International Society for Krishna

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International Society for Krishna Consciousness

Founder: A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Srila Prabhupada

Date of Birth: 1896

Date of Death: November 14, 1977

Birth Place: Calcutta , India

Year Founded: July, 1966

Sacred or Revered Texts: Vedas, Bhagavad-Gita, Bhagavad-Gita As It Is, Srimad-Bhagavatam, Caitanya-caritamrta, Krsna

Size of Group: Exact numbers of ISKCON devotees are not available. In 1998, Burke Rochford published data from the Prabhupada Centennial Survey in the ISKCON journal. One thousand, nine hundred, ninety-six devotees from 53 countries responded; however, the number of devotees is not representative of the total number of ISKCON members 1 . Currently ISKCON is working on updating the “Prabhupada disciple database,” a complete listing of members. 2

History

On September 1, 1896, A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Srila Prabhupada was born Abhay Charan De in Calcutta India 3 . At 26 years old in Calcutta, Prabhupada met his guru, Srila Bhakti Siddhanta Sarasvati, a prominent religious scholar and the founder of sixty-four Gaudiya Mathas (vedic scriptures) 4 . In 1933 at Allahabad, Prabhupada was formally initiated as a disciple. Prabhupada was encouraged by his guru to dedicate his life to teaching the Vedic knowledge in English. Back to Godhead magazine was founded by Prabhupada in 1944. At first, Prabhupada singlehandedly edited, typed, checked, and distributed the magazine 5 . In 1947, the Gaudiya Vaisnaya Society honored him with the title “Bhaktivedanta.” In 1950 at 54 years of age, Prabhupada adopted the vanaprastha or retired order from married life 6 . In 1959, Prabhupada renounced the order of life and adopted the sannyasa 7 . In 1962, Prabhupada decided to begin translation to English of the Srimad- Bhagavatam, in his opinion, the most important and informative Vedic scripture 8 . After completing the first volume, a follower of Prabhupada paid an advance to the publisher, Dalmia Trust, for printing of eleven hundred copies. The printer agreed to give Prabhupada one hundred copies to be distributed for donations which would pay for more books and more volumes 9 .

In 1965, at seventy years of age, Prabhupada convinced a wealthy supporter to pay his passage to America 10 . Prabhupada came to America with only a few hundred copies of the three completed volumes of the Srimad-Bhagavatam, a few rupees, and the clothing on his back 11 . He settled briefly in the east side of New York City. While in New York, Prabhupada held the first outdoors chanting session outside India in Tompkins Square Park 12 . In July 1966, Prabhupada established the International Society for Krishna Consciousness 13 . After that in 1967, Prabhupada moved to San Francisco in the Haight Ashbury district 14 . While in San Francisco, Prabhupada gained many devotees from the youth counter- culture. The Krishnas gained notoriety when Beatle George Harrison, members of the Grateful Dead, and poet Allen Ginsberg became involved in the movement.

In 1968, Prabhupada created New Vrindaban, West Virginia 15 . Eleven other ISKCON communal farm communities were created in the United States in which “simple living and high thinking” could be lived 16 . During his life, Prabhupada also inspired the construction of fifty ISKCON centers in the United States and over one hundred large international centers 17 .

On July 28, 1970, Prabhupada organized the Governing Board Commission(GBC) to administer the movement 18 . Twelve disciples were chosen to administer to twelve regions of the world. Later, Prabhupada expanded the Governing Board Commission to twenty-four advanced devotees who meet annually at ISKCON headquarters in India 19 . In 1972, Prabhupada established the Bhaktivedanta Book Trust 20 . That same year in Dallas, Texas, Prabhupada began the first Gurukula school in which children were taught in the vedic system of primary and secondary education 21 . On November 14, 1977, Prabhupada died in India 22 .

The ISKCON movement has continued to grow and evolve through the work of the GBC, individual gurus, and devotees. Today, most ISKCON members practice Krishna consciousness in their homes or at temples; however, they live and work in the general community 23 . The future of ISKCON is directed by the GBC who are elected every year. The GBC decides and executes ISKCON’s major strategies and guidelines by democratic voting and in consultation with devotees 24 .

There are currently hundreds of ISKCON temples with locations in every inhabited continent and in most countries throughout the world 25 . In North America alone, there are 52 temples or rural communities 26 . Although, ISKCON has experienced membership declines in certain areas of the world, ISKCON has created a widespread base of devotees through missionary and charity work.

Beliefs

ISKCON’s theology comes from the Bengali Gaudiya-Vaisnaya tradition of Hinduism in India that dates back to the eleventh or twelfth century 27 . Prabhupada is seen to be one of a lineage or guru-parampara of spiritual masters dating to Sri Caitanya (1485-1533), whom it regards as an incarnation of the supreme lord and god Krishna 28 . Caitanya spread the use of the holy name or mantra as a method to enable anyone to become Krishna conscious 29 .

Krishna is the name supreme or “all-attractive” (aka Rama, “the highest eternal pleasure”). Hare is a call to Krishna’s divine energy 30 . A mantra is a chant or vibration of sound used by Krishnas to free their minds. The Krishna chant is as follows: Hare Krishna Hare Krishna Krishna Krishna Hare Hare Hare Rama Hare Rama Rama Rama Hare Hare . Chanting the mantra allows the Krishna consciousness to bring out the natural, pure state of the mind.

The Krishnas believe that truth is found in the scriptures (Bible, Koran, Torah) of a number of major religions; however, the Vedic texts, the oldest of all known scriptures, are the literal record of God’s word 31 . Krishnas believe that Krishna consciousness is inside all people because each individual has a soul 32 . Because of physical pleasures and the spiritual debasement of the world, people are unaware of the true happiness that they can find through Krishna consciousness.

Because we are our souls and not our bodies, physical pleasures can cloud our minds and keep us from achieving Krishna consciousness. These physical pleasures, the eating of fish, meat or eggs, the use of intoxicants, illicit sex, and gambling and frivoulous sports, are called the four regulative principles 33 . Because of the rejection of these pleasures, Krishnas practice a strict vegetarian lifestyle 34 .

Hare Krishnas believe in the samsara or an eternal cycle of reincarnation. In one’s subsequent births, one inherits karma (positive or negative consequences) from the religious works or dharma one has or has not performed 35 . The goal of one’s life is to break away from the endless repetitive reincarnations and achieve mukti , liberation, and return to the original and natural state of Krishna Consciousness 36 . The only way to achieve mukti is through bhakti , a state of active worship, service, and devotion of the deity 37 . There are nine ways to achieve bhakti. There are nine processes of devotional service expounded as hearing the name and glories of the Supreme Personality of Godhead (sravana), chanting His glories ( kirtana ), remembering the Lord ( smarana ), serving the Lord’s feet ( paricarya ), worshiping the Deity ( arcana ), offering obeisances unto the Lord ( vandana ), acting as the Lord’s servant ( dasya ), making friends with the Lord ( sakhya ) and surrendering oneself fully to the Lord ( atmanivedana ).

Most fully initiated devotees of Krishna consciousness, live in Krishna temples and adopt a major transformation in appearance and dress 38 . Male devotees shave their heads except for a small tuft of hair at the back of the head called a sikha . Both sexes wear holy markings ( tilaka ) on their twelve locations on their body 39 . Men wear Indian style lower robes called dhotis with long, loose shirts called kurta 40 . Women wear Indian style garments called saris 41 . All wear small tulasi beads and a sack with a string of one hundred eight japa beads around their necks 42 . Each devotee must complete sixteen rounds on the japa beads everyday with one rotation of one hundred and eight beads constituting one round 43 .

Although the daily routines of devotees and Krishna temples varies somewhat due to the nature of the work performed, most temples have similar schedules 44 . Most devotees rise around 4AM. Devotees chant, perform religious ceremonies, and worship for a couple of hours 45 . After breakfast devotees perform duties in their communities and their temple for approximately three to four hours 46 . Following lunch, devotees perform sinkirtana (group chanting in public places), have class about the Vedic tests, and perform an arati ceremony 47 . Most devotees go to bed around 9PM.

Issues and Controversies

The International Society for Krishna Consciousness has been involved in a number of controversies and lawsuits in the United States and throughout the world. Lawsuits have been brought both against ISKCON and by ISKCON.

On June 22, 1981, the Supreme Court decided the case of Heffron, the secretary and manager of the Minnesota State Agricultural Society, v. ISKCON 48 . Minnesota State Agricultural Society operates the Minnesota state fair. They have a rule mandating that all groups or persons wishing to sell or distribute materials must have a license and do so from a fixed location 49 . However, groups may verbally communicate their message throughout the fair. ISKCON alleged that the mandate violated their First Amendment rights because it suppressed the practice of Sankirtan, a religious ritual that enjoins its members to go into public places to distribute or sell religious literature and to solicit donations for the support of the Krishna religion 50 .

The Supreme Court decided that the restriction of ISKCON to a fixed location was a valid provision in light of the circumstances of the number of people and space restrictions 51 . Furthermore, because the regulation applied to all organizations, ISKCON must follow rule 6.05 52 . This decision drastically circumscribed the locations in which ISKCON could distribute materials. Furthermore, Heffron vs. ISKCON subjected ISKCON to licensing for the sale and distribution of religious materials.

In 1983, former member of ISKCON, Robin George, filed suit against ISKCON for allegedly “brainwashing” her 53 . Despite lack of evidence for the “brainwashing” theory and lack of validation of Dr. Margaret Thaler Singer’s “expertise” on brainwashing, George initially was awarded $32.5 million by the jury; however, the judge cut the amount to $9.7 million 54 . Appeals court reduced the amount awarded to $3 million in 1987 and the Supreme Court further reduced the damages to $75,000 for wrongful death 55 .

On June 26, 1992, the United States Supreme Court decided the case of ISKCON, Inc. versus Walter Lee 56 . The International Society for Krishna Consciousness brought suit seeking declaratory and injunctive relief against a ban on solicitation at the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey 57 . They alleged that the regulation deprived them of their First Amendment rights 58 .

The Supreme Court decided that an airport terminal operated by a public authority is a nonpublic forum, and thus a solicitation ban need only satisfy a reasonableness standard 59 . The Court found that the Port Authority’s ban on solicitation was reasonable because solicitation may have a disruptive effect on business 60 .

The Supreme Court’s decision dealt a major blow to the financial operations of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness since their primary financial base was literature distribution and solicitation in shopping malls, airports, and national parks 61 .

The most devastating situation for ISKCON has been the substantiation of claims of abuse of children of ISKCON by members of ISKCON. In July 1998, the ISKCON movement voluntarily published two articles, one by Burke Rochford, an outside scholar, and one by Bharata Shrestha dasa, an ISKCON member, about the child abuse in the ISKCON movement 62 .

ISKCON children lived in ashrams (group school houses) with children of similar age and sex 63 . The ashrams were developed to enable parents to participate in sankirtan 64 . The children were often enrolled as early as three or four and parental involvement was discouraged 65 . Several of ISKCON’s schools experienced relatively high levels of child abuse (for example, India, Dallas, Seattle, New Vrindaban), whereas others experienced considerably less (for example, Bhaktivedanta Village, California; New Talavan, Mississippi) 66 .

The virtual collapse of gurukulas (boarding schools) in the United States has all but eliminated abuse of children 67 . The last two regionally based ashram-gurukulas closed in North America by 1986 68 . Now, ISKCON schools are almost exclusively day-schools.

In 1990 at the annual ISKCON Governing Board Committee (GBC) meetings held in Mayapur, India, Resolution 119 was passed 69 . It resolved how to investigate instances of abuse in the gurukulas (ISKCON schools) 70 . However, the resolution does not address the problem of prevention.

In the early 1990s, there were two cases of abuse in the Chicago area. The temple president followed the Resolutions, the suspects were removed from their ISKCON positions, and eventually convicted by local authorities 71 .

An increased impetus for change came in May 1996, at the North American GBC meeting in Alachua, Florida 72 . A group of former gurukula pupils were invited to speak and their stories brought the entire audience of ISKCON members to tears. Less than a year after the May 1996 testimonies, the GBC had enacted a proposal put forward by the ISKCON Communications team in Europe which proposed that the GBC Task Force be created to deal not only with future cases of abuse and also to address past cases 73 . That Task Force presented its findings at the annual Mayapur GBC meetings in early 1998 and new GBC Resolutions 98-305 were enacted 74 . ISKCON sought to deal with the child abuse issues on its own initiative without government intervention. The new Child Protection Policy outlines acceptable standards of behavior for those in contact with children, sets up a review panel to investigate and, if necessary, reopen past cases, sets up a tribunal court system to hear cases, creates a permanent Child Protection Office, and, perhaps most importantly, funds the office, the judges, and at least partial costs of victim rehabilitative therapy 75 .

On June 12, 2000, a federal lawsuit filed in Dallas on behalf of forty-four “Children of ISKCON” alleged physical, emotional, and sexual abuse at the gurukulas or boarding schools. The plaintiffs sought $400,000,000 76 . The suit alleged that the abuse ranged in time from 1971 to 1990 and named all foundations, estates, and businesses of ISKCON as defendants 77 . The suit also alleged that Prabhupada had known about the abuse since 1972, yet continued to allow the offenders to be in positions of authority over children 78 . According to a Krishna spokeswoman, the size of the lawsuit is larger than the combined assets of all the Krishna temples and communities throughout the world 79 .

ISKCON maintains that although child abuse occurred in the movement, ISKCON does not condone child abuse 80 . Furthermore, child abuse is antithetical to the principles of ISKCON 81 . Moreover, the ISKCON Governing Board Commission has created policies to prevent abuse and provide counseling and financial contributions to past victims 82 . The outcome of the lawsuit remains to be seen.

Bibliography

Bromley, David G. and Larry D. Shinn, eds. 1989. Krishna Consciousness in the West. Lewisburg, OH: Bucknell University Press.

Brooks, Charles R. 1989. The Hare Krishnas in India. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Cooper, Kenneth J. 1998. “Lip-Syncing Robots Spread the Hare Krishna Word.” The Washington Post 13 April: A18.

Daner, Francine Jeanne. 1976. The American Children of Krsna: A Study of the Hare Krishna Movement.” New York: Holt Rinehart, and Winston.

Felsenthal, Edward. 1996. “Legal Beat: Krishnas win appeal.” Wall Street Journal 20 December: Sect. B, Col. 6, 8.

Ferrell, David. 1990. “A Tale of Murder Among the Hare Krishnas.” Los Angeles Times 28 October: Sect. B, Col. 2, 1.

Goodstein, Laurie. 1998. “Hare Krishna Movement Details Past Abuse at Its Boarding Schools.” New York Times 9 October: Sect. A, Col. 5, 1.

Gosvami, Satsvarupa Dasa. 1980. Srila Prabhupada-lilarmta: a biography of His Divine Grace A.C. Vhaktivedanta Sqami Prabhupada. Los Angeles: Bkativedanta Book Trust.

Greene, Donna. 1993 “An inside look at the Hare Krishnas.” New York Times 28 November: Sect. WC, Col. 1, 3.

“Hare Krishna Fight Judgement.” Washington Post 10 March 1990: Sec. B, Col. 2, 6.

Melton, J. Gordon.Encyclopedia of American Religions. Detroit: Gale Research Co., 920-921.

Muster, Nori Jean. 1997. Betrayal of the spirit: my life behind the headlines of the Hare Krishna movement. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.

Niebuhr, R. Gustav. 1992. “Legal Beat: Diverse Religions ALly in Free-Speech Case.” Wall Street Journal 11 June: Sec. B, Col. 3, 2.

Niebuhr, R. Gustav. 1996. “Hare Krishnas at 30:Real Changes or Just P.R.?” New York Times 11 May.

Rochford, E. Burke Jr. 1985. Hare Krishna in America. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.

Rochford, E. Burke Jr. with Jennifer Heinlein. 1998. “Child Abuse in the Hare Krishna Movement: 1971-1986.” in ISKCON Communications Journal (online) (June). Available on line.

Rochford, E Burke Jr. 1998. “Reaction of Hare Krishna Devotees to Scandals of Leaders’ Misconduct.” in Wolves Within the Fold: Religious Leadership and Abuses of Power . Anson Shupe, Ed. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. 101-1170.

Rosen, Steven. 1992. Passage from India: the life and times of his divine grave A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada’s summary study of Satsvarupa Dasa Goswami Srila Prabhupada Lilamrta. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.

Shresthra dasa, Bharata. “ISKCON’s Response to child Abuse: 1990-1998.” ISKCON Communications Journal (online) June 1998.

Shinn, Larry D. 1987. The dark lord: cult images and the Hare Krishnas in America. Philadelphia: Westminster Press.

Weiss, Arnold S. 1987. “Psychological Distress and well-being among the Hare Krishnas.” Psychological Reports August: v. 61, 23-25.

Yanoff, Morris. 1981. Where is Joey?: Lost among the Hare Krishnas. Chicago: Swallow Press.

Footnotes

  • Prabhupada Centennial Survey: A Summary of the Final Report http://www.iskcon.com/ICJ/7_1/71rochford.htm
  • Srila Prabhupada’s Disciple Database http://www.chakra.org/mainpages/sp_database/index.htm
  • Rosen, Steven. Passage from India: The Life and Times of A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. p15.
  • The Author http://krsnabook.com/author/
  • The Author http://krsnabook.com/author/
  • The Author http://krsnabook.com/author/
  • The Author http://krsnabook.com/author/
  • Rosen, Steven. Passage from India: The Life and Times of A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. p50.
  • Rosen, Steven Passage from India: The Life and Times of A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. p50-51.
  • Bromley, David G. and Anson Shupe ISKCON: (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) http://etext.virginia.edu/~jkh8x/docs/krishna.html/
  • His Divine Grace, A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada http://www.iskcon.org/main/twohk/prabhu.html/
  • His Divine Grace, A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada http://www.iskcon.org/main/twohk/prabhu.html/
  • The Author http://krsnabook.com/author/
  • Bromley, David G. and Anson Shupe ISKCON: (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) http://etext.virginia.edu/~jkh8x/docs/krishna.html/
  • The Author http://krsnabook.com/author/
  • Rosen, Steven. Passage from India: The Life and Times of A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. p106.
  • Bromley, David G. and Anson Shupe ISKCON: (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) http://etext.virginia.edu/~jkh8x/docs/krishna.html/
  • Rosen, Steven. Passage from India: The Life and Times of A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada. p99.
  • Bromley, David G. and Anson Shupe ISKCON: (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) http://etext.virginia.edu/~jkh8x/docs/krishna.html/
  • The Author http://krsnabook.com/author/
  • The Author http://krsnabook.com/author/
  • The Author http://krsnabook.com/author/
  • History http://www.iskcon.com/ISKCON/iskcon.htm#history
  • History http://www.iskcon.com/ISKCON/iskcon.htm#history
  • ISKCON Resource Centre http://www.iskcon.com/Resource_Centre/RC_Temple_Addresses
  • ISKCON Resource Centre http://www.iskcon.com/Resource_Centre/RC_Temple_Addresses
  • Bromley, David G. and Anson Shupe ISKCON: (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) http://etext.virginia.edu/~jkh8x/docs/krishna.html/
  • Shinn, Larry D. The Dark Lord: Cult Images and the hare Krishnas in America. p32.
  • Beliefs http://www.iskcon.org/main/twohk/iskcon/what.html
  • What is Hare Krishna? http://www.webcom.com/ara/col/philo/phi-what.html
  • Shinn, Larry D. The Dark Lord: Cult Images and the hare Krishnas in America. p80.
  • Bromley, David G. and Anson Shupe. ISKCON: (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) http://etext.virginia.edu/~jkh8x/docs/krishna.html/
  • Bromley, David G. and Anson Shupe. Krishna Consciousness in the West. p143.
  • The Best Food in the world http://www.webcom.com/ara/col/philo/phi-food.html
  • Shinn, Larry D. The Dark Lord: Cult Images and the hare Krishnas in America. p82.
  • Bromley, David G. and Anson Shupe. ISKCON: (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) http://etext.virginia.edu/~jkh8x/docs/krishna.html/
  • Bromley, David G. and Anson Shupe. ISKCON: (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) http://etext.virginia.edu/~jkh8x/docs/krishna.html/
  • Bromley, David G. and Anson Shupe. ISKCON: (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) http://etext.virginia.edu/~jkh8x/docs/krishna.html/
  • Bromley, David G. and Anson Shupe. Krishna Consciousness in the West. p150.
  • Bromley, David G. and Anson Shupe. Krishna Consciousness in the West. p150.
  • Bromley, David G. and Anson Shupe. ISKCON: (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) http://etext.virginia.edu/~jkh8x/docs/krishna.html/
  • Bromley, David G. and Anson Shupe ISKCON: (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) http://etext.virginia.edu/~jkh8x/docs/krishna.html/
  • Bromley, David G. and Anson Shupe ISKCON: (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) http://etext.virginia.edu/~jkh8x/docs/krishna.html/
  • Rochford, E. Burke, Jr. Hare Krishna in America. p15.
  • Rochford, E. Burke, Jr. Hare Krishna in America. p15.
  • Rochford, E. Burke, Jr. Hare Krishna in America. p15.
  • Bromley, David G. and Anson Shupe. ISKCON: (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) http://etext.virginia.edu/~jkh8x/docs/krishna.html/
  • Heffron v. ISKCON http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=search&coname/
  • Heffron v. ISKCON http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=search&coname/
  • Heffron v. ISKCON http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=search&coname/
  • Heffron v. ISKCON http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=search&coname/
  • Heffron v. ISKCON http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=search&coname/
  • CESNUR Melton’s Critique of Brainwashing http://www.cesnur.org/testi/melton.htm
  • ISKCON http://www.orthodoxstudies.org/cults/iskconpro.htm
  • ISKCON http://www.orthodoxstudies.org/cults/iskconpro.htm
  • NY Port Authority v. ISKCON http://209.213.106.40/gma/legal/details.cfm/1005
  • NY Port Authority v. ISKCON http://209.213.106.40/gma/legal/details.cfm/1005
  • NY Port Authority v. ISKCON http://209.213.106.40/gma/legal/details.cfm/1005
  • NY Port Authority v. ISKCON http://209.213.106.40/gma/legal/details.cfm/1005
  • NY Port Authority v. ISKCON http://209.213.106.40/gma/legal/details.cfm/1005
  • Bromley, David G. and Anson Shupe ISKCON: (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) http://etext.virginia.edu/~jkh8x/docs/krishna.html/
  • ISKCON Communications Journal http://www.iskcon.com/ICJ/6_1/6_1_contents.htm
  • Rochford, E. Burke, Jr. with Jennifer Heinlein. Child Abuse in the Hare Krishna Movement: 1971-1986. http://www.iskcon.com/ICJ/6_1/6_1rochford.htm/
  • Rochford, E. Burke, Jr. with Jennifer Heinlein. Child Abuse in the Hare Krishna Movement: 1971-1986. http://www.iskcon.com/ICJ/6_1/6_1rochford.htm/
  • Rochford, E. Burke, Jr. with Jennifer Heinlein. Child Abuse in the Hare Krishna Movement: 1971-1986. http://www.iskcon.com/ICJ/6_1/6_1rochford.htm/
  • Rochford, E. Burke, Jr. with Jennifer Heinlein. Child Abuse in the Hare Krishna Movement: 1971-1986. http://www.iskcon.com/ICJ/6_1/6_1rochford.htm/
  • Rochford, E. Burke, Jr. with Jennifer Heinlein. Child Abuse in the Hare Krishna Movement: 1971-1986. http://www.iskcon.com/ICJ/6_1/6_1rochford.htm/
  • Rochford, E. Burke, Jr. with Jennifer Heinlein. Child Abuse in the Hare Krishna Movement: 1971-1986. http://www.iskcon.com/ICJ/6_1/6_1rochford.htm/
  • Bharata Shrestha dasa ISKCON’s Response to Child Abuse: 1990-1998. http://www.iskcon.com/ICJ/6_1/6_1bharata.htm/
  • Bharata Shrestha dasa ISKCON’s Response to Child Abuse: 1990-1998. http://www.iskcon.com/ICJ/6_1/6_1bharata.htm/
  • Bharata Shrestha dasa ISKCON’s Response to Child Abuse: 1990-1998. http://www.iskcon.com/ICJ/6_1/6_1bharata.htm/
  • Bharata Shrestha dasa ISKCON’s Response to Child Abuse: 1990-1998. http://www.iskcon.com/ICJ/6_1/6_1bharata.htm/
  • Bharata Shrestha dasa ISKCON’s Response to Child Abuse: 1990-1998. http://www.iskcon.com/ICJ/6_1/6_1bharata.htm/
  • Bharata Shrestha dasa ISKCON’s Response to Child Abuse: 1990-1998. http://www.iskcon.com/ICJ/6_1/6_1bharata.htm/
  • Bharata Shrestha dasa ISKCON’s Response to Child Abuse: 1990-1998. http://www.iskcon.com/ICJ/6_1/6_1bharata.htm/
  • Hare Krishna’s Sued for Child Abuse http://www.wturley.com/
  • Hare Krishna’s Sued for Child Abuse http://www.wturley.com/
  • Hare Krishna’s Sued for Child Abuse http://www.wturley.com/
  • Hare Krishnas Respond to Lawsuit http://www.iskcon.com/release.htm
  • Hare Krishnas Respond to Lawsuit http://www.iskcon.com/release.htm
  • Hare Krishnas Respond to Lawsuit http://www.iskcon.com/release.htm
  • Hare Krishnas Respond to Lawsuit http://www.iskcon.com/release.htm

 

Created by Corrie Johnston
For Soc 257: New Religious Movements
Fall Term, 2000
University of Virginia
Last modified: 07/19/01
An earlier version of this page created by Sharon Lawrence is archived here

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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