Osho / Rajneesh

magbahagi

OSHO / RAJNEESH MOVEMENT


OSHO / RAJNEESH TIMELINE

1931:  Osho/Bhagwan was born as Mohan Chandra Rajneesh in Kuchwada on the Indian plains.

1953:  Rajneesh experienced spiritual enlightenment under a tree in the Bhanvartal Garden, Jabalpur.

1958-1966:  Rajneesh received an appointment and moved from Lecturer to Professor (1960) at Jabalpur University.

1966:  Rajneesh resigned from Jabalpur University and assumes the title Acharya (Teacher), after his backers established an educational trust to support lectures and rural meditation camps.

1970:  Rajneesh formally initiated his first disciples).

1971:  Rajneesh first called himself Bhagwan (enlightened one) Shree Rajneesh.

1974:  The Shree Rajneesh Ashram was established in Pune.

1977:  The worldwide Rajneesh Movement peaked at approximately 25,000 active devotees. There were also residential centers and businesses in or near major Western European and American cities.

1981:  July 10: Ma Anand Sheela, Rajneesh’s personal secretary, represented Rajneesh and purchased 64,229 Big Muddy Ranch in Central Oregon for $5.9 million USD and Bhagwan arrived six weeks later.

1981 (October):  The Big Muddy was incorporated as Rajneeshpuram.

1981:   Citing state land use laws, thousands of Friends of Oregon, a public interest group with considerable support from Nike co-founder Bill Bowerman, filed a lawsuit against the incorporation.

1982:  Rajneeshees settled in Antelope, the small town closest to Rajneeshpuram, which is eighteen miles away and they won the municipal elections, effectively taking over the town.

1983 (October):  Oregon Attorney General David Frohnmayer issued an opinion and filed a lawsuit challenging the incorporation of Rajneeshpuram because of the violation of the Constitutional separation of Church and State.

1984 (July):  Rajneesh began lecturing to a small group called the Chosen Few, breaking the silence and seclusion that began in

1984 (September):  National media sent crews to cover over 2,000 homeless individuals, primarily men, who were recruited and bused into Rajneeshpuram. Devotees claimed that the Share-A-Home initiative demonstrated how people could be rehabilitated.

1984 (September):  Rajneeshees initiated the single largest bioterrorist attack on US soil. Salmonella that was sprinkled over salad bars sickened over 750 individuals in the Wasco County seat, the Dalles. This was a test of a plan to poison local salad bars in order to incapacitate anti-Rajneesh voters in he November county election.

1984 (October 13):  The Oregon Secretary of State instituted a special process to interview applicants for new voter registration in Wasco County. Rajneeshees boycott the county election and within a month less than 50 homeless individuals remained at Rajneeshpuram.

1985 (September 13):  Sheela and members of her inner circle fled from Rajneeshpuram. The Mayor of Rajneeshpuram later became a federal witness.

1985 (September 16):  Rajneesh publicly accused Sheela of attempted murders, masterminding the 1984 poisonings in the Dalles, mistreatment of devotees and bomb plots. He invited state and federal authorities to Rajneeshpuram investigate his charges.

1985 (October 28):  The Federal District Court in Oregon ruled in favor of the State in the Estado ng Oregon v. Ang Lungsod ng Rajneeshpuram sa paglabag sa Konstitusyon na paghihiwalay ng Simbahan at Estado.

1985 (October 28):  Rajneesh was arrested in Charlotte NC, while attempting to flee the USA.

1985 (November 2):  Rajneesh pleaded no contest to two counts of immigration fraud and left the USA.

1985 (December 12):  Rajneesh embarked on a “World Tour” with members of his inner circle, seeking to establish an Ashram in Western Europe, South America or North India.

1986:  Sheela was extradited from Germany. She and her co-conspirator plead guilty to attempted murder, poisoning two county officials, setting fire to a county office, and establishing an elaborate wire-tapping network at the commune’s telephone system. She was sentenced to a twenty-four year Federal jail term and fined a total of $470,000.

1987 (January):  Rajneesh negotiated with the Indian government and was allowed to reopen his old Ashram, after he agreed to limit number of full and part-time Ashram residents.

1988 (December 13):  Sheela was released after two and a half years in Federal prison and immediately departed for Switzerland bago mag-order ng Estado ng Oregon ang kanyang inaresto para sa mga karagdagang krimen.

1989 (August):  Rajneesh changed his name to Osho Rajneesh. In September he becomes simply Osho, meaning oceanic feeling or encompassing the world.

1990 (January 19):  Osho died (left his body).

1999:  Ma Yoga Neelam, Osho’s last personal secretary and other key devotees resigned and left the Ashram to lead meditation camps and found Oshodham, a small center thirty miles south of Delhi.

2009:  The United States Trial and Trademark Copyright Board ruled that Osho organizations like Oshodam and its magazine Osho World ay maaaring gamitin ang pangalang "Osho" sapagkat ito ay pangkaraniwang tulad ng "Jesus." Ang sentral na samahan ng Osho, Osho International Foundation, ay nagpanatili ng mga karapatan sa lahat ng mga naka-copyright na publikasyon.

2014 (June):  Swiss Federal Department of Internal Affairs removed all five current board members of the Osho International Foundation that is headquartered in Zurich for misappropriation of funds and fiscal irresponsibility after they redirected one half the assets in 2013.

2014:  The Swiss Federal Department of Internal Affairs reinstated the five-member board.

2014:  More than 200 small Osho meditation centers continue to function throughout the world. Over 1,500 books have been published in forty languages. The Pune Ashram and Oshodham continue to host visitors and offer meditations and workshops for personal and spiritual growth.

FOUNDER / GROUP KASAYSAYAN

Si Rajneesh ay ipinanganak sa isang pamilya Jain sa Kuchawada, India, sa 1931 at pinangalanan ang Mohan Chandra Rajneesh. (Ang Jainism ay isang independiyenteng Pananampalatayang South Indian na may kaugnayan sa Budismo.) Nagkamit siya ng isang MA sa pilosopiya mula sa Saugar University at kaagad ay kumuha ng trabaho sa Raipur Sanskrit College (Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya). Ang kanyang mga lektura tungkol sa sekswal na kalayaan at ang kanyang mga kritika ng sistemang pampulitika ng India ay lumikha ng labis na kontrobersiya na inilipat ni Rajneesh sa Jabalpar unibersidad sa susunod na taon, kung saan siya ay nakatanggap ng promosyon sa propesor sa 1960 (Carter 1990: 39). Kapag walang mga sesyon sa klase, naglakbay siya sa India na nagsasalita tungkol sa pulitika, sekswalidad, at espirituwalidad.

Clients gave Rajneesh donations for individual consultations about their spiritual development and daily life. This was commonplace in India, where people seek guidance from learned or holy individuals in the same ways as Americans might consult a psychologist or pastoral counselor, and Rajneesh’s private practice was not unusual in itself (Mehta 1979). By 1964, a group of wealthy backers had set up an educational trust to support Rajneesh and his week -long rural meditation retreats. Like many professionals whose client base grows quickly, Rajneesh acquired a business manager around this time: an upper class, politically well-connected woman, Ma Yoga Laxmi, who was both his organizational chief and personal secretary.

Rajneesh resigned his post at the University of Jabalpur in 1966 because of controversies over his stance against the Janata Party and his advocacy of sexual freedom. He started to use the name Acharya Rajneesh, denoting his primary role as a spiritual teacher, supporing himself by lecturing, offering meditation camps, and counseling affluent clients, most of whom were Indian. Rajneesh also developed active meditation exercises facilitating individuals’ ability to observe their own physical, mental, and emotional processes (Osho [Rajneesh] 1983).

Ang salita ng bibig at paminsan-minsang na-publish na mga sanggunian sa kanyang mga regalo nagdala ng ilang mga Westerners sa Mt. Abu meditation camps naAcharya Rajneesh ay nakadirekta sa huli 1960s at maagang 1970s. Sa 1971, Ako ang Gabay was the first of Rajneesh’s books to be published in English and this generated worldwide interest. As the Western Human Potential Movement grew, Americans, Australians, English and West Germans gathered at his airy Bombay apartment and rented flats nearby. A number of his devotees returned home to start meditation centers, restaurants and Rajneesh discos in Australia, Western Europe and the United States.

Sa 1971, pinalitan ni Rajneesh ang pamagat ng Acharya para sa mas malawak na Bhagwan, na nagpapahiwatig ng isang napaliwanagan o nagising na. Sa kauna-unahang pagkakataon, kinilala ni Rajneesh na naranasan niya ang malalim na kawalan ng totoong satori na naglalarawan, halos dalawampung taon nang mas maaga noong Marso 21, 1953. Higit pang mga Amerikano at Kanlurang Europa ang naging mga deboto at isang opisyal, naiiba ang istraktura ng organisasyon na lumitaw (Carter 1990: 69-70).

Rajneesh often gave Western devotees new names of revered Hindu gods and goddesses, signifying their psychological and spiritual rebirth. Around this time in Bombay, he also asked all of his followers to wear the saffron orange clothing that is associated with holy men in India. The names and clothes signifying instant holiness, coupled with Rajneesh’s freewheeling political and sexual philosophies, deeply offended the local population, while enchanting Westerners, who had begun to outnumber the Indians visiting Rajneesh. His reputation as a radical academic, his philosophy, and the hundreds of privileged Western devotees who flaunted Indian conventions all combined to generate tension with the surrounding community (Goldman 1999:22-23).

Sa 1974, inilipat ni Rajneesh ang kanyang punong-tanggapan sa Pune Ashram, 100 milya sa timog-silangan ng Bombay. Na may malaking suporta mula sa isang babaing tagapagmana ng barko sa Griyego at karagdagang pinansiyal na suporta mula sa matagal na Indian devotees, ang Bhagwan ay lumipat sa isang anim na acre enclave at nakuha ang magkakaugnay na real estate sa elite suburb, Koreagon Park. Sa paglipas ng susunod na limang taon, ang Shree Rajneesh Ashram ay lumaki upang isama ang isang meditation hall kung saan ang mga espirituwal na master ay maaaring magbigay ng panayam sa ilang libong mga tao, ang isang mas maliit na awditoryum, mga pasilidad para sa isang maraming mga tao potensyal na mga grupo ng therapy, isang medikal na klinika, mga cottage industriya, restaurant, tindahan, silid-aralan, at pabahay para sa mga deboto na nanirahan sa buong taon sa Ashram (Milne 1987: 23).

Sa puntong ito, pinalitan ni Rajneesh ang kanyang puting pantalon at tunika para sa mahaba, dumadaloy na mga puting damit na nag-iba sa kanya mula sa lahat ng kanyang mga devotees na nagsuot ng kulay kahel at mamaya sa isang spectrum ng reds, oranges at purples na tinawag niyang kulay ng pagsikat ng araw. kulay. Hindi na siya maaaring magkaroon ng regular na pang-araw-araw na pakikipag-ugnayan sa karamihan sa mga deboto, ngunit siya ay naroroon sa lahat ng dako sa Ashram sa pamamagitan ng nasa lahat ng pook na mga litrato at mga alingawngaw ng paminsan-minsan, halos random na nakatagpo ng ranggo at file devotees. Bukod pa rito, ang mga darshans ng gabi kung saan sumagot si Rajneesh sa nakasulat na mga tanong ay nagbibigay ng isang simbolikong pagkakalapit, tulad ng kanyang ugali ng pagtatanghal ng mga mahahalagang bisita at halos bawat umalis na pangmatagalang bisita na may mga regalo ng maliit na mga kahon na gawa sa kahoy o mga piraso ng kanyang damit.

At the movement’s peak around 1976, close to 30,000 Westerners visited the Shree Rajneesh Ashram yearly, and the worldwide movement included more than 25,000 committed devotees (Milne 1987: 23; Carter 1990: 59-60). Pagkatapos ng 1976, gayunpaman, ang pagrerekrut ay stagnated at marami ang umalis mula sa kilusan. Si Richard Price ng Esalen Institute ay sumulat ng isang artikulo Time Magazine upang tuligsain ang karahasan sa mga grupong therapy ng Rajneesh (Anderson 1983: 299-302).

Inimbestigahan ng gubyerno ng India ang mga paratang ng Rajneesh-sanctioned prostitusyon, internasyunal na drug trafficking, smuggling ng ginto, money laundering, at tax evasion. Kinailangan niyang bayaran ang mga buwis dahil ang kanyang pagiging exempt status bilang isang relihiyosong guro ay nabago. Sa 1981, sinubok ng isang Hindu fundamentalist at nabigo na tamaan ang gurong hindu.

Ang escalatng kontrobersya mula sa 1976 sa 1981 ay lumikha ng isang impetus para sa Rajneesh upang magpalipat sa Estados Unidos (Fitzgerald 1986: 300-05). Si Ma Anand Sheela, ang balo ng isang tagasunod ng welati, ay pinalitan ang kanyang orihinal na pribadong sekretarya at pinamagitan sa pagitan ni Rajneesh at ng iba pang organisasyon niya. Noong Hunyo, 1981, ang tagapagtatag at ang kanyang inner circle ay nagsakay sa New Jersey, kung saan nakatira si Sheela sa panahon ng kolehiyo at ang Ashram ay nakasara, bagaman isang maliit na tauhan ng mga caretaker ay nanatili.

In July 1981, Rajneesh’s representatives purchased the six-square-mile Big Muddy Ranch in Central Oregon and started building
Rajneeshpuram. Karamihan sa mga deboto na nanirahan sa Rajneeshpuram ay mula sa Estados Unidos, bagama't may maliit na mga kontingenteng mula sa Kanlurang Europa, Australia, at India. Inilaan nila ang isang utopia ng libu-libong mga residente na isa ring destination resort at peregrinasyon center para sa espirituwal na mga turista. Ang mga crew na nagtatrabaho sa paligid ng orasan ay nagtayo ng isang malaking bulay sa pagninilay at panayam at isang simpleng open-air mall na may mga restawran, damit boutiques, at isang bookshop na nagbebenta ng daan-daang mga libro at videotapes sa pamamagitan at tungkol sa Rajneesh. Ang isang maliit na pribadong paliparan, mga hanay ng mga greenhouses, at isang sparkling artipisyal na lawa ay bahagi din ng landscape (Goldman 1999: 31-36).

Sa kanyang unang tatlong taon sa Oregon, si Rajneesh ay bumalik sa pribadong pagmumuni-muni at direktang nakipag-ugnayan lamang sa isang maliit na bilang ng mga personal na tauhan ng kawani, na nagtatalaga ng lahat ng mga desisyon sa organisasyon at relasyon sa publiko sa kanyang sekretarya, si Sheela. Gayunpaman, tuwing hapon ay dahan-dahan na pinalayas ni Rajneesh ang isa sa kanyang maraming Rolls Royces sa burol mula sa kanyang tambalan, tahimik na tinatanggap ang mga linya ng deboto habang sila ay yumuko at naglagay ng mga rosas sa hood ng kanyang kotse.

Upang magkaroon ng munisipal na kapangyarihan base sa pinakamalapit na bayan, si Rajneeshees nanirahan sa Antelope, labing walong milya ang layo mula sa Rajneeshpuram. Ang mga deboto ay bumoto para sa mga lokal na pagtaas ng buwis na nagdulot ng mga retirees mula sa kanilang mga tahanan sa Antelope. Sa 1982, pinamunuan ni Rajneeshees ang munisipal na halalan at pinalitan ang Antelope bilang Lungsod ng Rajneesh. Sa ilang mga paraan ito ay isang bargaining chip, dahil sa lumalawak na pagsalungat sa buong estado dahil sa publisidad tungkol sa Antelope, ang Rajneeshees ay gumawa ng walang saysay na lihim na alok na umalis sa Lungsod ng Rajneesh kung ang estado ay gumawa ng Rajneeshpuram isang legal na lungsod.

Negative publicity and structured opposition from Thousand Friends of Oregon and others grew dramatically after each of Sheela’s vitriolic public pronouncements, especially following her rant on a nationally aired Nightline show. Millions of Americans heard her predict that in a hundred years, the state of Oregon would not exist, but the city of Rajneeshpuram would flourish.Rajneesheses challenged local customs with their unrestrained verbal attacks, explicit discussions of sexuality, and provacative clothing in sunrise hues (FitzGerald:248-49)). As Rajneesh’s spokesperson, Sheela viciously ridiculed Wasco County farmers, ranchers, and legislators as hicks and bigots because of their cultural insularity and their Judeo-Christian religious affiliations. In 1983, the small Hotel Rajneesh in Portland was bombed. Although there were no deaths or critical injuries the bombing provided justification for arming the Rajneeshpuram police force with semi-automatic guns and surveillance helicoptors. Many Oregonians believed that the bombing was simply a publicity ploy and an excuse to shutter an unprofitable enterprise, because they were unaware of the armed police force at Rancho Rajneesh.

Ang pangunahing opinyon sa 1983 ay nagmula sa alinman sa Rajneeshees o sa kanilang mga kritiko. Isang tao, ang Oregon Attorney General na si David Frohnmayer ay nagbigay ng isang legal na opinyon at nagsampa ng kasunod na kaso na hinamon ang pagsasama ng Rajneeshpuram dahil sa paglabag sa Konstitusyunal na paghihiwalay ng Simbahan at Estado. Ang kaso ay umuga sa Rajneeshuram at nagbukas ng daan para sa mapayapang pagbagsak nito.

In the face of the lawsuit, the Rajneeshees opened a broader electoral front in Wasco County. In September, 1984, worldwide media spotlighted Sheela’s efforts to recruit more than a thousand homeless men as new residents of Rajneeshpuram. Reporters correctly speculated about her desire to swell the pro-Rajneesh voting population and control the Wasco County elections. The strategy was designed to work in tandem with bioterrorism in restaurants and supermarkets throughout Wasco county, because Sheela wanted to make sure that sympathetic Rajneeshee voters would vastly outnumber opponents who would be too ill to go to the polls. The scheme failed because the state monitored voter registration and challenged the recent arrivals’ legal standing. The pro-Rajneesh candidates withdrew from the election and Sheela gave up her plan. Almost all of the 1,500 homeless visitors left Rajneeshpuram within months of their arrival. After the election debacle, Rajneesh’s physician, who later headed the Pune Meditation Resort and the official Osho movement for three decades, spoke with his guru about the futility of voter fraud and the damage created by seemingly endless confrontations with outsiders.

Di-nagtagal bago ang Pagdiriwang ng 1985 Hulyo, si Rajneesh ay nagsimulang magkaroon ng higit na pakikipag-ugnayan sa kanyang mga tagasunod at nagsimulang magsalita sa publiko minsan pa, nakita ni Sheela ang pagsulat sa pader at umalis para sa West Germany isang araw bago ipagtanggol ng gurong babae siya noong Setyembre 1985. Sa lalong madaling panahon ay extradited siya bumalik sa Estados Unidos, kung saan siya pled nagkasala sa isang bilang ng mga singil at nagsilbi ng dalawampu't siyam na buwan sa isang Federal minimum-seguridad bilangguan bago siya umalis sa bansa upang maiwasan ang pending kriminal na singil sa Estado ng Oregon. Nanirahan siya sa Switzerland at nang maglaon ay nagtayo ng dalawang nursing home para sa mga may edad at emosyonal na mga kliyente.

Pagkaraan ng pagkahulog, natutunan ng guro ang tungkol sa darating na mga pahintulot ng Federal para sa kanyang sariling pag-aresto at lihim siyang umalis. Ang mga awtoridad ng Pederal ay sinamsam siya at ang kanyang maliit na pangkatin pagkatapos na mapunta sila upang muling punuan ang kanilang Lear Jet sa ruta patungong Bahamas. Si Rajneesh ay umalis sa Estados Unidos nang wala pang dalawang linggo pagkatapos ng kanyang pag-aresto, hindi nag-filing ng plea ng paligsahan sa dalawang bilang ng pandaraya sa imigrasyon at nagbabayad ng mga multa at mga gastos sa pag-uusig ng $ 400,000). Nang umalis siya sa bansa, ang Big Muddy ay itinayo para sa pagbebenta, at isang maliit na kabalyerya ng mga deboto ay nakabukas ang mga ilaw sa utopia. Pagkatapos, ang Ranch ay naging isang Christian Youth camp na pinamamahalaan ng Young Life.

Ang mga residente ng Wasco County na naninirahan sa Antelope at ang Dalles sa unang bahagi ng 1980s ay malinaw na maalaala ang halos limang taon ng kontrahan at pagbibiktima. Ang mga kalaban ay harassed at threatened, at retiradong residente ng Antelope nawala ang kanilang mga tahanan dahil ang Rajneeshees bumoto para sa isang matarik na pagtaas sa mga munisipal na buwis sa ari-arian. Ang ilan sa mga biktima ng salmonella poisionings sa Dalles ay nagdurusa mula sa digestive disorder tatlong dekada. Naalis ang mga rekrut na walang tirahan ng mapait na pag-alala sa prostbayt at iba pang mga pinsala na naganap nang sila ay pinalayas mula sa Rajneeshpuram sa gitna ng isang freeze. Dagdag pa rito, maraming mga opisyal ng estado at lokal ang na-harass at natutunan ang tungkol sa mga pagtatangka ng pagpatay na naging sanhi ng kanilang pangmatagalang emosyonal na pagkabalisa.

Hundreds of devotees also suffered. At Rajneeshpuram, a handful of wealthy Rajneeshees each lost hundreds of thousands of dollars that they had invested in a venture that was supposed to last forever. Rank and file workers suffered permanent injuries because of backbreaking labor on construction crews and twelve-hour days in the fields and greenhouses. Countless devotees were capriciously isolated in Rajneesh medical clinics or surreptitiously fed psychotropic drugs. And while Sheela tried to hold on to her power, Rajneesh’s personal physician was hospitalized for weeks in Bend because one of her cronies had injected him with poison while he was dancing during summer festivities.

Debates still rage within and outside the movement about who did what to whom and why. The recurring question is whether Bhagwan knew about the array of Sheela’s plots and criminal activities at Rancho Rajneesh. The guru’s decisive assertions that he knew nothing of Sheela’s misdeeds saved him from more extensive criminal prosecution and probably saved his movement as well.

Pagkatapos na makipagkasunduan si Rajneesh sa kanyang pakiusap, naglakbay siya sa buong mundo na may isang maliit na grupo ng mayaman na mga deboto upang makahanap ng isang lugar upang lumikha ng isang bagong intensyonal na komunidad. Mabilis siyang nanirahan sa Cyprus at pagkatapos ay nakipagbayad sa gubyerno ng India at binayaran ang ilan sa kanyang naunang mga multa upang bumalik sa lumang Pune / Poona Ashram. Binago ng mga deboto ang mga gusali, ang mga hardin ng Zen, ang mga pond at mga fountain. Nilinaw ni Rajneesh ang Oregon na paninirahan bilang isang maikling karanasan sa pag-aaral at higit na pinalayo niya ang kanyang sarili mula sa pagkagulo sa pamamagitan ng pagpapalit ng kanyang pangalan sa Osho Rajneesh at pagkatapos ay lamang Osho.

Devotees usually trace the derivation of Osho to William James’s word “oceanic,” which implies dissolving into the whole of human existence , in other words, being at one with everything there is. They note that Osho also carries the meaning of “The Blessed One on Whom the Sky Showers Flowers.” Others write that Osho comes from the Japanese language, implying great gratitude and respect for one who expands consciousness (Jina 1993:53–54). Like almost everything else about Osho Rajneesh, his name itself created initial controversy. It could be interpreted broadly to mean a revered teacher of meditation (Jina 1993:54).

After Osho’s death early in 1990, governance of the Ashram and the worldwide organization fell to an inner circle of twenty-one devotees whom Osho had personally selected. However, at least seventeen of them had quit by 2012. Only three members of Osho’s inner circle in the Ashram are now in charge of the organization, two additional Board members govern the Ashram and the foundation that holds copyrights to Osho’s works. Osho’s dentist and his last personal secretary, resigned to become independent teachers or start other centers. The principal alternative center is Oshodham, thirty miles south of Delhi. It offers meditations and celebrations to visitors and that group publishes Osho World online, focusing on Osho and his legacies. In contrast, the formal organization and Pune Ashram emphasize Osho’s philosophy and strategies for personal growth.

After Osho died, there were three major areas of conflict among the committee of twenty-one leaders. First, three central members, Amrito (Osho’s personal physician) and two other men, Jayesh and Yoganenda, took control of Ashram finances and Osho’s literary copyrights through the Osho International Foundation. Second, the Movement increasingly focused on Osho’s ideas and gradually redesigned the Pune Ashram to eliminate iconography and monuments to Osho, including the Samadhi constructed to honor his memory. Third, they actively recruited affluent visitors and minimized the resort’s spiritual messages in favor of a focus on personal growth through active meditation. Dissenters accused the three leaders of “Bollywoodization” of Osho.

Some of these critics filed claims against the Osho Foundation International’s copyrights of Osho’s name, meditations and publications. The United States Trial and Trademark Copyright Board ruled that Osho organizations like Oshodam and its magazine Osho World ay maaaring gamitin ang pangalang "Osho" sapagkat ito ay pangkaraniwang tulad ng "Jesus." Ang sentral na samahan ng Osho, Osho International Foundation, ay nagpanatili ng mga karapatan sa mga naka-copyright na mga publikasyon.

In 2014, the three principals of Osho International Foundation that is now headquartered in Zurich claimed to have found a will that gave them full financial control of the organization. However, independent Swiss experts claimed that it was forged, and it paved the way for a full investigation. In June of 2014, the Federal Supervisory Board, an office of the Swiss Department of External Affairs, removed all of the current members of the board of Osho Foundation International, froze their Swiss accounts, and appointed an independent group of overseers to review the foundation. The Supervisory Board found that the three key members of the old inner circle had syphoned off half of the Foundation’s funds during the past year. There has been ongoing litigation, and once again the Osho Movement was embroiled in controversies. However, several months later, the Supervisory Board accepted an appeal and reinstated the Board.

Despite the controversies and litigation, the twenty-first century Osho Meditation Resort still throbs with music, newly developed meditations, and a multiversity that offers varied courses and personal growth groups. The Osho Movement has continued as a loose group of clients who visit the Pune Ashram or Oshodham, read Osho’s books, and meditate together and alone. The Ashram still attracts affluent tourists who seek personal growth through music, dance, and meditations. However, the most dedicated core of the movement, several hundred devotees who had centered their lives around Osho and his teachings, may have shifted their allegiances to Oshodham.

DOCTRINES / BELIEFS

Dahil ang 1974 sa Pune, halos bawat salita na binigkas ni Osho ay matapat na naitala at na-publish sa iba't ibang anyo. Siya ay mahilig
asserting na may 108 beads sa bag that his devotees wore and there were likewise 108 paths toward enlightenment. In over 115 books, which are transcriptions of his lectures, initiation talks, and pithy sayings, almost every major religious and philosophical tradition received Osho’s attention. He lectured about Buddhism, Christianity, Hassidism, Sufism, The Upanishads, and Yoga as well as Marx, Freud, and Henry Ford.

Ang mga espirituwal na naghahanap ay hindi laging naiintindihan ang mga kumplikadong tradisyong ito, ngunit pinahahalagahan nila kung paano sila nagkakasama sa isang masarap na espirituwal na nilagang may lasa sa buong Zen Budismo. Ipinahayag ni Osho na maraming panloob na kontradiksyon at mga paradoxes sa kanyang pilosopiya ay mahalaga sa espirituwal na pag-unlad at maaaring piliin ng mga naghahanap na tanggapin o tanggihan ang anumang bahagi nito.

In the 1970s and 1980s devotees accepted Rajneesh as their ultimate master. After Osho died, the emphasis became commitment to meditation with less emphasis o n an explicit master/disciple relationship, although the study of Osho’s philosophies remained important. Despite changes, elaborations, and advocacy of individual choice, the two most important themes in Osho’s philosophy remain surprisingly clear and consistent. They were (1) surrender of individual ego and (2) integration of the individual’s material and spiritual selves (Osho [Rajneesh] 1983).

Osho’s ten commandments, which he outlined during the time that he was still called Acharya Rajneesh, have continued to ground the contemporary movement centered in bothh the Pune Ashram and Oshodham (Osho 2002 ). True to form, Rajneesh observed that he objected to commandments of any sort, but then he went ahead (Italicized numbers 3, 7, 9, and 10 were underlined in the original.):

1. Never obey anyone’s command unless it is coming from within you also.

2. Walang ibang Diyos maliban sa buhay mismo.

3. Ang katotohanan ay nasa loob mo: huwag kang maghanap sa ibang lugar.

4. Ang pag-ibig ay panalangin.

5. Ang pagiging walang kabuluhan ay ang pintuan sa katotohanan. Ang kabutihan mismo ay ang ibig sabihin, ang layunin at kakayahan.

6. Ang buhay ay ngayon at dito.

7. Masiyahan sa buhay.

8. Huwag lumangoy-float.

9. Mamatay bawat sandali upang maaari kang maging bago sa bawat sandali.

10. Huwag maghanap. Iyon ay, ay. Itigil at tingnan.

However, while all of these commandments have been foundational for more than forty years, there has always been considerable latitude for individuals to construct their own meanings of this foundational guidance. And increasingly, these vague prescriptions dovetail with other spiritual leaders’ doctrines and practices.

Si Osho ay bumalik at muli sa kanyang pangitain ng isang bagong lalaki na nagtaguyod ng makamundong at makadiyos. Ang kanyang ideal ay "Zorba the Buddha,” a consummate being combining the spiritual focus of the Indian mystic with the life-embracing traits of the materialistic Westerner. Zen, Tantra tradition, and the Prosperity Gospel’s messages came together in Rajneesh’s vision:

Ang isang bagong tao ay kailangan sa lupa, isang bagong tao na tumatanggap ng kapwa, na siyentipiko at mistiko. Sino ang lahat para sa bagay at lahat para sa espiritu. Lamang pagkatapos ay maaari naming lumikha ng sangkatauhan, na kung saan ay mayaman sa magkabilang panig. Itinuturo ko sa iyo ang kayamanan ng katawan, kayamanan ng kaluluwa, kayamanan ng sanlibutang ito at sa sanlibutang iyon. Para sa akin na totoo ang pagiging relihiyoso (Osho [Rajneesh] 1983: 14).

RITUALS / PRACTICES

The diverse Osho Movement is a canopy that shelters varied spiritual approaches. There is no single set of rituals. Meditations, however, remain at the center of the practice in every sector of the Movement. Devotees who are exclusively committed to following Osho meditate daily and attend collective celebrations, but others either try them out during a visit to the Meditation Resort or Oshodham or sporadically engage in group practice at local centers. Some casual followers simply perform the meditations alone with guidance from the Osho Meditation Resort’s webpages.

Nakagawa si Osho ng apat na aktibong meditasyon na foundational sa iba pang mas bagong meditations. Ang mga ito ay Dynamic na Meditasyon, Kundalini Meditation, Nadabrama Meditation, and Nataraj Meditation. He introduced Dynamic Meditation at his early meditation camps and it remains the central meditation. These descriptions offer a sample of Osho’s approach to personal and spiritual growth:

Ang Dynamic Meditation ay may tatlong yugto:

Unang Stage (10 minuto)
Ang paghinga na chaotically sa pamamagitan ng ilong, hayaan ang paghinga ay matinding, malalim, mabilis, walang ritmo, na walang pattern - at pag-isip nang palagi sa pagbuga. Ang hininga ay dapat lumipat nang malalim sa baga. Gawin ito nang mabilis at mas mahirap hangga't maaari hanggang sa literal na maging ang paghinga. Gamitin ang iyong likas na paggalaw ng katawan upang matulungan kang mapalakas ang iyong enerhiya. 

Ikalawang Stage (10 minuto)
Pagsabog! ... Hayaan ang lahat ng bagay na kailangang itapon. Sundin ang iyong katawan. Bigyan ang iyong kalayaan sa katawan upang ipahayag ang anumang naroroon. Pumunta ka talagang baliw. Sigaw, sigaw, sigaw, tumalon, sipa, iling, sumayaw, kumanta, tumawa; itapon ang iyong sarili sa paligid. Huwag pahintulutan ang iyong isip na makagambala sa kung ano ang nangyayari. Sinasadya ay baliw. Maging kabuuang.

Third Stage (10 minuto)
Gamit ang mga armas na nakataas mataas sa itaas ng iyong ulo, tumalon up at pababa sumisigaw ang mantra, "Hoo! Hoo! Hoo! "Bilang malalim hangga't maaari. Sa bawat oras na makarating ka, sa mga flat ng iyong mga paa, hayaan ang tunog ng martilyo sa malalim sa sex center. Bigyan ang lahat ng mayroon ka.

Ika-apat na Stage: 15 minuto
STOP! Freeze wherever you are, in whatever position you find yourself. Don’t arrange the body in any way. A cough, a movement, anything, will dissipate the energy flow and the effort will be lost. Be a witness to everything that is happening to you.

Fifth Stage: 15 minuto
Ipagdiwang! Ang musika at sayaw ay nagpapahayag ng kahit ano pa man.

Walang kasalukuyang mga code ng dress para sa mga devotees maliban sa Pune Meditation Resort, Oshodham, at sa panahon ng meditations sa ilang mga lokal na sentro. Kinakailangan ang mga damit na giray-giray na maaaring binili onsite sa araw sa Meditation Resort. Dapat na magsuot ng puting kasuotan para sa pagninilay sa gabi. Ang maroon swimwear lamang ang pinahihintulutan sa resort pool.

ORGANISATION / LEADERSHIP

Sa 1970, nang ilunsad niya sa publiko ang kanyang unang mga disipulo sa Bombay, si Rajneesh ay pormal na naging lider ng isang bagong kilusang relihiyon na umaakit sa parehong mga Indian na nasyonal at Kanlurang Europa.

The movement grew dramatically in the early 1970s, after Rajneesh’s books were available through major English-language publishers. As the movement expanded, a differentiated organizational structure developed. Ma Yoga Laxmi, Rajneesh’s secretary, tried to run political interference with the Indian government while developing a differentiated organizational structure that scheduled appointments, workshops and housing arrangements.

Sa 1974, si Rajneesh at ang kanyang samahan ay lumipat sa bagong Rajneesh Ashram sa isang marangyang suburb ng Poona / Pune. Si Rajneesh ay nakatuon sa pakikipagtalastasan sa doktrina at espirituwal na kasanayan, na sumasakop sa isang compound sa Ashram na nakatago rin sa kanyang personal na manggagamot, kanyang tagahanga, at kanyang personal na katulong / kalaguyo. Ang kanyang kalihim ay namamahala sa pang-araw-araw na operasyon sa Ashram, sa tulong ng isang lumalaking kawani.

Mayroong mga kagawaran para sa pagpapanatili, mga serbisyo sa pagkain, mga relasyon sa publiko, pangangalagang pangkalusugan, mga serbisyong legal at publikasyon. Ang Rajneesh ay nagsalita araw-araw, ngunit ang personal at espirituwal na pag-unlad ay nagsasangkot ng mga grupo ng nakatagpo at mga workshop na pinangunahan ng ilang mga pangunahing "Therapist ng Rajneesh." Habang lumalaki ang Ashram at pandaigdigang kilusan, ipinagkaloob ni Laxmi ang higit pang lakas kay Ma Anand Sheela (Sheela Silverman).

Ang pandaigdigang network ng mga sentro ng Rajneesh, cafe, at discos ay maluwag na konektado sa sentral na samahan sa Ashram. Gayunpaman, sa sandaling kinuha ni Sheela ang lahat ng mga bagay sa organisasyon, kailangan niya ang mas malaki at mas malaking kontribusyon mula sa mga lokal na sentro at isara ang mga hindi gaanong kapaki-pakinabang. Pagkatapos ng paglipat sa Oregon sa pagkahulog 1981, nagkaroon ng higit pang sentralisasyon. Inalis ni Sheela ang karamihan sa mga personal na workshop ng paglago, at tinanggap ng mga deboto ang kanyang mga utos na ang pagsusumikap para sa komunidad ay ang pinakamahusay na daan sa personal at espirituwal na paglago. Isinaayos din niya ang karamihan sa mga sentro ng Rajneesh sa buong mundo, bagama't binago ng ilan ang kanilang mga pangalan at naging independiyenteng mga nilalang.

Sa Rajneeshpuram, si Rajneesh ay pumasok sa tahimik na pagmumuni-muni at virtual na pag-iisa, maliban sa kanyang ritwal na mga hapunan sa hapon sa isa sa kanyang maraming Rolls Royces. Sinasagisag niya ang kilusan, ngunit si Ma Anand Sheela at ang kanyang panloob na bilog ng isang kalahating dosenang babae na tinatawag na "Moms" at isang maliit na ibang mga deboto ang kinontrol ang halos lahat ng bagay hanggang sa nagsimulang makipag-usap si Rajneesh sa isang maliit na grupo sa tag-araw ng 1984. Matapos ang pagkalason sa Dalles at ang nabigong diskarte na magdala ng mga bagong botante para sa eleksiyon ng Nobyembre 1984, ang kilusan ay nahaharap sa mga ligal na paghihirap, mabilis na pagtaas ng utang at pagtanggi ng pagiging kasapi. Si Sheela at ang kanyang pangkat ay nagsimulang mawala ang kanilang lakas at iniwan nila ang Rajneeshpuram sa araw bago ang publiko na sinaway ni Rajneesh noong Setyembre ng 1985.

After Rajneesh settled his legal difficulties in the U.S. and finally moved back o the old Ashram, he became increasingly frail, suffering from heart problems and diabetes. Everyday operations and communication fell to Amrito, his personal physician. Rajneesh selected a group of twenty-one devotees to become an inner circle and take over movement leadership after he died. Most of the power was with Amrito and two or three of his colleagues, however. They established a more differentiated organizational structure and set up corporations in New York and Zurich to publish and distribute Osho/Rajneesh’s work.

Because of copyright lawsuits and various schismatic groups, there may be other leadership transitions in the near future. The official Osho/Rajneesh Movement is still headquartered at the Pune Ashram, but most of its revenues are derived from publications. The Movement itself is very loosely coupled and its focus is on Osho’s books and maintaining the Osho Meditation Resort in Pune.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Very few alternative religions have successfully survived their founders’ deaths, changed public perceptions, and added to their global influence. The largest of these, the Church of the Latter-day Saints, adapted to tensions with its host societies, moved toward the social and religious mainstream, and became an influential institutionalized religion throughout the world (Stark 1996). However, few other small, marginalized movements have survived and succeeded as visible cultural influences that introduce spiritual innovations in global contexts. Despite its small size, the Osho Movement and the sects within it continue to have a broad influence, particularly through Osho’s books and the worldwide visibility of the Meditation Resort.

Neither early controversies nor internal tensions have diminished the Osho Movement’s worldwide status. Facebook founder, Mark Zuckerberg, has visited the Osho Meditation Resort as have a number of contemporary celebrities, but nothing illustrates the movement’s contemporary cultural influence more than edgy pop idol Lady Gaga’s 2011 endorsement:

Oh yes Osho! I read a lot of Osho’s books and I have been reading a lot about [Osho’s views on] rebellion, which is my favorite so far. And how creativity is the greatest form of rebellion in life. It’s important to stand up for what you believe in and to fight for equality. Equality is one of the most important things in my life—social, political, economic equality—these are all things I fight for in my country as a citizen. So I read Osho because not only do I love his work and what he writes about, but I guess I am kind of an Indian hippie! (Bhushan 2011 ).

Lady Gaga’s infatuation typifies the ways that twenty-first century spiritual seekers relate to Osho through books, videos, web applications, and visits to the Meditation Resort in Pune or Oshodham. Somewhat surprisingly, neither Zuckerberg’s visit nor Gaga’s comments were met with criticisms by the news media. The Osho organization that is based in Pune has mainstreamed Osho and his message by defining the Oregon debacle as a minor misstep. The Movement’s early history has been successfully transformed and Osho/Rajneesh is now widely viewed as a compelling spiritual teacher rather than a dangerous charismatic leader.

Schisms within the Movement reflect sectarian disputes about what is the “true” word. Oshodham explicitly honors Osho/Rajneesh and also emphasizes his earlier teachings, while the leaders at the Osho International Foundation have wholeheartedly marketed Osho’s philosophies rather than his embodied self. The long-term issue is whether the Osho Movement can sustain its widespread general appeal through the efforts of a few core followers.

In the medium term, there are ongoing international copyright disputes about what entities control publications of Osho’s works and meditations. And sectarian battles about Osho’s “true” legacy. The Rajneesh/Osho Movement continues to be a hothouse for the constant tensions, just as Acharya Rajneesh predicted it would be more than four decades ago.

Mga sanggunian

Anderson, Walter Truett. 1983. Ang Upstart Spring: Esalen at ang American Awakening. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.

Bhusan, Nyay. 2011. "Ipinahayag ng Lady Gaga ang Pag-ibig ng Mga Aklat ni Philosopher Osho." Hollywood Reporter Online, Oktubre 28. Na-access mula sa http://www.hollywoodreporter.com/news/lady-gaga-reveals-love- sa 10 2014 Septiyembre.

Carter, Lewis F. 1990. Charisma at Control sa Rajneeshpuram. New York: Press sa Cambridge University.

FitzGerald, Frances. 1986. Mga Lungsod sa isang Burol. 1986. New York: Simon at Schuster.

Goldman, Marion S. 1999. Mapagmahal na Mga Paglalakbay: Bakit Matagumpay na Kababaihan ang Sumali sa isang Kulto . Ann Arbor: Press of University of Michigan.

Jina, Anand. 1993. "Ang Gawain ni Osho Rajneesh: Isang Pangkalahatang-ideya ng Tematika." 47-56 sa Ang Rajneesh Papers, na na-edit ni Susan Palmer at Arvind Sharma. Delhi: Motilal Banardidass, Ltd.

McCormack, Umakit. 1985. Ang Rajneesh Files: 1981-1986. Portland, OR: New Oregon Publishers.

Mehta, Gita. 1979. Karma Kola: Pagmemerkado sa Mystic East. New York: Simon at Schuster.

Milne, Hugh. 1987. Bhagwan: Ang Diyos na Nabigo . New York: Saint Martin’s.

Osho (Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh). 2002. Otoons Website for Osho’s Ten Commandments. Na-access mula sa http://www.otoons.de/osho/10.htm sa 10 2014 Septiyembre.

Osho (Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh). 1983. Ang Araw-araw na Meditator: Isang Gabay sa Praktikal. Boston: Charles E. Tuttle.

Stark, Rodney. 1996. "Kung Bakit Nagtagumpay ang mga Relihiyosong Relihiyon: Isang Binagong Pangkalahatang Modelo." Journal of Contemporary Religion 11: 133-46.

May-akda:
Marion Goldman

Petsa ng Pag-post:
2 Enero 2015

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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