AUSTRALIAN CHRISTIAN LOBBY TIMELINE
1995: The Australian Christian Coalition was founded by John Gagliardi and John McNicoll.
2000: John Gagliardi retired. Jim Wallace became Managing Director.
2001: The Australian Christian Coalition was renamed the Australian Christian Lobby (ACL).
2004: The National Marriage Coalition formed to oppose same-sex marriage legislation. The Compass Annual Conference for young Christians was established.
2007: The first federal Meet the Candidate Event between Prime Minister John Howard and opposition leader Kevin Rudd was held.
2008: The ACL opposed reintroduction of euthanasia legislation in the Northern Territory.
2010: Prime Minister Julia Gillard promised Wallace (and other religious leaders) to continue funding the school chaplaincy program and support religious institutions’ ability to include religious criteria in making employee choices.
2011: The Lachlan Macquarie Internship was established. Prime Minister Julia Gillard met with a group of Christian leaders organised by the ACL
2012: Prime Minister Julia Gillard canceled her appearance at the ACL’s national conference.
2013: Jim Wallace retired. Lyle Shelton became managing director of ACL.
2014: Opposition Leader Bill Shorten used his keynote address at the ACL’s national conference to affirm his support for same-sex marriage legislation.
2016: ACL lobbied against changes to abortion legislation in Queensland.
2016: There was an explosion at the ACL Canberra office.
2018: Lyle Shelton stepped down as the head of of the Australian Christian Lobby to pursue a career in federal politics
The Australian Christian Lobby (ACL) was founded as the Australian Christian Coalition in 1995 by John Gagliardi, Queensland businessman, [Image at right] journalist and lay leader of the Brisbane-based Christian Outreach Centre (COC) Pentecostal megachurch and John McNicoll, a retired Baptist minister turned lobbyist (Hey 2010:256). Other members of the original Australian Christian Coalition were Neil Miers, international president of COC from 1990 to 2009, and David MacDonald, senior pastor of COC (Maddox 2015). The original purpose of the group was to create a network of educated Christians to write position papers, impact election outcomes and hold politicians accountable to Christian values (Gagliardi 1995). The choice of name was inspired by the Christian Coalition in the U.S. In forming the Australian Christian Coalition, Gagliardi (1995) hoped to provide “a unified Christian voice to overturn decades of Godless, hedonistic, self-gratifying qualities and personal values.” The group claims to have 80,000 members and be “a voice for values” stating that their vision “is to see Christian principles influencing the way we are governed, do business, and relate to each other as a community” (ACL 2017). The ACL asserts it is both nonpartisan and non-denominationally aligned. The group’s lobbying efforts primarily focus on opposition to same-sex marriage, abortion, euthanasia, and sexualised outdoor advertising and on support for the maintenance of funding to private schools and for chaplaincy programs. The ACL has successfully created an influential conservative Christian lobby group in Australian federal politics.
Gagliardi retired from the Managing Director position in 2000 and Jim Wallace, a retired Brigadier-General of the Australian Defence Force, took over the position. [Image at right] Under Wallace’s leadership, the group changed its name to the Australian Christian Lobby in 2001. This step was taken to distance the organization from the U.S. model of Christian lobby groups, constituted a tactical shift in lobbying efforts, and began a suite of activities to consolidate the group’s influence. These activities included hosting meet-the-candidates webcasts called “Make It Count” during federal and state election campaigns, implementing the Lachlan Macquarie internship program, and maintaining an active presence on social media platforms. The ACL runs an office in the Australian capital city of Canberra from which they seek meetings with parliamentarians, and submit material to panels and parliamentary committees on issues of interest. The ACL also runs social media strategies through which they organise rallies and solicit donations from their supporters.
Under Wallace’s stewardship, the ACL collaborated with the Australian Family Association and the Fatherhood Foundation to form the National Marriage Coalition in 2004 (Maddox 2014:135) and this led to the development of the ‘Man+Wife=Life’ website which advocates traditional hetero-normative family structures. In 2011, The ACL established the Lachlan Macquarie Internship which offers post-tertiary educated Christians the opportunity to undertake a fourteen-week academic program culminating in a week’s work experience in Parliament House. This program aims to develop young Christian leadership skills to influence public policy. Lyle Shelton took over as Managing Director in 2013. [Image at right] Parliamentary discussions of legislation legalising same-sex marriage meant that the group directed more concentrated efforts to opposing such legislation, while at the same time supporting removal of discriminatory aspects of declared homosexual de facto partnerships. The ACL maintains an office in each Australian state and territory with a director to handle more localised events and campaigns. These offices organise local Make It Count events and meet the candidate forums for state elections, and offer voter information packages comparing candidates and party positions on hot-button political issues. The ACL operates a sophisticated lobbying effort at multiple levels of Australian government. Shelton stepped down as the head of of the Australian Christian Lobby to pursue a career in federal politics. He was succeeded by Martyn Iles (Doherty 2018).
The ACL claims to represent the majority of Christian opinion in Australia. The organization claims that it has an 80,000 membership (ACL 2017). The group often cites Australian census data to argue that because sixty-four percent of Australians adhere to Christianity, Australian values are therefore Christian. The ACL has managed to influence outcomes around several political issues, and their successful campaigns are usually coordinated with other conservative religious groups. In 2008, the group made submissions against the reintroduction of euthanasia legislation in the Northern Territory (ACL 2008). Crosthwaite (2013) argues that the ACL was instrumental in striking down human rights legislation during the 2009 National Human Rights Consultation arguing (in a contrary position to that of the Uniting, Catholic and Anglican churches) Australia should not “be protected by an Act enumerating legally enforceable human rights” (Crosthwaite 2013:8). On several occasions, the ACL managed to remove what they deem as sexually explicit or pornographic outdoor advertising images, particularly at the state level (ACL 2011). The group continues to make submissions to change the laws around outdoor advertising to the Advertising Standards Board. In 2010, Wallace contributed to concerted lobbying efforts to maintain the school chaplaincy program with the aim of reviewing the program for possible funding increases (Stephens 2010). In 2011, Prime Minister Julia Gillard met with over twenty leaders from Christian churches at meeting organised by the ACL, assuring these representatives that she supports freedom of religion, and opposes euthanasia and same sex marriage (Shanahan 2011). Meeting with Wallace and other religious leaders in 2013, Gillard provided further assurances that proposed changes to human rights legislation would not affect the ability of religious groups to select employees on the grounds of religion, gender or sexuality (Maddox 2014:137). During the lead-up to a government vote on same-sex marriage legislation in 2012, the ACL worked with other religious organisations and lobbied government to oppose the bill. The bill was defeated in the lower house by 98-42, and Wallace claimed that Australians were ready to move on from the issue (Herald Sun 2012). The ACL’s successful lobbying efforts, which they often coordinate with other conservative religious groups, are primarily directed to single issues such as opposing same-sex marriage, advocating for a child’s “right” for access to parents of male and female sexes, and opposing aspects of proposed human rights legislation that could reduce the ability of religious organisations to discriminate on the basis of religion, sexuality, or gender.
The ACL (2015) asserts that the group is “nondenominational” and “rigorously non-partisan” in its lobbying efforts. Its stated purpose is to lobby for the preservation of Christian principles in all aspects of public policy and governance. The group represents conservative Christian foundations in their choices of issues and campaigns. The arguments they put forward regarding political issues are based on ideas of the need to protect the Christian values that they view as under threat from “secular humanism.” The founding principles and rhetorical strategy were originally modelled on the Christian Coalition from the United States. In his launch speech at the 1995 founding event, Gagliardi outlined the establishing principles upon which the ACL would position their various campaigns and lobbying efforts. He outlined a vision of Australian society beset by problems: “an adverse obsession with deviant sex, youth homelessness and suicide, drug addiction, alcoholism… marriage and family breakdown, increasing gap between the rich and the poor, abortion, euthanasia, pornography on primetime television” (Gagliardi 1995). Gagliardi (1995) blames Australia’s societal problems specifically on the advent of secular humanism in the 1960s: “a religion that has removed God… and replaced Him with man… Christians now live in a world run by the 60s free-love, anything goes, me-first generation.” His articulation of principles is similar to the rhetorical strategies employed by the Christian Right in the United States. The solution to the problems articulated in Gagliardi’s speech is a return to “lost Christian values.” In many ways, the ACL has developed Gagliardi’s vision and since 2001 has employed less strident rhetoric in public statements. Attempts have been made by ALC representatives to distance the group from US Christian-right strategies.
A number of people who have served in ACL leadership positions have links to conservative Australian political parties: the Liberal Party, the National Party and the Family First Party (Maddox 2014:140) and with conservative factions of the Australian Labor Party. The ACL’s ideas on economic management support free market capitalism. The group’s affinity for business is visible in the group’s “business-heavy board, business-oriented training and offers specifically to assist business people… with political connections” (Maddox 2014:140). Maddox (2014) observes that the ACL embraces free-market capitalism and denounces a homosexual “lifestyle.” For the ACL, humans are fundamentally unequal, a typically conservative view, and “membership of the elite is due to innate qualities—being born into a particular family or class” (Maddox 2014:142). The ACL’s views on marriage as a naturally occurring, biologically determined institution confirm their conservative political orientation. According to the ACL, homosexual relationships are not equal to heterosexual marriage, and homosexuals should not parent children because are they are not biologically connected to their children. In one his more controversial statements, Lyle Shelton has argued that allowing gay people to parent children would create a new “stolen generation” due to “the use of technology to sever a child from its biological parent in order that same sex couples could realise their desire to have children” (Swan 2013).
ACL’s organizational activities mainly involve lobby efforts, fundraising, and producing literature for persuading Australians to support its point of view. The group works to secure links to and meetings with as many politicians as possible, with varying degrees of success. As well as regular Meet the Candidate and Make It Count events, the ACL makes submissions to federal government committees on issues of interest with the aim of representing Australian Christian opinion. The group produces resources for use in the community to educate the public about campaigns and issues. Until 2012, it published a monthly magazine, Viewpoint, which is distributed at no cost to sitting members of parliament and available online for free download. Members of parliament in various parties were invited to write for this magazine, which was distributed to interested community members and churches. The group sends weekly update emails to members and releases an annual report every year. It maintains regular media interaction through interviews and periodic media releases. The ACL is highly active on social media and produces a regular podcast, sections of which are emailed to registered members. The group runs a website on which ACL leaders post blogs and media releases and they organise e-petitions on issues of interest to submit to members of state and federal parliaments. The organization also creates and promotes information packages for voters during federal elections comparing party policies with a view to explaining where the parties stand on issues considered to be important to Christians.
ACL is a not-for-profit group listed as an Australian Public Company Limited by guarantee and is run by a board of directors. Despite being founded through Australian Pentecostal megachurch COC (Christian Outreach Centre), the ACL’s organisational structure is corporate not ecclesiastical, and the group no longer has strong links to the church. As of 2016, Wallace is Chairman of the Board. Wallace served in the Australian Defence Force for thirty-two years before taking over the leadership of ALC and holds a Member of the Order of Australia for his Army service in counter-terrorism with the SAS. As of 2016, company directors were: Mark Allaby, a financial services advisor; David Burr, a commercial property lawyer and businessman; and Michelle Pearse, who worked for the Western Australian branch of the ACL directly after graduating university (ACL 2015). Lyle Shelton was appointed as Managing Director in 2013; he worked as a Pentecostal youth pastor, journalist, and previously had been a candidate for the rural National Party and Chief of Staff to the Canberra ACL office. Tony McLellan serves as Chairman Emeritus and has previously been the director of a variety of Christian non-government organisations and the Felix Resources coal mining company WHICH ONES (Maddox 2014:135). In 2018, Shelton stepped down as the head of of the Australian Christian Lobby to pursue a career in federal politics and was succeeded by Martyn Iles (Doherty 2018)
The ACL has staffed offices in all states and territories with the exception of South Australia and employs a range of people from a variety of business, political, and communications backgrounds. Maddox (2014:134) notes that the ACL tends to employ people from business and conservative political backgrounds.
The ACL is funded through donations from companies and private individuals, charging for attendance at special events, and revenue from advertising sponsors. As the group is a not-for-profit, it is not required to disclose all the names of those who give donations in its annual reports. As of 2012, Australian law requires a disclosure of political donations over $11, 900 (unless donated through a third-party entity), and the group is required to file political expenditure returns with the Australian Electoral Commission. The ACL is registered with the Australian Charities and Not-for-profits Commission as a large charity with an annual revenue of over $1,000,000 (ACNC 2015). According to the 2014 Director’s Report, the ACL received revenue from interest ($12, 853), donations ($2, 253, 724), special events ($81, 952), advertising ($36, 702), and other revenue ($46, 405) which gave the ACL a total annual revenue of $2, 431, 636 (ACL Director’s Report 2014:16). Maddox (2014:124) notes that the ACL receives donations from a variety of sources. MYOB software entrepreneur Craig Winkler, who also donates to conservative political part Family First, donated $113, 238 to the ACL in the 2007-2008 financial year (Maddox 2014:135). In the financial year 2010-2011, ACL received $30, 000 from Gloria Jeans Coffees International (a company whose owners attend the megachurch Hillsong in Sydney); superannuation firm Christian Super donated $13, 636; and $100, 000 was donated by Neil Golding, who has links to the mining, construction and real estate industries (Maddox 2014:135). Almost thirteen per cent of the ACL’s donations came from corporate sources that year. While these donations represent a minor portion of ACL’s annual revenue streams, these sources demonstrate that many of these business areas support the ACL’s positions (Maddox 2014:135).
Opposition to same-sex marriage legislation remains a long-running issue for the ACL and rhetoric around these campaigns has attracted controversy. Many of the ACL’s campaigns use language that espouses protection of family values and places a concern for care of children at the centre of their arguments. In Australia, there is strong opposition to many of the ACL’s stated positions on a variety of issues, and leaders have occasionally attracted controversy over statements, arguments, and planned events. While these controversies mean that the ACL is often cast in the Australian media in a negative light (often as homophobic, old-fashioned or ill-informed), the lasting result of the publicity afforded through these incidents is that the ACL appears to wield more influence in the Australian public sphere than may actually be the case (Smith 2013).
During his tenure as Managing Director, Wallace made several statements that politicians and community leaders condemned as misinformed. On ANZAC Day in 2011 Wallace posted on Twitter: “Just hope that as we remember Servicemen and women today we remember the Australia they fought for wasn’t gay marriage and Islamic [sic]” (Benson 2011). He apologised on Twitter immediately afterwards; however, the comment remained the subject of media analysis for the next few days. Benson (2011) notes on the ABC Religion and Ethics site that the ensuing Twitter discussion of Wallace’s comments ensured that the ACL received plenty of publicity from the incident and the number of people following Wallace’s personal Twitter account tripled in the days after the comment. The ACL often uses strong rhetoric to make claims that generate publicity in the media. Several LGBTI websites posted negative responses to Wallace’s comments, and some religious leaders refuted Wallace’s implied stance against Islam.
Queensland ACL Director Wendy Francis has led several campaigns against outdoor advertising images in her home state, attracting challenges to the ACL’s arguments of the need to protect the community, namely children, from sexualised images. In 2011, she campaigned to have one public health campaign image (of one man embracing another with a condom packet visible in one of the man’s hands) removed from her local bus shelter in the Brisbane CBD. The image was reinstated after community protests against Francis’ alleged homophobia. In an interview with the Brisbane Times, Francis made mention of three other campaigns she waged against outdoor advertising images: an advertisement for “The World’s Thinnest Condom,” billboards selling erectile dysfunction products, and an advertisement for HBO television program True Blood (featuring an image of two male vampires biting a young girl’s neck). Francis argued that the images were not appropriate for children to view and that discussions of sex should occur in the family home.
In 2012, Prime Minister Julia Gillard cancelled her planned appearance at the ACL national conference after Wallace argued during a debate against Greens Senator Christine Milne that being a gay male reduces life expectancy by twenty years (Packham 2012). Wallace said “The life of smokers is reduced by something like seven to ten years and yet we tell all our kids at school that they shouldn’t smoke… We need to be aware that the homosexual lifestyle carries these problems” (Packham 2012). Explaining her decision not to appear at the conference, Gillard said that “There are a range of deeply-held views in the community on the issue of same-sex marriage but it is the responsibility of all parties in this debate to be respectful and responsible in any public comments they make… I believe yesterday’s comments by Jim Wallace were offensive. To compare the health effects of smoking cigarettes with the many struggles gay and lesbian Australians endure in contemporary society is heartless and wrong.” The incident is an example of the ACL attempting to use a concern for health to deploy a particular view, in this case opposition to homosexuality.
In 2014, the Canberra Hyatt Hotel was criticised for hosting the ACL’s national conference. A Facebook campaign titled “Hey Hyatt, don’t support hate” opposed the hotel’s decision to host the conference in light of the “aggressive and inflammatory rhetoric” the ACL uses in its campaigns against same-sex marriage legislation. In a media statement, a spokeswoman for the Hyatt said that the hotel chain supports marriage equality and that the hotel did not always agree with the views of those who used the hotel as a meeting space, “We don’t discriminate against those who want to conduct lawful business at Hyatt hotels” (Busby 2014). Bill Shorten, the federal opposition leader, also came under pressure to withdraw as keynote speaker at the conference. However, Shorten used his speech to state his support for same-sex marriage legislation stating “When I see people hiding behind the bible to insult and demonise people in the basis of who they love, I cannot stay silent.” ACL Managing Director Lyle Shelton thanked Shorten for a “frank and fearless” address and a few days later made a public statement defending the ACL’s rhetoric while characterising Shorten’s remarks as “wide of the mark” in understanding Australian Christians (Karvelas 2014).
In November 2015, the ACL called for a school-based anti-LBGTI bullying program called Safe Schools to be axed. Wendy Francis said that the program was “potentially damaging” to children, and the ACL distributed flyers claiming that the program “encourages cross-dressing, teaches students gay and lesbian techniques, encourages kids to use either girls or boys bathrooms and encourages girls to bind their chests” (Patridge 2015). In February 2016, Lyle Shelton went on the panel show Q and A and said “I think you can address bullying without using contested gender ideology, and this is contested. People like Germaine Greer and the feminist movement do not go along with this.” Around this time, the ACL began using the terms “rainbow ideology” to describe their understanding of gender theory and continued to claim that a “rainbow agenda” (i.e. support for LGBTI issues and concerns) is damaging to children (ACL Media Release 2016). The Safe Schools program underwent federal review and links to some online resources were removed. The ACL continues to run an anti-Safe Schools website that directs users to email their local members of state and federal parliament protesting the implementation of the program.
In 2016, Queensland independent parliamentarian Rob Pyne proposed to reform the state’s abortion laws and put forward two bills which, if passed, would decriminalise abortion. The ACL campaigned against the bills, getting twenty-four thousand signatures on an e-petition in two weeks (News.com.au 2016), and Wendy Francis sent emails to ACL members encouraging people to attend a rally opposing the bills in Brisbane outside state parliament (ACL 2017). Thousands of people attended the “March for Life” on March 11, 2017 (Bowling 2017), and it was supported by several Christian denominations, including conservative Catholics and Pentecostals. A parliamentary debate on the bills was postponed until mid-2017 pending further information from a panel of health experts (Caldwell 2016).
On December 21, 2016, a van carrying gas bottles ran into the ACL offices in Canberra and exploded. [Image at right] Lyle Shelton claimed that on Radio National the next day that he was “sure it’s a message to intimidate us, to cause us to be silent in the public square, and that’s something we’re not prepared to do” (Karp and Jamieson 2016). The driver presented at Canberra hospital with burn injuries, and a police statement was issued after an interview with the man which stated that, “Police were able to establish the man’s actions were not politically, religiously or ideologically motivated” (Karp and Jameison 2016). Shelton expressed puzzlement at this conclusion on Twitter, commenting that the ACL has received numerous death threats and threats of violence (Karp and Jamieson 2016). Several political opponents of ACL expressed sympathy with the group over Twitter. An investigation by the federal police concluded that the explosion had been a suicide attempt on the driver’s part who was still receiving medical and mental illness treatment two months after the incident (The Guardian 2017). Shelton maintains that the attack was politically motivated, and “The alleged bomber knew he was targeting our office” (The Guardian 2017).
The ACL remains a fighting force in Australian politics. Their adept use of social media platforms, email communication, and website management gives them an ability to respond quickly to issues of their choice. The ACL has shown in recent times that they can convince their supporters to attend protests, thus taking their oppositions beyond e-Petitions. Their regular embroilment in controversy serves the purpose of generating publicity, and while their online platforms facilitate this, Shelton’s appearances on the discussion panel show Q and A rarely fail to provide a source of headlines. While the ACL has not, so far, directly influenced an election outcome at either state of federal level, it is successfully maintaining a highly vocal representation of conservative Christian interests in Australian politics. Largely due to their ability to create controversy, they appear to be increasingly significant in public conversations on their chosen issues.
Image #1: Photograph of John Gagliardi.
Image #2: Photograph of Jim Wallace.
Image #3: Photograph of Lyle Shelton.
Image #4: Australian Christian Lobby logo.
Image #5: Photograph of the ACL Canberra headquarters following the 2016 explosion.
Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2014. “Opposition Leader Bill Shorten Takes Same-sex Marriage Stance to Australian Christian Lobby,” October 26. Accessed from http://www.abc.net.au/news/2014-10-25/bill-shorten-says-he-supports-same-sex-marriage/5841236 on 19 January 2016.
Australian Charities and Not-For-Profit Register. 2015. Australian Christian Lobby. Viewed 19 January 2014. Available at <http://www.acnc.gov.au/RN52B75Q?ID=2DD34AB1-E89A-4443-B8FA-A2CD348E5DD9&noleft=1>.
Australian Charities and Not-For-Profit Register. 2015. Annual Information Statement 2013: Australian Christian Lobby. Accessed from http://www.acnc.gov.au/AIS2013?ID=2DD34AB1-E89A-4443-B8FA-A2CD348E5DD9&noleft=1 on 19 January 2016.
Australian Christian Lobby. 2017. About. Accessed from http://www.acl.org.au/about/ on 10 April 2017.
Australian Christian Lobby. 2017. Brisbane March for Life. Accessed from http://www.acl.org.au/brisbane_march_for_life on 7 April 2017.
Australian Christian Lobby. 2016. ACL Managing Director Lyle Shelton on Q and A Explains Why Safe Schools Is Concerning Parents. Accessed from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GpQCBoblkeg on 7 April 2017.
Australian Christian Lobby. 2016. Compass. Accessed from http://www.acl.org.au/programs/compass/ on 19 January 2016.
Australian Christian Lobby. 2016. Council’s Rainbow Capitulation a Worry for Parents Concerned about ‘Safe Schools’ Ideology. Accessed from http://www.acl.org.au/tags/gay_marriage 7 April 2017.
Australian Christian Lobby. 2014. Director’s Report. Accessed from http://www.acnc.gov.au/RN52B75Q?ID=2DD34AB1-E89A-4443-B8FA-A2CD348E5DD9&noleft=1 on 19 January 2016.
Australian Christian Lobby. 2013. Annual Report. Accessed from http://www.acl.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/ACL_AnnualReport2013_WebVersion.pdf on 19 January 2016.
Australian Christian Lobby. 2011. Man+wife4life Campaign Meeting a Success, February 4. Accessed from http://www.acl.org.au/2011/02/manwife4life-campaign-meeting-a-success/ on 19 January 2016.
Australian Christian Lobby. 2011. Media Release: People Power Wins in Removing Offending Ads. Accessed from http://www.acl.org.au/2011/05/mr-people-power-wins-in-removing-offending-ads/ on 31 May 2011.
Australian Christian Lobby. 2008. Submission to the Senate Legal and Constitutional Committee’s Inquiry into the Rights of the Terminally Ill (Euthanasia Laws Repeal) Bill 2008. Accessed from http://www.acl.org.au/wp-content/uploads/080409-ACL-euthanasia-submission.pdf on 19 January 2016.
Australian Christian Lobby. 2009. Submission to the National Human Rights Consultation. Accessed from http://www.acl.org.au/wp-content/uploads/090615-ACL-NHRC-submission.pdf on 12 August 2015.
Australian Electoral Commission. 2015. Political Expenditure Return 2009-2010 Australian Christian Lobby. Accessed from http://periodicdisclosures.aec.gov.au/PoliticalExpenditure.aspx?SubmissionID=24&ClientID=15605 on 19 January 2015.
Benson, Rod. 2011. “Jim Wallace and the ANZAC Tweet Firestorm.” Australian Broadcasting Corporation Religion and Ethics. Accessed from http://www.abc.net.au/religion/articles/2011/04/27/3201328.htm on
19 January 2016.
Bowling, Mark. 2017. “Thousands Take to Brisbane Streets to Oppose Abortion Bill.” The Catholic Leader, February 16. http://catholicleader.com.au/news/thousands-take-to-brisbane-streets-to-oppose-abortion-bills on 7 April 2017.
Busby, Sec. 2014. “Hyatt Hotel under Pressure to Cancel Australian Christian Lobby Conference.” Gay News Network, October 22. Accessed from http://gaynewsnetwork.com.au/news/hyatt-hotel-under-pressure-to-cancel-australian-christian-lobby-conference-15454.html on 19 January 2016.
Caldwell Fiona. 2016. “Abortion to Remain in the Criminal Code in Queensland in 2016.” Brisbane Times, December 4. 2016. Accessed from http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/abortion-to-remain-in-the-criminal-code-in-queensland-in-2016-20161202-gt2itr.html on 7 April 2017.
Crosthwaite, Hugh. 2013. “The Churches, the ACL and the National Human Rights Consultation.” Alt LJ. 38:8-13.
Doherty, Ben. 2018. “Lyle Shelton Quits Australian Christian Lobby to Enter Politics. The Guardian, February 2. Accessed from https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2018/feb/03/lyle-shelton-quits-australian-christian-lobby-to-enter-politics on 4 June 2018.
Francis, Wendy. 2015. “The Rights of Children Should Rule Same-Sex Marriage Debate.” Sunshine Coast Daily. April 1. Accessed from http://www.sunshinecoastdaily.com.au/news/rights-of-children-should-rule-the-same-sex-debate/2593468/ on 7 April 2017.
Herald Sun. 2012. “Christian Lobby Welcomes Gay Vote Defeat,” September 19. Accessed from http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/breaking-news/christian-lobby-welcomes-gay-vote-defeat/story-e6frf7kf-1226477342475 on 19 January 2016.
Karp, Paul and Amber Jamieson. 2016. “Australian Christian Lobby Van Explosion Not Politically Motivated, Police Say.” The Guardian, December 21. Accessed from https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2016/dec/21/australia-christian-lobby-van-crash-gas-cylinders-canberra on 7 April 2017.
Karvelas, Patricia. 2014. “Bill Shorten’s Description of Christians ‘Wide of the Mark’.”. The Australian, October 30. Accessed from http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/bill-shortens-description-of-christians-wide-of-the-mark/news-story/fc9a1765ee4354616b9a38a76f9527f5 on 19 January 2016.
Leys, Nick. 2012. “Christian Lobby Slams Seven’s Sunrise for Supporting Getup! Campaign on Gay Marriage.” The Australian, June 7. Accessed from http://www.theaustralian.com.au/business/media/christian-lobby-slams-sevens-sunrise-for-supporting-getup-campaign-on-gay-marriage/story-e6frg996-1226386779432 on 19 January 2016.
Lloyd, Peter. 2013. “How powerful is the Australian Christian Lobby?” PM, May 22. Accessed from http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2013/s3765154.htm on 19 January 2016.
Maddox, Marion. 2015. “Framing the Kingdom: Growth and Change in a Conservative Social Movement.” Pp. 49-74 in Religion After Secularization in Australia, edited by Timothy Stanley. Palgrave Macmillan: New York.
Maddox, Marion. 2005. God Under Howard: The Rise of the Religious Right in Australian Politics. Allen and Unwin: Crows Nest.
Maddox, Marion. 2014. “Right-wing Christian Intervention in a Naïve Polity: The Australian Christian Lobby.” Political Theology 15:132-50.
McIlroy, Tom and Ben Westcott. 2014. “Hyatt Hotel Defends Booking for Australian Christian lobby’s Anti-gay Marriage Conference.” The Canberra Times, October 21. Accessed from http://www.canberratimes.com.au/act-news/hyatt-hotel-defends-booking-for-australian-christian-lobbys-antigay-marriage-conference-20141021-1196rn.html on 19 January 2016.
Moore, Tony. 2011. “Who is Wendy Francis?” The Brisbane Times, June 3. Accessed from http://www.brisbanetimes.com.au/queensland/who-is-wendy-francis-20110603-1fkbe.html on 19 January 2016.
News.com.au. 2016. “Christian Lobby Fights Abortion Bill,” May 25. Accessed from http://www.news.com.au/national/breaking-news/christian-lobby-group-fights-abortion-bill/news-story/5f4fadf978d4c2b5494ab281abbc57aa on 7 April 2017.
Out In Perth. 2015. ACL Launches Fundraising Campaign to Lobby Politicians, May 25. Accessed from http://www.outinperth.com/acl-launches-fundraising-campaign-to-lobby-politicians/ on 19 January 2016.
Packham, Ben. 2012. “PM Cancels Speech to Christian lobby after ‘Offensive’ Gay Health Comment.” The Australian, September. 6 Accessed from http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/pm-cancels-speech-to-christian-lobby-after-offensive-gay-health-comment/story-fn59niix-1226466341750 on 19 January 2016.
Partridge. Emma. 2015. “Australian Christian Lobby Slams Safe Schools Anti-bullying Program.” The Sydney Morning Herald, November 4. Accessed from http://www.smh.com.au/nsw/australian-christian-lobby-slams-safe-schools-antibullying-program-20151103-gkq6gr.html on 7 May 2017.
Piggin, Stuart. 2012. Spirit, Word and World: Evangelical Christianity in Australia. Acorn Press: Brunswick East.
Shanahan, Dennis. 2011. “Julia Gillard Reaches Out to Christian Leaders.” The Australian, April 5. Accessed from http://www.theaustralian.com.au/national-affairs/julia-gillard-reaches-out-to-christian-leaders/story-fn59niix-1226033650529 on January 2016.
Stephens, Scott. 2010. “The Prime Minister Puts Her Faith in Chaplaincy.” Australian Broadcasting Corporation Religion and Ethics, August 10. Accessed from http://www.abc.net.au/religion/articles/2010/08/10/2978228.htm on 19 January 2016.
Swan, Jonathan. 2013. “Senator Wong Condemns Christian Lobby’s Stolen Generations Comment.”
The Sydney Morning Herald, May 21. Accessed from http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political news/senator-wong-condemns-christian-lobbys-stolen-generations-comment-20130521-2jyn3.html on 7 May 2017.
The Guardian. 2017. “Police Believe Explosion Outside Australian Christian Lobby Suicide Attempt, February 28. Accessed from https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2017/mar/01/police-believe-explosion-outside-australian-christian-lobby-a-suicide-attempt on 7 May 2017.
The Sydney Morning Herald. 2012. “Smoking Healthier Than Gay Marriage,” September 2. Accessed from http://www.smh.com.au/national/smoking-healthier-than-gay-marriage-20120905-25eca.html on 19 January 2016.
Warhurst, John. 2014. “The Australian Christian Lobby Will Not Go Away.” Eureka Street. Accessed from http://www.eurekastreet.com.au/article.aspx?aeid=42235#.VFfyTRZuojM on 24 November 2014.
Warhurst, John. 2014. “Pressure Groups and the Political Lessons Leaders Should Learn.” The Sydney Morning Herald, October 29. Accessed from http://www.smh.com.au/federal-politics/political-opinion/pressure-groups-and-the-lessons-political-leaders-should-learn-20141028-11dfwi on 19 January 2016.
25 April 2017