puag ncig nws kev coj ua. Thaum tseem me, thiab tseem nyob, paub txog nws lub neej thaum ntxov, tus lej hagiographic uas nws tau tsim thiab uas tseem nyob hauv qhov chaw ntawm ntau lub vev xaib Bikram-tau ua rau muaj kev cuam tshuam loj heev (Armstrong 2018

Muaj qhov fab ntxeev ntawm kev ua lag luam tawm ntawm cov neeg ib txwm muaj thiab cov pab pawg rau leej twg Bikram Yoga qhov tseem ceeb ua rau muag qhov kev coj ua ntawm sab ntsuj plig thaum ib qho ntawm cov ntsiab lus ntawm Yoga txhawb kev ntshaw. Raws li ib tus neeg soj ntsuam hais tias: “Yoga loj heev thiab tsis kawg. Dab tsi yog khoom muaj npe yog qhov kev sib tw ntawm lub cev ntawm kev coj ua. Koj yuav zam tsis tau tej yam ntawm sab ntsuj plig. Yoga tsis yog hamburgers. " Dr. Aseem Shulkla, tus tsim ntawm lub tuam txhab Hindu American Foundation tseem qhia ntxiv tias: “Hu nws tawm dag zog. Hu nws ua haujlwm zoo. Hu nws yam koj nyiam, ”….” Tab sis tsis txhob hu nws yoga. Nws yog kev tsim txom ntawm Hinduism ”(Martin 2011). Muaj cov lus teb zoo sib xws rau Choudhury txoj kev tsim franchises (MacGregor 2002):

"Peb tsis tau hnov ​​dua txog qhov no hlo li," hais tias Deborah Willoughby, nrhiav tus kws sau ntawv ntawm Yoga International, uas yog Pennsylvania cov ntawv xov xwm uas hais txog qhov ntev ntawm sab ntsuj plig yoga. "Ntau qhov chaw muaj cov chaw zov me nyuam, zoo li Shivananda, lossis Lub Tuam Tsev Himalayan, uas cov tub ntxhais kawm yuav qhib lub chaw haujlwm thiab ua haujlwm nyob rau kev coj ntawm tus thawj coj ntawm sab ntsuj plig. Tab sis nws tsis zoo li nws yog tswv, lossis ntawv tso cai. Nws tsuas yog xav kom nthuav cov lus qhia ntawm sab ntsuj plig.

Lub hom khoom lag luam no yog tshwj xeeb tshaj yog cov cwj pwm ntawm Asmeskas nrhav kev ua si yoga. Raws li cov kws soj ntsuam Paul Keegan hais tias, "Tebchaws Asmeskas tau hloov yoga ... .Nws hloov los ntawm kev qhuab qhia ntawm sab ntsuj plig mus rau kev tawm dag zog thiab kev ua lag luam." Dhau ntawm Americanization ntawm Yoga, qib siab dua ntawm kev ua kislas thiab kev tawm dag zog lub cev yuav tsum muaj teebmeem tsis zoo. Theis (2013) tau tshaj tawm tias "US Consumer Product Safety Commission, uas tau soj ntsuam kev raug mob yoga, pom tias muaj ntau txog li kaum tawm thoob tebchaws xyoo 2000, thiab 7,369 xyoo 2010, xyoo tas los no tau kawm. Cov no suav nrog txoj leeg, txoj hlab ntaws, cov leeg, thiab lub nraub qaum kev raug mob. Thiab, muaj qhov tsis txaus ntseeg tias qhov kev tawm dag zog yoga-Fitness regimen no yuav hlawv cov calories ntau dua li ib txwm yoga xyaum (Askell 2013).

Bikram Yoga kuj tau ntsib ib qho kev sib tw ntawm cov neeg sib tw uas tau txais qee yam ntawm Bikram xyaum. Ib qho zoo competitor yog Modo Yoga, tau tsim los ntawm ib tus kws kho mob qub tau hloov dua siab tshiab ntawm Bikram cov lus cog tseg thiab kev coj ua (Rubin 2013):

Yuav muaj 40 qhov chaw thiab chav kawm ntawm qhov sib txawv ntev thiab cov qauv qhia ntawv uas tsis muaj ntawv sau, nrog qhov ntsuas kub tau qis dua 100 degrees tsis yog Bikram chav "tsim txom" (Mr. Choudhury cov lus piav qhia). Txhawb cov tub ntxhais kawm kom haus dej; Bikram qhia kev tuav tswj kom ntau li ntau tau. Thiab studios yog yuav cov kev tsim kho ntsuab los ntawm sab saum toj mus rau hauv qab. Lub npe xaiv yog Moksha, uas yog Sanskrit rau kev ywj pheej lossis kev ywj pheej.

Cov pab pawg neeg thov tshaj rau caum lub studios, nrog ntxiv cov studios npaj. Lwm tus neeg sib tw uas tseem siv chav sov, Core Power Yoga, tau tshaj tawm tias yuav muaj kev loj hlob sai hauv Asmeskas Choudhury tau teb rau cov neeg sib tw los ntawm kev sau npe rau lwm tus neeg muab Hatha Yoga ua "circus clowns" thiab foob cov kev foob uas nws xav tias muaj kev ua txhaum ntawm nws tus yam ntxwv tshwj xeeb ntawm Yoga (MacGregor 2002; Wright, Newman, thiab Effron 2009; Ntses 2006). Choudhury tau muaj kev vam meej rau kev ua lag luam luam nws daim ntawv ntawm kev xyaum yoga thiab ntau yam khoom muaj feem nrog nws tab sis tsis yog hauv kev txwv tsis pub muaj kev sib txuas lus ntawm cov postures uas yog nyob hauv nruab nrab ntawm Bikram Yoga li nws yog qhov kev qhia ntawm qhov tseeb thiab cov tswv yim tsis muaj tseeb thiab cov tswv yim lawv tus kheej uas muaj kev tiv thaiv raug cai (Bennett 2013). Ib feem hauv kev teb rau Bikram Yoga txoj kev sim ua lag luam txwv txoj cai, tsoomfwv Is Nrias teb tau pib qhov kev pabcuam los txiav tawm cov thawj kauj ruam li no (Gowan 2014): “Tau ntau tshaj kaum xyoo, lawv tau tsim lub peev xwm ntawm cov tshuaj hnub nyoog laus dua thiab kev coj ua, Txuj Ci Kev Paub Txog Digital Phau Ntawv, uas tam sim no muaj rau cov chaw haujlwm patent thoob ntiaj teb. Lawv tau sau txog 1,500 yoga poses, qee qhov los ntawm kab xev video, uas yuav muab ntxiv hauv online rau xyoo tom ntej los pab tiv thaiv 'kev ua tsis raws cai' ntawm yoga los ntawm cov lag luam kev lag luam, hais tias Archana Sharma, tus thawj coj ua haujlwm. "

Yeej yog qhov teeb meem uas feem ntau ua rau Choudhury tau ntsib teeb meem ntawm kev sib deev thiab kev ua phem. Hauv 2013, nws pib ntsib rau 6 lub rooj plaub uas muaj kev sib thab sib deev los yog raug yuam cai, tsib pib hauv 2013 thiab ib qho hauv 2015 (Koul 2013; Sanchez 2013; Ford 2015). Cov poj niam qhia tag nrho cov dab neeg zoo sib xws. Nkawd tuaj txog ntawm Bikram thaum nws mus kawm nws cov chav kawm. Nws hais rau lawv hais tias nws muaj kev tshwj xeeb, cosmic kev txuas rau lawv. Muaj qee tus neeg xav tias lawv tsis kam, lwm tus tau sim tig los saib xyuas nws tus poj niam, tiam sis tsis muaj leej twg tau npaj rau txoj kev cia siab uas lawv tau txais. Raws li lub sijhawm, tag nrho cov poj niam tau tshaj tawm tias Choudhury tau xav ntau txog lawv lub sijhawm thiab cov kws lij choj, hu lawv tawm rau cov rooj sib tham ib leeg lossis rau qhov tawm ntawm lawv. Tom qab ntawd, tom qab nws nyob nws ib leeg nrog lawv, feem ntau nyob hauv nws chav nyob ntawm lub tsev so, lawv hais tias nws pressured lawv kom muaj kev sib deev nrog nws. Tag nrho cov poj niam uas tau qhia tawm uas tau tso nws txoj kev txhawb zog, thiab lawv qhov kev tsis txaus siab tau ntsib ntau yam. Qee tus poj niam tau qhia tias tau tab tom ua pob zeb thiab thawb ntsa tawm tsam cov phab ntsa ua ntej tso cai tawm. Muaj qee tus poj niam tau hais tias lawv raug khi hauv vaj hauv tsev thiab raug tsoob.

Txhua daim ntawv tshaj tawm ntawm niam txiv tau raug kev txom nyem tib yam txoj hmoo lag luam. Cov neeg uas muaj lawv tus kheej studios pom tias Choudhury tau tshem tawm lawv lub npe ntawm nws lub vev xaib, nws tsis lees paub lawv ua lag luam los ntawm kev txuam nrog. Lwm tus uas feem ntau tau qhia hauv tsev kawm Bikram Yoga pom lawv tus kheej tsis tuaj yeem qhia thiab paub tias Choudhury nws tus kheej tau txhawb lwm tus studios tsis ntiav ntiav lawv los qhia ib yam nkaus. Ib tug poj niam tau tshaj tawm cov nyiaj xiam ntau dua $ 50,000 tom qab Choudhury tshem tawm tsev kawm ntawv lub npe ntawm nws lub vev xaib.

Tom qab ntawm cov lus sib liam, ntau lub tsev kawm ntawv ib zaug koom nrog Bikram Yoga tau tam sim no tshem tawm lub npe lossis cov chav kawm tag nrho kom tsis txhob muaj kev sib cav sib ceg (Healy 2015). Piv txwv li, hauv 2019 kawg qhov kawg Bikram yoga studio hauv Vancouver, Canada tau los hauv lub siab ntxiv kom tshem tawm txoj kev koom nrog Bikram raws li muaj kev sib daj sib deev (Hurst 2019).

 

Rau nws feem, Choudhury tsis lees paub tias nws tau sib deev nrog nws cov tub ntxhais kawm tab sis nyiam liam lawv ntawm kev thau nws (Martin 2011): “Tsuas yog thaum lawv tsis xaiv kuv! Yog hais tias lawv hais rau kuv, 'thawj coj, koj yuav tsum fuck kuv lossis kuv yuav tua kuv tus kheej,' ces kuv ua! Xav tias yog kuv tsis! Lub karma! ” Nws tseem tsis tau ua dua tshiab nyob hauv lub ntsej muag ntawm cov kev liam no. Nws tau raug muab sau ua lus hais tias "Kuv dhau Superman ... I muaj cov npas zoo li atom bombs, ob ntawm lawv, 100 megatons txhua qhov. Tsis muaj leej twg fucks nrog kuv ”(Sussman 2005). Tom qab ntawm Netflix cov ntawv sau cia, tsuas yog tsis lees nws cov lus sib liam, thiab nws tus kws lij choj tau hais txog cov ntsiab lus xws li "tsuas yog ib pob ntawm cov khoom tau hloov kho" (Hurst 2019).

 

 

DLAWS
Image # 1: Ntej hau ntawm Yoga Journal.
Duab #2: Bikram Choudhury.
Duab #3: Rajashree Choudhury.
Daim duab # 4: Daim Duab “Koj Hlub Koj Luag.” Bikram Yoga dai daim ntawv.

Duab #: Tus nees nkaum-tsib tus thawj (asanas) hauv Bikram Yoga uas muab tau los ntawm yim caum plaub hom yoga qib siab.
Duab #: Bikram Choudhury ua ntu kev ua yoga kev sib tw.

 

 

ua tim khawv

 

Bikram

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Hall, Colin. 2019. "Kub thiab Phem: Tus Hype, Keeb Kwm, thiab Kev Tshawb Fawb Txog Kev Kub Yoga." Yoga International. Tau txais los ntawm https://yogainternational.com/article/view/hot-and-bothered-the-hype-history-and-science-of-hot-yoga ntawm 11 / 25 / 2019.

Larson, Sarah. 2018. "Bikram" thiab Fraught, Qhia Dab Neeg ntawm Phenomenon yoga. "
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Arkell, Harriet, 2013. “Thov txim Gwyneth! 'Kub Yoga' Nrov nrog Cov Nrov Tsis Hluav Taws Kub Ntau, Tshawb Fawb Kev Kawm. " Txhua hnub Xa ntawv, Lub Xya hli ntuj 6. Tau txais los ntawm http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2385254/Sorry-Gwyneth-Hot-yoga-popular-celebrities-does-NOT-burn-calories-study-claims.html#ixzz2rcBM6r1r nyob rau 1 March 2015.

Bennett, Tamera. 2013. "Bikram Yoga Muaj Kev Tiv Thaiv Los ntawm Cov Khw Muag Khoom TSIS Txwv - Nws yog Kub!" Lub Ib Hlis 12. Saib los ntawm http://ipandentertainmentlaw.wordpress.com/2013/01/04/bikram-yoga-protected-by-trademark-not-copyright-its-hot/ nyob rau 1 March 2015.

Choudhury, Bikram thiab Bonnie Jones Reynolds. 1977. Bikram Pib yoga Chav Kawm. New York: Tarcher.

Tseeb, Loraine. 2007. "Yoga Tus Tub Phem: Bikram Choudhury." Yoga Journal, Lub Xya hli ntuj 28. Tau txais los ntawm http://www.yogajournal.com/article/lifestyle/yoga-s-bad-boy-bikram-choudhury/ nyob rau 1 March 2015.

Ntses, Allison. 2006. "Kev Commodification thiab Txauv Kev Tshaj Tawm Txog Cov Ncauj Lus Txog Kev Txiav Txim Siab. Thoob Ntiaj Teb Cov Ntawv Qhia Txog Kev Cai 13: 189-206.

Ford, Dana. 2015. "Yoga Guru Bikram Choudhury Raug Yuam Saum Kev Yuam Deev, Rape." CNN, Lub Ob Hlis 26. Tau txais los ntawm http://www.cnn.com/2015/02/25/us/bikram-yoga-sex-assault-lawsuits/ nyob rau 28 Lub Ob Hlis 2015.

Healy, Jack. 2015. "Schism Emerges nyob rau hauv Bikram Yoga faj tim teb chaws Amid Rape Claims." New York Times , Ob Hlis 23. Tau txais los ntawm http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/24/us/cracks-show-in-bikram-yoga-empire-amid-claims-of-rape-and-assault.html?_r=2 nyob rau 1 March 2015.

Koul, Dvssvhi. 2013. "Sab Hauv Bikram Yoga Cov Lus Tshaj Tawm: Bikram Choudhury Cov Raug Txom Nyem Hais Lus." Hazlitt, Lub Yim Hli 13. Nkag mus los ntawm http://www.randomhouse.ca/hazlitt/feature/inside-bikram-yoga-scandals-bikram-choudhury%E2%80%99s-accuser-speaks

MacGregor, Hilary. 2002. "Muaj Koj Lub Hnub Qub Me? Ib txoj kev kawm zoo. " Los Angeles Times, Xya hli ntuj 7. Tau txais los ntawm http://articles.latimes.com/2002/jul/07/news/lv-bikram7 nyob rau 1 March 2015.

Martin, Clancy. 2011. "Lub Tshaj Tawm, Oversexed Cult ntawm Bikram Choudhury." ntsiab lus. Tau txais los ntawm
http://www.details.com/culture-trends/critical-eye/201102/yoga-guru-bikram-choudhury nyob rau 1 March 2015.

Muller, Judy. nd “Kub Yoga: Daim Ntawv Tshiab yog Rov Tsog Qhov Tseeb Ntawm Sab Ntsuj Plig.” Nkag mus los ntawm http://www.bikramyoga.com/press/press8.htm nyob rau 31 Lub Ib Hlis 2014.

Murphy, Rosalie. 2014. "Yog vim li cas koj Yoga chav kawm yog dawb." lub Atlantic, Xya hli ntuj 8. Tau txais los ntawm http://www.theatlantic.com/national/archive/2014/07/why-your-yoga-class-is-so-white/374002/ nyob rau 1 March 2015.

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Singleton, Mark. 2010. Yoga Lub Cev: Lub Hauv Paus Txiav Txim Siab Zej Zog. New York: Oxford University Press.

Theiss, Evelyn. 2013. "'Kub Yoga' yog Tau Txais Kev Tshawb Fawb, thiab Kev Raug Mob raug nce ntxiv." Lub Plain Dealer, Tej zaum 6. Tau txais los ntawm http://connect.cleveland.com/staff/etheiss/posts.html on 1 March 2015 .

Wright, David, Ben Newman thiab Lauren Effron. 2012. "Bikram Yoga Guru nce mus sib hais hauv kev tso cai." ABC News, Kaum Hlis 3. Tau txais los ntawm http://abcnews.go.com/Business/bikram-yoga-guru-reaches-settlement-copyright-suit/story?id=17869598#.UL1gaOQ0chQ nyob rau 1 March 2015.

Sanchez, Raf. 2013. "Yoga gram Bikram Choudhury 'tsoob cov tub ntxhais kawm hauv kev cob qhia zoo li kev coj ua". " cov ntaus xov tooj, Kaum Hlis 5. Tau txais los ntawm http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/northamerica/usa/10498946/Yoga-guru-Bikram-Choudhury-raped-students-in-cult-like-training-camps.html nyob rau 1 March 2015.

YJ Cov Qauv. “Cov Ntawv Xov Xwm Yoga Tso 2012 Yoga hauv Asmeskas Kev Tshawb Fawb Ua Lag Luam.” Yoga Journal. Tau txais los ntawm https://www.yogajournal.com/press-releases/yoga-journal-releases-2012-yoga-in-america-market-study nyob rau 28 Kaum Ib Hlis 2019.

Daim Ntawv Qhia Hnub:
2 Lub peb hlis ntuj 2015

BIKRAM YOGA VIDEO KEV TIV THAIV

 

Qhia