Boaz Huss

Cosmic Movement


1839 (June):  Mary Ware (later known as Una, Madame Théon, Theona and Alma) was born in Sutton Courtenay, Berkshire, England.

1850:  Eliezer Bimstein (later known as Maximillian Louis Bimstein, Max Théon and Aia Aziz) was born, probably in Warsaw, Poland.

1867:  Mary Ware founded the Anglican nunnery in Claydon, Suffolk, England.

1884:  Mary Ware, under the name Una, founded the Universal Philosophical Society in London.

1884:  M. Théon was first mentioned as the grand master of the exterior circle of the Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor.

1885 (March 21):  Mary Ware and Maximillian Louis Bimstein were married in London.

1886:  The Théons, with their secretary Teresa (Augusta Rolfe), left London and traveled to France.

1887:  The Théons settled in Tlemcen, Algeria.

1898-1899:  Articles signed by Max Théon were published in the Journal du Magnetism et de la Psychologie.

1901 (Janurary):  The first volume of Revue Cosmique, edited by François-Charles Barlet, was published in Paris.

1903:  The first volume of La Tradition Cosmique was published in Paris.

1904:  Louis Thémanlys joined the Cosmic Movement.

1906 (December 10):  Louis Thémanlys and Claire Blot were married in Paris.

1908 (September 10):  Madame Théon died in Jersey.

1909 (September 27):  Pascal Thémanlys was born.

1913:  The first volume of Le Mouvement Cosmique was published in Paris by Louis Thémanlys.

1919:  Théon and Teresa visited Paris.

1920:  The Idéal et Réalité group was founded in Paris by Louis Thémanlys and Gustave Rouger.

1927 (March 4):  Max Théon died in Tlemcen.

1932:  Dr. François Couillaud established the Cosmic Society in Paris.

1933:  Mirra Alfasa took the symbol of Max Théon (a hexagram enclosing a square with a lotus floating on water inside) and made it the symbol of Sri Aurobindo.

1934:  Pascal Thémanlys published a book on the founder of the Hassidic movement, Les Merveilles du Besht.

1943 (January 13):  Louis Thémanlys died in Pau.

1949:  Pascal Thémanlys emigrated to Israel.

1955:  Pascal Thémanlys published Max Théon et la Philosophie Cosmique.

1967:  Maurice (Moïse) Benharoche-Baralia published À l’Ombre de la Tradition Cosmique.

1975: Pascal Thémanlys established the Argaman group in Jerusalem.

2000 (June 25):  Pascal Thémanlys died in Jerusalem.


The Cosmic Movement was established in France in the early 1900s. The founders of the movement, who resided at that time in Villa Zarif near Tlemcen in northwestern Algeria, were Max Théon [Image at right] and his wife, Madame Théon. Like other occultists of that period, they used different aliases throughout their lives, and hid their real identities. Max Théon was also known as Aia Aziz, and his wife as Una, Alma, and Theona.

Max Théon (~1850-1927) was born in Warsaw, Poland into a Jewish family as Eliezer Mordechai Bimstein. He emigrated to London in the early 1870’s, and was first mentioned in 1884 as the grand master of the exterior circle of the Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor. Active in last decades of the nineteenth century, the Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor (H.B. of L.) was a secret order that offered practical instructions in occultism. It aimed to advance the spiritual development of humanity and to cultivate the occult powers of its members (Godwin, Chanel and Deveney 1995).

Madame Théon (1839-1908) was born as Mary Ware, in Sutton Courtenay, a small village on the banks of the river Thames. She was raised in the household of her grandmother, in the village of Marcham in Oxfordshire. In the late 1860s, she became acquainted with the Anglo-Catholic reform ideas of the Oxford movement, which advocated a monastic reform in the Church of England. She founded an Anglican nunnery in Claydon, Suffolk, and served as its mother superior for more than a decade (Huss 2015). Later, she became interested in Spiritualism, and, going under the name of Una, established an esoteric group in London in 1884, the Universal Philosophic Society. The objectives of the society (a spiritual reform of the society, research of occult sciences, and the development of psychic powers) anticipated some of the teachings of the Cosmic Movement (Chanel 1993:219-29). [Image at right]

It was probably in spiritualist and esoteric circles in London that the two future leaders of the Cosmic Movement met. They married in March 1885, and a year later left London, traveled through France, and eventually settled in Tlemcen, Algeria. There, the couple organized séances and Madame Théon produced a large corpus of writings in a state of trance. The Théons continued to develop their teachings, formed connections with occultists in Europe and received visitors who were interested in their teaching and practices.

From 1898-1900, Théon published a series of articles in the Journal du Magnetism, edited by Alban Dubet, as well as a short pamphlet, entitled Spiritisme Experimental, published by the occult publisher Lucien Chamuel. In these early publications, Théon  criticized Allen Kardec’s Spiritism, and presented some of the ideas of the Cosmic Philosophy (Chanel 1993:394-412).

In January 1901, the first issue of the Revue Cosmique, dedicated to the “restitution of the original tradition,” was published by “a group of unknown and sincere students.” On its front page appeared the image of a lotus floating on water framed by a square in the center of a hexagram. This was the emblem of “the secretary of the cosmic teaching” whose name, Aia Aziz, appeared only in later issues.

The editor of this journal and the leader of the nascent movement in Paris was François-Charles Barlet (Albert Faucheux 1838-1921), a central figure in the fin de siècle French esoteric milieu (Laurant 2006). [Image at right] In 1902, following a disagreement with Théon, he resigned from editing the Revue Cosmique and left the movement.

After Barlet left, Théon edited the Revue Cosmique under the name Aia Aziz. In 1904, the young writer Louis Thémanlys (Louis Moyse 1874-1943), a descendent of prominent French Jewish families (Beer, Furtado, and Solar), joined the Cosmic Movement and became the leader of its center in Paris. In 1906, he married Claire Blot (1883-1966), the daughter of the famous art dealer Eugène Blot (1857-1938). Claire Thémanlys, who was a musician, also became active in the movement and later wrote several novels and plays inspired by its teachings. She was followed into the movement by her  parents and siblings. [Image at right]

A friend of Louis Thémanlys, Matteo Alfassa (1876-1942), the son of a wealthy Sephardic Jewish family, also joined the Cosmic Movement, and following him, his sister, Mirra Alfassa (1878-1973). Mirra, who, in the 1920s, would become known as “the Mother” in the Integral Yoga movement of Sri Aurobindo (1872-1950), was an art student. She became an enthusiastic follower of the Cosmic Movement and visited the Théons in Algeria in 1906 and 1907. Mirra’s first husband, the artist Henri Morisset (1870-1956), and her second husband, the former pastor and lawyer Paul Richard (1874-1964), were also members of the movement. At that time, the followers of the Cosmic Movement in Paris formed the Groupe Idea, which met at the home of Louis and Claire Thémanlys in 54 Rue Nicolo, in Paris’s sixteenth arrondissement. The purpose of the group was to propagate cosmic ideas through lectures, meetings, exhibitions, publications and concerts (Status du Groupe “Idea” n.d).

The major publications of the early Cosmic Movement were the Revue Cosmique, [Image at right] appearing from 1901 to 1908, La Tradition Cosmique, published between 1903 and 1906, and several books and pamphlets that were published by Les Publications Cosmiques. The Cosmic Movement publications included theoretical discussions of the Cosmic Philosophy, literary works, and book reviews. The published opus of La Tradition Cosmique were based on revelations received in a state of complete passivity, or repos, as were many other texts written by Madame Théon. Writings of the Cosmic Movement were also printed during these years in English in The Morning Star journal published in Loudsville, Georgia, by Peter Davidson (1837-1915), who collaborated with Théon in the H. B. of L. and moved to the United States from Scotland in 1886. Between 1907 and 1908, translations of articles from the Revue Cosmique were also published in Czech, in the Jouranl Kosmické Rozhledy, edited by the Czech occultist Miloš Maixner (1873-1937), who became a follower of the Cosmic Movement at that time (Čapková forthcoming).

In September 1908, Madame Théon died during a visit to Europe. Théon continued to reside in Algeria with his secretary, Augusta Rofle (1845-1935), known as Teresa. After the death of his wife, Théon became less involved in the activities of the movement and the Revue Cosmique stopped appearing. Nevertheless, he kept on corresponding with the leaders and followers of the movement, practiced healing, and received visitors who were interested in his teaching. From 1919-1920,  Théon traveled with Teresa to Paris, stayed there for a few months, and met with members of the movement. In his last years, Théon connected with the Jewish community of Tlemcen. He died on  March 4, 1927.

Louis Thémanlys continued to direct the Cosmic Movement, and published a few issues of a new journal, Le Mouvement Cosmique (in 1913, 1914, and 1920), two more volumes (5 and 6) of La Tradition Cosmique (1920), as well as few books of his own, published by Les Publications Cosmiques. During the First World War the movement was dormant, but resumed its activities immediately after the war. In 1919, members of the movement published a new journal,  Art, Science et Peuple, which emphasized the group’s conviction that spirituality and science were compatible. In 1921, Louis Thémanlys, in cooperation with the author, poet, and musician Gustave Rouger, founded a new group, Idéal et Réalité. [Image at right] It was inspired by the ideas of the Cosmic Philosophy, but dedicated mostly to the Arts. Members of the Cosmic Movement, and especially the extended Thémanlys and Blot families, played an active part in the group, which attracted many prominent scholars, actors, writers, and musicians, as well as politicians, aristocrats, and occultists. The group published a journal, entitled Idéal et Réalité: Littérature, Pensée, Art, which appeared from 1922-1930 (Huss 2016). Pascal Thémanlys (1909-2000), the son of Louis and Claire, who published a couple of poetry books at a very young age, also became involved in the Cosmic Movement and the Idéal et Réalité circle. Louis and Pascal became interested in Kabbalah, and in some of the later writings of Louis (such as Quleques Colonnes dans le Temple, published in 1927), [Image at right] Louis equates the major notions of the Cosmic Philosophy with Kabbalistic concepts. In the 1930’s, Pascal joined the Zionist movement. In 1934, he published a book on the Baal Shem Tov, the founder of the Hassidic movement, Les Merveilles du Besht, and in 1938, a book entitled Le Grands d`Israël. During the later period of the Second World War, the Thémanlys family resided in Pau, within the French Free Zone, where, in 1943, LouisThémanlys died. In 1949, Pascal,  his wife Raymonde, and his mother, Claire, emigrated to the newly founded state of Israel.

Another group of followers of the Cosmic Philosophy that was active in the 1930’s was headed by Dr. François Couillaud. Couillaud, who first met Théon in Paris in 1920, resided in Tlemcen for a few years, and treated the aging Theon. In 1932, he established the “Cosmic Society” in Paris and published several new issues of the Revue Cosmique between 1934-1937 (Chanel 1993:129, 517).

It should be noted that the doctrines of the Cosmic Movement had an impact on the teaching of the Indian political revolutionary turned spiritual teacher, Sri Aurobindo (Aurobido Ghose). Two former members of the Cosmic Movement, Mirra Alfassa and her second husband, Paul Richard, met Aurobindo in Pondicherry (Puducherry) during their visit to India in 1914-1915. Richard cooperated with Aurobindo in initiating the publication of the journal Arya, in which the first formulations of Aurobindo’s Integral Yoga philosophy were presented. The couple returned to Pondicherry in 1920, but Richard left soon after, while Mirra Alfassa remained. In 1926, Aurobindo recognized Mirra Alfassa as the incarnation of Shakti, the divine female power, and she became known as “the Mother.” Alfassa helped establish the Sri Aurobindo Ashram in Pondicherry, where she lived for the rest of her life. Some of Aurobindo’s ideas (such as the notion of the “psychic being” as the evolutionary soul and the French term corps glorieux to refer to luminous physical perfection) were influenced by the Cosmic Philosophy, as conveyed to Aurobindo by Paul Richard and the Mother. In 1933 the Mother took the symbol of the Cosmic Movement (a hexagram enclosing a square with a lotus floating on water inside) and made it the symbol of Sri Aurobindo (Heehs 2011).

After the Second World War, the Cosmic Philosophy continued to be studied, and practiced, by several small groups, in France, Israel, and, most recently, in Turkey.

In France, the composer Jacques Janin (a.k.a Jean Jacquin 1889-1967), who was active in the Cosmic Movement and the Idéal et Réalité group (and who wrote several compositions inspired by the Cosmic Philosophy), and his wife, Suzanne, continued to organize study and meditation meetings until the death of Jacques Janin in 1967 (Raziel forthcoming). After the death of Janin, Louisette Hédé (whose mother was a member of the movement before the war) and her husband, Yvon Deschamps, continued to lead the activities of the group (Raziel forthcoming).

Maurice (Moïse) Benharoche-Baralia (1892-1977), who became a follower of the Cosmic Movement in the early 1930’s, continued to be interested in the Cosmic Tradition, and in 1967 published a book entitled À l’Ombre de la Tradition Cosmique (Benharoche-Baralia 1967), which was prefaced by Jacques Janin and Pascal Thémanlys. Another group inspired by the Cosmic Tradition was established in France by the architect Jacques Duchemin, a disciple of Janin and Benaroche, and his, wife Chantal Duchemin (Chanel 1993: 516, 554). The couple, who used the pseudonyms Jacques and Chantal Baryosher, republished the first two volumes of the Revue Cosmique (1992), as well as several original texts integrating Cosmic Philosophy and Kabbalah: Fleurs Entr’ouverts – Propos Initiatiques suivi de Enseignement de la Philosophie Cosmique, Aia Aziz (1982) and Premiers Pas vers la Kabbale (1995). Another group, supported by Pascal Thémanlys, was led by Fernande Boissay, who organized study and meditation sessions at her home in the Parisian suburb Sceaux until her death in 1993. In the 1980’s, Ewa Raziel and her former husband, Bertrand Déprés, formed a study and “passivity” circle in rue Férou in Paris, which was supported by Pascal Thémanlys and Fernande Boissay.

As mentioned above, Pascal Thémanlys [Image at right] emigrated to Israel in 1949. He served as the head of the French section of the Department of Information of the Jewish Agency, and edited its journal, Renaissance. He continued to be interested in Kabbalah and at a certain point was asked to teach the Cosmic Tradition. During the 1950’s and 1960’s, he met with Jewish Kabbalists in Jerusalem and aspired to establish a modern Kabbalistic school. In 1955, he published a book on Théon and the Cosmic Philosophy, Max Théon et la Philosophie Cosmique, and in 1963, his memoirs, entitled Un Itiniraire de Paris a Jerusalem (Thémanlys 1963). In the 1970’s, Pascal Thémanlys established the Argaman group, dedicated to the study of Kabbalah and the Cosmic Philosophy. Among the members of the group were Yehuda Hanegbi (1917-2003) Danielle Storper-Perez  (b. 1938), Nadine Shenkar, Avi Yasur (1949-2010) (who later left the movement and stood at the head of the Israeli study group of A Course of Miracles) and Arieh Rottenberg, who with his wife Ala ensured the group organization and activities. In the 1980’s, Arieh Rotenberg and Danielle Storper-Perez, opened a tea house, and Esoteric bookshop, Pinat ha’Nistar (The Esoteric Corner), in the Nahlao`t neighborhood in Jerusalem (Bender 1982). Ewa Raziel, who immigrated to Israel in 1983, joined the group. A group for cosmic studies met in her home in the early 1990’s, and later she led a group whose members were mainly therapists and social workers. Members of Argaman established in 1978 the Achlama Healing Institute of Jerusalem, that aspired to teach and practice the Cosmic Tradition in an orthodox Jewish framework:

The Achlama Healing Institute is Torah-based and Torah oriented. The stuff is dedicated to furthering Torah and scientific understanding through a variety of paths which include study, prayer, rest, exercise, diet, nutrition, and dream workshops (Achlama Newsletter 1978)

The Argaman group published several of the writings of the Cosmic Movement, including Hebrew translations of works by Théon and Pascal Thémanlys and some of the original English texts of the Théons (Théon 1991, 1992). The group also translated Aryeh Kaplan’s popular book Meditation and Kabbalah (1999) into Hebrew. Since Pascal’s death, Arieh and Ala Rotenberg have continued to lead regular study and meditation sessions.

Since 2014, another group interested in the Cosmic Tradition has operated in Istanbul. It is headed by Nicolas and Nalan Lecerf, who are dedicated to the study and practice of the Cosmic Tradition (Toumrakine forthcoming). They also launched “The Green Man’s Creation” training center and website, which includes Scola Hermetica workshops, and the online magazine Sophia. The group is interested in many different spiritual traditions, but the two main schools of thought represented on their website are the Gurdjeffian Fourth Way school and the Cosmic Movement. The website includes many texts of the Cosmic Movement, mostly published texts of the Théons, and of Louis, Claire, and Pascal Thémanlys, translated from French to English and Turkish.


The objectives of the Cosmic Movement, as stated in the Revue Cosmique, are:

To demonstrate to the “psycho-intellectual” human being the true object and aim of life and the extent to which human capacities can be developed, to show that human beings are of divine origin and that their mission is to manifest the divinity inherent in them, to raise and spiritualize collective and undeveloped humanity, to restore the primordial lost tradition, to unite science and theology, and to prove that through evolution, human beings can regain their state of complete immortality (Revue Cosmique 7, no. 1 January 1908, title page).

The teaching of the Cosmic Movement, known as The Philosophie Cosmique, presents complex and innovative doctrines, some of them based on the ideas of the Hemetic Brotherhood of Luxor, Una’s Universal Philosophic Society, as well as of other esoteric movements. The early writings of the Cosmic Movement also contain some Kabbalistic terms and concepts. In later period, further Kabbalistic elements were integrated within the Cosmic Philosophy, and the Cosmic Tradition was perceived as closely related to Jewish Kabbalah.

Some of the cosmic doctrines were first formulated in Théon’s articles in the Journal du Magnetism in 1898-1900. They were further developed in the publications of the Cosmic Movement, which appeared from 1901, and in the writings of later followers of the movement.

The Cosmic Philosophy presents a complex cosmology according to which all reality is material, apart from the formless highest principle, the Cause sans Cause (Causeless Cause) or Sans Form (Formless). The material worlds, from the subtler planes of matter to gross matter, are depicted as spheres that surround the Nucleolinus, the first manifestation, or veiling, of the Formless, which is comprised of Love, Light, and Life. According to the Cosmic Philosophy, there are four spheres or worlds (Occultismes, Pathétismes, Ethérismes & Matérialismes), each of them separated by a veiling, and divided into seven states or planes. In the later writings of the Cosmic Movement, these realms were identified with the four emanated realms of the Kabbalah. The lowest plane of the forth sphere (the physical, terrestrial realm) is incomplete and imperfect, because the power of evil, referred to as the Hostile, controls the Etat Nerveux (nervous plane), the plane above our physical world, and creates imbalance on Earth. The Hostile deprived man of his original, immortal physical body, and condemned him to mortality. However, when mankind’s psycho-intellectual capacities once again evolve, humans will regain physical immortality. Then, human beings will be able to conquer the nervous plane, and restore cosmic harmony (Chanel 1993:567-879; Chanel 2006:1112-13; Heehs 2011:219-47).

The cosmic teachings claim to be based on the Cosmic Tradition, the perennial wisdom that antedated all religions and united and harmonized science and theology. This wisdom was known to the ancient Chaldeans, Egyptians, and Hebrews but over the course of time, it was lost or distorted. Traces of the ancient wisdom could be found in most esoteric traditions, as the original Cosmic Tradition was passed orally through initiation. According to the followers of the Cosmic Movement, Théon was initiated into the tradition at a young age. Cosmic knowledge, according to Théon and his followers could also be reached through development of subtle, spiritual senses like clairvoyance, predilection, and intuition, best achieved in a state of passivity in a protective aura, in which a sensitive person could explore and unite with the cosmic powers. Such knowledge was reached by Madame Théon, who put her visions of humanity’s ancient past into writings that were translated from English into French and published in the Cosmic Revue and the Tradition Cosmique. Some of the original English texts were later published by the Argaman group.


Meditation practices and trance techniques play an important role in the Cosmic Movement and its offshoots. According to the Cosmic Philosophy, higher power and knowledge can be reached in a state of complete passivity, which is referred to as repos, or rest. The practice of passive repos enables the reception and assimilation of cosmic forces, the development of subtle senses and the exploration of the higher realms by “sensitives,” people (mostly women) with special psychic capacities. The Cosmic Philosophy distinguishes different levels of passivity, from the psychic repose in which the individual abandons all mental or physical activity to open up to cosmic forces, to the highest states of psychic “exteriorization” (Raziel forthcoming). The members of the Cosmic Movement practice introductory group repos meditations, as well advanced psychic explorations by couples. During such explorations, the female sensitive is guided and protected by her partner. As mentioned above, the cosmic writings of Madame Théon were written during psychic exteriorizations, guided by Théon. Different forms of passive exploration continued to be practiced in the later developments and offshoots of the Cosmic Movement. The Jerusalem Argaman group is also engaged in Jewish mediation techniques.


The Cosmic Movement came into being through a cooperation between the Théons and the French esotericists, F.-Ch. Barlet and Julien Lejay. The Theons, who resided in Tlemcen, Algeria, were the spiritual leaders of the movement. The teachings and practices were developed and taught by them, and much of the literature of the movement was written by them. Nonetheless, they were less involved in the practical organization of the movement. Following the death of Madame Theon in 1908, Max Theon became even less involved in its organization and activities. During its first years, the center of the movement in Paris was led by F.-Ch. Barlet, who visited the Theons in Tlemcen in 1900 and 1901, and edited the first volumes of the Revue Cosmique, together with Julien Lejay. Following a disagreement with Théon, in 1902, Barlet resigned as editor of the Revue Cosmique and left the movement.  In the following years, Théon edited the Revue Cosmique under the name Aia Aziz, with the help of Louis Lemerle, who served as the treasurer of the magazine. Louis Thémanlys, who joined the Cosmic Movement in 1904, gradually became a leading figure in the movement and organized its activities in Paris.

After Madame Théon’s death, the Revue Cosmique ceased to appear. With the help of his wife, Claire Blot, Louis Thémanlys continued to lead to group, which met at the couple’s home in Paris. Thémanlys published a new journal, Le Mouvement Cosmique, and continued to publish volumes of La Tradition Cosmique, and other publications dealing with the Cosmic Philosophy. Other members of the extended Blot family also took part in the leadership of the movement. Claire’s brother, the painter Jacques Blot (1885-1960), served as the treasurer of the movement and her brother-in-law, Marc Semenoff (Marc Kogan, 1884-1968) (a writer and translator of Russian literature) served as its general secretary (Chanel 1993:504). In 1921, Thémanlys founded and stood at the head of the Idéal et Réalité group, which was active until 1930. After the death of Louis, and following the Second World War, Pascal Thémanlys was accepted by most followers of the movement as the most authoritative teacher of the Cosmic Philosophy. He established the Argaman group and supported the activities of the cosmic groups in Israel and in France. Today, small groups of followers of the cosmic teachings gather to study and mediate on a regular basis in Israel, France, and Turkey (and possibly elsewhere). They are organized by local leaders, and there is no central organization, or a recognized spiritual leader accepted by all the cosmic groups.


The main challenge of the Cosmic Movement is the continuation of its activities in a form compatible with contemporary spiritual culture, while maintaining the essence of  Théon’s teachings. This is a real concern, since following Pascal Thémanlys’s death there has been no spiritual authority or central organization recognized by all the groups. Furthermore, these groups attract few new followers, the Cosmic Philosophy is in danger of dying as a living tradition.

Another challenge for the Cosmic Movement is the preservation of its archives (which include letters written by Théon; the diary of Teresa; the original English manuscripts of Theona’s writinga; Louis, Claire and Pascal Themanlys’ manuscripts, and other things). Asher Binyamin, Julie Chajes and Boaz Huss are currently preparing some of these materials for publication, in the framework of a research project funded by the Israel Science Foundation (grant no 1405/14).


Image #1: Photograph of MaxThéon.
Image #2: Photograph of the cover of Una Universal Philosophic Society.
Image #3: Photograph of F. Ch Barlet.
Image #4: Photograph of Louis and Claire Thémanlys.
Image #5 Photograph of the cover of Revue Cosmique.
Image #6: Photograph of the cover of Ideal et Realite.
Image #7: Photograph of Louis and Pascal Thémanlys.
Image #8: Photograph of Pascal Thémanlys.


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Huss, Boaz.  2016. “Cosmic Philosophy and the Arts: The Cosmic Movement and the Idéal et Réalité cirlce.” Nova Religio 19:102-18.

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Raziel. Ewa. Forthcoming. “Branches of the Cosmic River: Groups in Paris and Jerusalem.” In The Cosmic Movement: Sources, Contexts, Impact, edited by Asher Binyamin, Julie Chajes and Boaz Huss. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press.

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Toumrakine, Alexandre. forthcoming. “The Legacy of the Cosmic Movement in Turkey.” In The Cosmic Movement: Sources, Contexts, Impact, edited by Asher Binyamin, Julie Chajes and Boaz Huss. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press.

Publication Date:
9 February 2018