Ramakrishna

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RAMAKRISHNA MATH AT MISYON

RAMAKRISHNA MATH AT MISSION TIMELINE

c1836:  Birth of Ramakrishna, known in boyhood as Gadadhar.

1842/1843:  First reported trance of the young Ramakrishna.

1852:  Ramakrishna moved to Calcutta.

1853:  Birth of Saradamani Mukhopadhyaya, the Holy Mother Sarada Devi

1855:  Ramkumar and Ramakrishna became priests at the Dakshineshwar Kali Temple.

1859:  Ramakrishna married Sarada Devi. 

1860-1867:  On his return to Calcutta after his marriage, Ramakrishna embarked on a period of intense practice of different sadhanas (espirituwal disiplina) sa ilalim ng iba't ibang mga guro kapag siya ay sinabi na natanggap ang pangalan Ramakrishna mula sa isa sa mga gurus.

1863:  Narendranath Datta, who later became Swami Vivekananda, was born.

1868 and 1870:  Ramakrishna undertook pilgrimages with other devotees when he encountered famine-stricken areas.

1872:  Sarada Devi joined Ramakrishna at Dakshineshwar.

1875:  Ramakrishna made his first visit to Keshab Chandra Sen, the Brahmo leader. 

1877-1879:  Vivekananda’s education was disrupted when his family temporarily relocated to Raipur.

1878:  Closer contact with Keshab and the Brahmos led to the wider reporting of Ramakrishna’s teaching, which encouraged new followers.

1880-1881:  Vivekananda enrolled as student at the Presidency College and then the General Assembly’s Institution (a Christian college) in Calcutta.

1881-1884:  Several prominent disciples joined Ramakrishna’s circle, including the future Swamis Brahmananda, Vivekananda, and Saradananda, and “M” (Mahendranath Gupta) who subsequently recorded what he heard of Ramakrishna’s teaching.

1884:  Vivekananda graduated; his father died.

1885:  Ramakrishna developed cancer of the throat and was moved from Dakshineshwar to Kashipur.

1886:  Ramakrishna died and Vivekananda emerged as the leader of the core of Ramakrishna’s young disciples, having abandoned his plan to continue his studies by taking a law degree. The “proto-Math” moved to Baranagar. Vivekananda led his brother-disciples as they took a vow of renunciation.

1888:  Vivekananda began a series of short pilgrimages.

1889–1893:  Vivekananda embarked on a lengthy pilgrimage through India.

1892:  In Kolkata, the Math moved to Alambazar. At the end of that year while at Kanniyakumari, as he later reported, Vivekananda experienced a vision of activist sannayasin s.

1893:  Vivekananda left India, travelling via China and Japan, to attend the World’s Parliament of Religions at Chicago.

1894-1895:  Vivekananda gave public lectures and began to attract followers in the United States to whom he increasingly devoted his attention and teaching.

1895:  Vivekananda visited England and gathered new disciples including Margaret Noble (Sister Nivedita).

1896:  Vivekananda returned to England and travelled in Western Europe.

1897:  Vivekananda returned to India where he was widely greeted as a hero and established the Ramakrishna Mission Association. The new movement became involved in organised seva (serbisyo) na aktibidad.

1898:  Belur Math was consecrated.

1898:  As his health deteriorated, Vivekananda devoted time to teaching and travelling in northern India with followers he had attracted while in the United States and London.

1899-1900:  Vivekananda returned to the United States and London.

1901:  Vivekananda signed a Deed of Trust governing the Math centers, and handed over the leadership of the Ramakrishna movement to Swami Brahmananda.

1902:  Vivekananda died at Belur Math.

1909:  The Ramakrishna Mission was given legal status as a separate organisation under the authority of the President of the Ramakrishna Math.

1926:  The 1926 Convention of the Ramakrishna Math and Mission was held.

1947:  Indian Independence increased the demands on the Ramakrishna Math and Vivekananda), which linked independent organizations loosely to the Ramakrishna Math and Mission.

1980-1995:  The “Ramakrishnaite” court case took place.

1995:  Jeffrey Kripal’s study of Ramakrishna ( Kali’s Child ) pukawin ang heate debate sa India.

1998:  The Indian Government awarded the Gandhi Peace Prize to the Ramakrishna Mission.

FOUNDER / GROUP KASAYSAYAN

The Ramakrishna Math and Mission, or the Ramakrishna movement, takes its name from Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (c.1836-1886 CE) whom the movement recognizes as the source of its inspiration. The honorifics Shri (revered) and Paramahamsa (literally “the great goose,” a bird whose migration came to symbolize the transmigrating soul) reflect the status accorded to him by devotees. Ramakrishna itself is a religious name said to have been given to Ramakrishna on initiation by one of his gurus.

Ramakrishna was born into a rural Brahmin family in the village of Kamarpukur, approximately sixty miles north-west of the city of Calcutta (now Kolkata) in the region of Bengal, and on birth was given the name Gadadhar (this entry will simply refer to Ramakrishna throughout). Accounts of Ramakrishna’s birth and early life are marked by supernatural features found in Hindu hagiographies, including visions granted to his parents who are portrayed as very pious. Recovering historical details concerning his early life, therefore, is far from easy, and even the precise year of his birth is not certain. Although born into a Brahmin family, the ritually most pure class in Hindu society, Ramakrishna’s family was far from affluent. Ramakrishna’s father died in 1843, and much of the responsibility for the family then fell to Ramakrishna’s eldest brother, Ramkumar. Within a few years, Ramkumar moved to Calcutta to take up the life of a ritual specialist and Sanskrit teacher, the traditional vocation of the Brahmin male. Ramakrishna followed his brother to Calcutta but by then had already developed a reputation of being prone to experiencing altered states of consciousness and to seeking out the company of itinerant religious teachers and ascetics. A popular story, often shown pictorially, tells of the young Ramakrishna, said to be seven years of age, transfixed by the flight of white egrets across a dark sky, which triggered a heightened, transformative state of spiritual consciousness.

Some in Calcutta became convinced that Ramakrishna’s constant quest for direct experience of the divine, his ‘God-intoxication’, was a sign of madness. Ramkumar had gained a post at a newly opened temple dedicated to the goddess Kali on the banks of the Hugli (a distributary of the Ganges or Ganga) at Dakshineshwar, an outlying region of Calcutta, and was able to find a place for Ramakrishna as an assistant pujari (tagapangasiwa ng templo). Ramakrishna ay nanatili sa templo na ito mula sa 1855 hanggang sa ilang sandali bago ang kanyang kamatayan ngunit di-napatutunayang hindi kaya ng pagtupad sa kanyang karaniwang gawain bilang isang pujari because of his overwhelming desire to attain direct experience of Kali. The anguished intensity of his spiritual quest, however, gradually led some observers to revise their initial opinion of him, and Ramakrishna began to attract a circle of devotees largely made up of family members and friends and others who had witnessed his behaviour at Dakshineshwar. In 1859, Ramakrishna’s family arranged his marriage to Saradamani Mukhopadhyaya, a young girl from a village close to Kamarpukur, clearly in the hope of encouraging Ramakrishna to adopt a more conventional lifestyle as a married man and to attend to his responsibilities at the temple. His wife did not join him until 1872, by which time Ramakrishna’s reputation as a spiritual adept and spontaneous teacher had grown considerably. In time Saradamani Mukhopadhyaya would be known as Sarada Devi, the Holy Mother of the Ramakrishna movement.

Sa humigit-kumulang sa dekada matapos ang kanyang pormal na pag-aasawa, hinanap at tinanggap ni Ramakrishna ang pagtuturo mula sa mga gurus na nakuha sa iba't ibang mga disiplina sa Hindu at mga paaralan ng pag-iisip, kabilang Tantra, shaktism, at advaita vedanta. Ito ay naniniwala na ito ay isa sa mga ito gurus, ang advaitin Tota Puri, who initiated Ramakrishna in c1865, giving him the name Ramakrishna. [Image at right] As Tota Puri had been initiated into the monastic tradition established by the influential eighth-century CE Hindu thinker, Shankara, Ramakrishna’s devotees would later claim that their master’s initiation affiliated them to this same long-established Hindu monastic tradition. Ramakrishna’s practice of the different disciplines (sadhanas) taught by these teachers has formed the basis of his devotees’ conviction that, through his direct, personal experience, Ramakrishna tested these different sadhanas. Higit pa rito, naniniwala sila na nakita niya ang lahat ng mga ito na humantong sa parehong katotohanan, kahit na kinakatawan sa iba't ibang mga paraan, kung sa isang personal na anyo ng banal, tulad ng babaeng Kali o ang lalaki Krishna o Shiva, o Hindu na kuru-kuro ng hindi -Personal na katotohanan, Brahman. Iniulat din na ang Ramakrishna ay pinagtibay para sa mga maikling aspekto ng Kristiyanismo at kasanayan sa Muslim, na humantong sa pag-angkin na sinubukan at pinatunayan ni Ramakrishna hindi lamang ang disiplina ng Hindu kundi ang mga iba pang relihiyon. Ang pananaw na ito ay na-encapsulated sa pariralang Bengali na ngayon ay sikat na nauugnay sa Ramakrishna jato mat tattoo path (as many faiths so many paths). In the later Ramakrishna movement, it has been maintained that the universalism of Ramakrishna’s position was grounded in the non-dualist philosophy of advaita vedanta. Pinapayagan din nito ang isang hierarchical na pagsasaayos ng mga antas ng katotohanan na nakita ng iba't ibang "mga paraan," na nagwawakas sa isang di-personal na pag-unawa sa katotohanan.

Ramakrishna’s health suffered as a result of the intensity and single-mindedness of his spiritual experiments, and the latter years ng 1860s nakita siyang naglalakbay sa mga lokal na paglalakbay sa mga devotees at patrons sa 1868 at 1870. Nang harapin ang epekto ng laganap na taggutom, sinasabing hinihimok niya ang kanyang mga tagasunod na pagaanin ang paghihirap bago ang kanilang mga mata. Ito ay kinuha ng mga devotees bilang sanctioning ang pagsasanay ng mga nag-aalok seva, serbisyo, sa paghihirap ng sangkatauhan. Ang kanyang asawa, si Sarada Devi, ay sumali sa kanya sa Dakshineshwar sa 1872, at mula sa katapusan ng dekadang iyon ay nagtipon siya ng isang bagong katawan ng mga tagasunod at mga admirers kasunod ng mga ulat ng kanyang pagtuturo ng kilalang Brahmo leader na si Keshab Chandra Sen. kasama ang mga miyembro ng Brahmo Samaj, ilang mga kilalang personalidad ng Bengali, at ilang mga kabataang estudyante.

The pithy and earthy wisdom of Ramakrishna’s discourses, largely triggered by his audiences’ questions or conversations, were captured from 1882, but only in part, in a diary-like form by a lay-devotee and local teacher, Mahendranath Gupta, in his Sri Sri Ramakrisna Kathamrita, na kalaunan ay kilala sa Ingles bilang Ang Ebanghelyo ni Ramakrishna. Ang mga ito ay makikita rin sa Sri Sri Ramakrisna Lilaprasanga, na kalaunan ay kilala sa Ingles bilang Sri Ramakrishna The Great Master, an extensive but incomplete hagiography by Swami Saradananda, a close disciple of Ramakrishna. Both these sources were first published in Bengali in serial form in the movement’s journals. Other records of Ramakrishna’s teaching were produced by devotees, but it is these two sources that underpin the interpretation of Ramakrishna’s life and teaching that has been disseminated by his devotees and has largely shaped the popular understanding of Ramakrishna’s life and teaching.

The recurrent emphasis in Ramakrishna’s teaching was that God-realization should be put before all else, including charitable giving. He stressed to his male followers the dangers of attachment to “women and gold,” and the dangers of self-deception when a desire for self-aggrandizement lay behind charitable action or a sense of self-satisfaction flowed from such action. But, it was Ramakrishna’s reliance on personal experience and rejection of book-based learning that arguably appealed so strongly to members of the class of educated Bengalis who were caught up in the dilemmas of living in colonial India, particularly in that part of India most exposed to the presence of the British and English-language education and thus frequently to dismissive critiques of Hindu practice and belief. To many, Ramakrishna represented continuity with continuing, authentic Hindu traditions. He was, within the setting of Bengal, very much a recognizable holy man.

When Ramakrishna fell terminally ill, his younger male devotees took on much of the routine responsibility of caring for him at a garden house in the Kashipur district of Calcutta, establishing the “proto-Math,” the antecedent of the Ramakrishna Math (or monastery). One of these, Narendranath Datta, emerged as their leader. In the years immediately after Ramakrishna’s death, it was Narendranath Datta, later more widely known as Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902), who instituted and organized what would become the Ramakrishna Math and Mission. Thus, in a strict sense, Vivekananda could be more accurately described as the “founder” of the Ramakrishna movement than Ramakrishna, although the latter undoubtedly inspired those associated with the movement’s formation and continues to attract its latter-day members and supporters.

Born into circumstances very different from those of Ramakrishna, accounts of Vivekananda’s (then Narendranath Datta) birth and early life in Calcutta are also characterized by the presence of motifs commonly found in Hindu hagiographic writing. The piety of his mother is complemented by the cosmopolitanism and energy of his father who practised as a lawyer, and Vivekananda (this entry will simply refer to Vivekananda throughout) is said from his early youth to have shown strong leanings towards renouncing the world. As with Ramakrishna, the most extensive sources of information about Vivekananda’s life and teaching are those produced by devotees. These include His Eastern and Western Disciples (1989) Ang Buhay ni Swami Vivekananda at Ang Kumpletong Mga Gawain ni Swami Vivekananda ( (Vivekananda 1989, 1997). Both these multi-volume works were compiled and began to be published in the decade following Vivekananda’s death and have been subject to later revision and expansion.

Vivekananda’s biographers within the Ramakrishna movement provide many examples of his leadership, physical prowess, and moral courage when still young. Once famous, Swami Vivekananda acquired the epithet of the “athlete monk” because of his physical presence. Yet, in reality, Vivekananda’s health was poor and his education was disrupted by both a move away from Calcutta, caused by his father’s work, and periods of ill-health. It is now thought that Vivekananda’s later poor health can be traced back to his childhood. Like Ramakrishna, Vivekananda lost his father while relatively young and he consequently had to take on responsibility for his family while still a student. A family dispute over property intensified the pressure on Vivekananda. Hagiographic accounts of Vivekananda depict him as an able student with a grasp of many areas of knowledge, both European and Indian. The formal record of his higher education, first at the Presidency College and then at the General Assembly’s Institution (later known as the Scottish Church College), does not reflect exceptional talents, but then his education had been significantly disrupted. Drawn into Ramakrishna’s ambit in 1881 like many students of his generation because of reports he had heard, Vivekananda was then confronting considerable uncertainties relating to the material well-being of his family, his own future, and his own beliefs. It is reported that he pressed Ramakrishna to say whether he had seen God to which Ramakrishna unequivocally replied that he had. In the initial stages of their relationship, although clearly fascinated by Ramakrishna, Vivekananda made only sporadic visits to Ramakrishna. Vivekananda was sceptical about both Ramakrishna’s understanding of reality as being personal in nature and, at this point in his life, about the claims of religion more generally.

In the aftermath of Ramakrishna’s death, it is evident that there was friction between some of Ramakrishna’s older lay-devotees and the band of younger devotees who already seemed set on adopting a life of renunciation in the name of their master and who were aided materially by other lay devotees. There was a dispute in particular over where Ramakrishna’s ashes and few possessions should be preserved. It is during this period that Vivekananda emerged as the leader of the latter group. It was he who on Christmas Eve 1886 led the young male devotees through a form of initiation ceremony into a life of sannyasa, renunciation. Although there is a hint of some kind of ceremony having taken place while Ramakrishna was alive and of his having given some kind of charge to Vivekananda (His Eastern and Western Disciples 1989 I:177,182), this does not constitute evidence that Ramakrishna formally initiated his disciples. In fact, as neither of the extensive accounts provided by Mahendranath Gupta and Swami Saradanada cover the final days of Ramakrishna’s life, there is indirect evidence at best concerning Ramakrishna’s intentions, if any, for his followers after his death. Under Vivekananda’s leadership, Ramakrishna’s younger disciples, many of whom by then had abandoned their education and marriage and career ambitions, continued their monastic existence in the Baranagar and then Alambazar districts of Calcutta. But over the next five years, members of this group adopted different priorities. Some instituted a devotional cult centered on Ramakrishna and gave themselves to caring for his widow Sarada Devi, the Holy Mother. Their lives were centered on the monastery. Others, including Vivekananda, began to embark on pilgrimages, returning to the monastery periodically.

Mula sa 1889, nakatuon ang Vivekananda ng mas maraming oras sa lalong pinalawak at nag-iisa na paglalakbay sa paglalakbay [Larawan sa kanan] at sa kanyang sarili espirituwal na pag-unlad, ang tradisyunal na pagkaabala ng sannyasin. Ito ay sa dulo ng 1892 sa Kanniyakumari (ang pinakatimog na dulo ng Indya), bilang naalaala niya sa isang sulat ng 1894, na naranasan niya ang isang pangitain sannyasin s undertaking the education and material uplift of India’s poor and oppressed. During his lengthy pilgrimage around India, Vivekananda had gathered concentrations of admirers and supporters in the region around Madras (now Chennai) and in the princely state of Khetri where its ruler, Ajit Singh, became one of Vivekananda’s closest supporters. It was through this network that Vivekananda learnt of the forthcoming World’s Parliament of Religions at Chicago and after some misgivings accepted the support necessary to enable him to make the journey to Chicago. It is likely that he also adopted the religious name Vivekananda during this period, possibly given to him by Ajit Singh. This change of name and his long absence without contact with his brother-disciples explains why, when reports began to reach Calcutta of the impact of a monk called Vivekananda at Chicago, his brother-disciples did not recognise his identity. Vivekananda’s aim in making the journey to the United States was to attempt to find sufficient funding to realise his vision of transforming India through a new style of mission conducted by sannyasins, na nawalan ng pag-asa sa paghahanap ng kinakailangang suporta sa Indya.

Mula sa 1893, nang maglakbay si Vivekananda sa Chicago, ang kanyang misyon ay kinuha sa isang bagong hugis. Ang kanyang mensahe sa Parlamento ay pinagsama ang isang assertive pagtatanggol ng Hinduism sa harap ng pagpula sa pamamagitan ng, bukod sa iba pa, Christian missionaries at isang indictment of the indifference of India’s rulers in the face of widespread famine in India, with a vision of evolving universalism and tolerance, which Vivekananda argued was most developed in the Hindu tradition of advaita vedanta. [Image at right] Vivekananda found on arrival at the Parliament that he was but one of many who had come to Chicago with fund-raising ambitions. Thus, although proving to be one of the Parliament’s most popular speakers, he had to find a different way to raise the funds he sought. Building on the contacts he had made at the Parliament, Vivekananda embarked on a short-lived career as a public lecturer but then devoted himself increasingly to teaching his growing number of devotees. In 1894, he founded the Vedanta Society of New York. (This is the name that came to be adopted by many branches of the Ramakrishna movement beyond India, including those in the United States and Europe, rather than being identified explicitly as branches of the Math or Mission.) It was during this time of intense interaction with audiences in the United States and London that Vivekananda produced some of his most influential lectures, including Raja Yoga at Praktikal na Vedanta. Ang mga ito ay mga simpatis na nagpapaandar kay Vivekananda upang maglakbay sa London, kung saan nakukuha niya ang higit pang mga admirer at ang pagpopondo na magbibigay sa kanya ng isang bagong kilusan.

On his return to Calcutta in 1897, followed by a small number of British and American devotees, Vivekananda created the Ramakrishna Mission Association (Sangha) in the name of his master. Belur Math (or ‘monastery’) was consecrated in 1898 on a plot of land bought with funding provided by one of Vivekananda’s British supporters. In 1897, the same year as the Ramakrishna Mission Association was created, the newly formed movement also became involved in its first performance of seva, service. Swami Akhandananda, who was Vivekananda’s closest monastic ally in the promotion of the performance of seva, pinasigla ang gutom-lunas sa distrito ng Murshidabad ng Bengal, at iba pang mga gawa ng seva soon followed to alleviate the effects of famine and plague. Just as the initial move to create a monastically-inclined organisation had divided Ramakrishna’s devotees immediately after his death, the standard history of the Ramakrishna Math and Mission (Gambhirananda 1983:98) makes plain that Vivekananda’s plans for the organization of Ramakrishna’s followers, including the conduct of the Math and the emphasis upon seva, higit pang hinati kahit mga miyembro ng Math.

By the time of his return to India in 1897, Vivekananda’s health had been undermined by constant travel. His remaining time in India was characterized by periods of enforced rest and recuperation after any period of sustained exertion. He spent lengthy periods of time in his final years teaching and travelling in northern India with devotees from the United States and Britain. He made a final visit to Britain and the United States in 1899-1900. This visit was a far less happy one for Vivekananda, now in declining health, as he had to face the defections, bitterness, and recriminations that had accompanied the break-up of his circle of followers in London. He shortened his stay in London and moved on to the United States [Image at right] where in 1900 he founded the Vedanta Society of Northern California in San Francisco. Yet, it is important to note that, although the London circle had proved to be short-lived, several of its members, including Margaret Noble (Sister Nivedita) became some of Vivekananda’s closest disciples and spent the remainder of their lives in India.

Those close to Vivekananda discerned a change in him in 1898 when he spoke of a “strange detachment” and “planlessness.” Although he continued to travel in India, an overwhelming experience at the temple of Shiva at Amarnath, which Vivekananda visited with other devotees in 1898, appears to have weakened his health further. This also appears to have intensified Vivekananda’s devotion to Kali in his final years, although Vivekananda had struggled with Ramakrishna’s fervent devotion to Kali when they first met. Vivekananda signed a Deed of Trust governing the Math centers in 1901. He died in his fortieth year at Belur Math in 1902, having passed the leadership of the nascent movement to his brother-disciple Swami Brahmananda, its first President, and the Board of Trustees.

After the death of Vivekananda, the Ramakrishna movement underwent a period of consolidation under the leadership of Swami Brahmananda, when the whole movement was placed under the direction of the Math. The following decade saw the establishment of several of the movement’s major centers, and by 1912 the movement’s seva activities were starting to be reported in Indian newspapers. The 1926 Convention of the Ramakrishna Math and Mission was called to review the movement’s progress and chart its future at a time when its leadership was passing away from Ramakrishna’s direct disciples to a younger generation.

Indian Independence in 1947 led to increasing demands being placed upon the movement by the newly-created Indian government because the Ramakrishna Math and Mission had established itself over approximately the last half-century as a trusted provider of service in so many sectors, particularly in education, healthcare, and rural development. Although it continued to offer disaster-relief, by this time the movement’s seva activities were typically long-term undertakings sustained by permanent centers such as the Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama at Narendrapur, West Bengal, which has specialised in rural development and supporting the visually impaired. In 1998, the Ramakrishna Mission was the first institution, as distinct from an individual, to receive the Gandhi Peace Prize from the Indian government, which cited the movement’s focus on action and service.


DOCTRINES / BELIEFS

 When the Ramakrishna Mission Association (Sangha) was created in 1897, it adopted, under Vivekananda’s influence, the aim of establishing ‘…fellowship among the followers of different religions, knowing them all to be so many forms of one undying Eternal Religion’. Its stated methods included training “…men so as to make them competent to teach such knowledge or sciences as are conducive to the material and spiritual welfare of the masses,” and spreading “…among the people in general Vedantic and other religious ideas in the way in which they were elucidated in the life of Shri Ramakrishna” (Gambhirananda 1983:95f.). Over a century later, the movement’s stated principles remain substantially unchanged, although Belur Math’s summary of the movement’s ideology today declares more explicitly that Ramakrishna is the ‘ Avatar of the Modern Age’ (Ramakrishna Math and Mission website 2013). His avatarhood uniquely embodies “ the spiritual consciousness of earlier Avatars and prophets, including those who are outside the Hindu fold, and is in harmony with all religious traditions.”  This same summary of the movement’s ideology refers to promoting harmony between religions as forms of one eternal religion, spreading the idea of the potential divinity of every being, treating all work as worship and service to humanity as service to God, working for the uplift of the poor and downtrodden to alleviate human suffering, and developing harmonious personalities by the combined practice of Jnana, Bhakti, and Karma Yoga (Ramakrishna Math and Mission website 2013). These four yogas are represented in the emblem of the Ramakrishna movement. [Image at right]

The Ramakrishna movement characterises its ideology as modern (in the sense that the ancient principles of Vedanta have been expressed in the modern idiom), universal (in the sense that it is meant for the whole humanity), and practical (in the sense that its principles can be applied to solve the problems of everyday life) (Ramakrisha Math and Mission website 2013). The belief that both Ramakrishna and Vivekananda brought a message right for the modern world is linked to the emphasis placed on Vivekananda striving to develop a religious philosophy that would be in tune with science. This connects to the claim of being universal and to penetrating to the one truth that lies behind the different forms of different religions, which is equally accessible to Hindus and those of other traditions. Thus, Ramakrishna and Vivekananda are held to be modernisers and unifiers of the Hindu tradition in their different ways: the former by accepting as valid all its forms, a synthetic catholicity embracing both personal and non-personal understandings of ultimate reality, and the latter by strengthening Indian and Hindu culture by defining its foundations and galvanizing Hindus into action. Vivekananda’s watchword, “Arise, awake, and stop not till the goal is reached!” taken from the Katha Upanishad, binigyang-inspirasyon ang kanyang sariling masidhing aktibidad at ang kanyang paniniwala na ang India ay dapat na awakened sa pamamagitan ng "paggawa ng tao paggawa." Ang kilusan ay nagpapanatili na siya ay lumikha ng isang bagong pilosopiya ng trabaho para sa modernong mundo, na, sa pamamagitan ng insisting na ang mga bunga ng lahat ng trabaho ay na inihandog sa Diyos, gawa ng sacralised sa bawat bahagi ng buhay. Ito ang pilosopiya na ito na kumilos sa kilos sa pamamagitan ng pagsasanay nito seva.

The practical aspect of the movement’s message relates to its conviction that  direct realization of ultimate reality is the true goal of life and this should be the priority for every individual. Both Ramakrishna and Vivekananda highlighted the importance of experiencing the truth directly at a time when skepticism about organized forms of religion had begun steadily to increase. Practicality is also expressed through its emphasis upon serving humanity as embodied divinity and thus seeking to change social and material conditions. This twin thrust is encapsulated in the movement’s motto “For one’s own salvation, and for the welfare of the world” (Atmano mokshartham jagad hitaya cha), na ginawa ng Vivekananda.

It is difficult to explore the teachings of the Ramakrishna movement in isolation from scholarly debates about its seminal figures, partly because Ramakrishna and his followers attracted the attention of scholars even as the movement was coming into existence and continue to do so. In 1896, the eminent Victorian orientalist, Friedrich Max Müller published one of the first studies of Ramakrishna in English, which reached a wide audience because of Müller’s standing (see Beckerlegge 2000:7-18). Müller himself had universalist sympathies and eagerly anticipated the social and religious reform in India, which he believed teachers like Ramakrishna and Vivekananda would encourage. Writing warmly about Ramakrishna as a teacher with a message for his age, Müller’s sentiments are broadly echoed in the way in which the Ramakrishna Math and Mission presents both Ramakrishna and Vivekananda as teachers with a message for the “modern age.”

Vivekananda has regularly been recognised by scholars as one of the most influential Hindu gurus of the last two centuries, if not the most influential. Richard King (1999:161) has argued that Vivekananda’s wider influence “far outweighs his involvement with the Ramakrishna Mission.” One example of this would be the influence of Vivekananda’s lectures, Raja Yoga, sa kasunod na pagkalat ng yoga bilang isang pandaigdigang kababalaghan. Bukod dito, nang maglakbay si Vivekananda sa Chicago sa 1893, bukod pa rito, naging epektibo ang unang "pandaigdigang gurong hindu," na inaasahang kalahating siglo, at sa panahong ang malayo sa paglalakbay ay mas mahirap, ang "pandaigdigang gurus" na nakakuha ng katanyagan lampas sa India sa 1960 at sa dakong huli. Kahit na bago niya nilikha ang Ramakrishna Mission Association sa kanyang pagbabalik sa Calcutta sa 1897, itinatag na niya ang Vedanta Center ng New York. Nangunguna sa mga madla na hindi pamilyar sa Hinduismo, nilalaro ni Vivekananda ang isang mahalagang papel sa proseso ng pagtukoy sa Hinduismo bilang isang "relihiyon sa mundo" at sa pagtataguyod ng pang-unawa ng advaita vedanta bilang ang pinaka-maimpluwensyang anyo ng pilosopiya ng Hindu, bagaman ang mga iskolar ay kritikal sa mga representasyong ito ng tradisyon Hindu. Ang parehong anyo ng samahan na nilikha ni Vivekananda at ang kanyang pangako sa seva have been adopted and adapted by other Hindu movements, and Vivekananda’s personal influence has been acknowledged by a wide range of prominent Indian personalities. His understanding of the notion of karma yoga, ang yoga ng pagkilos, ay nakatulong sa paghubog ng mga expression ng Hindu panlipunan Aktibismo at karagdagang contributed sa popularisation ng Bhagavadgita as a Hindu text that offers a flexible philosophy of detached action. Vivekananda’s vigorous defence of India and its Hindu traditions at the height of the colonial period and his call to Indians to take pride in their culture and to ameliorate social conditions through seva have been claimed as feeding directly into the Indian nationalist movement. The historian Amiya P. Sen (2000:80) has observed that Vivekananda was “ possibly the greatest source of inspiration” for generations of nationalistic young men in India. In the post-Independence era, Vivekananda has increasingly been claimed by Hindu nationalist groups as one who anticipated both their concerns and their vision of a Hindu India (see, for example, Beckerlegge 2003). This has encouraged scholars and social critics to re-examine Vivekananda’s role, intentional or not, in fostering the kind of cultural nationalism associated with Hindu nationalist groups in contemporary India. For these reasons, although devotees and scholarly supporters on occasion have come close to exaggerating the influence of the Ramakrishna movement, the influence of this movement and its founders cannot adequately be gauged simply in terms of the numbers of its branches or its formal membership, all of which are modest by the standards of many other Hindu movements in India.

For many recent and contemporary scholars, understanding Vivekananda’s influence in shaping the Ramakrishna movement’s ideology and direction is inseparable from judgements made on his wider career and legacy. In the process, a gulf has opened between the self-understanding of the movement and the thrust of critical scholarship centered on Ramakrishna, Vivekananda, and their relationship. The extent of this widening gulf from the days of Müller’s warm appreciation of Ramakrishna, still echoed today by some scholars close to the movement, is best illustrated in the furious debates in the Indian media provoked by the publication in 1995 of Jeffrey K. Kripal’s Kali’s Child: The Mystical and the Erotic in the Life and Teachings of Ramakrishna (Kripal 1995), a textual and psychological study that probed Ramakrishna’s sexuality.

Scholars have increasingly tended to question the characterization of Ramakrishna as a “modern” figure, arguing instead that he should be understood within the context of the popular religious traditions of his time in Bengal while often disagreeing over the nature of the blend of influences found in his teaching (see, for example, Devdas 1965 and Neeval 1976). Ramakrishna took delight in some of the novelties of the age, which he encountered in Calcutta; Vivekananda had experienced a very different education and travelled widely. In this way, attention has been drawn to the differences between Ramakrishna and Vivekananda, leading to questions about the extent of the continuity between their teachings and priorities, particularly in the light of Vivekananda’s career after 1893. Thus, for example, Ramakrishna was immersed in devotion to Kali whereas Vivekananda tended to promote a version of advaita vedanta philosophy. Vivekananda generally insisted on preaching the message rather than about his master, Ramakrishna, although Vivekananda spoke of Ramakrishna with warmth and reverence when he did refer to him. As mentioned earlier in this entry, Vivekananda was not at the forefront of the initiative to develop a devotional cult centered on Ramakrishna. Both Ramakrishna and Vivekananda promoted an inclusivist outlook, but Ramakrishna’s horizon was very much bounded by his Hindu world. Vivekananda’s outlook was global. His theory of an emergent universal religion was evolutionist and hierarchical in a way that Ramakrishna’s inclusivism was not, revealing Vivekananda’s familiarity with currently popular, social Darwinist theories about the origins and evolution of religions from lower to higher stages. As the movement’s summary of its ideology acknowledges, it was Vivekananda who held that it was specifically Vedanta that is the eternal, Universal Religion, which can serve as the “common ground for all religions.”

Ramakrishna’s intervention to encourage famine-relief, together with some of his utterances selected by Vivekananda, has been used as the precedent to offer organized service as a spiritual discipline. It is said that Vivekananda alone realized the import of words uttered by Ramakrishna while in a trance-like state, which suggested that Ramakrishna commended service or seva sa mga nilalang na ipinakita sa pagiging diyos ngunit pinawalang-bisa ang pag-ibig sa kapwa-tao at pakikiramay bilang nagpapakababa. Ang pananaw na ito ay nai-summed up sa pariralang "maglingkod jivas "(katawanin kaluluwa) bilang Shiva (Diyos). Binago ni Vivekananda sa ulit ito sa pariralang "hayaang maging ang iyong Diyos" (daridra narayana). Ngunit, paulit-ulit na binabalaan ni Ramakrishna ang kanyang mga tagasunod na ang pagkakasangkot sa mga gawaing kawanggawa ay maaaring makaabala sa isang tao mula sa prayoridad ng pagsasakatuparan ng Diyos. Inorganisa ang Vivekananda seva when he established the Ramakrishna Math and Mission. Scholars have pointed to the lack of evidence concerning Ramakrishna’s intentions for his followers and have asked whether he ever envisaged founding a movement, let alone one dedicated to service.

Those within the movement would regard the teachings of Ramakrishna and Vivekananda as complementary, bolstered by the conviction that Vivekananda was the disciple best able to interpret Ramakrishna’s words and even unspoken intentions. For many scholars outside the movement, these differences are suggestive of the extent to which Vivekananda absorbed European and American, including Christian, influences through his education in India and then his travels and channelled these into the movement he created. Consequently, Vivekananda has been said to be the archetypal representative of “Neo-Hinduism,” which is characterized by its re-working of earlier Hindu tradition in the light of the encounter with European influences in colonial India. It has been argued, for example, that Vivekananda based his notion of seva at Praktikal na Vedanta sa isang nobelang interpretasyon ng mas maaga advaita tradition, which added an ethical dimension to that system’s characteristic non-dualistic view of reality. His critics argue that Vivekananda’s teaching that this same oneness should provide a basis for an ethic of service introduced an element lacking from the texts on which he drew (for example, Rambachan 1994; Halbfass 1995; Fort 1998). For Vivekananda’s followers, such an innovation would constitute evidence of Vivekananda’s ability to re-interpret Hindu tradition and make it relevant to the modern world.

These issues outlined above, and others, which have been explored in recent scholarship are not merely the preoccupations of observers outside the movement’s following. They are attempts to make sense of those points in the early history of the Ramakrishna movement when the direction laid down by Vivekananda for the movement proved to be highly contentious and divisive and when Vivekananda’s own career took such different directions. His changing appearance during different phases of his career provide striking visual hints of these changes of direction and priority. Consequently, many scholars would argue that the movement’s claim that its ideology “ ... consists of the eternal principles of Vedanta as lived and experienced by Sri Ramakrishna and expounded by Swami Vivekananda’ has to be tested in the light of the complexity of both the interplay between the two very different figures at the heart of the movement and the movement’s subsequent history. (For closer examination of scholarly literature relating to the Ramakrishna movement, see Jackson 1994: 170-79; Beckerlegge 2000, Part 1; Beckerlegge 2013. Scholarly arguments about the extent of continuity between Ramakrishna and Vivekananda have been examined in detail in Beckerlegge 2006.)

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Since the time of the movement’s first monastic community in Calcutta, Ramakrishna has been the devotional focus of the movement, together with Vivekananda and Sarada Devi who collectively form the movement’s Spiritual Trinity. [Image at right] Ramakrishna’s image is installed for worship at the temple at Belur Math. In the movement’s other centers, it is his photograph that is more commonly installed for worship, apart from at Advaita Ashrama in the Himalayas where, at Vivekananda’s insistence, no personal representations of the divine are permitted. The movement’s temples and shrine-rooms follow the familiar patterns of puja (pagsamba) kasama ang arti ceremony found generally in Hindu temples. The movement celebrates the major Hindu festivals, and the nationally–known celebration of Durga Puja at Belur Math draws thousands of devotees. The birthdays of Ramakrishna, Vivekananda, Sarada Devi, and direct disciples of Ramakrishna are also celebrated, as is the Buddha’s birthday and Christmas Eve, the latter because of its association with the vows of renunciation taken by Vivekananda and his brother disciples. This pattern of activity is broadly replicated, sometimes in simplified ways, in centers beyond India. Within the Ramakrishna Math, the progression of probationers and their acceptance as sannyasin ay minarkahan ng mga ritwal ng pagsisimula, at sannyasins tumatanggap ng mga lay miyembro bilang mga personal na disipulo sa pamamagitan ng pagsisimula. Ang Vedic chanting ay bumubuo rin ng bahagi ng buhay ng Math.

Ang pagsasanay na kung saan ang Ramakrishna Math at Mission ay pinakalawak na kilala, tiyak na sa Indya at hindi gaanong binuo sa mga bansa kung saan ang kilusan ay may presensya, ay ang pagganap nito seva , serbisyong makatao. Ang kilusan ay tumutukoy sa ito bilang isang sadhana, o espirituwal na disiplina, upang makilala ang pag-aalok nito ng serbisyo mula sa sekular na mga porma ng serbisyong panlipunan. Sa ilalim ng pamamahala ng sannyasins, but in practice largely delivered by lay workers and paid specialists, the movement offers service in a number of fields: medical, educational, rural development, and relief and rehabilitation. It maintains activities aimed specifically at young people and women, and engages in mass conduct, spiritual and cultural work, and organizing annual celebrations. From largely ad hoc involvement in famine and disaster-relief at the end of the nineteenth century, the movement’s service activities have evolved into large-scale projects often channeled through large and complex institutions, including major hospitals, a university and many colleges and schools, and specialized rural development centers.

Sa mas mayaman na mga rehiyon, kabilang ang Estados Unidos at Kanlurang Europa, hinihigpitan ito ng kilusan seva upang mag-alay ng pagtuturo at espirituwal na pagpapayo, na suportado ng malawak na output ng mga bahay ng pag-publish nito.

PANGANGALAGA / ORGANISASYON 

Ang pagtatatag ng Belur Math sa 1898 ay nagbibigay ng permanenteng tahanan para sa Ramakrishna Math (o monasteryo), [Larawan sa kanan] naay umiiral mula nang mamatay ang Ramakrishna. Matatagpuan sa kapitbahayan ng Howrah sa kanlurang bangko ng Hugli River na tumatakbo sa pamamagitan ng Calcutta, ang Belur Math ay nananatili ang punong-himpilan ng Ramakrishna Math and Mission. Ang Ramakrishna Math ay binubuo ng sannyasins, pinasimulan na mga lalaki na bumabalik sa kalayaan, na may pinarangalan na pamagat ng Swami, Panginoon o Guro, at mga lalaking trainees (brahmacharyas).

In practice, the Ramakrishna Mission Association was largely superseded when Belur Math was established and incorporated the aim of the Association in its own rules. The indistinct nature of the relationship between the Association and Belur Math was not clarified until several years after Vivekananda’s death when in 1909 the Ramakrishna Mission received its legal status as a separate organization. The Ramakrishna Mission is an organization open to both men and women who, unlike the members of the Math, are not required to renounce the everyday responsibilities, such as those of family and employment, to lead a spiritual life of monastic asceticism. The Math and Mission have remained legally separate organizations since 1909, each with its own branches as well as sharing the running of some joint branches. The Mission, however, is under the authority of the President of the Ramakrishna Math and the Board of Trustees, who elect the President, and the branches of the Mission are under the leadership of members of the Math, meaning that the Math and Mission in effect function as one movement. To date, all members of the Math placed in charge of either Math or Mission centers (known respectively as Presidents and Secretaries) have been of Indian origin, except for leaders of sub-centers that remain under the authority of their parent center. All centers are generally expected to be financially self-supporting, and the movement is very cautious before opening new centers or undertaking new projects and carefully assesses the level of sustainable local support. It does this in order to avoid having to close down provisions of seva, halimbawa, pang-edukasyon, medikal, o may kinalaman sa pag-unlad ng bukid, na ang pagkawala ay magkakaroon ng deleterious effect sa lokal na komunidad. Kahit na ang kilusan sa mga unang araw nito ay iginiit na ang lahat ng gawaing ginawa nito ay dapat na isang pagpapahayag ng seva, ang nagiging masalimuot at madalas na mga teknikal na tungkulin na natupad sa pamamagitan ng mga sentro nito ay humantong sa mga nakaraang taon upang umupa ng mga manggagawa na may mga kinakailangang kasanayan.

The scale of the movement’s centers range from its extensive headquarters Belur Math and “flagship” centers, such as the Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture, Kolkata, [Larawan sa kanan] at Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama sa Narendrapur, West Bengal, hanggang sa mas malimit na mga sentro na madalas na pinananatili ng hindi hihigit sa isa o dalawa sannyasins at isang maliit na lokal na boluntaryong manggagawa sa mga lokasyon ng kanayunan.

Sa post-Independence period, ang Ramakrishna Math and Mission ay lumikha ng Sri Sarada Math sa 1954 para sa mga kababaihan na renunciants (sannyasinis) who have the title of Pravrajika (“wandering nun,” signalling their life of renunciation). This became fully independent in 1959 and in turn established the Ramakrishna Sarada Mission in 1960. Both offer service activities and have a limited presence beyond India. The Vedanta Society of Southern California, founded in 1930, was given permission to establish a convent, the Sarada Convent, so that women might also enter sannyasa. As an institution of the Vedanta Society of Southern California, the Sarada Convent remains under the authority of Belur Math, unlike the Sri Sarada Math and Mission. In the 1980s, Ramakrishna Math and Mission created the Ramakrishna-Vivekananda Bhava Prachar Parishad (assocation for the dissemination of the ideas of Ramakrishna and Vivekananda). Organizations attached to the Parishad have to follow a ten-point set of guidelines given by the Ramakrishna Mission. Although these organisations are either completely or partly independent from the Ramakrishna Math and Mission, their existence, together with all the independent societies established in honour of Ramakrishna and Vivekananda, illustrates the extent of the looser, popular “Ramakrishna movement” in India.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Ang mga bilang ng mga kasapi ng Math ay nagbago sa mga nakaraang taon, natitira sa pangkalahatan ay labis sa isang libong sannyasins at brahmacharyas. It is not easy to quantify the membership of the Mission because, as is commonly the case with Hindu organizations, it has many more supporters, devotees, and patrons than formally registered members. Like the movement’s membership, its number of branches also fluctuates and is currently in the region of 170 worldwide. The majority of these branches are in India with concentrations in Kolkata and the state of West Bengal, the region where Ramakrishna first began to gather a following, and around the city of Chennai (Madras) where Vivekananda gathered his earliest supporters beyond what is now West Bengal. The number of sannyasins sa Math sa anumang oras ay isang mahalagang kadahilanan sa pagkontrol sa pagpapalawak ng kilusan at pagkakasangkot nito sa mga bagong proyekto, dahil ito ang sannyasins who provide the movement’s leaders and key administrators.

The movement’s policy of avoiding proselytism and its restriction of seva activities in many countries beyond India to teaching those who seek it has meant that the movement has had a far lower profile beyond India than, for example, the International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) and the Swaminarayan movement, although the membership of the latter is largely drawn from those of Gujarati descent. In certain areas of the United States, because of Vivekananda’s mission, his name and that of his movement continue to be recognized. In contrast, in the United Kingdom, where there is only one branch of the movement and the majority of British Hindus are of Gujarati descent, Vivekananda and the Ramakrishna Math and Mission are little known beyond the membership of scattered Bengali cultural associations. The comparison with ISKCON is instructive because ISKCON has also offered it teachings to individuals not born into Hindu families and has been successful in attracting younger people. The Ramakrishna movement’s Vedanta Centers in the United States and Western Europe have typically attracted older and more affluent supporters who have been more constant than some of the younger people attracted by ISKCON, but Vedanta Societies are now struggling to replace the older generation of supporters as this diminishes over time. It has often been through initial contact with Vedanta Centers that devotees who were neither Indian nor Hindu by birth have subsequently offered themselves for training to enter the Ramakrishna Math.

In India, the movement has also had to adapt to the challenge of globalization, its impact upon traditional values in Indian society, and the rise of a rapidly expanding Hindu middle-class and its members’ aspirational lifestyle. India’s economic liberalization since the early 1990s has been accompanied by a shift in emphasis to privatization and greater autonomy of institutions in the service sector. This represents a challenge for the Ramakrishna Math and Mission as an independent, religiously inspired service organization with a heavy stake in education (Anon 2006:12). It is also functioning in an increasingly competitive national and global market as it competes both for future followers and financial support alongside numerous other religious organizations.

Since its creation, the Ramakrishna Math and Mission has both maintained its identity as a Hindu movement while disseminating its teaching about the harmony of religions anchored in its vision of an emerging universal religion. This at times has created tensions. These have been apparent particularly in Vedanta Centers beyond India where some individuals initially attracted to the movement’s universalist message have later severed their ties with the movement claiming that its cultic practices remained firmly Hindu in character. When immigration laws were eased in the United States in the latter half of the 1960s, the composition of several Vedanta Centers were changed by the influx of more members of Indian origin who favoured Hindu styles of worship and the celebration of Hindu festivals (McDermott 2003). Between 1980 and 1995, the movement became involved in a protracted court case in India, which ultimately went to the Supreme Court. The case was brought by senior members of the movement in an attempt to have the Ramakrishna Math and Mission legally declared to be ‘Ramakrishnaism’ and thus distinct from Hinduism. Under the Indian constitution, such a redefinition would have given the movement minority status and thus more autonomy over the management of its institutions, including the employment of teachers. What was revealing during the conduct of this case was not just the verdict of the Supreme Court, which ruled that the Ramakrishna Math and Mission was a denomination of Hinduism because universalism was a part of Hinduism. The case itself also triggered angry protests from the movement’s lay followers in India who considered themselves to be Hindu and their attachment to the Math and Mission as affirmation of this Hindu identity. This tension is arguably one that the movement has to negotiate particularly in the way in which it chooses to represent itself to its audiences beyond India but in a form that is coherent with the way in which it represents itself in India.

Mga larawan

Imahe # 1: Ramakrishna nakuhanan ng larawan sa 1883 / 1884 kapag pinaniniwalaan na siya ay nasa isang estado ng samadhi (altered or higher consciousness. It is the image most commonly installed in the movement’s centers for worship and has become known as the ‘’Worshipped Pose.” The iconography of the Ramakrishna movement has been explored in Beckerlegge 2000:113-142 and Beckerlegge 2008]

Larawan #2: Sarada Devi nakuhanan ng larawan sa 1898 pagkamatay ni Ramakrishna. Ang larawang ito ay naunang na-link sa Ramakrishna sa devotional iconography.

Image #3: Vivekananda represented as the “wandering monk” (parivrajaka) sa isang larawan na kinunan c1891 sa panahon ng kanyang mga taon ng paglalakbay sa paglalakbay sa pamamagitan ng Indya.]

Image #4: Vivekananda in arguably his most famous representation, the “Chicago Pose” taken from a poster based on a photgraph taken of him at the World’s Parliament of Religions in 1893. This image is said to encapsulate his confident defence of Hinduism at the Parliament.

Larawan #5: Si Vivekananda sa estilo ng damit na pang-clerical ay dumating siya sa pabor kapag nasa Estados Unidos.

Larawan #6: Ang tubig, lotus flower, pagsikat na araw, coiled serpent, at sisne ayon sa pagkakabanggit ay sumasagisag Karma Yoga, Bhakti Yoga; Jnana Yoga, Raja Yoga, at ang Supreme Self. Ang sagisag nito ay kumakatawan sa pagtuturo ni Vivekananada na ang Kataas-taasang Sarili ay natanto ng pinagsama-samang pagsasanay ng lahat ng apat na yogas.

Larawan #7: Mga simpleng palayok na representasyon ng Espirituwal na Trinidad na matatagpuan sa mga kuwadra sa merkado na kasamang Dakshineshwar temple.

Larawan #8: Ang Shri Ramakrishna Temple sa Belur Math. Ang arkitektura nito ay dinisenyo upang pukawin ang mga aspeto ng iba't ibang relihiyon.

Larawan #9: Ang loob ng Ramakrishna Mission Institite of Culture sa Kolkata, na nagpapanatili ng isang paaralan ng wika, isang malawak na aklatan sa antas ng unibersidad, at isang departamento ng pananaliksik, at nag-aalok ng isang malawak na pampublikong programa sa panayam.

Mga sanggunian

Beckerlegge, Gwilym. 2013. "Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902) 150 Taon Sa: Mga Kritikal na Pag-aaral ng isang maimpluwensyang Hindu Guru." Relihiyon Compass 7: 444-53.

Beckerlegge, Gwilym. 2008. "Ang Iconic Presence ng Svami Vivekananda at ang mga Konbensyon ng European-style Portraiture sa panahon ng Late Nineteenth Century." International Journal of Hindu Studies 12: 1-40.

Beckerlegge, Gwilym. 2006. Swami Vivekananda’s Legacy of Service: A Study of the Ramakrishna Math and Mission. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Beckerlegge, Gwilym. 2003. ”Saffron and Seva: The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh’s Appropriation of Swami Vivekananda.” Pp. 31-65 in Hinduismo sa Pampubliko at Pribado: Reform, Hindutva, Gender, Sampraday, na na-edit ni Antony Copley. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Beckerlegge, Gwilym. 2000. Ang Ramakrishna Mission: Paggawa ng isang Modern Hindu Movement. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Devdas, Nalini. 1965. Sri Ramakrishna. Bangalore: Christian Institute for the Study of Religion and Society.

Depensa. Andrew. 1998. Jivanmukti sa Pagbabagong-anyo: Naka-embodied Liberation sa Advaita at Neo-Vedanta. Delhi: Mga Banal na Aklat.

(Swami) Gambhirananda. 1983. Kasaysayan ng Ramakrishna Math and Mission. (3rd binagong edisyon). Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama.

M (Mahendranath Gupta). 1977. Ang Ebanghelyo ni Sri Ramakrishna, Unang naitala sa Bengali ni M., isang disipulo ng Guro. Isinalin sa Ingles sa isang Panimula ni Swami Nikhilananda. New York: Ramakrishna-Vedanta Centre.

Halbfass, Wilhelm, ed. 1995. Philology and Confrontation: Paul Hacker sa Tradisyunal at Moderno Advaita. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Kanyang mga taga-Eastern at Western. 1989. Ang Buhay ni Swami Vivekananda (6th edition, 2 Volumes). Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama.

King, Richard. 1999. “Orientalism and the Modern Myth of ‘Hinduism’.“ Numen 46:146–85.

Kripal, Jeffrey, J. 1995. Kali’s Child: The Mystical and the Erotic in the Life and Teachings of Ramakrishna. Chicago at London: University of Chicago Press.

McDermott, Rachel Fell. 2003. "Vedanta Society." Pp. 120-22 sa Relihiyon at Amerikanong Kultura, Dami 1, na na-edit ni G. Laderman at L. León. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO e-book. Na-access mula sa http://www.abc-clio.com/ABC-CLIOCorporate/product.aspx?pc=A3797C sa 5 December 2009.

Müller, F. Max. 1896. "Isang Tunay na Mahatman." Ang ikalabinsiyam na Siglo 40: 306-19.

Neevel, Walter G. 1976. "Ang Pagbabagong-anyo ni Sri Ramakrishna." Pp.53-97 sa Hinduism: Bagong Sanaysay sa Kasaysayan ng mga Relihiyon, na-edit ni Bardwell L.Smith. Leiden: EJBrill.

(Swami) Saradananda. 1983. Sri Ramakrishna, The Great Master ni Swami Saradananda (Isang Direktang Disipulo ng Guro). Sixth revised edition. Isinalin sa Ingles ni Swami Jagadananda. Madras: Sri Ramakrishna Math.

Sen, Amiya P. 2000. Swami Vivekananda. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

(Swami) Tyagananda at (Pravrajika) Vrajaprana. 2010. Interpreting Ramakrishna: Kali’s Child Revisited. Delhi: Motilal Barnasidass.

(Swami) Vivekananda. 1989. Ang Kumpletong Mga Gawain ni Swami Vivekananda, Walong volume, Mayavati Memorial Edition. Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama.

(Swami) Vivekananda. 1997. Ang Kumpletong Mga Gawain ni Swami Vivekananda, Dami 9, Calcutta: Advaita Ashrama.

SUPPLEMENTARY RESOURCES

A considerable amount has been published about the Ramakrishna movement since the late nineteenth century, particularly in India by the publishing houses maintained by the movement itself, of which Advaita Ashrama (Kolkata), the Sri Ramakrishna Math (Mylapore, Chennai), and the Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture (Kolkata) are the most important. Journals published by the movement in a range of Indian languages and English provide a mixture of articles, both scholarly and popular, on matters of historical interest, the activities of the movement’s centers, and the movement’s philosophy. They also provide invaluable insights into the day-to-day life of the movement and its centers. The most prominent and widely accessible of these journals are Prabuddha Bharata, The Vedanta Kesari, at ang Bulletin ng Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture. Ang Brahmavadin, ang naninirahan na hinalinhan ng Ang Vedanta Kesari, provides access to the earliest days of the movement. Vedanta Societies in the United States also publish journals, but these are concerned more with the movement’s universalist philosophy and popular spirituality than the everyday life of the movement in India. The Ramakrishna Math and Mission was slower than some Hindu movements to develop an extensive internet presence, but many of its individual centers currently maintain their own websites, although some of these are fairly skeletal. The website maintained by Belur Math is an extensive and useful resource. The list of Additional Resources below includes scholarly studies selected to represent the issues covered in this entry. It makes no claim to being exhaustive. More extensive lists of publications from within the Ramakrishna movement and studies by its scholarly observers may be found in the historiographical overviews mentioned in the body of this entry.

(Swami) Akhandananda. 1979. Mula sa Banal na Paglalakbay sa Paglilingkod ng Diyos sa Tao. Mylapore, Madras: Sri Ramakrishna Math.

Anon. 2006. The Story of the Ramakrishna Mission: Swami Vivekananda’s Vision and Fulfilment Kolkata: Advaita Ashrama.

(Swami) Atmapriyananda, editor. 2010. Ramakrishna Mission: Isang Saga ng Serbisyo para sa isang Daang Taon at Higit Pa. Howrah: Belur Math.

Basu, Sankari Prasad at Ghosh, Sunil Bihari. 1969. Vivekananda sa Indian Dyaryo, 1893-1902 Calcutta: Bookland Private Limited at Modern Book Agency Private Limited.

Beckerlegge, Gwilym. 2004. “The Early Spread of Vedanta Societies: An Example of ‘Imported Localism’.” Numen 51: 296-320.

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May-akda:
Gwilym Beckerlegge

Petsa ng pag-post:
18 Agosto 2016

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