Ang Satanic Temple

David G. Bromley
Michaela Crutsinger

magbahagi

ANG SATANIC TEMPLE TIMELINE

2012:  The first public presence of what became The Satanic Temple occurred with the posting of a Facebook page to promote a planned documentary film.

2013 (January):  The Satanic Temple hosted a rally in support of Florida Governor Rick Scott in support of prayer in schools.

2013 (June):  The Satanic Temple began to raise money for its “Adopt-a-Highway” campaign.

2013 (July):  Members of The Satanic Temple performed a Pink Mass in Meridian, Mississippi at the grave of the mother of Westboro Church’s founder, Fred Phelps.

2013:  Doug Mesner acknowledged that Lucien Greaves was his movement identity.

2013-2014:  In Michigan, both national and local The Satanic Temple organized opposition to gay marriage and to religious holiday displays in public space.

2013-2014:  The Satanic Temple protested the distribution of Bibles in Florida’s public schools and the display of a nativity scene in the Capitol Building.

2014 (January):  The Satanic Temple announced plans to build a satanic monument in front of the Oklahoma Statehouse after the state permitted the installation of a Ten Commandments monument in 2012.

2014 (May):  Public controversy arose when The Satanic Temple was invited to perform a Black Mass ritual at Harvard University in conjunction with the Harvard Extension Cultural Studies Club.

2014 (May):  The Satanic Temple celebrated “Protect Children Day” to protest corporal punishment in schools.

2014 (June):  Lucien Greaves announced that both heterosexual and homosexual marriage were sacraments.

2014 (September):  The Satanic Temple announced plans to locate its first “chapter house” in Detroit, Michigan.

2014 (September 22):  A Black Mass was held in Oklahoma City.

2015 (June):  The Oklahoma State Supreme Court ruled that the Ten Commandments statue must be removed from the Capitol grounds.

2018:  Internal divisions within The Satanic Temple led to a number of chapter disaffiliations.

2018: Ang Baphomet na Ang Satanikong Templo ay dapat na ilagay sa Capitol grounds sa Oklahoma bago ang Sampung Utos rebulto ay inalis muli sa Arkansas.

2018 (December):  The Michigan chapter of the Temple installed a satanic-themed sculpture in the statehouse just before the holiday season.

2019:  The Satanic Temple was granted 501(c)(3) status.

2019 (Abril 19): Ang dokumentaryo Mabuhay si Satanas? premiered sa Sundance Film Festival. Ang mga karapatan sa buong mundo ay binili ng Magnolia Pictures.

FOUNDER / GROUP KASAYSAYAN

The Satanic Temple was co-founded by an individual publicly known as Lucien Greaves and Malcolm Jarry (Identities that will be used for purposes of this profile). Both for various reasons have camouflaged their legal names and adopted organizational personas, and so very little personal information history is available for either. There is considerable debate about the “true” identity of both individuals (Merlan 2014; Shieldwall network 2018). Lucien Greaves has been publicly identified as Doug Mesner, but it is also alleged that his birth name is Douglas Misicko. Malcolm Jarry has been reported to be documentary filmmaker Cevin Soling.

Malcolm Jarry is listed as a co-founder of The Satanic Temple, but Greaves is the primary public spokesman for the group. Little is known about Greaves’ personal history. He is believed to have grown up in Detroit and reports that he later attended Harvard University, where he studied cognitive science (although there seems to be no official record of his enrollment). He [Image at right] became interested in researching witch-hunts and various forms of Satanism, and as he has put it, “I actually have a long background in studying witch hunts and the idea of Satanism” (Gremore 2013). By Greaves’ account, “I grew up in the shadow of what is now known to sociologists as “the Satanic Panic”—an embarrassing episode of witch-hunting in the modern era. I was horrified by daytime talk show fables of homicidal Satanic cult hordes. I became very curious, later on, regarding the question of the truth of the conspiracy claims, and I began pursuing this as an active study” (Bugbee 2013). This interest led, in 2009, to his attending a “Ritual Abuse/Mind-Control” conference in Connecticut where

Nakikinig ako sa "mga eksperto" na masalimuot sa kanilang mga paniniwala sa mga krimen ni Satanas na ritwal. Akala ko sila ay magiging isang grupo ng grupo ng mga delusional na tao na humahawak ng matatag sa hindi kapani-paniwala na mga paniniwala, sinasaktan ang sinuman ngunit ang kanilang sarili. Ang nakita ko sa halip ay isang baluktot na subculture ng mga lisensiyadong therapist, at ang kanilang mga kliyente, na nag-subscribe sa isang pseudoscientific belief sa "dissociative amnesia": Ang teorya na ang ilang mga kaganapan-lalo na sekswal na pang-aabuso-ay maaaring maging labis na traumatiko na ang isip ng isip ay hindi naiintindihan ito , at sa gayon ang mga alaala ay "pinigil."

Pinalalawak ng Satanikong Templo ang organisasyunal na adyenda sa mga nakalipas na taon, ngunit patuloy na inaatasan ng grupo ang mga claim ng pang-aabuso sa ritwal na Satanas sa pamamagitan ng inisyatibong Gray Faction nito. Ang layunin ng Gray Faction ay inilarawan bilang mga sumusunod (

Ang Grey Faction ay isang kampanya ng The Satanic Temple na naglalathala, naglalantad, at naglalayong kontrahin ang nakaraan at kasalukuyang mga epekto ng Satanic Panic habang agresibo na naghahangad na magwakas sa mga gawang pseudoscientific na mga kasanayan sa pangangalagang pangkalusugan na nag-aambag sa mapaminsalang conspiracist na Satanic Panic delusions.

Greaves’ interests have always been more political than religious. Greaves has authored for the May pag-aalinlangang Inquirer, Araw-araw na Kos, at Atheist Nexus (Resnick 2014).

MGA DOCTRINES / RITUALS

For The Satanic Temple, Satan is, metaphorically, “The Eternal Rebel” and is used to resist repressive authority and societal norms (Radford 2014; “The Satanic Temple” n.d.). The Satanic Temple website states that its organizational mission is “to encourage benevolence and kindness and empathy among all people” and lists Seven Fundamental Tenets (“The Satanic Temple” n.d.).

Ang isa ay dapat magsikap na kumilos sa kahabagan at empatiya sa lahat ng nilalang alinsunod sa dahilan.

Ang pakikibaka para sa katarungan ay isang patuloy at kinakailangang pagtugis na dapat mananaig sa mga batas at institusyon.

One’s body is inviolable, subject to one’s own will alone.

Ang mga kalayaan ng iba ay dapat igalang, kabilang ang kalayaan upang saktan ang damdamin. Ang sinasadya at hindi makatarungan na pagsalakay sa mga kalayaan ng iba ay upang itapon ang iyong sarili.

Ang mga paniniwala ay dapat sumunod sa ating pinakamahusay na pang-agham na pag-unawa sa mundo. Dapat tayong mag-ingat na hindi dapat iwaksi ang mga pang-agham na katotohanan upang magkasya ang ating mga paniniwala.

Ang mga tao ay nabigo. Kung nagkamali tayo, dapat nating gawin ang ating makakaya upang maitama ito at malutas ang anumang pinsalang maaaring dulot.

Tuwing tenets ay isang gabay na prinsipyo na dinisenyo upang magbigay ng inspirasyon nobility sa pagkilos at pag-iisip. Ang diwa ng habag, karunungan, at katarungan ay dapat mananaig sa ibabaw ng nakasulat o pasalitang salita.

The Temple is quite insistent about its atheistic stance and its elevation of self-sovereignty hood over worship of a religious leader, historical or contemporary, embeddedness in a religious tradition, or what it regards as “supernatural superstition” (Panne 2014). In its view, “Satan stands as the ultimate icon for the selfless revolt against tyranny, free & rational inquiry, and the responsible pursuit of happiness” (“The Satanic Temple Adopt-A-Highway Campaign” 2013). As Greaves has summarized the matter, “Satan” is [simply] a metaphorical construct by which we contextualize our work” (Bugbee 2013). “Truth” always remains provisional and contingent on future scientific findings. The broader mission of The Satanic Temple is “to advocate for all of those who are unjustly maligned, demonized, or marginalized—victimized by conspiracy theorists and dogmatic supernaturalists” (Bugbee 2013).

Ang pangkat ay walang regular na mga pulong kung saan ang mga ritwal ay gaganapin, at mayroong debate kung dapat magkaroon ng pormal na ritwal na organisasyon. May kakulangan sa ginhawa sa pagkuha sa uri ng mga katangian ng organisasyon na itinatag ng Templo upang tutulan. Iniulat ng Burton (2017) na

Ang TST ay kadalasang nahahati sa mga tumatanggap sa imahe ng Satanikong ritwal, maging para sa pampulitika o personal na mga dahilan, at sa mga nakakakita ng karangyaan at pangyayari na nakagagambala; ang organisasyon ay walang pormal na paninindigan ngunit kasalukuyang hindi opisyal na nagho-host ng anumang.

Para sa kasalukuyang hindi bababa sa grupo ay may kaugnayan sa iba't ibang uri ng mga pangyayaring protesta na maaring maitatag sa isang ritwalistikong format ngunit pampulitika at panlaban sa kalikasan. Halimbawa, ginaganap ng Satanikong Templo ang Black Mass at ang mga pangyayari sa Pink Mass bilang mga plataporma sa pagsulong ng suporta nito para sa mga gay na karapatan at pagsalungat sa mga representasyong pangrelihiyon sa pampublikong parisukat.

ORGANISATION / LEADERSHIP

The Satanic Temple [Image at right] appears to have originated out of a project, for which Greaves was enlisted as a consultant, to produce a political “mockumentary” that would address the separation of church and state debate. Organization membership is open worldwide to anyone who accepts the seven tenets and either works with or identifies with the activities of the group.

Ang Satanic Temple sa simula ay pinatatakbo sa pamamagitan ng Internet at walang pisikal na pulong na lokasyon kung saan ang mga regular na aktibidad ay ginanap. Gayunpaman, sa 2016 Greaves inihayag ang pagkuha ng isang internasyonal na punong-himpilan sa Salem, Massachusetts na naibigay sa pangkat (DeVito 2016). Pagkalipas ng dalawang taon, ang gusali, na dating isang libingang bahay, ay binago at isang muling pagdiriwang ay ipinagdiriwang. Nagtatampok ang punong-tanggapan ng isang maliit na museo na nagkakasunod sa kasaysayan ng Satanismo, pangangaso ng mga bruha, at paniniwalang moral.

Noong Setyembre 2014, ang grupo ay nag-anunsyo ng mga plano na magtayo ng kanyang unang "kapitbahay na bahay" sa Detroit, Michigan, kung saan ginugol ni Greaves ang kanyang pagkabata. Ang kinatawan ng Templo ay nagsabi na "Ang plano ay upang buksan ang kabanatang bahay sa publiko sa ilang mga naka-iskedyul na oras. Magbibigay ito ng panitikan para sa mga bisita, pati na rin ang puwang sa pagpupulong, at magsagawa ng mga tradisyunal na serbisyo tulad ng mga kasal at libing "(" Diyablo sa Detroit "2014). Ang mga karagdagang kabanatang bahay sa ibang mga lungsod ay iniulat din na nasa mga yugto ng pagpaplano noong panahong iyon (Allen 2014). Sa pamamagitan ng 2018, ang Templo ay nag-uulat ng labing-pitong kabanata sa buong Estados Unidos. Hindi kataka-taka, ang karamihan sa mga miyembro ng kabanata ay mukhang medyo bata pa sa katamtaman, matatanda ng kulturang hindi na nakakonekta sa tradisyong relihiyong Kristiyano (Burton 2017). Siyempre, ang grupo ay nagpapanatili ng isang aktibong internet site presence, nag-oorganisa ng mga proyekto, at bumubuo ng mga lokal na kabanata.

Sinusuportahan ng organisasyon ang mga proyekto nito sa bahagi sa pamamagitan ng mga donasyon. Ang mga iminungkahing halaga para sa iba't ibang layunin ay mula sa sampung dolyar hanggang sa sampung libong dolyar, na may isang kontribusyon na isang daang dolyar na nakakuha ng pamagat na "Luciferian Activist." Sinusuportahan din ng grupo ang ilang mga proyekto sa pamamagitan ng hiwalay na mga fundraising ng proyekto.

The high level of public visibility that the group has achieved is primarily the result of organized projects, which are often widely reported in the media, and reflect its organizational priorities (Levy 2014; Smith 2014). Indeed, its projects have drawn national attention, and, in several cases, considerable controversy. Beginning in 2013, The Satanic Temple began organizing a series of projects that have become the primary source of the group’s public identity. Some early examples include the following:

Noong Hunyo, 2013, Ang Satanikong Templo ay nagsimulang magtataas ng pera para sa kampanyang "Adopt-a-Highway" nito.

In January, 2013, the Temple staged a rally for a legislative bill in Florida promoted by Governor Rick Scott that would allow prayer in public schools. The Satanic Temple turned the governor’s intent (allowing Christian prayer) on its head by supporting the initiative so that school children in Florida would also have equal access to satanic beliefs and practices.

In July, 2013, members of the group performed a “Pink Mass” in Meridian, Mississippi at the grave of Catherine Johnston, the mother of Westboro Baptist Church leader Fred Phelps to protest the church’s activities.

Sa 2013-2014, parehong pambansa at lokal na organisasyon ng mga Satanic Temple ang nagtutol sa pagsalungat sa gay na kasal at sa mga nagpapakita ng relihiyosong holiday sa pampublikong puwang sa Michigan.

In 2013-2014, The Satanic Temple protested the distribution of Bibles in Florida’s public schools and the display of a nativity scene in the Capitol Building.

Noong Enero, 2014, Ang Satanic Temple ay nag-anunsyo ng mga plano na bumuo ng isang satanikong monumento sa harap ng Oklahoma Statehouse matapos na pinahintulutan ng estado ang pag-install ng sampung utos na monumento sa 2012.

Noong Mayo, 2014, Inimbitahan ang Satanikong Templo upang magsagawa ng Black Mass ritual sa Harvard University kasabay ng Harvard Extension Cultural Studies Club.

Noong Mayo 15, 2014, Ang Satanic Temple ay nag-anunsiyo at nagsaulog ng sarili nitong holiday, Protektahan ang Araw ng mga Bata.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

The controversies in which The Satanic Temple has been involved began with the group’s founding, which has been misattributed as part of the Temple’s oppositional agenda (Shurter n.d.) According to the group’s website, The Satanic Temple was founded by Neil Bricke, who started a Facebook page for the organization in 2012. The Satanic Temple’s website states: “In 2012, Neil Bricke, raised in a multigenerational Satanic Temple tradition of worship, decided, with the blessings of his fellow Satanic devotees, to officially found the Satanic Temple” (SMART n.d.). Lucien Greaves announced that Bricke would speak at a rally in support of Governor Rick Scott in January, 2013; however, Bricke has never appeared publicly since that announcement and almost certainly does not exist. Rather, it appears that the Lucien Greaves was mocking Neil Brick, who founded Stop Mind Control and Ritual Abuse Today (S.M.A.R.T.). The group’s website states that

S.M.A.R.T. ritual abuse newsletter was founded in 1995 by Neil Brick. The purpose of S.M.A.R.T. is to help stop ritual abuse and child abuse and to help those who have been ritually abused. We work toward this goal by disseminating information on the connections between secretive organizations, ritual abuse, and mind control, by encouraging healing from the damage done by child abuse, ritual abuse and mind control, and by encouraging survivors to network” (S.M.A.R.T. n.d.).

Ang Greaves ay isang determinadong kalaban ng mga grupo na nagpapakita ng kanilang sarili bilang mga organisasyon ng suportang pang-aabuso ng ritwal.

Bilang isang grupo na nagpapakilala sa sarili sa imahe ng satanika, ang Satanic Temple ay mayroon ding
frequently been linked to the Church of Satan. Greaves acknowledges the work of Anton LaVey [Image at right] but also distances the Temple from LaVeyan Satanism. Greaves has stated that “LaVey is an excellent jumping-off point, but his work was a product of its time, and it’s appropriate to recontexualize it to today’s reality. LaVey was active during a time in which, for decades, the United States was on a dysfunctional spiral of increasing violence. As a result, LaVey’s rhetoric tended toward Social Darwinistic Police State politics.” In contemporary society, Greaves asserts, “We also find that Social Darwinism, interpreted in brutal, strictly self-interested terms, is counter-productive, and based on a simplistic misinterpretation of evolutionary theory.” Some members have gone so far as referring to the Church of Satan as simply “alt-right neo-Nazis” (Burton 2017). As for Greaves, he has concluded that We do better when we work in groups, where altruism and compassion are rewarded. We are social animals” (Bugbee 2013). For its part, the Church of Satan also rejects The Satanic Temple. Magus Peter Gilmore stated that “the Church of Satan only applies the term “Satanist” to itself; the others are called “devil worshipers or demonolators, not Satanists” and concluded that “We see nothing of value in the actions of this handful of individuals” (Allen 2014). A spokesperson for another satanic group, Temple of Satan, which honors Satan as a deity, took offense at The Satanic Temple’s atheistic stance: “An atheist is what?” she said. “They don’t believe in anything, any religion — so why are they using a religion to do it? That is hypocritical, it’s an oxymoron and it’s not even credible” (Allen 2014). She went on to state that “They cannot, and nor do they, speak on behalf of the rest of the Satanic community, that believe in the creator, who we call Satan … the one that predates Christianity….The one who is in the first creation epic, who fought the dragon Tiamat for mankind” (DeVito 2014).

Isa sa mga kontrobersiyal na proyektong inilunsad ng Ang Satanic Temple ay isang pagtatangka na magtataas ng sapat na pera upang "magpatibay-isang-highway” in New York City. [Image at right] The adopt-a-highway program would have involved the group maintaining and beautifying part of the public highway for up to two years. The Satanic Temple hoped to use this project to raise awareness about religious diversity. The group stated that “The campaign will do more than keep our highways clean. It will help send a clear message to the world reaffirming American Religious Plurality” (“The Satanic Temple Adopt-a-Highway Campaign” 2013). The group raised just over two thousand dollars between June 10 and August 15, 2013, far short of the goal of fifteen thousand dollars. Had the goal been reached and had the New York Department of Transportation approved the plan, the funds would have been put toward the campaign. In the event that the department did not approve the project, the funds were to support contesting that decision. The organization offered different incentive levels for donations, ranging from ten dollars, for which the donor would receive a button, to ten thousand dollars, for which the donor would receive a full “Membership Package,” including the ability to choose the location of and to participate in the next Pink Mass that The Satanic Temple performed (“The Satanic Temple Adopt-A-Highway Campaign” 2013). In 2018, The Satanic Temple was awarded an Adopt-A-Highway project on Route I-10 in Arizona, which the group then branded the “Road to Hell” (McCloskey 2018).

In July 2013, in Meridian, Mississippi, members of the group performed a “Pink Mass” at the grave of Catherine Johnston, the mother of Westboro Baptist Church leader Fred Phelps. Greaves told ABC News that the event was an anti-protest, in response to the Westboro Church’s intention to protest the funerals of those who were killed in the Boston Marathon bombings. During the ritual, Greaves wore a two-horn headdress, and three couples, two male, and one female, had sexual relations over the grave headstone while reading biblical passages (Goldman 2013; Resnick 2014). [Image at right] Following the ceremony the group declared Mrs. Johnson to be a lesbian retrospectively, and Lucien Greaves stated that the ritual represented a celebration of gay love. A spokesperson for Westboro Baptist Church reiterated the church’s position that homosexuality is a sin and that the penalty is death (Gremore 2013).

In May 2014, The Satanic Temple was invited to perform a Black Mass ritual at Harvard University in conjunction with the Harvard Extension Cultural Studies Club (Laycock 2014). The Harvard Extension School’s Cultural Studies club was hosting a series of educational events examining aspects of other cultures, including a Shinto tea ceremony, a Shaker exhibition, and a Buddhist presentation on meditation. (Kuruvilla 2014). As many as 60,000 people, including Harvard students, faculty and alumni, signed an online petition that urged Harvard administrators to refuse to allow the event on campus. While Harvard President, Drew Faust, did not cancel the event and defended student’s right to sponsor it, he did label the Black Mass as “flagrantly disrespectful and inflammatory” (Lee 2014). Administrators in the Harvard Extension School stated that “they do not endorse the views or activities of any independent student organization such as this one. “But we do support the rights of our students and faculty to speak and assemble freely” (Annear 2014). The Archdiocese of Boston weighed in with a condemnation of the event:

The Catholic community in the Archdiocese of Boston expresses its deep sadness and strong opposition to the plan to stage a “black mass” on the campus of Harvard University in Cambridge. For the good of the Catholic faithful and all people, the Church provides clear teaching concerning Satanic worship. This activity separates people from God and the human community, it is contrary to charity and goodness, and it places participants dangerously close to destructive works of evil ” (Annear 2014; Kuruvilla 2014).

In an attempt to defend its invitation, the Harvard Extension Cultural Studies Club released the following statement: “ We are hosting a reenactment of a historical event known as a Black Mass. The performance is designed to be educational and is preceded by a lecture that provides the history, context, and origin of the Black Mass. While a piece of bread is used in the reenactment, the performance unequivocally does not include a consecrated host. Our purpose is not to denigrate any religion or faith, which would be repugnant to our educational purposes, but instead to learn and experience the history of different cultural practices. This performance is part of a larger effort to explore religious facets that continue to influence contemporary culture” (Kuruvilla 2014). Ultimately, the club decided to cancel the on-campus event, but The Satanic Temple still conducted the Black Mass at the Hong Kong lounge in Harvard Square without Club sponsorship. The Club did state that “The Satanic Temple has informed us that they will stage their own black mass ceremony at an undisclosed private location to ‘reaffirm their respect for the Satanic faith and to demonstrate that the most powerful response to offensive speech is to shame those who marginalize others by letting their own words and actions speak for themselves’…” (Lee 2014; Lauerman 2014). Greaves stated that the Black Mass would be held for educational purposes only and was not intended to mock the Roman Catholic Church. The community demonstrated its rejection of the event with a 1,500 person march from MIT to St. Paul Church, that included the President of Harvard.

Noong Mayo 2014, inihayag ng Satanikong Templo ang paglikha ng sarili nitong holiday, Protect Children Day, na ipagdiriwang taun-taon sa May 15. The holiday is intended to protest corporal punishment in schools as part of a larger mission of promoting personal sovereignty. [Image at right] Students participate by downloading a prepared letter from the Temple website and delivering it to their school principals on May 15, requesting exemption from corporal punishment for religious reasons. As part of the Protect Children Project, the group is spreading awareness about corporal punishment, as well as solitary confinement and restricted bathroom access in schools. Temple co-founder, Malcolm Jarry stated that the project defends basic Temple principles: “inviolability of the human body, the control of one’s destiny, freedom to pursue one’s desires without abusive intervention and opposition to tyrannical powers and authority” (Levy 2014).

Ang isa pang kontrobersya na binuo ng Ang Satanic Temple ay nagsimula noong Nobyembre 2012 kapag ang isang anim na talampakan, rebulto ng Sampung Utos ay itinayo sa labas ng Oklahoma City state capitol building (Smith 2014). Isang Republikano sa Oklahoma House of Representatives, Mike Ritze, sponsored a bill in 2009 that authorized the state to place donated displays on the Capitol. He then personally funded the $10,000 statue and donated it to the state. The statue was placed outside the Oklahoma Statehouse in 2012. American Atheists, a New Jersey based organization, responded with a federal lawsuit challenging the constitutionality of the statue. The Satanic Temple adopted a somewhat different strategy, constructing planning a seven-foot-tall, bronze Minotaur accompanied by statues of two children, one on each side of the Minotaur. [Image at right] The statue was intended to serve as a “testament to the glory of the Angel of the Bottomless Pit” (Smith 2014). The group raised $30,000 for design and construction. In the event that the ten commandments statue was removed, The Satanic Temple identified other possible locations for its display (Christian 2014; Resnick 2014). The Oklahoma Capitol Preservation Commission announced that individuals and groups were free to apply for permission to place a display and that applications would be reviewed by the Commission. The Universal Society of Hinduism also expressed an interest in a display at the site. The state subsequently suspended permits for displays until the ten commandments lawsuit was settled. In June 2015, the Oklahoma State Supreme Court ruled in a 7-2 decision that the Ten Commandments are “obviously religious in nature and are an integral part of the Jewish and Christian faiths” and therefore the statue must be removed from the Capitol grounds (Murphy 2015).

As the dispute over The Satanic Temple’s application continued, a local satanic group, Dakhma of Angra Mainyu Church, which is not accepted by The Satanic Temple, subsequently held a Black Mass at OKC Civic Center on September 22, 2014. About forty people attended while several hundred others turned out to protest the event (Hope 2014; Blumberg 2014).

Ang Satanikong Templo ay kasangkot sa maraming mga pagtatalo sa Michigan. Isa sa mga sentro sa pag-aasawa ng homoseksuwal, na sinalungat ni Gobernador Rick Snyder. Sinabi ng Greaves na ang kasal ay isang sakramento, parehong heterosexual at homosexual, at inihayag ang mga plano upang magsagawa ng gay kasal sa Michigan sa mga batayan ng kalayaan sa relihiyon (Panne 2014). Sinabi ng Grekas na

In Michigan, Gov. Rick Snyder allows his loathing of homosexuals to trump his adhesion to the Constitution. What we’d like to do is school Snyder on the Constitution, and school him on the First Amendment by performing a gay marriage in Michigan. To us, marriage is a sacrament. We recognize it, and we think the state would have to recognize the marriage on religious liberty grounds. Anyone who wants to do that can reach out and have their marriage performed by Lucien Greaves. We look forward to taking on Michigan on the gay rights issue, and bringing them into the 21st century (Panne 2014; Metro Times, 2014).

The local Detroit chapter of The Satanic Temple, which claims a few dozen members, organized a satanic holiday display, with the title “The Greatest Gift is Knowledge” on the Capitol lawn. As the local chapter leader noted, “We believe in a metaphorical, literary construct of Satan,” she said. “He’s a symbol for rebellion, a symbol of human nature, the thirst for knowledge.” The Michigan State Capitol Commission was forced to accept the display after a Christian group requested permission to place a nativity display on the lawn (Hinkley 2014). The Detroit chapter offered to withdraw its request if the Christian nativity scene was not approved for display (Allen 2014). The Capitol staff has responded by posting signs at the site publicly stipulating that “this exhibit is not owned, maintained, promoted, supported by or associated with the state of Michigan (Chappell 2014).

Ang isang katulad na hanay ng mga kontrobersya ay naganap sa Florida. Ang Satanikong Templo ay nanawagan sa Lupon ng Paaralan ng Orange County sa Florida na ipamahagi ang satanikong panitikan sa mga pampublikong paaralan bilang tugon sa pamamahagi ng Biblia ng isang pangkat na Kristiyano. Tulad ng sa kaso ng Detroit, Michigan, ang mas malaking layunin ay upang itigil ang lahat ng pamamahagi ng materyal sa relihiyon sa mga pampublikong paaralan. Sinabi ni Lucien Greaves na

Hindi namin sinisikap na magtaguyod ng isang pamagitan ng pagpapalaganap ng aming mga materyal sa relihiyon sa mga pampublikong paaralan dahil naniniwala kami na ang aming mga halaga sa konstitusyon ay mas mahusay na pinaglilingkuran sa pamamagitan ng paggalang sa isang malakas na paghihiwalay ng Simbahan at Estado. Gayunpaman, kung ang isang pampublikong paaralan ay papahintulutan ang mga pampublikong polyeto at buong Biblia na ipamahagi sa mga mag-aaral - tulad ng kaso sa Orange County, Florida - sa palagay namin ang responsableng gawin ay upang matiyak na ang mga estudyante ay binibigyan ng access sa isang iba't ibang mga magkakaibang opinyon sa relihiyon, kumpara sa nakatayo nang tamad sa pamamagitan ng isang voice sa relihiyon na dominado ang diskurso at naghahatid ng propaganda sa mga kabataan (Strauss 2014; Joseph 2014).

Sa 2013, ang Florida Department of Management Services ay inaprubahan ang mga display sa relihiyon sa rotunda ng Capitol Building nito. Bilang karagdagan sa isang grupo ng Kristiyano, dalawang mga ateista at ang Iglesia ng Lumilipad Spaghetti Monster ay nagpapakita ng mga nagpapakita. [Larawan sa kanan] Sa 2014, pagkatapos na tinanggihan ang aplikasyon, ang Ang Satanikong Templo ay nanganganib sa isang kaso laban sa Estado ng Florida kung tinanggihan ng mga opisyal ng estado ang pahintulot na maglagay ng isang display ng isang anghel na bumabagsak sa hukay ng impiyerno sa tabi ng tanawin ng mga Kristiyano na kapanganakan ( Chumley 2014). Ang mahirap na kalagayan para sa estado sa kasong ito ay halos direkta mula sa kaso ng Korte Suprema, Rosenberger v. University of Virginia. Sa kasong iyon, pinasiyahan ng Korte Suprema na sa sandaling ang estado ay nagbibigay-daan sa isang tiyak na anyo ng pagpapahayag, hindi ito maaaring pumili o magsusulat na nagsasangkot sa pagpapahayag o kung paano (Stern 2014).

Ang Satanikong Templo ay iginuhit sa kamakailang desisyon ng Hobby Lobby ng Korte Suprema upang subukang talunin ang mga iniaatas na panitikan na "inuasang pahintulot" ng estado para sa mga kababaihang naghahanap ng aborsiyon. Ang Hobby Lobby na namumuno ay nagsabi na ang mga negosyo na "malapit na gaganapin" at tumututol sa paggamit ng contraceptive ay hindi kinakailangan na magbigay ng seguro na sumasaklaw sa mga aborsiyon, na kinakailangan ng Abot-kayang Pangangalaga sa Batas, sa pamamagitan ng pagbibigay ng isang sulat na babae ay maaaring magbigay sa mga doktor upang maiwasang maibigay pinapahintulutan ng estado na "pahintulot na may pahintulot" na panitikan bago maghanap ng pagpapalaglag (Culp-Ressler 2014; Green 2014). Tatlumpu't limang estado ang may mga batas na may pahintulot na partikular na tumutugon sa pagpapalaglag. Ayon sa isang tagapagsalita ng Templo, "Sinasabi namin na hindi kami naniniwala na ang impormasyon na ipinag-utos ng estado ay mahalaga sa paggawa ng aming mga desisyon tungkol sa pangangalagang pangkalusugan, at natagpuan namin ito mapilit at susubukan din namin ang isang exemption" (Winston 2014). Sinabi ng tagapagsalita na "Ang aming pangkalahatang layunin ay upang maprotektahan ang pag-access ng aborsyon, ngunit interesado rin kami sa paglalaban sa mga inutos na mga ultrasound, mga batas na makakaalam sa batas at anumang sapilitang, karaniwan na batay sa relihiyon na mga utos mula sa estado" (Winston 2014) . Karamihan sa mga eksperto sa batas ng konstitusyon ay hindi naniniwala na ang legal na hamon ng Satanic Temples ay may karapatan.

The ongoing set of protest activities by The Satanic Temple has yielded media coverage, public visibility, and controversy well beyond the size and influence of the group, much like one of its targets, Westboro Baptist Church. The group has become something of a lightning rod. As the primary spokesperson and most visible representative of The Satanic Temple, Lucien Greaves has continued to receive death threats from conservative opponents in response to Temple initiatives. Greaves has stated that “I’ve gotten just so many death threats, I’m just sick of it. It’s distressing in a way, how the Fox News crowd points to me” (Metro Times 2014). The Satanic Temple is connected to events only tangentially related to its initiatives. For example, The Satanic Temple was drawn into an event in which mentally unstable individual destroyed the Ten Commandment display in Oklahoma. Greaves responded to the event by stating that “The Satanic Temple was appalled to learn of the act of destructive vandalism laid upon the 10 Commandments monument in Oklahoma today” and “To be clear, “The Satanic Temple will not seek to erect its monument unless the 10 Commandments is restored” (Noland and Donley 2014; Kennelty 2014). In Florida, a woman, who subsequently was charged with criminal mischief, attempted to destroy a holiday display erected by The Satanic Temple, stating that she “could not take it anymore” (Rossman 2014). Given The Satanic Temple’s activist agenda and opposition to it, such occurrences appeared likely to continue.

Indeed, in 2018 the Baphomet that had been at the center of controversy at the Capitol Building in Oklahoma reappeared in Arkansas. The Arkansas state legislature passed a bill authorizing the erection of a Ten Commandments monument. The legislature met in emergency session to block installation of the Baphomet through use of a statutory provision requiring legislation sponsorship for monuments. One legislator was quoted as stating that “It will be a very cold day in hell before an offensive statue will be forced upon us to be permanently erected on the grounds of the Arkansas State Capitol…” (Selk 2018; Papenfuss 2018). Litigation on the dispute continues.

A range of other initiatives have been undertaken as well (Burton 2018). For example, Temple members in Texas threatened legal action if the state followed through on its “fetal burial rule” mandating official burial or cremation for fetal remains from abortion procedures on the grounds that fetusus are not people. In support of LGBTQ rights, the Temple took advantage of its standing as a religion to compel bakeries that had refused to provide services to LGBTQ couples to bake Satan-themed cakes. In December 2018, the Michigan chapter of the Temple installed a satanic-themed sculpture in the statehouse just before the holiday season (Wamley 2018).

It is unclear what niche The Satanic Temple will come to occupy in the American religious landscape. On the one hand, as a result of dissension and a series of internal disputes within The Satanic Temple, there have been a number of chapter disaffiliations from the Temple. To date these new independent groups include Satanic Portland, Satanic Temple International in London, HelLA in Los Angeles, Crossroads Assembly in Dallas, and League of Rebel Eve (LORE) in New York City (“Personal Communication” 2018). On the other hand, new chapters have continued to form and overall movement membership has increased. And the Temple has received some more favorable publicity as its political agenda, rather than its Satanism theme, have received greater public attention. Most notable in this regard is the April 2019 premier of the documentary Mabuhay si Satanas? sa Sundance Film Festival, na may mga karapatan sa pelikula na binili ng Magnolia Pictures (Evans 2019; Kilday 2018).

Mga larawan
Imahen
#1: Larawan ng Lucien Greaves.
Larawan #2: Ang logo ng Satanic Temple.
Larawan # 3: Larawan ni Anton LaVey.
Image #4: Photograph of The Satanic Temple’s “Adopt a Highway” sign.
Image #5: Photograph of The Satanic Temple’s “Protect Children Day” billboard.
Imahe # 6: Larawan ng pitong-paa-matangkad, tansong Minotaur na sinamahan ng mga statues ng dalawang bata na itinayo bilang bahagi ng pagtutol ng Satanic Temple sa isang sampung utos na ipinapakita sa Oklahoma.
Larawan #7: Larawan ng Iglesia ng lumilipad Spaghetti Halimaw na pagpapakita sa Florida estado capitol gusali.

Mga sanggunian

Allen, Robert. 2014. “Detroit Satanists Say They Won’t Sacrifice Animals, People.” Detroit Libreng Pindutin ang, Setyembre 6. Na-access mula sa http://www.freep.com/story/news/local/2014/09/06/detroit-satanists-say-they-wont-sacrifice-animals-people/15161519/ sa 2 Enero 2014.

Allen, Robert. 2014. “Tea Party Satanist’ Bristles Over Detroit Temple’s Left-leaning Ways.” Detroit Libreng Pindutin ang, Setyembre 15. Na-access mula sa http://www.freep.com/article/20140915/NEWS05/309150017/Tea-Party-Satanist-Detroit

Andersen, Travis at Derek Anderson. 2014. "Sa gitna ng paghagupit, ang Black Mass sa Harvard ay Tinatawag na Off." Boston Globe, Mayo 13. Na-access mula sa http://www.bostonglobe.com/metro/2014/05/12/cardinal-sean-malley-expresses-disappointment-harvard-decision-allow-black-mass-campus/tUjYx2817C65LAHousRIeP/story.html

Annear, Steve. 2014. "Ang Harvard Group ay Nagho-host ng Reenactment ng isang Satanic Black Mass." Boston Daily, May 8. Na-access mula sa
http://www.bostonmagazine.com/news/blog/2014/05/08/harvard-extension-cultural-studies-club-hosting-satanic-black-mass/

Blumberg, Antonia. 2014. “Catholics Gather To Protest ‘Black Mass’ Event In Oklahoma City.” Huffington Post, Setyembre 22. Na-access mula sa http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/09/22/black-mass-protest- Oklahoman_5864216.html?utm_hp_ref=religion sa 2 Enero 2015.

Bugbee, Shane. 2013. "Pag-unmasking Lucien Greaves, Pinuno ng Templo ng Satanic." Masamang ugali.com. Na-access mula sa http://www.vice.com/read/unmasking-lucien-greaves-aka-doug-mesner-leader-of-the-satanic-temple sa 2 Enero 2014.

Burton, Tara Isabella. 2017. “Take religion. Remove God. Add #resistance. Meet the Satanic Temple.” Vox.com, Oktubre 31. Na-access mula sa https://www.vox.com/identities/2017/10/31/16560150/religion-god-resistance-satanic-temple?utm_source=Pew+Research+Center&utm_campaign=f7eacafe13-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2017_11_01&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_3e953b9b70-f7eacafe13-399904145 sa 1 December 2018.

Chappell, Bill. 2014. "Nagpapakita ng Satanist At Christian Holiday Upang Umakyat sa Michigan Capitol." NPR, Disyembre 17. Na-access mula sa
http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2014/12/17/371503835/satanist-and-christian-holiday-displays-to-go-up-at-michigan-capitol
sa 4 Enero 2015.

Christian, Carol. 2014. “Satanic Temple’s Statue of Satanic Figure Under Way for Oklahoma Capitol.” Houston Chronicle, Mayo 5. Na-access mula sa http://www.chron.com/news/nation-world/article/Satanic-Temple-s-statue-of-Satanic-figure-under-5454360.php sa 2 Enero 2014.

Chumley, Cheryl K. 2014. “Satanists to Sue for ‘Hell’ Display at Florida Capitol.” Ang Washington Times, Disyembre 4. Na-access mula sa http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/dec/4/satanists-to-sue-for-hell-display-at-florida-capit/ sa 6 Enero 2015.

Culp-Ressler, Tara. 2014. "Demandisista Demand Relihiyoso Exemption mula sa Abortion Restrictions, Cite Hobby Lobby Nakapangyayari." Isipin Pag-unlad, Hulyo 28. Na-access mula sa http://thinkprogress.org/health/2014/07/28/3464769/satanists-hobby-lobby-abortion/ sa 4 Enero 2014.

"Diyablo sa Detroit: Satanic Group upang Bumuo ng Templo sa Motor City." 2014. Russia Today, Setyembre 7. Na-access mula sa http://rt.com/usa/185684-satanists-detroit-temple-religious/ sa 3 December 2014.

DeVito, Lee. 2014. "Karibal ng mga Satanic Factions Poot sa Detroit." Metrotimes, Setyembre 16. Na-access mula sa http://www.metrotimes.com/Blogs/archives/2014/09/16/rival-satanic-factions-feud-in-detroit sa 7 Enero 2015.

DeVito, Leyland. 2016. “The Satanic Temple Opened Its New Headquarters in Salem.” Masamang ugali, Setyembre 23. Na-access mula sa https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/4w5xz3/the-satanic-temple-opened-a-new-headquarters-in-salem sa 20 Agosto 2018.

Evans, Erica. 2019. “Sundance is Showing a Film about Satanists. What
Does It Have To Do with Religious Liberty?” Deseret News, January 30. Accessed from https://www.deseretnews.com/article/900053222/does-religious-freedom-require-making-room-for-satanism-sundance-film-explores-the-debate.html sa 2 Pebrero 2019.

Green, Emma. 2014. "Satanists Troll Hobby Lobby." Ang Atlantic, Hulyo 30. Na-access mula sa  http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/07/satanists-troll-the-hobby-lobby-decision/375268/ sa 4 Enero 2014.

Gremore, Graham. 2013. Satanic Temple’s Lucien Greaves Isn’t Worried About Arrest & Feels “Pretty Good” About Showing Off His Genitalia.” Queerty, Hulyo 26. Na-access mula sa http://www.queerty.com/interview-satanic-temples-lucien-greaves-isnt-worried-about-arrest-feels-pretty-good-about-showing-off-his-genitalia-20130726/ sa 2 Enero 2014.

Hinkley, Justin A. 2014. "Ang Satanic Holiday Display ay Paparating sa Capitol." Lansing State Journal, Disyembre 15. Na-access mula sa http://www.freep.com/story/news/local/michigan/2014/12/15/satanic-temple-holiday-display-capitol-lansing/20445661/ sa 2 Enero 2015.

Hope, Heather. 2014. "Daan-daang Pag-uusig Upang Protesta ang Black Mass na Gaganapin sa OKC Civic Center." Na-access mula sa http://www.news9.com/story/26589945/hundreds-turnout-to-protest-black-mass-held-at-okc-civic-center on 2 January 2015 .

Joseph, Chris. 2014. "Satanikong Templo upang Ipamahagi ang mga Pamplet sa Paaralan ng Florida." New Times Broward-Palm Beach, Setyembre 16. Na-access mula sa blogs.browardpalmbeach.com/pulp/2014/09/satanic_temple_to_distribute_pamphlets_to_florida_schools.php?print=true sa 3 Enero 2014.

Kennelty, Greg. 2014. "Nagtatag ang mga Satanista ng Oklahoma Statue Pagkatapos Natago ang Batong Kristiyano." Metal Inection, Oktubre 28. Na-access mula sa http://www.metalinjection.net/satanism/satanists-put-oklahoma-statue-on-hold-after-christian-statue-destroyed sa 2 Pebrero 2019.

Kilday, Gregg. 2018. “Sundance: ‘Hail Satan?’ Documentary Picked Up by Magnolia Pictures.” Hollywood Reporter, November 29. Accessed from https://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/hail-satan-documentary-picked-up-by-magnolia-pictures-1164955 sa 2 Pebrero 2019.

Kuruvilla, Carol. 2014. “Satanists Slated to Perform ‘Black Mass’ at Harvard University Claim They Don’t Believe in the Supernatural.” New York Daily News, Mayo 9.

Lauerman, John. 2014. 'Harvard Students Cancel ‘Satanic Black Mass’ After Outcry. " Bloomberg, Mayo 12. Na-access mula sa http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2014-05-12/harvard-won-t-halt-satanic-black-mass-planned-by-student-group.html sa 2 Enero 2015.

Laycock, Joseph. 2014. “Today’s Satanic ‘Black Mass’ at Harvard Excites Conservatives.” Relihiyon Dispatches, Mayo 12. Na-access mula sa http://www.religiondispatches.org/dispatches/josephlaycock/7870/today_s_satanic__black_mass__at_harvard_excites_conservatives/ sa 5 Enero 2014.

Levy, Emily. 2014. "Ang Satanic Temple, Ngayon Wooing Kids and Moms." Vocativ, Mayo 6. Na-access mula sa http://www.vocativ.com/culture/religion/satanic-temple-now-wooing-kids-moms/ sa 30 2014 Nobyembre.

McCloskey, Jimmy. 2018. “Satanists adopt highway, clean it with pitchforks and brand it ‘Road to Hell’.” Metro, Enero 31. Na-access mula sa https://metro.co.uk/2018/01/31/satanists-adopt-highway-clean-pitchforks-brand-road-hell-7275873/

Merlan, Anna. “Trolling Hell: Is the Satanic Temple a Prank, the Start of a New Religious Movement — or Both?” Village Voice, Hulyo 22. Na-access mula sa https://www.villagevoice.com/2014/07/22/trolling-hell-is-the-satanic-temple-a-prank-the-start-of-a-new-religious-movement-or-both/ sa 19 Agosto 2018.

Metro Times. 2014. "Lucien Greaves ng Satanic Temple." Detroit Metro Times, Mayo 27. Na-access mula sa http://www.metrotimes.com/detroit/lucien-greaves-of-the-satanic-temple/Content?oid=2201492 sa 14 Enero 2014.

Murphy, Sean. 2015. “Oklahoma Court: Ten Commandments Monument Must Come Down.” Associated Press, June 30. Accessed from http://bigstory.ap.org/article  /07c1ab083f96419baf5547a666004bd2/oklahoma-court-ten-commandments-monument-must-come-down?utm_source=Pew+Research+Center&utm_campaign=130333f5d9-Religion_Weekly_July_2_2015&utm_medium=email&  utm_term=03e953b9b70-130333f5d9-399904145 sa 2 Hulyo 2015.

Noland, L. and Andrew Donley. 2014. “Suspect Says Satan Made Him Smash into Oklahoma Ten Commandments Monument,” KFOR-TB, October 26. Accessed from  http://www.metrotimes.com/detroit/lucien-greaves-of-the-satanic-temple/Content?oid=2201492 sa 14 Enero 2014.

Panne, Valerie. 2014. "Sa Amin, ang Kasal ay isang Sakramento." Metro Times, Mayo 29. Na-access mula sa http://www.altweeklies.com/aan/to-us-marriage-is-a-sacrament/Story?oid=7696423 sa 14 Enero 2015.

Papenfuss, Mary. 2018. “Satanic Temple’s Baphomet Raises Hell Over Religious Freedom In Arkansas.” Huffington Post, Agosto 16. Na-access mula sa https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/satanic-temple-baphomet-statue-arkansas_us_5b75eeffe4b0a5b1feb9596b sa 20 Agosto 2018.

Personal Communication. 2018. “Personal Communication with Joseph Laycock.”

Radford, Benjamin. 2014. "Walang Simpatiya para sa Diyablo: Bakit Natatakot ang mga Tao sa Satanismo." Live Science, Setyembre 12. Na-access mula sa http://www.livescience.com/47821-oklahoma-satanic-mass-fears.html sa 30 2014 Nobyembre.

Resnick, Gideon. 2014. “Who Are the ‘Satanists’ Designing an Idol for the Oklahoma Capitol?” Ang Atlantic, Pebrero 4. Na-access mula sa http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2014/02/who-are-the-satanists-designing-an-idol-for-the-oklahoma-capitol/283567/1 on 4 January 2014 .

Rossman, Sean. 2014. "Babae Naaresto sa Pag-atake sa Satanic Temple Display." Tallahassee Democrat, Disyembre 24. Na-access mula sa http://www.tallahassee.com/story/news/local/2014/12/23/satanic-temple-display-damaged-woman-in-custody/20811197/ sa 14 Enero 2015.

Selk, Avi. 2018. “A satanic idol goes to the Arkansas Capitol building.” Ang Washington Post, Agosto 17. Na-access mula sa https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/acts-of-faith/wp/2018/08/17/a-satanic-idols-3-year-journey-to-the-arkansas-capitol-building/?utm_term=.43b0130025bd sa 20 Agosto 2018.

Shieldwall network. 2018. “Malcolm Jarry, the Satanic Temple and the Jews.” Ang Ulat ng Roper. Na-access mula sa https://theroperreportsite.wordpress.com/2018/08/18/is-the-satanic-temple-run-by-a-jew/ sa 19 Agosto 2018.

Shurter, David. nd "Bakit Lucien Greaves, Doug Mesner, may-akda Debbie Nathan, at The False Memory Pedophile Protection Squad Matters." Na-access mula sa http://davidshurter.com/?p=3452 sa 2 Enero 2015.

Smith, Jonathan. 2014. “Here’s the First Look at the New Satanic Monument Being Built for Oklahoma’s Statehouse.” Masamang ugali, Mayo 1. Na-access mula sa http://www.vice.com/read/heres-the-first-look-at-the-new-satanic-monument-being-built-for-oklahomas-statehouse sa 6 Enero 2014.

Stecklein, Janelle. 2014. "Mga Plano upang Palawakin ang mga Satanikong ritwal mula sa isang Bahay sa Lunsod ng Stoke Public Outcry." Ang Norman Transcript, Agosto 20. Na-access mula sa http://www.normantranscript.com/news/article_59bb7b1c-28a4-11e4-ba3c-0019bb2963f4.html sa 2 Enero 2014.

Stern, Mark. 2014. “Devil’s Advocates.” Accessed from http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/jurisprudence/2014/11/atheist_humanist_and_pastafarian_holiday_displays_on_public_land_satanic.html sa 6 Enero 2015.

Strauss, Valerie. 2014. "Patakaran ng Satanic Temple Challenge na Nagbibigay ng mga Relihiyosong Materyales na Ipamamahagi sa Mga Pampublikong Paaralan." Washington Post, Nobyembre 17. Na-access mula sa http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/answer-sheet/wp/2014/11/17/satanic-temple-challenges-policy-allowing-religious-materials-to-be-distributed-at-public-schools/ sa 2 Enero 2015.

Ang Satanic Temple. 2013. "Ang Kampanya ng Satanikong Adopt-a-Highway na Kampanya." Na-access mula sa http://thesatanictemple.tumblr.com/ sa 14 Enero 2015.

“The Satanic Temple.” n.d. Accessed from http://www.thesatanictemple.com/ sa 5 Enero 2014.

The Satanic Temple. n.d. “The Grey Faction.” Accessed from https://greyfaction.org/ sa 1 December 2018.

Itigil ang Control ng Pag-iisip at Pagrereklamo ng Pag-aayuno Ngayon (SMART). Na-access mula sa https://ritualabuse.us/ sa 3 December 2014.

Oppenheimer, Mark. 2015. “A Mischievious Thorn in the Side of Conservative Christianity.” New York Times, July 10. Accessed from http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/11/us/a-mischievious-thorn-in-the-side-of-conservative-christianity.html?_r=0.

Wamsley, Laurel. 2018. “Satanic Sculpture Installed At Illinois Statehouse, Just In Time For The Holidays.” NPR, December 4. Accessed from https://www.npr.org/2018/12/04/673422143/satanic-sculpture-installed-at-illinois-statehouse-just-in-time-for-the-holidays sa 8 December 2018.

Winston, Kimberly. 2014. “Satanists’ Challenge to Hobby Lobby Ruling May Face Legal Hurdles.” Ang Washington Post, Hulyo 31. Na-access mula sa http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/religion/satanists-challenge-to-hobby-lobby-ruling-may-face-legal-hurdles/2014/07/31/94fc1a56-18e6-11e4-88f7-96ed767bb747_story.html sa 14 Enero 2014.

Petsa ng Pag-post:
15 Enero 2015
I-update:
20 Agosto 2018
I-update:
1 2018 Disyembre

magbahagi
Nai-update: - 2:41 pm

Copyright © 2016 Proyekto sa Mga Relihiyon at Espirituwalidad ng Daigdig

Lahat ng Mga Karapatan

Web Design ni Luke Alexander