Pandaigdig na Simbahan ng Diyos

magbahagi

Sa buong mundo ng simbahan ng diyos

SA LALAKI NG SIMBAHAN NG DIYOS NA TIMELINE

1844 (October 22) William Miller’s followers had expected Christ’s return. The day became known as “The Great Disappointment.”

1860 Ellen G. White’s movement took the name Seventh-day Adventist at a conference at Battle Creek, Michigan. A group of dissenting congregations separated themselves from SDA.

1884 Ang grupong separatista ay kinuha ang pangalang Church of God (Ikapitong Araw).

1892 (Hulyo 31) Si Herbert Armstrong ay ipinanganak sa Des Moines, Iowa.

1917 (Hulyo) Si Armstrong ay may-asawa ng ikatlong pinsan na si Loma Dillon.

Tinanggap ni 1926 Armstrong ang doktrina ng ikapitong araw na Sabbath at sinimulang paghamon ang iba pang mga pangunahing paniniwala sa Kristiyano.

Si 1926-1927 Armstrong ay sumapi sa kongregasyon ng Iglesya ng Diyos sa Eugene, Oregon.

Sinimulan ni 1928 Armstrong ang pangangaral.

1930 Armstrong’s fourth child, Garner Ted, was born.

Ang 1931 Armstrong ay inordenan ng Oregon Conference ng Iglesia ng Diyos (Ikapitong Araw).

Inilunsad ng 1934 Armstrong ang Radio Church of God programa sa isang lokal na istasyon ng radyo (Enero) at ang walong-pahinang mimeographed Plain Truth magasin (Pebrero). Ang mga ito ay binibilang bilang simula ng kanyang malayang paglilingkod.

1937 The Church of God (Seventh Day) revoked Armstrong’s ministerial license. Although it was not incorporated for some years, this was effectively the beginning of his own church.

1942 Ang Radio Church of God nagpunta ang programa sa buong bansa, pinalitan ng pangalan Ang Mundo Bukas .

1947 Ambassador College itinatag sa Pasadena, California na may apat na mag-aaral. Ang mga kampus sa ibang pagkakataon ay itinatag sa Bricket Wood, Herts, UK (1960) at Big Sandy, Texas (1964).

1951 Ang unang dalawang estudyante ng Ambassador College ay nagtapos.

1952 (Disyembre) Armstrong nag-orden ng unang limang ebanghelista.

Ang 1968 Radio Church of God ay nagbago ng pangalan nito sa Pandaigdig na Simbahan ng Diyos (sa hinaharap, sa Buong Mundo).

1970s Ilang ministro ang natitira upang makita ang mga simbahang nagkakalat.

1978 Herbert W. Armstrong na-disfellowshipped kanyang anak na lalaki Garner Ted Armstrong, na pagkatapos ay itinatag ang Iglesia ng Diyos, International.

1986 (Enero 16) namatay si Herbert W. Armstrong. Siya ay nagtagumpay bilang pastor-general ni Joseph W. Tkatch.

1986-1994 Tkatch ay umalis sa literatura ng simbahan at nagbago ng mga doktrina.

1989 Gerald Flurry ay umalis sa Buong Mundo upang makita ang Philadelphia Church of God.

1992-93 Roderick C Meredith ay umalis sa Buong Mundo upang makita ang Pandaigdig na Simbahan ng Diyos.

Ang 1994 (Hunyo) Ambassador College ay pinaniwalaan at naging Ambassador University.

1994 (Disyembre 24) Ipinangaral ni Tkatch ang "Sermon ng Pasko ng Eba" na nagpapahayag na ang Pandaigdig na tao ay isang Evangelical church ngayon.

1995 Maraming mga ministro ang naiwan sa Buong Mundo upang makita ang United Church of God.

1995 (Setyembre) Joseph W. Tkatch namatay at ay nagtagumpay bilang pastor-general ng kanyang anak na si Joseph Tkatch, Jr.

1995-1997 Sa pagbagsak ng pagiging kasapi at pagbagsak ng kita, ang Worldwide ay kailangang bale-walain ang mga empleyado at magbenta ng mga gusali.

Sarado ang 1997 Ambassador University.

Binago ng 2009 Worldwide Church of God ang pangalan nito sa Grace Communion International.

FOUNDER / GROUP KASAYSAYAN

Sa karamihan ng kanyang buhay ang Worldwide Church of God ay isang millennialist, sektaryan na Kristiyanong Sugo na may napaka-heterodox na paniniwala, kabilang ang British-Israelismo. Kahit na nakararami ang North American, nagkaroon ito ng isang makabuluhang presensya sa Britain at Australasia, ang Caribbean at, sa isang mas maliit na lawak, sa buong iba pang bahagi ng mundo. Matapos ang pagkamatay ng tagapagtatag nito na si Herbert W. Armstrong sa 1986, unti-unti itong nagbago ng mga doktrina nito sa karaniwang Evangelical na Kristiyanismo, na nagdudulot ng daan-daang mga ministro at libu-libong mga miyembro na mag-iwan para sa mga simbahan ng pagsunod sa mga orihinal na paniniwala. Ang magulang simbahan, Worldwide Church of God, nagbago ang pangalan nito sa Grace Komunyon International sa 2009.

Ipinanganak sa isang pamilya Quaker sa Des Moines, Iowa, sa 1892, Herbert Armstrong (wala siyang gitnang pangalan, ang "W" ay idinagdag sa ibang pagkakataon) ay nagkaroon normal na pag-aaral ngunit walang karagdagang pormal na edukasyon. Siya ay nagpakita ng dismissive approach sa mas mataas na edukasyon (Armstrong 1986: 25-26). Sa 18, nagsimula siyang magbenta ng mga ad para sa lokal na pahayagan, at dapat siya ay mananatili sa advertising para sa karamihan ng kanyang pre-ministerial na karera sa susunod na mga taon ng 20. Siya ay dalawang beses na nag-set up ng kanyang sariling negosyo, ngunit sa bawat oras na ito collapsed.

By his own account, he had little time for religion until in 1926 a sabbatarian neighbor told his wife Loma, an active Methodist, that she was worshipping on the wrong day. Despite having a young family to support with no income, Armstrong spent the next six months attempting to prove the neighbor, and his newly-convinced wife, wrong. Along the way, he came to a number of other beliefs different from mainstream Christianity (see Doctrines/Beliefs below). In order to prove his brother-in-law’s wife wrong (she “had been indoctrinated with the theory of evolution in college”) he also refuted evolution (Armstrong 1986:293).

Higit sa lahat, natanto niya ang kahalagahan ng pagsunod sa Diyos sa lahat ng bagay, lalo na sa ikaapat na utos (ang Sabbath). Pagkatapos ay hinanap niya ang isang iglesia na nagtutupad ng kinakailangang pamantayan. Pinagharian niya ang mga Baptist sa ikapitong araw dahil sa hindi makilala sa iba pang mga Protestante bukod sa kanilang araw ng pagsamba. Siya ay malugod na tinanggap na ang mga Seventh-day Adventist ay may "ilang mga punto ng katotohanan," ngunit siya ay nanirahan sa isang maliit na denominasyon na tinatawag na Iglesia ng Diyos (Ikapitong Araw) (mula noon, COG7), kasama ang punong-tanggapan nito sa Stanberry, Missouri. Sa paligid ng 1927, siya at ang kanyang asawa ay nagsimulang makipag-ugnayan sa "pagsabog" ng kanilang mga miyembro malapit sa Eugene, Oregon.

Sa susunod na tatlong taon, ayon kay Armstrong, sinubukan niya ang kanyang bagong simbahan sa iba't ibang mga doktrinal na bagay, at natagpuan nila ang nais. Isa sa mga ito ay sa katotohanan ng British-Israelism, na Armstrong ay embraced buong puso ngunit COG7 tumangging tanggapin. Nagsimula siyang magsimulang magbasa, sabi niya, hindi siya kasapi ng iglesia at walang bayad mula rito. Ang pagpupulong na may mas matinding antagonismo mula sa COG7, na tumanggi na tanggapin ang mga katotohanang natuklasan niya at nangangaral, siya mismo ang nagtatag, nagtatag ng kanyang sariling ministeryo.

There is considerable reason to doubt the reliability of Armstrong’s account; his Sariling talambuhay ay nakasulat sa serial form maraming taon na ang lumipas kapag ang Worldwide Church of God ay naitatag at nangangailangan ng isang malakas na kathang-isip na pundasyon upang ihiwalay ito sa iba pang mga simbahan (Barrett 2013: 56). Sa katunayan, si Armstrong ay inordenan bilang ministro ng COG7 sa 1931, at ayon sa isang mananalaysay ng ikapitong araw na kilusan, isang pre-requisite ng pagiging kasapi (Nickels 1996a: 226). Hindi lamang iyon, ngunit nang ang Iglesia ng Diyos ay dumaan sa isang malaking pagbabagong-tatag sa 1933, itinalaga nito ang "labindalawang espirituwal na pinuno" at "pitumpu upang lumabas nang dalawa, ang lahat ng mga matatandang Iglesia ng Diyos"; Kasama sa listahan ng pitumpu ang "Herbert Armstrong, Oregon" (Nickel 1999: 210). Ang mga libro mula sa oras ay nagpakita na siya ay nakatanggap ng suweldo sa pamamagitan ng 1937, sa katapusan ng taon kung saan binawi ng iglesya ang kanyang taunang mga kredensyal ng ministeryo "sa patuloy na pangangaral na salungat sa doktrina ng Simbahan" (binanggit sa Ogwyn 1995: 65). At siya ay nanatiling nakikipagtulungan sa mga matatanda ng Simbahan ng Diyos sa loob ng ilang taon na darating. Sa ibang salita, bagaman maaaring siya ay sa pamamagitan ng huli 1930s ay nagpapatakbo nang nakapag-iisa sa halip na bilang isang ministro sa loob ng isang denominasyon, sa oras na malinaw niyang nakita ang kanyang sarili bilang isang bahagi ng mas malawak na Iglesia ng Simbahan ng kilusan ng Diyos, sa halip na bilang tagapagtatag ng isang bagong simbahan.

Similarly, Armstrong, claimed by Worldwide to be God’s Apostle for the twentieth century, was later at pains to assert that the true doctrines of Christianity found in his church had been lost for nineteen centuries until he rediscovered them through his study and/or God revealing them to him. In fact, many of them were doctrines of the Church of God (Seventh Day), and whether Armstrong joined that church because he had first discovered their doctrines for himself, or whether he acquired them through his association with COG7, is an arguable point (see Doctrines/Beliefs).

Sa 1934, sinimulan ni Armstrong ang dalawa sa tatlong aktibidad na nagpapakilala sa kanyang simbahan sa susunod na kalahating siglo: noong Enero radyo
Simbahan ng Diyos
programa (pinalitan ng pangalan Ang Mundo Bukas sa 1942) sa isang maliit, lokal na istasyon ng radyo ng 100-wat, at noong Pebrero ang Plain Truth magazine (sa paligid 250 kopya) ng walong mimeographed sheet. Bagaman hindi pa niya itinatag ang samahan, kadalasang ito ay makikita bilang simula ng kung ano ang magiging Pandaigdigang Simbahan ng Diyos.

Moving to Pasadena, near Los Angeles, California, Armstrong incorporated the Radio Church of God in 1946, and in October, 1947 established the third major arm of his ministry, Ambassador College, which began with eight faculty members and four students. Later, campuses were established at Bricket Wood, Hertfordshire, U.K. (1960) and Big Sandy, Texas (1964). At its peak in 1974, Ambassador College had a total of 1,400 students, many of whom became ministers (and ministers’ wives) in the church.

Ang simbahan ay nasa pinakatanyag sa 1960s at 1970s. Ang pangunahing magazine nito Plain Truth nagkaroon ng sirkulasyon sa buong mundo
six million, and it broadcast its message of Christ’s imminent return on radio and TV stations around the world. In 1968, the name of the church was changed to the Worldwide Church of God to reflect its global outreach. As Herbert W. Armstrong grew older, much of the broadcasting was done by his son Garner Ted Armstrong, who was also president of Ambassador College and effectively ran the church. His father became a “cultural ambassador,” flying around the world in his private jet to meet and be photographed with princes and presidents. But the 1970s were also a decade of massive problems in the church (see Issues/Challenges below), culminating in the disfellowshipping and “ouster” of Garner Ted Armstrong from the church.

Si Herbert W. Armstrong ay namatay noong Enero 16, 1986 noong siya ay siyamnapu't apat. Siya ay nagtagumpay bilang pastor-general ni Joseph W. Tkatch, na kanyang pinangalanan bilang kanyang kahalili ilang araw lamang. Ang Tkatch ay hindi kilala bilang isang mangangaral o teologo, ngunit itinuring na isang mahusay na tagapangasiwa, isang ligtas na pares ng mga kamay upang mahawakan ang paglipat mula sa charismatic sa rasyon-legal na awtoridad (tingnan ang Barrett 2013: 191-93 para sa talakayan ng kahalagahan ng pangalawang lider
of a movement). Initially, he praised Armstrong’s work, publishing a list of the “18 restored truths” of true Christianity that he had brought to Worldwide. At the end of the article was the comment: “Where would we be without these truths? Without them – without Herbert W. Armstrong’s legacy of these 18 restored truths – there isn’t much left.” There is the most remarkable irony in this statement, as the church was about to start dropping these “truths,” one by one.

Strongly influenced by his son, Joe, Jr., and a couple of his friends who had attended courses at Azusa Pacific University, an Evangelical Christian university near Los Angeles, Joseph Tkatch began to withdraw c hurch literature and to change doctrines. Over the next few years the Church dropped its flagship teaching of British-Israelism, its emphasis on sabbatarianism, its opposition to Trinitarianism and more. When Tkatch withdrew Armstrong’s final book, Misteryo ng mga Ages , kung saan sinabi ni Armstrong na "nararamdaman ko na hindi ko ito isinulat. Sa halip, naniniwala ako na ginamit ako ng Diyos sa pagsulat nito. Sa tuwang-tuwa kong nararamdaman ito ang pinakamahalagang libro mula noong Biblia, "sinabi ng kanyang anak sa isang ministro, si Gerald Flurry, na ang aklat na" ay puno ng kamalian, "sa paglaon ay binago ito sa" masyadong maraming mga error "(Nagmamadaling 1996: 85 ). Nagmamadali ang natitira sa Worldwide sa 1989 upang makita ang Simbahan ng Philadelphia ng Philadelphia, itinataguyod ang Armstrong, ang kanyang mga aklat at ang kanyang mga turo sa kabuuan nito. Ang iba pang mga ministro ay sumama sa kanya, dinadala ang kanilang mga kongregasyon sa kanila.

In December, 1992, Wordwide’s longest serving evangelist, Roderick C. Meredith, left the church after, in his words, “ One young smart aleck… one of their leaders, he said, ‘Mr. Armstrong gave the whole Church a bucket of lies!’…When I realized that was their attitude, that those changes were heading in a total opposite direction from everything we had proved was the truth, then I knew it was time to leave” (cited in Barrett 2013:121). Early in 1993, Meredith founded Global Church of God. Following a leadership conflict in 1998, Meredith left his own church, taking about eighty percent of the membership with him into a new Church, the Living Church of God.

Noong Disyembre 24, 1994, ipinangaral ni Joseph Tkatch ang tatlong oras na "sermon ng Pasko" kung saan napunta siya sa lahat ng mga pagbabago sa doktrina ng huling mga taon, na natapos sa anunsyo na ang Worldwide ay isa na ngayong Evangelical Church. Para sa maraming mga ministro na nag-atubili na sumama sa nakaraang mga pagbabago sa doktrina na ipinataw mula sa itaas, ito ay labis; sa mga darating na buwan daan-daang mga ito ang natitira sa buong mundo upang makahanap ng United Church of God.

Ang buong mundo ay palaging isang highly hierarchical church. Sa bawat kaso, sa Philadelphia, Global at United Churches of God, nang ang isang ministro ay umalis sa Buong Mundo, ang karamihan sa mga miyembro ng kanyang kongregasyon ay sumunod sa kanya sa mga bagong simbahan ng mga sanga. Sa paligid ng tatlumpung libong miyembro na naiwan sa Buong Mundo, na humantong sa isang artikulo sa isang pahayagan sa Los Angeles na may pamagat na "Honey, pinababa ko ang iglesia." Sa mga darating na taon, ang tatlong mga supling na simbahan ay ang kanilang mga sarili na nakakaranas ng maraming mga pamahiin, na humahantong sa isang tinatayang 400 na mga sanga ng labinlimang taon pagkatapos ng sermon ng Pasko Eve.

Noong Setyembre, 1995, namatay si Joseph W. Tkatch at nagtagumpay bilang pastor-general ng kanyang anak na si Joseph Tkatch, Jr. Sa susunod na mga taon, sa pagbagsak ng pagiging kasapi at pagbagsak ng kita (sa sermon ng Pasko Eve na si Tkatch Snr ay nagsabi na ang ikapu ay hindi na sapilitan, at maraming miyembro ang tumigil sa ikapu), ang Worldwide ay nawalan ng mga empleyado at nagbebenta ng mga gusali para matupad ang mga dulo. Sa 1997, Ambassador University, na pinalitan ng pangalan na Ambassador College matapos itong makakuha ng accreditation tatlo lamang na taon bago, sarado.

Noong Abril, 2009, isang mas maliit na Pandaigdig na Simbahan ng Diyos ang nagbago ng pangalan nito sa Grace Communion International, na gumuhit ng isang linya sa ilalim ng nakaraang heterodox nito.

DOCTRINES / BELIEFS

During Herbert W. Armstrong’s lifetime, probably the most important aspect of Worldwide’s beliefs was obedience: obedience to God first and foremost; to his church on Earth (the Worldwide Church of God); to its founder and pastor-general, Herbert W. Armstrong, who was God’s prophet and apostle for the End Times; and, below him, to the evangelists and ministers of the church.

When God told his people to do something, He meant them to continue doing it. This applied to the fourth commandment, to worship on the Sabbath (Saturday); but Worldwide’s sabbatarianism went much further than that. It also included the seven annual festivals or feasts of the Hebrew people: Passover, Unleavened Bread, First Fruits, Pentecost, Trumpets, Atonement and Tabernacles. It was essential to observe these on the correct days, and so a great deal of attention was paid to following the correct calendar. However, mainstream Christian festivals, such as Christmas and Easter, contained many elements from pagan religion, and so they were not observed. Worldwide produced booklets explaining its teaching on these and many other topics.

Worldwide taught that Jesus was crucified on a Wednesday and rose (in accordance with scripture) three days and three nights later, on the Sabbath, Saturday, thus removing mainstream Christianity’s justification for changing the day of worship to Sunday. Along with Jehovah’s Witnesses, they taught that Jesus was crucified on a stake, not on a cross, which was a pagan symbol.

Ang punong-guro na pagtuturo ng Pandaigdigang, British-Israelismo, ay natagpuan sa iba't ibang mga edisyon ng buklet o pinaka-hiniling na libro
ang simbahan sa mga dekada, Ang Estados Unidos at Britanya sa Propesiya (o katulad na mga pamagat). Sa madaling sabi, ito ay nagpahayag na ang Lost Ten Tribes ng Israel, na dinala sa pagkabihag ng mga Assyrian sa paligid 720 BCE, natapos sa Britanya, at na ang mga tao sa Britanya ngayon, at sa pamamagitan ng extension ng mga Amerikano, ay hindi lamang ang espirituwal kundi ang pisikal na mga inapo ng ang sinaunang mga Israelita. Itinuro ni Armstrong na ang ikatlong bahagi ng Biblia ay propesiya, at ang bawat propesiya tungkol sa Israel ay tumutukoy sa Britanya at Amerika ngayon, sa End Times - partikular ang anumang pagbanggit ng dalawang sub-tribes ng mga anak ni Jose, Ephraim (Britanya) at Manasseh (America).

None of this was original; British-Israelite (B-I) beliefs can be traced back to the late sixteenth century, and surfaced in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but they took off in the mid-nineteenth century with the publication of John Wilson’s Mga lektura sa aming Israelitish na pinagmulan (1840). Various groups coalesced in 1922 into the British Israel World Federation (BIWF), which found great support in the 1920s and 1930s. Armstrong’s slant on B-I came mainly from J.H. Allen’s book, Judah’s Sceptre and Joseph’s Birthright (orihinal na 1902, 1917 edition), kabilang ang mga unscholarly philological claims gaya ng mga tao (Hebrew ish ) ng tipan (berith) pagiging ang British (berith-ish) people, and “Isaac’s sons” dropping the I and becoming the Saxons (Allen 1917:274-75, 293-94; Armstrong 1980:95-96; Barrett 2013:34). Armstrong always implied that he had arrived at these ideas through his own studies, and certainly never gave credit to Allen’s book. However, two letters exist from Armstrong to Allen’s publisher in 1928, saying that he would like to write a book that “would follow, in great measure, the line of thought and proof offered by Allen… in boiled-down form, condensed where possible… written, moreover, in an entirely different style” (cited in Barrett 2013:36).

In brief, some of Worldwide’s other heterodox doctrines included:

  • Ang Diyos ay isang pamilya, na kasalukuyang binubuo ng Ama at ng kanyang Anak na si Jesus. Ito ang binitarianism sa halip na trinitarianismo. Ang ating panghuling patutunguhan ay maging bahagi ng (ang pamilya ng) Diyos mismo.
  • Ang Trinidad ay isang maling doktrina, na ginawa sa ikalawang-ikaapat na siglo, na naging tanda ng huwad na Kristiyanismo sa buong panahon. Ang Banal na Espiritu ay ang pagkilos ng Diyos, hindi isang tao.
  • The only correct name of God’s church was “the Church of God.”
  • Panahon ng iglesya: ang mga titik sa pitong simbahan sa Apocalipsis 1-3 ay makikita bilang mga uri ng kasaysayan ng Kristiyanong iglesya sa pamamagitan ng mga edad. Ang ika-anim na panahon, ang Philadelphia Church, ay ang panahon ng Armstrong. (Ito ang dahilan kung bakit pinangalanan ni Gerald Flurry ang kanyang sangay sa Philadelphia Church of God.)
  • Kami ay nasa End Times; maraming mga kasalukuyang kaganapan ay partikular na inihula sa mga propesiyang biblikal ( Plain Truth Ang magasin ay naglalaman ng maraming pagtatasa ng mga pangyayari sa daigdig), at ang pagbalik ni Jesus ay mabilis na lumalapit. Ang tunay na mananampalataya (ie mga miyembro ng Pandaigdig) ay magiging mga pinuno sa Lupa, sa ilalim ni Kristo ang Hari, sa panahon ng Milenyo, ang literal na libong taon ng paghahari ni Kristo.
  • Ang Ebanghelyo ay ang mabuting balita ng darating na Kaharian ng Diyos, sa halip na isang Ebanghelyo ng kasalukuyang kaligtasan at pagiging "ipinanganak na muli."
  • Ang pamahalaan ng kasalukuyang Simbahan ng Diyos ay dapat na hierarchical, hindi demokratiko. Pagkatapos ng kamatayan ay walang kamalayan ("kaluluwa tulog") hanggang sa Pagkabuhay na Mag-uli sa Ikalawang Pagparito. Ang mga hindi ligtas ay pupuksain, sa halip na paghihirap sa Impiyerno.
  • Totoo ang Biblia, kabilang ang Genesis account of Creation, at ebolusyon ay isang maling doktrina.
  • Although salvation is by grace, our reward is according to our works, obedience to God’s Law.
  • Tithing: a tenth of gross income must be given to God (i.e., God’s Church, Worldwide). There were also second and third tithes for attendance at the annual Feast of Tabernacles and to support widows and orphans.
  • Observation of God’s Law in the Old Testament included not eating “unclean meats” such as pork and shellfish.

Several of these beliefs were common to nineteenth century Christian sects, including “soul sleep” (Seventh-day Adventists), the destruction rather than punishment of the unsaved (Jehovah’s Witnesses and Christadelphians), the Holy Spirit as God-in-action rather than a Person (Jehovah’s Witnesses and others), and the emphasis on the imminent return of Christ (Seventh-day Adventists, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Christadelphians, Brethren, etc). In many ways, Worldwide Church of God ay isang sekta ng 19th-century na Kristiyano sa kabila ng pinagmulan nito sa 1930s. Ito ay binuo mula sa Iglesia ng Diyos na ikalabinsiyam na siglo (Ikapitong Araw), at, tulad ng nabanggit sa itaas, marami sa mga diumano'y natatanging mga aral ay matatagpuan sa COG7.

It is worth recalling here that COG7 shared common roots with the Seventh-day Adventist Church (SDA), and that although the latter’s doctrines came increasingly closer to those of mainstream Christianity over the decades, originally they too were substantially heterodox. One historian of both Worldwide and the SDA wrote that a prominent SDA minister, Greenbury G. Rupert (1847-1922), who knew Ellen G. White for forty years, “observed the Holy Days, eschewed unclean meats, held to the name ‘Church of God’… rejected Christmas, Easter and other pagan holidays, believed in tithing and church eras, emphasized Bible prophecy in his preaching and taught that the United States was part of Israel” (Nickels 1996b).

Si Armstrong "humiram" ng higit sa mga doktrina mula sa COG7. Sa 1965 isang abugado na kumakatawan sa Ambassador College ay sumulat sa COG7 na humihiling sa kanila na huminto sa pag-publish ng buklet Nawawalan na ang Oras, dahil ang Ambassador College ay may naka-copyright na buklet na may parehong pangalan at paksa na isinulat ni Armstrong sa 1952. COG7 "ay nakuha sa kanilang mga file at nalaman na mayroon silang isang kopya ng buklet na nakabalik sa maagang 1930s," at ang pamagat ay kasama sa kanilang listahan ng literatura sa 1925. "Ito ay malinaw na isinulat bago sinimulan ni Herbert Armstrong ang kanyang ministeryo," ang isinulat ng isang mananalaysay ng Pandaigdig na Pandaigdig. Hindi lamang iyon, ngunit sa halos kalahati ng kanilang nilalaman "[t] siya ang dalawang buklet ay salita-para-salita na magkapareho" (Edwards 1999: 9).

All these beliefs were to change under Joseph Tkatch, after Armstrong’s death. Even the formerly strict observation of Saturday worship became no more than a “tradition and practice” of the church, and congregations were encouraged, if they wished, to switch to Sunday worship.

With ministers and members having taught and believed doctrines so widely divergent from mainstream Christian teachings, setting their church apart uniquely as having the truth and all other Christianity being false, it is hardly surprising that when Joseph Tkatch began changing these distinctive doctrines, eventually discarding all of them and announcing that Worldwide was now a straightforward Evangelical church, many were confused and troubled by this. They were in a quandary of cognitive dissonance: with obedience deeply imbued into them, there was a deep conflict in following the teachings of the pastor-general of their church who was overturning the foundational beliefs of the founder of their church, God’s apostle, Herbert W. Armstrong, when both claimed their authority from God. In a strictly hierarchical church, in which obedience to authority was enshrined in doctrine, rebellion was unthinkable. Gerald Flurry, founder of Philadelphia Church of God, solved the dilemma: “We are not rebelling – we are taking a stand against those who are!” (cited in Barrett 2013:218). He and many others, holding fast to their beliefs, left Worldwide to join splinter churches.

Today’s Worldwide Church of God/Grace Communion international is now an Evangelical church, welcomed with open arms by
ang mga tagapangasiwa ng mga kulturang Kristiyano na dating kinundena nito. Sa US, tinanggap ito bilang isang miyembro ng National Association of Evangelicals noong Mayo, 1997. Sa UK, sumali ito sa Evangelical Alliance noong Hulyo, 2000. Ang parehong mga organisasyon ay may mahigpit na doktrina na kinakailangan, kabilang ang Trinitarianismo; ang kanilang pagtanggap sa Pandaigdig na nagpapakita ng malinaw na ang napakalaking paglilipat sa mga paniniwala nito mula nang mamatay si Herbert W. Armstrong.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Ang paglalarawang "mga ritwal" dito ay naaangkop sa makasaysayang Iglesia ng Diyos sa Pandaigdig, ibig sabihin bago ito naging isang tapat na Ebanghelikal na simbahan. Nalalapat din ito sa lahat ng mga simbahan sa sangay ngayon. Ang Worldwide Church of God ngayon (ngayon ang Grace Communion International) ay halos hindi makilala sa anumang iba pang miyembro ng Ebanghelikal na Iglesia sa kanyang ritwal na pagmamasid, maliban na ang ilang kongregasyon ay nakakatugon pa rin para sa pagsamba sa Sabado sa halip na Linggo.

The social construction of reality of religious believers, the meaningful framework of their lives, is often seen most clearly not in their beliefs as such but in the day-to-day expression of those beliefs, especially those which set them apart from wider society. Members of the pre-Tkatch Worldwide would not have taken jobs where they might have to work on Saturdays though, unlike strictly observant Jews, they might have driven dozens of miles to a Sabbath service. Because they followed Old Testament laws on “unclean foods,” they would never eat a bacon sandwich or a prawn cocktail, and they had a detailed list of which animals, fish and birds were acceptable to eat and which were not. They held morally conservative views, and many (following the lead of their Church) were politically conservative, though the church did not allow them to vote, because man’s democratic form of government was corrupt, and was not God’s form of government. M embers of Worldwide would also not take part in jury service or join the armed forces. All of these restrictions have now been lifted in the post-Armstrong Worldwide.

Karamihan sa mga kongregasyon ay nakasalubong sa isang silid na inupahan sa isang paaralan, hotel, sentro ng komunidad o katulad na gusali, sa halip na dedikadong simbahan
building. They might have had a lectern for the speaker, and perhaps a vase of flowers, but there were no religious symbols in the room (no statues, no pictures, no cross). Ministers wore suits, and members of the congregation were expected to dress smartly: jackets and ties for men, while women were to “dress modestly,” though they were not required to cover their hair. Services, usually ninety minutes to two hours long, consisted of several hymns from the church’s own hymn book (many based on words from the Scottish Psalter set to music by Dwight L. Armstrong, Herbert W. Armstrong’s youngest brother), often sung to recorded piano music, prayers, a sermonette, and an hour-long sermon. The congregation stood for the hymns and prayers and sat for the remainder of the service. The service would usually be followed by buffet snacks and coffee.

The main difference in religious practice or ritual from mainstream Christianity was their observance of the Old Testament festivals or feasts instead of the common Christian ones. Not only did they not celebrate Christmas and Easter (or Halloween, or birthdays), they did not take Communion (the Lord’s Supper, the Eucharist) regularly, as most Christians do. Instead, they would break bread and take wine in their observation of the annual Passover meal.

The spiritual and social highlight of the year was the eight-day Feast of Tabernacles in September/October, seen as a foretaste of the coming Kingdom of God on Earth. Members would travel to feast sites (several dozen across North America and around the world), each typically catering for a few hundred people, often at an outdoor resort. Depending on the venue they might stay in hotels, motel rooms, cabins or tents, the modern equivalent of the “booths” of Leviticus 23:41-3. As well as services and Bible studies each day, the feast sites provided activities that included sight-seeing, hiking, sailing, sports, and restaurants for all the family. The Feast of Tabernacles was an opportunity for members, especially from small or isolated congregations, to meet each other, which was particularly important for young and single members. It was also an opportunity for them to hear top evangelists in the church, including Herbert W. Armstrong and (until his ouster in 1978) Garner Ted Armstrong. Because this was such an important part of the church’s year, members had to save a second tithe throughout the year to pay for their travel to and accommodation and expenses at the feast. A “tithe of the tithe” was usually given to the church for its own feast expenses, and any excess was given to those unable to fully finance themselves. Non-members of the church were able to attend feast sites and activities, both spiritual and social. The Feast of Tabernacles is still the major annual event in the offshoot churches, though for the more hardline churches attendance is restricted to members.

ORGANISATION / LEADERSHIP

Sa taas nito, sa palibot ng 1988-1990, ang Worldwide Church of God ay may mga miyembro ng 100,000 na nabinyagan. Ito ay nakararami Gayunpaman, ang kilusang North American ay nagkaroon ng makabuluhang pagiging kasapi sa ibang mga bansa na nagsasalita ng Ingles, lalo na sa UK, Australasia, at Caribbean. Ngunit mayroong (kadalasang maliit) mga kongregasyon at nakakalat na mga miyembro sa buong mundo.

The Worldwide Church of God and Ambassador College overlapped in their organisation, with many senior ministers having roles in both. The church’s literature (the magazines, a few books and dozens of booklets) was produced by Ambassador College, which was also responsible for its radio and TV programs. All the literature was free, with the latest booklets and the Plain Truth nai-advertise ang magazine sa mga programa sa radyo at TV. Ang isang malaking kagawaran ng correspondence ay nakipagtulungan sa maraming mga titik na natanggap ng Simbahan (higit sa tatlong milyon sa isang taon sa 1974), na ipinasok ang mga talata ng stock sa mga indibidwal na paksa sa mga tugon. Ang buong mundo ay nangunguna sa karamihan sa mga paggalaw sa relihiyon sa paggamit nito ng mga computer, na may IBM 370 sa Data Processing Center nito sa Pasadena sa maagang 1970s.

Ang Pasadena campus ng Ambassador College ay punong tanggapan din ng Simbahan, at nag-host din ng Ambassador International Cultural Foundation. Ito ay may ilang mga tungkulin. Itinaguyod nito ang mga arkeolohikal na mga hukay, at ibinigay ang mga estudyante upang maghukay, sa mga site tulad ng Temple Mount sa Jerusalem; pinondohan nito ang mga proyektong pang-edukasyon sa mga bansa sa ikatlong-mundo; inilagay ito sa mabigat na subsidized na mga konsyerto ng mataas na kalidad sa Ambassador Auditorium; at ito ay naging sasakyan para sa pampublikong mukha ni Herbert W. Armstrong (tingnan ang susunod na seksyon).

Tulad ng maraming kilusang Kristiyano sa buong mundo na binuo ng isang komplikadong sistema ng ministeryo mula sa mga deacon at deaconesses sa mga lokal na matatanda at nangangaral na matatanda, sa mga pastor (kabilang ang mga katulong na pastor, mga katiwala ng pastor at mga retiradong pastor), sa mga ebanghelista at, sa kanyang buhay, sa apostol, Herbert W. Armstrong. Maaga sa kanyang ministeryo na si Armstrong ay naniniwala na ang bawat indibidwal na kongregasyon ay dapat na nagsasarili, at sa 1939 ay sumulat ng isang artikulo tungkol dito: "Ang lahat ng awtoridad at kapangyarihan na mamuno ay limitado lamang sa bawat isa lokal kongregasyon. Pero meron walang awtoridad sa Biblia for any super-government, or organization with authority over the local congregations!” (Nickels 1996a:32-41, 205-09). He changed this stance completely, so that when he died the first of the “18 Revealed Truths” ascribed to him was: “ The government of God. When Christ comes, He will restore God’s government to the whole earth. So you can be sure the one to come in the spirit and power of Elijah would restore God’s government in his church… Today, the government of God has been restored to His Church” (cited in Barrett 2013:152). “The one to come in the spirit and power of Elijah” was Armstrong; “the government of God” was strictly hierarchical, with God at the top, his apostle Herbert W. Armstrong next, then the evangelists, then the other ministers in order. Members, who had no voice in church governance at all, sometimes said they were expected to “pay, pray, stay and obey” (Barrett 2013:166).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Sa pamamagitan ng naturang pagbibigay-diin sa awtoridad madali para sa isang Simbahan na lumipat sa awtoritaryanismo. Ito ay hindi karaniwan para sa mga ehehehehehehe and senior ministers to make unannounced house calls on ministers and members, looking in kitchen cupboards for white sugar and white flour (disapproved of by the Church), and looking for “dissident literature.” Depending on who was in the ascendant at any point, ministers at any level could find themselves suddenly out of favor, demoted and moved to new congregations, sometimes on different continents (Barrett 2013:38). At the most senior level this included Garner Ted Armstrong. He was suspended in 1971 and 1972 for his sexual affairs, but he was subsequently allowed back when his absence from radio broadcasts caused the Church’s income to fall. It also included senior evangelist Roderick C. Meredith, who was “exiled” to Hawaii for six months in 1979-1980. Some of the senior ministers of the 1960s and 1970s became leaders of offshoot Churches, and the harsh treatment some of them once meted out to other ministers and members when in Worldwide has affected how they are perceived today by members choosing which offshoot Churches, led by them, to join (Barrett 2013:219-29).

Bilang Chancellor ng Ambassador Colleges at pinuno ng Ambassador International Cultural Foundation, maglakbay si Armstrong
ang mundo sa kanyang pribadong jet bilang isang "ambasador," nakakatugon sa mga pinuno ng mundo at nagpo-promote ng AICF bilang isang pangunahing aspeto ng gawain ng Pandaigdig na. Ang mga litrato niya na nakalog ng mga kamay sa mga prinsipe at pangulo ay regular na lumabas Plain Truth , emphasizing how important he was on the world stage. Armstrong was criticised for the high expenditure on this (his aides would give out expensive gifts, effectively “buying” some of these meetings); his son Garner Ted Armstrong called it “the world’s most expensive autograph hunt” (Armstrong 1992:40). (Similar criticisms have been made of the leaders of other new religions, including the Reverend Moon of the Unification Church and Daisaku Ikeda of Soka Gakkai International (Barrett 2001:206, 306).) Armstrong also faced criticism for his conspicuous expenditure on things such as architecture, clothes, watches, tableware, paintings, sculptures, crystal candelabra, and a Steinway grand piano. He believed that only the best is good enough for God. (Cf. the criticism of Elizabeth Clare Prophet, leader of Church Universal and Triumphant, for her clothes and jewellery (Barrett 2001:379).)

Ang 1970 ay isang partikular na mahirap na dekada para sa Simbahan, bagaman karamihan sa mga miyembro, ang mga mambabasa ng Plain Truth at mga tagapakinig Ang Mundo ng Tomorrow, would not have known of many of the problems. Encouraged by Armstrong’s 1956 booklet 1975 sa Propesiya , many members had expected Christ’s return in the mid-1970s; disillusioned, some left the Church. Two doctrinal changes, on the date of Pentecost and on divorce and remarriage, caused some conservative ministers to leave and set up offshoot Churches, while a number of more liberal ministers left over the authoritarianism of the Church leadership. In 1977, ten years after the death of his first wife, Armstrong married Ramona Martin, a divorced woman of thirty nine; he was eighty five. Coming just a year after the sudden relaxation of the Church’s previously strict rules forbidding remarriage after divorce, this created disquiet amongst ministers, including Garner Ted Armstrong, who was eight years older than his father’s new wife. The marriage did not last. Armstrong divorced his second wife in 1984 after a long and acrimonious court battle that included (among other matters) discussion of Armstrong’s senility. It allegedly cost the Church somewhere between one million and five million dollars.

Herbert W. Armstrong and Garner Ted Armstrong came into increasing conflict during this decade. Ted Armstrong was more doctrinally liberal than his father. Although the son was largely running the Church and Ambassador College while the father was flying around the world, Armstrong would sometimes overturn his son’s decisions. If they disagreed, Armstrong accused his son of resentment against his father; he also accused Ted of a conspiracy to unseat him. On top of that, Garner Ted Armstrong continued his sexual improprieties. In 1978, Armstrong disfellowshipped his son (the equivalent of excommunication); Ted went off to found the Church of God, International.

Ang mga kritiko ng Armstrong at ang kanyang simbahan ay nagpatuloy sa buong dekada, mula sa parehong mga tagalabas at dating mga miyembro. Mula sa 1976 a
Ang grupo ng alumni ng Ambassador College ay gumawa ng isang semi-regular na newsletter, Ulat ng Ambassador, which published articles critical of the Church and its leadership. Amongst other stories it covered internal tensions in the Church, senior ministers leaving, the escalating conflict between Herbert W. and Garner Ted Armstrong, Ted’s sexual escapades, and his father’s remarriage and divorce. It also published a report in one of the most hard-hitting of books by a senior ex-member, David Robinson, that Herbert W. Armstrong had committed incest with one of his daughters when she was a teenager.

Habang lumalaki siya at mas malubhang pisikal, si Armstrong ay naimpluwensiyahan ng ilan sa kanyang mga tagapayo, lalo na ang kanyang abogado, si Stanley Rader, na (bagaman hindi pa man nagtagumpay ang isang hindi mananampalataya) ay may malaking impluwensya sa simbahan, ay lubhang hindi nagustuhan ng karamihan mga ministro, at binibigyang-diin si Armstrong laban sa kaniyang anak. Sa 1979, inilagay ng estado ng California ang simbahan sa pagtanggap pagkatapos ng mga paratang ng hindi wastong pinansya. Ang mga paratang ay nagmula sa mga miyembro na, mula sa kanilang sariling mga pananaw, ay tapat sa Simbahan at sinisikap na protektahan si Armstrong mula kay Rader at iba pang senior advisers. Ang dalawang libro tungkol sa episode na ito (isa sa pamamagitan ng Rader, na nakipaglaban sa kaso sa ngalan ng Simbahan, ang isa naman ni John Tuit, na nagsimula ng kaso laban sa Iglesia na naging sanhi ng receivership) ay maaaring halos naglalarawan ng iba't ibang mga kaganapan.

This illustrates one of the difficulties in researching Worldwide: the very strong personal bias of almost all internal sources. Books by former members tend to be highly critical of Armstrong and much of what went on in Worldwide, while books by the more hardline offshoots tend to be almost hagiographic about God’s End-Time apostle. In their own writings Herbert W. Armstrong and Garner Ted Armstrong understandably viewed the latter’s 1978 “ouster” from Worldwide in very different ways. Similarly books about the dramatic changes in Worldwide after Armstrong’s death take diametrically opposed stances depending on who they were written by, the architects of the changes (e.g. Tkatch 1997, Feazell 2003) or the schismatic founders of offshoot Churches (e.g. Flurry 2006, Pack 2008). Some of the books in the References and most of those in the Additional Resources show bias in one way or another. Benware (1977) and Hopkins (1974) are external scholarly works.

Mga sanggunian

Allen, JH 1917. Judah’s Sceptre and Joseph’s Birthright . 18th edn. Boston: AA Beauchamp.

Armstrong, Herbert W. 1986, Autobiography ni Herbert W Armstrong . Pasadena CA: Worldwide Church of God.

Armstrong, Herbert W. 1980. Ang Estados Unidos at Britanya sa Propesiya . Pasadena, CA: Worldwide Church of God.

Armstrong, Garner Ted. 1992. Ang Pinagmulan at Kasaysayan ng Iglesia ng Diyos, Internasyonal . Tyler, TX: Church of God, International.

Barrett, David V. 2013. Ang Pagkakahati-hati ng Isang Sekta . New York: Oxford University Press.

Barrett, David V. 2001. Ang Mga Bagong Naniniwala . London: Cassell.

Edwards, Norman, ed. 1999. "Simbahan ng Diyos 7th Day Old Documents Tungkol sa Herbert Armstrong." Servants’ News , Abril.

Nickels, Richard C. 1999. Kasaysayan ng Ikapitong Araw na Simbahan ng Diyos . Neck City, MO: Pagbibigay at Pagbabahagi.

Nickels, Richard C. 1996a. Mga Sinaunang Kasulatan ni Herbert W Armstrong . Neck City, Mo: Pagbibigay at Pagbabahagi.

Nickels, Richard C. 1996b. Simbahan ng Diyos - Adventist! Mga Balita ng mga Tagapaglingkod . Pebrero. Na-access mula sa h ttp: //www.servantsnews.com/sn9602/cogadventist.htm sa 30 Hunyo 2013.

Ogwyn, John H. 1995. God’s Church Through the Ages . San Diego, California: Global Church of God.

KARAGDAGANG MGA RESOURCES

Benware, Paul N. 1977. Ambassadors of Armstrongism: Isang Pagsusuri ng Kasaysayan at Mga Turo ng Pandaigdig na Simbahan ng Diyos . Nutley, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co.

Feazell, J. Michael. 2003. The Liberation of the Worldwide Church of God: The Remarkable Story of a Cult’s Journey from Deception to Truth . Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing House.

Nagmumula, si Stephen. 2006. Pagtaas ng mga Ruins: Ang paglaban upang mabuhay muli ang pamana ni Herbert W. Armstrong . Edmond, OK: Philadelphia Church of God.

Hopkins, Joseph. 1974. Ang Armstrong Empire: Isang Pagtingin sa Worldwide Church of God . Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans.

Ang Journal: News of the Churches of God . Big Sandy, Texas. (Buwanang pahayagan; 1997-nagpapatuloy.)

Nichols, Larry, at George Mather. 1998. Pagtuklas sa Katotohanang Plain: Paano Nakarating ang Iglesia ng Diyos sa Buong Mundo ng Ebanghelyo ng Biyaya . Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Pack, David C. 2008. May Naging Bumabagsak . Wadsworth, OH: Ipinanumbalik na Simbahan ng Diyos.

Rader, Stanley R. 1980. Laban sa Gates of Hell: Ang Banta sa Relihiyosong Kalayaan sa Amerika . New York: Everest House.

Robinson, David. 1980. Herbert Armstrong’s Tangled Web . Tulsa, OK: John Hadden.

Ito ay Ambassador College . 1974. Pasadena, CA: Ambassador College Press.

Ito ang Worldwide Church of God . 1972. Pasadena, CA: Ambassador College Press.

Tkach, J. 1997. Nabago Ayon sa Katotohanan . Sisters, OR: Multnomah Books.

Tuit, John. 1981. The Truth Shall Make You Free: Herbert Armstrong’s Empire Exposed . Freehold NJ: The Truth Foundation.

May-akda:
David V. Barrett

Petsa ng pag-post:
22 Hunyo 2013

 

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