威廉·S·班布里奇

奥罗拉和伯特利


AURORA / BETHEL时间轴

1812年:后来发现这一运动的威廉(William)Keil出生于普鲁士。

1836年:基尔(Keil)和妻子路易莎(Louisa)来到美国,先是在纽约,然后是匹兹堡。

1844年:基尔(Keil)约有200名追随者,在密苏里州建立了伯特利殖民地。

1853年:从伯特利向西派遣了一支侦察队,为社区寻找新的地点。 他们报告说,在现在的华盛顿州,威拉帕湾将是一个不错的选择。

1855年:在基尔(Keil)的带领下,伯特利(Bethel)殖民地的很大一部分人漫长的跋涉来到了威拉帕湾(Wilapa Bay),并准备建立新房屋。

1856年:基尔(Keil)认为Willapa湾不合适,在后来成为俄勒冈州的土地上购买了土地,并命名了奥罗拉(Aurora)社区。

1862年:天花在奥罗拉(Aurora)杀死了凯尔(Keil)的四个孩子,其中包括一个十三岁的女孩,后被以这个殖民地的名字命名。

1877年:威廉·基尔(William Keil)去世,奥罗拉(Aurora)没有领导。

1883年:随着最后的财产变为私有,奥罗拉(Aurora)和伯特利(Bethel)殖民地的解散得以完成。

创始人/集团历史

Like many of the other religious communities founded in the United States in the nineteenth century, Bethel and its successor Aurora, were created by German immigrants who adapted their traditional religion as a basis for its social and economic structure.像1812世纪在美国成立的许多其他宗教社区一样,伯特利及其继任者奥罗拉(Aurora)由德国移民创立,他们将传统宗教作为其社会和经济结构的基础进行了调整。 The leader, Wilhelm (William) Keil, [Image at right] was born in Prussia in 1836 and came to the United States in XNUMX with his wife Louisa.领导人威廉·基尔(William Keil)于XNUMX年出生在普鲁士,于XNUMX年与妻子路易莎一起来到美国。 After a brief time in New York, they moved to Pittsburgh.在纽约短暂停留后,他们搬到了匹兹堡。 Keil was a self-taught “doctor” of herbalism before modern medicine, and he interacted in complex ways with existing religious movements before founding his own.凯尔(Keil)在现代医学之前是一位自学成才的草药学家,在创立自己的宗教组织之前,他与现有的宗教运动进行了复杂的互动。

一旦伯特利社区于1844年在密苏里州成立,其历史就变得相当稳定且有据可查,但是在此之前的十年仍然有争议。 原因之一是主要的历史资料是由对手卡尔·科赫(Carl G. Koch)撰写的,他曾在德国福音派社区中与基尔竞争,而基尔仍在发展其独特的宗教运动。 翻译德语文本时,我们看到许多描述Keil的单词和短语非常刻薄,包括“撒旦的驱使”,“自我崇拜”,“不道德的行为”和“骗子”(Koch 1871:135-36)。 然而,基尔的许多追随者并不这样看他,甚至包括科赫的兄弟弗里德里希。 (在1850年的人口普查中被命名为Frederick Cook,在1860年的人口普查中被命名为Frederick Koch; 1815年出生于普鲁士)。

当奥罗拉(Aurora)和伯特利(Bethel)[右图]都建立起来的时候,有两本书有力地界定了美国宗教公社的范围, 美国社会主义史 奥尼达公社的领导人约翰·汉弗莱·诺伊斯(John Humphrey Noyes,1870年)和 美国的共产主义社会 by Charles Nordhoff (1875), a travelogue writer.游记作家查尔斯·诺德霍夫(1875) Noyes was aware of the existence of Bethel, but wrote nothing about it, merely noting that there were eleven pages about Bethel in the trove of documents he inherited from AJ Macdonald who had died of cholera before he could write his book about socialist communities.诺耶斯意识到了伯特利的存在,但没有写任何有关它的信息,只是指出,在他从霍乱去世的AJ麦克唐纳(AJ Macdonald)继承的著作中,有多达十一页是关于伯特利的。 Nordhoff (306:307-XNUMX) visited Aurora, devoted a chapter to it, and reported this about Keil's early years in America:诺德霍夫(Nordhoff(XNUMX:XNUMX-XNUMX))访问了奥罗拉(Aurora),并为此专门写了一章,并报道了有关基尔(Keil)在美国的早年经历:

He became a mystic, and he seems to have dealt also in magnetism, and used this as a curative agent for diseases.他成为一个神秘主义者,似乎还从事磁性研究,并将其用作疾病的治疗剂。 After living for some time in New York, he came to Pittsburgh, where he gave himself out as a physician, and showed, it is said, some knowledge of botany.在纽约生活了一段时间之后,他来到了匹兹堡,在那里他出任医生,并据称展示了一些植物学知识。 He professed also to be the owner of a mysterious volume, written with human blood, and containing receipts for medicines which enabled him, as he professed, to cure various diseases.他还声称自己是一本神秘的书的所有者,该书用人类血液书写,并载有药品收据,使他据称能够治愈各种疾病。 Presently he became a Methodist, and thereupon burned this book with certain awe-inspiring formalities.现在他成为了卫理公会派教徒,并随后以某些令人敬畏的形式烧毁了这本书。 He seems to have been a fanatic in religious matters, for he soon left the Methodists to form a sect of his own;他似乎对宗教事务狂热,因为他很快就离开了卫理公会,成为了自己的教派。 and it is related that he gathered a number of Germans about him, to whom he gave himself out as a being to be worshiped, and later as one of the two witnesses in the Book of Revelation;与此有关的是,他聚集了许多德国人,向他献出自己的生命,以供崇拜,后来又成为《启示录》的两位证人之一。 and in this capacity he gave public notice that on a certain day, after a fast of forty days, he would be slain in the presence of his followers.他以这种身份向公众发出通知,在禁食XNUMX天后的某天,他将在追随者在场的情况下被杀害。

Presumably, the meaning of “magnetism” in this paragraph is some variant of the hypnotism developed by German doctor Franz Mesmer who believed in the existence of a mystical force possessed by all living beings, often called “animal magnetism” (Darnton 1970).在本段中,“磁性”的含义大概是德国医生弗朗兹·梅斯默(Franz Mesmer)提出的催眠术的某种变体,他相信所有生物都具有神秘的力量,通常被称为“动物磁性”(Darnton,1963年)。 Nordhoff then very briefly reports that Keil exploited a schism in the nearby millenarian intentional community called Harmony.诺德霍夫(Nordhoff)随后非常简短地报道说,基尔(Keil)在附近的一千个有意社区“和谐”中利用了分裂。 Its leader, George Rapp, made the mistake of identifying one of his followers as the possible Lion of Judah, who using the name Count de Leon led a break-away group and then promptly died, leaving a few dozen of his followers in limbo.它的领导人乔治·拉普(George Rapp)犯了一个错误,将他的一个追随者确定为可能的犹大狮子,他以莱昂伯爵(Count de Leon)这个名字领导了一个脱离组织,然后迅速死亡,使数十名追随者陷入了困境。 A few of them later joined Keil when he founded Bethel (Stanton XNUMX).他们中的一些后来加入了Keil,他创立了Bethel(斯坦顿,XNUMX年)。

Nordhoff reports that Keil's followers set up mills for wood, wool, and grain, establishing Bethel as a functional town that could serve the needs of farmers in the area.诺德霍夫(Nordhoff)报道说,凯尔(Keil)的追随者建立了木材,羊毛和谷物加工厂,使伯特利(Bethel)成为一个可以服务该地区农民需求的功能性城镇。 Indeed, in the records of the US census it is very difficult to identify the border between the intentional community and the surrounding population.确实,在美国人口普查记录中,很难确定有意社区与周围人口之间的边界。 When one examines the public census records for Oneida and the Shakers during the 1840-1880s, those communes are very clearly marked, but that is not the case for Bethel and Aurora.当人们检查XNUMX-XNUMX年代奥奈达和摇床的公共人口普查记录时,这些公社的标记非常清晰,但伯特利(Bethel)和奥罗拉(Aurora)并非如此。

教义/信念

The strong religious focus of Bethel and Aurora has been identified as a main reason they survived relatively long in the diversity of communal experiments that were active in the nineteenth century in the United States (Kanter 1972; Latimore 1991).伯特利(Bethel)和奥罗拉(Aurora)强烈的宗教信仰被认为是他们在1982世纪活跃于美国的各种社区实验中存活相对较长时间的主要原因(Kanter 2002; Latimore 1993)。 Founded as they were by German immigrants, Bethel and Aurora can be placed within the general German Pietist tradition, which had some communal qualities but was rather diverse and thus difficult to define precisely (Lehmann 89; Strom 1).伯特利(Bethel)和奥罗拉(Aurora)由德国移民创立,可以归入德国虔诚的一般传统中,该传统具有一些共同的特质,但具有相当的多样性,因此很难精确定义(Lehmann 1838; Strom 1842)。 David Nelson Duke (2:1842) has provided a plausible but highly dynamic classification within Pietism, suggesting that Keil was a charismatic leader who strategically changed the belief system whenever that seemed advantageous.戴维·纳尔逊·杜克(David Nelson Duke,3:1844)在虔诚主义中提供了一个合理但高度动态的分类,这表明基尔是一位有超凡魅力的领导者,只要有优势,他就会战略性地改变信仰体系。 The result was three stages in the development of the religion, two of which contained a pair of substages: Stage 3. Revivalism (1844-1879): A. Methodist, B. Independent;结果是宗教发展的三个阶段,其中两个包含两个子阶段:阶段XNUMX。复兴主义(XNUMX-XNUMX):A.卫理公会,B.独立; Stage XNUMX. Apocalypticism (XNUMX/XNUMX-XNUMX);第二阶段。世界末日(XNUMX / XNUMX-XNUMX); Stage XNUMX. Communalism (XNUMX-XNUMX): A. Bethel, Missouri, B. Aurora, Oregon.第三阶段。共产主义(XNUMX-XNUMX):密苏里州的伯特利,俄勒冈州的奥罗拉。

In the Apocalypticism stage, Keil apparently was exploiting the interest in Millerism that anticipated the Second Coming in 1844 and led to the emergence of Adventism (Bainbridge 1997:89-118).在世界末日主义阶段,基尔显然是在利用对米勒主义的兴趣,这种兴趣预见了XNUMX年第二次降临,并导致了复临主义的兴起(Bainbridge XNUMX:XNUMX-XNUMX)。 Duke states that the expedition westward from Bethel to Aurora was Keil's response to dissension at Bethel.杜克大学说,从伯特利向西进行极光探险是基尔对伯特利发生分歧的回应。 Thus it had some of the qualities of a schism, or perhaps a “reverse schism” in which the leader departs with many loyal members, rather than a departure of some dissatisfied members.因此,它具有分裂的某些特质,或者说是“反向分裂”的特质,其中领导者与许多忠诚的成员一起离开,而不是一些不满意的成员离开。

By the time Bethel had been established, the group's Pietism stressed emotional constraint, yet Keil's personal feelings for his own children are suggested by the fact that the Aurora colony [Image at right] was named after his youngest daughter Aurora, who was born in Bethel.在伯特利建立之时,该组织的虔信主义者强调了情感上的制约,然而,基尔对自己孩子的个人感受是由以下事实表明的:极光殖民地[右图]以他最小的女儿极光命名,后者出生于伯特利。 During his visit to Aurora, Nordhoff (1875:319) interviewed Keil as they walked around the colony, until they came to a spot在访问奥罗拉(Aurora)期间,诺德霍夫(Nordhoff(XNUMX:XNUMX))在他们沿着殖民地走来走去时采访了基尔,直到他们到了一个地方

where I saw an uncommon sight, five graves close together, as sometimes children's are made;在我见到罕见的景象的地方,有五个坟墓紧挨着,有时是孩子们造的。 but these were evidently the graves of grown persons.但是这些显然是成年人的坟墓。 “Here,” he said, “lie my children all I had, five;他说:“这是我所有的孩子,五个。 they all died after they were men and women, between the ages of eighteen and twenty-one.他们都在男人和女人之后去世,年龄在XNUMX至XNUMX岁之间。 One after the other I laid them here.我一个接一个地把它们放在这里。 It was hard to bear;很难忍受。 but now I can thank God for that too.但现在我也可以为此感谢上帝。 He gave them, and I thanked him;他给了他们,我感谢他。 he took them, and now I can thank him too.”他带走了它们,现在我也要感谢他。” Then, after a minute's silence, he turned upon me with sombre eyes and said: “To bear all that comes upon us in silence, in quiet, without noise, or outcry, or excitement, or useless repining that is to be a man, and that we can do only with God's help.”然后,一分钟的沉默后,他用严肃的眼神看着我,说道:“要承受沉默,安静,无声,无叫,无兴奋,无刺激,无用的责备,成为人类,而且我们只能在上帝的帮助下做。”

The gravestones of the children remain visible as they were photographed on the website Find A Grave for Keil Family Cemetery at Aurora.当在Aurora的Keil家庭公墓的Find a Grave网站上拍摄照片时,孩子们的墓碑仍然可见。 However, we quickly see errors in Nordhoff's report, because the ages of the children were thirteen to twenty, the youngest being Aurora after whom the colony had been named, and two other children were added only long after Nordhoff's visit, in 1883 and 1902. The graves Nordhoff saw were actually of four children who had died from smallpox from November 22, 1862 until Aurora's passing on December 14. The fifth already-deceased child, Keil's son William, had been buried at Willapa but had died months earlier and far eastward in Bethel, reportedly from malaria.但是,我们很快就看到了诺德霍夫报告中的错误,因为孩子的年龄在XNUMX至XNUMX岁之间,最小的是奥罗拉(Aurora)(以该殖民地命名),另外两个孩子是在诺德霍夫(Northoff)于XNUMX年和XNUMX年访问之后不久才被添加的。 Nordhoff看到的坟墓实际上是四个孩子,这些孩子从XNUMX年XNUMX月XNUMX日直到Aurora逝世,直到XNUMX月XNUMX日死于天花。第五个已经去世的孩子,Keil的儿子William,被埋葬在Willapa,但死于几个月前,而且死于东方。据说来自疟疾的伯特利。 Obsessed with taking to the promised land the son who had inherited his name, Keil had the body placed in a box filled with whisky for preservation, which led the wagon train from Bethel to Willapa.凯尔痴迷于把继承了他名字的儿子带到了应许的土地上,将尸体放在装满威士忌的盒子里保存起来,这把货车从伯特利带到了威拉帕。

仪式/实践

Like other religious communes of its period, Bethel and Aurora required the wearing of plain and rather uniform clothing, stressing modesty and minimizing individual styles (Lauer and Lauer 1983).像当时的其他宗教公社一样,伯特利和奥罗拉要求穿着平整而统一的服装,强调节制并最小化个人风格(Lauer和Lauer 1908)。 William Hinds (327:1876) had visited Bethel in 1908, and he found it to be “the most prosaic and matter-of-fact of all the larger Communities.”威廉·辛德斯(William Hinds)(332:XNUMX)于XNUMX年访问了伯特利,他发现它是“所有大型社区中最平淡无奇的事实”。 With some effort, Hinds (XNUMX:XNUMX) was able to expand this description only slightly:经过一些努力,Hinds(XNUMX:XNUMX)只能稍微扩展一下此描述:

Bethelites很少有与众不同的原理,但是它们肯定是纯正的。 They made little account of formalities and ceremonies, and much account of a practical Christian life.他们很少讲形式和仪式,而只讲实用的基督徒生活。 They meant to live, they said, as moral men ought to live, the elder members taking the lead of the younger in good example, as the founder of the Society had taken the lead of all.他们说,他们本意生活,因为有道德的人应该生活,长者以身作则,率先领导了年轻人,因为学会的创始人领导了所有人。 All strove to manifest their love one toward another;所有人都尽力将彼此的爱表达出来; all willingly forgave injuries;所有人都愿意宽恕伤害; all were esteemed according to their real character and not according to appearances;所有的人都是根据自己的本性而不是根据外表而受到尊重的; riches and poverty were abolished;财富和贫穷被废除了; the scriptural injunction which requires first of all obedience to God was respected by all.圣经中首先要服从上帝的禁令得到了所有人的尊重。 A man can be saved, they held, only by becoming a “new creature” in Christ Jesus;他们只有通过成为基督耶稣中的“新生物”,才能拯救一个人。 and then if he has lied he will lie no more;如果他撒了谎,他将不再撒谎。 if he has stolen he will steal no more, and if possible will make double restitution;如果他被偷了,他将不会再偷,并且如果可能的话,将使他恢复原状。 and in all things he will seek to do good rather than evil.他将在万事上寻求行善而不是邪恶。 A man's whole duty, in short, is to do right and live unselfishly.简而言之,一个人的全部职责是做正确的事,无私地生活。 To my questions about their constitution and by-laws they replied, “The word of God is our constitution and by-laws.”在对我的宪法和章程提出疑问时,他们回答说:“上帝的道是我们的宪法和章程。”

组织/领导

(1991)每个人都将为社区的福利而工作,互相提供。” 382年美国人口普查的原始手稿页面列出了1名奥罗拉居民,其“个人财产价值”总计为2美元,其中1870美元属于基尔。 The total real estate value was $307, of which he reportedly owned $68,100.房地产总价值为60,000美元,据报道他拥有94,780美元。 Of course, these numbers are uncertain, as is the dollar inflation since then, especially for real estate, and we cannot rely upon the estimate of many online inflation calculators that one dollar in 40,000 equals twenty dollars in 1870. Also, the exact boundary between members and neighbors in the census is unclear.当然,这些数字是不确定的,从那以后美元通货膨胀也是不确定的,尤其是对于房地产,我们不能依靠许多在线通货膨胀计算器的估计值,即2020年的XNUMX美元等于XNUMX年的XNUMX美元。而且,两者之间的确切界限人口普查中的成员和邻居还不清楚。 But these numbers illustrate that even late in his life, Keil controlled much of the colony's wealth.但是这些数字表明,即使在他的生命晚期,基尔仍然控制着该殖民地的大部分财富。

1870年的Aurora人口普查中有138位女性和169位男性,性别失衡可能仅是由于Aurora处于“狂野西部”这一事实,并且其最初的殖民努力涉及更多的男性。 Of these 307 members, 115 were under the age of twenty, and the average age was only twenty-eight.在这1875位成员中,有309位年龄在310岁以下,平均年龄只有XNUMX岁。 Based partly on his interview with Keil, Charles Nordhoff (XNUMX:XNUMX-XNUMX) summarizes the family-centric conception of the community:查尔斯·诺德霍夫(Charles Nordhoff,XNUMX:XNUMX-XNUMX)部分基于对基尔的采访,总结了以家庭为中心的社区观念:

1号就像他们说的那样,所有政府都应该是父母,以模仿上帝的父母政府。 2d。 因此,社会应该建立在家庭的模式上,具有所有利益和所有财产的绝对共同点; 所有成员都为忠实的福利和支持而忠诚地工作,并从一般的国库中汲取生活的手段……6。 政府体制尽可能简单。 创始人Keil博士是社区主席和独裁者。 他为自己的顾问选出了四位年长的成员,这些成员都是由他自己选择的。 在事务管理中,他会参考这些意见,我想我通常会同意他的意见。 当考虑到任何至关重要的变更或实验时,整个社区都将讨论此事,如果没有总的同意,则什么也做不了。

In an article about Keil's influence on marriage between members, the difficult transition as he allowed some members to take property for their families in his latter years, and the structure of resultant families as documented in the 1900 census.在一篇关于基尔对成员之间婚姻的影响的文章中,困难的过渡是因为他允许一些成员在其后些年为自己的家庭继承财产,以及1991年人口普查中记录的家庭结构。 Kimberly Swanson (418:XNUMX) described his power at the beginning of Bethel:金伯利·斯旺森(Kimberly Swanson,XNUMX:XNUMX)在伯特利创立之初就描述了他的力量:

At the outset of the undertaking he aborted an attempt by some followers to establish a written agreement specifying requirements for membership in the community.这项事业一开始,他就放弃了一些追随者试图建立书面协议的规定,以明确规定社区成员资格的要求。 That failed “constitutional” effort indicated a desire on the part of some members to limit Keil's power.失败的“宪政”努力表明,一些成员希望限制凯尔的权力。 When Keil responded by asserting that the Bible would serve as the colony's foundation and that the Golden Rule would guide the colonists' actions, his challengers acquiesced.当基尔断言圣经将作为殖民地的基础,而黄金法则将指导殖民者的行动时,他的反对者默许了。 Whether Keil encouraged or discouraged personal interpretations of the Bible is unknown.凯尔是否鼓励或劝阻对圣经的个人解释尚不得而知。 He did allow at least two members to act as missionaries and recruit members during the establishment of the Bethel colony, and naturally he transferred some authority to the trustees in Bethel when he moved to Aurora在伯特利(Bethel)殖民地建立期间,他的确允许至少两名成员担任传教士和招募成员,并且当他移居至极光(Aurora)时,自然将一些权力移交给伯特利(Bethel)的受托人.

 1860年的人口普查表明,伯特利(Bethel)的财产价值75,000美元,由塞缪尔·米勒(Samuel Miller)持有,当欣德斯(Hinds)(1908:334)在1876年探访时, Miller” was Deputy-President and would preach at the religious services held in the community's church every other week.米勒”是副总统,每两周将在社区教堂举行的宗教仪式上宣讲。

Several of the best-known mid-nineteenth century religious communes were economically successful, and their dissolution may often have resulted from the fact that a charismatic, or at least well-established, leader could not find a successor.几个最著名的XNUMX世纪中叶宗教公社在经济上都很成功,其解散通常可能是由于一个有超凡魅力或至少是历史悠久的领导人找不到继任者这一事实。 Father Keil's son William had been born in基尔神父的儿子威廉出生于 1836年,他也得以幸免于疟疾,他的父亲于1877年去世,他本应该成熟。 [右图]鉴于社区与世俗世界的社会隔离,他本可以接受过担任父亲的神圣角色的培训。

问题/挑战

The most obvious challenge for Keil's movement was its constant search for the perfect location, or for spiritual perfection that would manifest itself somewhere.对于Keil的运动,最明显的挑战是它不断寻求完美的位置,或者寻求在某个地方显现出来的精神上的完美。 Founded in Pennsylvania, it established its first colony in Missouri, then sought better homes in the states of Washington and Oregon without officially relinquishing the Missouri colony.它成立于宾夕法尼亚州,在密苏里州建立了第一个殖民地,然后在华盛顿州和俄勒冈州寻求更好的住房,而没有正式放弃密苏里州的殖民地。

A central issue for Keil's group when it existed, and for scholars today, is that neither detailed official histories nor extensive evangelical statements are available to balance with the observations of visitors such as Charles Nordhoff or William Hinds.对于Keil小组的存在以及今天的学者而言,一个中心问题是,既没有详尽的官方历史记录,也没有广泛的福音派言论与查尔斯·诺德霍夫或威廉·欣德斯等来访者的观察相平衡。 Unlike some of the more prominent religious communes of its era, it did not promote its vision through extensive publications.与那个时代一些更著名的宗教公社不同,它没有通过广泛的出版物来促进其远见。

As Stanton argued in her 1963 thesis, many publications about the group seem inaccurate, perhaps distorted by incorrect reports by opponents of the group or journalists who overdramatized the facts, back when the group was in existence.正如斯坦顿(Stanton)在1933年的论文中所论证的那样,有关该组织的许多出版物似乎都不准确,也许是由于该组织的反对者或对事实夸大事实的记者的不正确报道而扭曲了,当时该组织还存在。 In his XNUMX supposedly factual book在他XNUMX年的事实书中 伯特利和奥罗拉,罗伯特·J·亨德里克斯(Robert J. Hendricks)明确添加了他自己发明的对话,显然是为了使历史看起来栩栩如生。 More recently, two novelists have used Bethel and Aurora as their settings, potentially distorting history further.最近,两位小说家以伯特利(Bethel)和奥罗拉(Aurora)作为背景,有可能进一步扭曲历史。 However, writing in但是,写 俄勒冈州历史季刊,詹姆斯·科普(James Kopp(2009))认为,这些小说的作者充分致力于了解历史,并就没有在任何图书馆中明确记录的现实做出合理的推断。

第一个例子是 第二伊甸园,由Cobie de Lespinasse于1951年出版。她是俄勒冈州的当地居民,她认识了一些殖民者的后裔,包括克拉克·摩尔威尔(Clark Moor Will),后者使她能够访问他的大量文献集。 The story focuses on Keil's possible erotic relationships with young women over the course of years, not making him out to be an extreme exploiter such as John Humphrey Noyes at Oneida seems to have been, but gentle in his domination.故事的重点是凯尔多年来与年轻女性之间可能的色情关系,而不是让他成为极端的剥削者,例如奥尼达达的约翰·汉弗莱·诺伊斯(John Humphrey Noyes)似乎一直如此,但他的统治力很温柔。 Before the novel begins, this text provides the conceptual framework: “There is a teaching that the most perfect government is a kingdom, presupposing an absolutely wise, unselfish, just and good king;在小说开始之前,本文提供了概念框架:“有一种教that,认为最完美的政府是一个王国,其前提是绝对明智,无私,公正和善良的国王; and one who could transmit these attributes indefinitely.以及可以无限期传递这些属性的人。 No such king ever lived or ever will live, and no king, approaching these qualities, can transmit them.”没有这样的国王活过,也不会永远活着,没有任何一个达到这些品质的国王能够传播它们。” Checking online, we can see that the author found this quote in the local Sunday newspaper,在网上查看时,我们可以看到作者在当地的周日报纸上找到了这句话, 政治家 28年1926月1951日来自俄勒冈州塞勒姆市。当然,小说中的“国王”是基尔。 But the novel is carefully written, thoughtful, and expresses some admiration for the people of Aurora.但是这本小说写得很认真,周到,并对奥罗拉人表示钦佩。 The website of the museum reports that as a token of respect and friendship, in XNUMX Aurora descendant Anna Stauffer gave de Lespinasse a poem that begins:博物馆的网站报告称,为表示尊重和友谊,XNUMX年Aurora的后代Anna Stauffer送给de Lespinasse一首诗,开始于:

勇敢地昂首阔步,

信仰是他们的旗帜,

当货车向西滚动时,

他们倾听歌声。

当查尔斯·诺德霍夫(Charles Nordhoff)在1870年代初访问伯特利(Bethel)和奥罗拉(Aurora)时, [右图]黛博拉·奥尔森(Deborah Olsen,1991:360)提出,伯特利,舍伦鲍姆或铃树的音乐遗迹虽然不是很神圣,但却是“对殖民地领袖和共同理想的忠诚象征。” In her novel about the community, de Lespinasse dramatized how this device should symbolize that Bethel was a harmony of like-minded people, each represented by one of the bells (de Lespinasse 1951:74):在她关于社区的小说中,de Lespinasse戏剧化地说明了这种装置应如何象征着伯特利是一群志趣相投的人,每个人都由一个钟声代表(de Lespinasse XNUMX:XNUMX):

实际上,schellenbaum是一座大小不一的钟形山峰,全长XNUMX英尺,高超过XNUMX英尺。 在游行队伍或游行队伍的头部携带这种叮叮当当的结构时,必须要有一定的技巧和保证,以便所有的钟声,无论大小,都可能在适当的时间以有节奏的行进节奏敲响。 schellenbaum在阳光下闪闪发光,每一个动作都闪烁着,音乐,节奏感十足–难怪孩子们试图尽可能接近地游行,以看到铃铛闪烁的光芒!

历史上有效的小说的第二个例子是小说三部曲 改变与珍惜 简·柯克帕特里克(Jane Kirkpatrick)最初于2006年,2007年和2008年出版,然后于2013年合并为 奥罗拉的艾玛。 Published along with extensive documentation of where the author got her information, this is the story of Emma Wagner Giesy, a woman who grew up within the commune but retained a sense of independence.这是与艾玛·瓦格纳·吉西(Emma Wagner Giesy)的故事一起发布的,其中包含了作者在哪里获得的大量信息,该妇女在公社里长大,但保持了独立感。 All the named characters appear to have been real people, although the details of their lives are largely lost, so much of the trilogy's realism comes from its description of physical所有命名的角色似乎都是真实的人,尽管他们的生活细节在很大程度上丢失了,所以三部曲的现实主义大部分来自其对身体的描述。 locations and of the practical details of daily life on the frontier.地理位置以及日常生活中的实用细节。 Mostly told from the first person, the story contains many incidents when men dominate women, but more with insults or lack of sympathy rather than erotic misbehavior.通常是从第一人称角度讲的,这个故事包含许多男人主导女人的事件,但更多的是侮辱或缺乏同情而不是色情的不良行为。 The house Emma lived in at Aurora [Image at right] is well described in the original 1973 document that got Aurora Colony into the National Register of Historic Places:艾玛(Emma)居住在奥罗拉(Aurora)的房子[右图]在XNUMX年的原始文件中得到了很好的描述,该文件将奥罗拉(Aurora)殖民地纳入了国家历史古迹名录:

1860年,她陪同丈夫克里斯蒂安·吉西(Christian Giesy)带领八人从密苏里州伯特利派往西部的队伍,为殖民地寻找新地点。 They settled in Willapa, Washington Territory, and there Christian Giesy died in 1874.他们定居在华盛顿领地的威拉帕,在那里,克里斯蒂安·吉西(Christian Giesy)于1833年去世。

In the extensive supportive materials included in the one-volume publication of her trilogy, Kirkpatrick (2013:1137) provides evidence that indeed Emma moved from Willapa to Aurora in 1861 to get away from her abusive second husband, and she apparently moved away some years later, perhaps to live with her parents nearby, before returning around 1874. An interesting point related to her house is that in the novel she does not like the location where Keil had it built for her, and today the house has been moved to a new location.在其三部曲的一卷出版物中包含的广泛支持材料中,柯克帕特里克(XNUMX:XNUMX)提供了证据,证明艾玛确实于XNUMX年从Willapa搬到了Aurora,摆脱了她第二任丈夫的虐待,而且她显然移居了几年。后来,也许要和她的父母住在一起,然后在XNUMX年左右返回。与她的房子有关的一个有趣的观点是,在小说中,她不喜欢基尔(Keil)为她建房的地方,今天这所房子已经搬到了新位置。 At multiple points in the third novel, Emma comments how symbolically meaningful it is that the house has two front doors, and indeed it does.在第三本小说的多个方面,艾玛(Emma)评论说房子有两个前门确实具有象征意义。 Given the relative dearth of distinctive scriptures or diaries from Bethel and Aurora, and the intentional austerity of the lifestyle, small practical details can be significant: two front doors on a home could mean that there is more than one way to enter Heaven.考虑到Bethel和Aurora的经典经文或日记相对较少,以及故意节俭的生活方式,一些小的实用细节可能很重要:房屋中的两个前门可能意味着进入天堂的途径不止一种。

图片

图片1:George Keil。
图片2:伯特利社区。
图片3:Aurora社区。
图片4:乔治·基尔(George Keil)的坟墓。
图片5:Aurora社区乐队。
图片6:艾玛·瓦格纳·吉西(Emma Wagner)吉西之家。

参考文献:

班布里奇,威廉西姆斯。 1997。 宗教运动社会学。 纽约:Routledge。

1970年。 催眠主义与法国启蒙运动的终结。 纽约:肖肯。

de Lespinasse,科比。 1951年。 第二伊甸园。 波士顿:克里斯托弗。

1991年。“极光殖民地建筑:XNUMX世纪合作社中的建筑。” 俄勒冈州历史季刊 92:377-416。

1993年。“威廉·基尔社区的宗教演变:旧证词的新读。” 社区社团 13:84-98。

亨德里克斯(Robert H.Hendricks),1933年。 伯特利和奥罗拉。 New York: Press of the Pioneers.纽约:先锋出版社。

Hinds,威廉·阿尔弗雷德(William Alfred)。 1908年。 合作殖民地。 Chicago: Charles H. Kerr.芝加哥:Charles H. Kerr。

坎特,罗莎贝丝莫斯。 1972。 承诺与社区。 Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press马萨诸塞州剑桥:哈佛大学出版社

2013。 奥罗拉的艾玛。 Colorado Springs, CO: WaterBrook.科罗拉多州科罗拉多斯普林斯:WaterBrook。

卡尔·科赫(Koch,Carl G。),1871年。 生活状态。 Cleveland: Verlagshaus der Evangelischen Gemeinschaft.克利夫兰(Cleveland):新世纪福音战士博物馆(Verlagshaus der Evangelischen Gemeinschaft)。

詹姆士·J·科普(Kopp,James J。),2009年。“极光殖民地的新景象。” 俄勒冈州历史季刊 110:166-93。

1991年。“乌托邦社区规模和持续时间的自然限制”, 社区社团 11:34-61。

Lauer,Jeanette C.和Robert H. Lauer。 1983年。“在XNUMX世纪的美国社区中的性角色。” 社区社团 3:16-28。

1870年。 美国社会主义史。 费城:Lippincott。

1875年。 美国的共产主义社会。 纽约:哈珀。

1982年。“诗与民族主义:XNUMX世纪德国的新教复兴主义与民族复兴之间的关系。” 教会历史 51:39-53。

奥尔森(Deborah M。),1991年。“谢伦鲍姆(Schellenbaum):社区组织的忠诚象征。” 俄勒冈州历史季刊 92:360-76。

1963年。 俄勒冈极光殖民地,俄勒冈州立大学。 Accessed from从访问 ir.library.oregonstate.edu/关注/ graduate_thesis_or_dissertations / fj236693f 在10 August 2020上。

2002年。“虔敬主义研究的问题和承诺”。 教会历史 71:536-54。

1991年。““年轻人变得动荡不安:”极光殖民地解散前后的婚姻模式。” 俄勒冈州历史季刊 92:417-31。

补充资源 

2020年。访问于 auroracolony.org 10年2020月XNUMX日。博物馆图书馆中的文献很少在线上提供。 Researchers must visit the physical museum, or request copies of documents.研究人员必须参观实体博物馆,或索取文件副本。

1963年。 俄勒冈极光殖民地。 Masters Thesis, Oregon State University.俄勒冈州立大学硕士学位论文。 Accessed from从访问 https://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/parent/fj236693f/file_sets/6t053m739 on 10 August 2020.

An appendix lists followers of Count de Leon, and Stanton was able to identify only eleven of their exact names in Aurora records.附录列出了德莱昂伯爵的追随者,斯坦顿在Aurora记录中仅能识别出其确切的名字中的XNUMX个。 Stanton summarized what had been written about Bethel and Aurora, but worried that much of the group's history was unreliable and even fanciful.斯坦顿总结了有关伯特利和奥罗拉的著作,但担心该组织的许多历史都不可靠,甚至是幻想。

发布日期:
10 2020月

 

 

 

 

 

 

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