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Victoria Ferentinou

Victoria Ferentinou is Assistant Professor at the University of Ioannina, Greece, where she teaches art theory and history of art. She is the author of a number of articles and book chapters on international Surrealism and women artists, and on the relationship between modern art and esotericism. She is also a contributor to The International Encyclopedia of Surrealism (Bloomsbury 2018) and co-editor of Surrealism, Occultism and Politics: In Search of the Marvellous (Routledge 2017).
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Spiritualism and the Visual Arts

SPIRITUALISM AND THE VISUAL ARTS TIMELINE 1814 (April 20):  Georgiana Houghton was born in Las Palmas, Canary Islands. 1824 (January 15):  Anna Mary Howitt (later Howitt-Watts) was born in Nottingham, England. 1832 (February 10):  David Duguid was born in Dunfermline, Scotland.  1848 (March 31):  Spirit phenomena began in Hydesville, New York with the Fox Sisters, Kate (1836-1892), Margaret (1834-1893), and (later) Leah (1811-1890), the conventional date for the origins of Spiritualism, although mediums had been active before. 1853-1855:  Seances with productions of spirit art took place in the home of Victor Hugo in Jersey, Channel Islands. 1857:  Allan Kardec (pseudonym of Hippolyte Denizard Léon Rivail, 1804-1869), published The Book of the Spirits, the most influential textbook of the French version of Spiritualism, also known as “Spiritism.” 1862 (October 26):  Hilma…
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Scientology and the Visual Arts

VISUAL ARTS TIMELINE 1911 (March 13):  Lafayette Ron Hubbard was born in Tilden, Nebraska. 1946 (March 14):  Claude Sandoz was born in Zurich, Switzerland. 1948 (October 8):  Gottfried Helnwein was born in Vienna, Austria. 1950 (May 9):  Hubbard published Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. 1951 (August 1):  Hubbard published Science of Survival, which included a section about aesthetics and the visual arts. 1953 (November 12):  Carl-W. Röhrig was born in Munich, Germany. 1965 (August 30):  Hubbard published his first technical bulletin of the “Art” series. 1977 (September 26):  Hubbard published his technical bulletin on “Art and Communication.” 1984 (February 26):  Hubbard published his technical bulletins on “Colors,” and on “Art and Integration,” where he presented his theory of the mood lines. 1986 (January 24):  Hubbard died in Creston,…
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Christian Science and the Visual Arts

VISUAL ARTS TIMELINE 1821 (July 16):  Mary Baker, later Mary Baker Eddy, founder of Christian Science, was born in Bow, New Hampshire. 1850 (date unknown):  Painter James Franklin Gilman was born, possibly in Woburn (Massachusetts). 1874 (June 10):  Painter and muralist Violet Oakley was born in Bergen Heights, New Jersey. 1875:  Mary Baker published the first edition of her main theoretical work, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, which includes several comments on the visual arts. 1879:  The Church of Christ (Scientist) was founded. 1893:  Mary Baker Eddy started the construction in Boston of the Mother Church, Christian Science's architectural masterpiece. 1893:  Eddy and Gilman published the illustrated book Christ and Christmas. 1893 (December 21):  Winifred Nicholson was born in Oxford. 1902-1927:  Oakley produced a key work in the…
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Zbigniew Makowski

ZBIGNIEW MAKOWSKI TIMELINE  1930 (January 31):  Zbigniew Makowski was born in Warsaw, Poland. 1950:  Makowski was admitted to the Academy of Fine Arts in Warsaw. 1956:  Makowski obtained his diploma after working in the workshop of K. Tomorowicz in Warsaw. 1957:  The first individual exhibition of the artist took place in the student club Hybrids in Warsaw. 1958/1959:  Makowski created his first illuminated book, which opened a series of over two hundred works of this kind. In order to produce it, he worked on a book by Theosophist Annie Besant, writing and painting on a copy of it. 1962:  Makowski travelled to Paris, where he met André Breton and became involved with the artistic movement Phases. 1965/1966:  Makowski worked as a lecturer in the National Higher School of Fine Arts…
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Christian Science and the Visual Arts

VISUAL ARTS TIMELINE 1821 (July 16):  Mary Baker, later Mary Baker Eddy, founder of Christian Science, was born in Bow, New Hampshire. 1850 (date unknown):  Painter James Franklin Gilman was born, possibly in Woburn (Massachusetts). 1874 (June 10):  Painter and muralist Violet Oakley was born in Bergen Heights, New Jersey. 1875:  Mary Baker published the first edition of her main theoretical work, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, which includes several comments on the visual arts. 1879:  The Church of Christ (Scientist) was founded. 1893:  Mary Baker Eddy started the construction in Boston of the Mother Church, Christian Science's architectural masterpiece. 1893:  Eddy and Gilman published the illustrated book Christ and Christmas. 1893 (December 21):  Winifred Nicholson was born in Oxford. 1902-1927:  Oakley produced a key work in the…
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Entry Index

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z*** *** For an alternative directory organized by sets of related profiles, see Entries By Category A Abramovic, Marina Adidam Adi Da Samraj A COURSE IN MIRACLES A Course in Miracles | Marianne Williamson Aetherius Society AFRICA Faith of Unity | Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments | Redeemed Christian Church of God | Shashemene | Zar Spirit Possession in Central Sudan | Zion Christian Church | AFRICAN AMERICAN TRADITIONS Father Divine | Moorish Science Temple of America | Mother Divine | MOVE Nation of Islam | Nation of Yahweh | People Love People House of God | St. John Will-I-AmColtrane African Orthodox Church |…
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El Niño Fidencio

EL NIÑO FIDENCIO TIMELINE 1898 (October 17):  José de Jesús Fidencio Constantino Síntora was born in Guanajuato, Mexico. 1910-1920:  The Mexican Revolution took place. 1917:  The Constitution of Mexico was used to restrict the power of the Catholic Church. 1924-1928:  Plutarco Elias Calles served as President of Mexico. 1925:  Fidencio arrived in Espinazo and began acquiring the reputation of a healer with miraculous powers. 1926:  "Calles Law" based in the 1917 Constitution was used to initiate severe punishments against the Roman Catholic Church and Catholic clergy. 1926-1929:  Armed priests and laypersons responded to the religious oppression with the Crístero Rebellion. 1927:  Fidencio was called to relieve others’ sufferings in a divine vision. 1928 (February 8):  President Calles visited Fidencio for six hours for a healing session. 1929 (February 18):  Fidencio…
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Church of Scientology

CHURCH OF SCIENTOLOGY TIMELINE 1911 (March 13):  Lafayette Ron Hubbard was born in Tilden, Nebraska. 1938 (January 1):  Hubbard claimed to have a near-death experience and wrote his “Excalibur” manuscript. 1950 (April):  Hubbard and John Campbell formed the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation (HDRF). 1950:  “Dianetics” was published in Astounding Science Fiction in May and then in book form as Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health. 1950-1951:  Dianetics practitioners began to report memories from past lives. Hubbard developed the idea of the thetan and past lives. 1951-1952:  Hubbard began to use the E-meter in Dianetics auditing. 1952:  Hubbard Association of Scientologists (HAS) was formed in Phoenix, Arizona. 1953:  (December) Hubbard incorporated three “churches,” including the Church of Scientology. 1954 (February 18):  The first church of Scientology opened in California. 1956: …
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Raoul Dal Molin Ferenzona

FERENZONA TIMELINE 1879 (September 24):  Raoul Ferenzona was born in Florence, Italy. 1880 (April 19):  Ferenzona's father, a controversial political journalist who wrote under the pseudonym “Giovanni Antonio Dal Molin,” was assassinated in Livorno. Raoul would later change his last name to “Dal Molin Ferenzona” to honor his father. 1890 (ca):  Ferenzona was enrolled in a military college in Florence and subsequently in the Military Academy in Modena. 1899:  Ferenzona published in Modena his first book: Primulae - novelle gentili (Primulas – Gentle Tales), a collection of tales. 1900:  Ferenzona made his first artistic apprenticeship in Palermo under the guidance of the sculptor Ettore Ximenes. 1901:  Ferenzona was admitted to the Art Academy in Florence, renowned at that time for its nude art classes. 1902:  Ferenzona travelled to Monaco, where…
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