Karolina Maria Hess is an Assistant Professor in the Centre for Comparative Studies of Civilisations, Jagiellonian University (Kraków, Poland). She defended with honors her doctoral thesis in Philosophy, and she is a PhD candidate in a 2nd program – in Sociology. She also graduated in Pedagogy and Cultural Anthropology. She is a researcher in Western esotericism, alternative spirituality, and new religious movements focused mostly on Central and Eastern Europe area. She is a member of several international academic societies, and an author of numerous papers on esoteric and religious movements.