Nation of Islam
Pangalan: Nation of Islam na kilala rin bilang World Community of Al-Islam sa West, American Muslim Mission, Ang Nation of Peace, Black Muslim Movement, at NOI.
Tagapagtatag: Ipinanganak si Wallace Dodd Fard, na kilala rin bilang Wali Farad o Wali Farad Muhammad.
Petsa ng Kapanganakan: circa 1891
Lugar ng Kapanganakan: Mayroong maraming kontrobersiya sa kanyang lugar ng kapanganakan; Ang mga FBI file ay nagpapahiwatig ng Portland, Oregon, ang iba pang mga mapagkukunan ay tumuturo sa New Zealand. 1 Fard mismo pati na rin ang mga tagasunod, inaangkin ang Mecca.
Taong Itinatag: 1930 sa Detroit, Michigan
Holy Text: Qur’an, although the Bible has very minor influences on the teachings, specifically with the introduction of Islam into the Black community.
Sukat ng Grupo: Mahirap matukoy ang eksaktong laki. Ang mga pagtatantya ay mula sa 10,000 hanggang 100,000. 2
The roots of the Nation of Islam can be traced back to the early part of the 20th century with the emergence of black militant groups. For the most part, NOI surfaced as a social movement, “a large organized group of people committed to collective goals and ideals to preserve or change the existing political economic structure and human relationships in a society” 3. The NOI is a specific type of movement because it not only is designed for winning black converts but also focuses on black socioeconomic issues. “A black nationalist movement is an organized effort to create a collective consciousness and racial/cultural pride” 4.
In this sense the Nation of Islam is as much a movement for change as it is one of religious enlightenment. Movements such as the Nation of Islam arise during periods of social change and the time period of its formation, circa 1930, was a crucially dynamic period in the United States. The aftermath of World War I coupled with the Great Depression combined to create social conditions that provoked discontent among blacks. Following the Great Migration of southern blacks to northern cities such as Chicago, New York and Detroit, blacks experienced a period of prosperity and “expected their status to continue to improve [but experienced the inverse] when their status dropped after the war, and frustration, anxiety and discontent arose” 4.
In addition to being huddled in crowded, poor urban areas, blacks had to compete with whites for jobs. These social conditions made black nationalism an attractive alternative for African Americans. So it was under these conditions that “the Nation of Islam began in the black community of Detroit in 1930 during an era of hunger, discontent, anguish, and disillusionment.” 5
Wallace Fard is officially credited with founding the NOI but much of the doctrine and beliefs of the NOI stem from the teachings of Noble Drew Ali and his Moorish Holy Temple of Science.” The Nation of Islam evolved from the Moorish Temple of Science Organization founded by Timothy Drew” 6.
The basis of Drew’s (later known as Noble Drew Ali) teaching held that African Americans were actually of Islamic heritage and therefore should be referred to as “Moors.” Drew taught that Islam, not Christianity was the original, and therefore the correct, faith of African Americans.” Ali also stated that [the terms] Negro and Black signified death and Colored signified something painted. Therefore the terms Asiatic, Moor or Moorish-American must be used. Ali taught that salvation was found by discovering national original and refusing to be called Negro, Black, Colored, Ethiopian, etc.” 7.
Drew also instilled the idea of Moorish superiority over the white race. Drew continued his teachings until his mysterious death in 1929. After Drew’s death, his following splintered into numerous fractions. On one side, there is John Given El who believed himself to be the reincarnation of Noble Drew, on the other there is Wallace D. Fard who also believed himself to be the reincarnation of Nobel Drew. The original followers of Drew took two diverging paths. One group followed John Givens and became the Morish Americans of the Moorish Temple of science based in Chicago, and the other group following Fard became The Nation of Islam. 8
Using the foundation laid by Noble Drew, the Nation of Islam was born. In 1930 in Detroit, a door to door salesman, going by the name Wallace Fard, began preaching his remedies for the problems that plagued the black community. His job as a salesman gave him easy access into the homes of blacks throughout the city. While inside the homes he began preaching his doctrine of black separatism, white evil, and Christian manipulation. He used Blacks’ familiarity with the Bible as a spring board to his preaching, gradually easing into Qur’anic text.
Fard’s three main concepts, which became the foundation for the NOI ideology, were “Allah is God, the white man is the devil and the so called Negroes are the Asiatic Black People, the cream of the planet earth” 9. Nadama ng Fard na ang mga itim ay hindi makamit ang kalayaan, pagkakapantay-pantay, at katarungan hangga't hindi lamang nila nabawi ang kanilang tunay na relihiyon at wika (Islam at Arabic) at ngunit nagkamit rin ng isang hiwalay na estado.
Fard preached to his listeners how Christianity was the white man’s religion used to enslave and subjugate the Asiatic (black) man’s mind. To him, the Christian faith would never serve to solve the problems that plagued the black community. In fact, it had often been used as a device to keep black subordinate. The “Christian religion was and is the master stratagem for keeping the so-called Negroes enslaved… [this] ‘slave religion’ taught them to love their oppressor and prey for those who persecute them” 10. Mula sa 1930 hanggang 1934, matagumpay na hinikayat ng Fard ang mga tagasubaybay ng 8,000 sa kanyang Lost-Found Nation of Islam. 11
One of Fard’s First Chief Ministers was a man by the name of Elijah Poole. After Fard’s mysterious disappearance in June of 1934, his most dedicated head minister Elijah Muhammad (formally known as Robert Pool) took over the movement. The primary reason for Elijah’s devotion to Fard was that he believed Fard was God in person. In fact, Elijah is entirely responsible for the deification of Fard as well as the perpetuation of Fard’s beliefs. 12
After Fard’s disappearance, Elijah established a second temple in Chicago which eventually became the main headquarters for the NOI. Elijah was very strict and authoritative in his role as head of the Nation of Islam. This strong hold over the organization even held true while Elijah was in prison serving time for draft evasion during the Second World War. While incarcerated, Elijah was able to run the NOI via giving his orders to his wife Clara and his head ministers. So even in prison, the organization never acted without his direct consent and direction. Under the leadership of Elijah Muhammad the organization took shape into the beliefs and practices the NOI is famous for such as their ideas of black racial superiority, and racial separation. Elijah remained head of the NOI until his death in 1975 when his son Wallace Muhammad took over the ranks. 13
Wallace Muhammad at ang Repormasyon Era
Wallace Muhammad was never a completely “devout” or “blind faith” follower of the Nation of Islam. In fact, in the years of his involvement with the organization he frequently butted heads with his father Elijah over Islamic ideology.
Si Wallace ay itiniwalag at muling pinanumbalik (hindi bababa sa apat na beses) 1 for conflicting with Elijah Muhammad “over the philosophy (self help), the theology (Islamic Nationalism), and ideology (black separatism).” 14
One such reason for an expulsion was a revelation that he and his close friend Malcolm X came to. They concluded that Elijah had not only misrepresented both Fard’s doctrines and Islam itself, but that Fard could have not possibly been Allah. Another incident which caused tension between Wallace and his father was Wallace’s investigation and questioning of Elijah’s adulterous affairs.
Although it may seem odd that one who was repeatedly reprimanded for acting out contrary to the NOI doctrines should take over the organization, it was prophesized by Fard that Wallace would be the eventual successor. Fard said that Elijah’s seventh child would be a son and that son would be destined to lead the NOI and because of this vision, Wallace was given leadership. 15
Immediately after Elijah Muhammad’s death, Wallace began implementing drastic and dramatic changes within the NOI moving it towards traditional Islam. With the reorganizing, denationalizing, decentralizing, and orthodizing, Wallace changed the most powerful black nationalist group into an Orthodox Islamic group. 16 Ipinatupad niya ang pitong pangunahing pagbabago na lubhang binago ang istruktura at layunin ng grupo.
Una, pinalayo niya ang doktrina ng superyoridad ng itim na lahi na itinuro ni Elijah Muhammad.
Pangalawa, binago niya ang Fard bilang isang matalinong tao at hindi mismo ang Diyos.
Third, he restored Malcolm X’s legacy as a respected and prominent member.
Pinaghiwalay niya ang negosyo mula sa mga gawi sa relihiyon.
Tinapos niya ang pagnanais para sa isang hiwalay na estado.
Pinarangalan niya ang Konstitusyon ng Estados Unidos.
Sa wakas, iniayon niya ang doktrina ng NOI sa Orthodox na mga gawi sa Islam.
In addition, he changed the name of the NOI, first to the Bilalian Community, then to the World Community of Al-Islam in the West, to the American Muslim Mission (1980s), and finally to the Muslim Mission (1990s). “Each change was an effort to make the organization and its members adhere to strict, traditional Islamic principles and to exclude race, nationalism, and racial images of God and prophets from theory and worship.” 17 Ang Muslim Mission ngayon ay nagtataglay ng orthodox Islamic views at tinanggap bilang bahagi ng tradisyunal na pamayanan ng Islam. 18
During the time Wallace Muhammad implemented his orthodizing changes, NOI followers who strongly believed in the doctrine of black racial superiority and racial separation as taught by Fard and Elijah Muhammad, left the NOI. They felt that “Muhammad ha[d] essentially fallen from the African Nationalist ideological tree. The American Muslim Mission does not represent the ideas of the Honorable Elijah Muhammad or the founding fathers of the race conscious ideology.” 19 One such defector was Louis Farrakhan, the outspoken Black Muslim. To continue the legacy of African Nationalist thought, Minister Louis Farrakhan broke from the group to reestablish the legacy of the NOI. “Farrakhan has picked up the baton from the Honorable Elijah Muhammad and continues his legacy as his spiritual son.” 20
Paniniwala at Kasanayan
The Nation of Islam deviates considerably from the teachings of orthodox Islam. Their idea of black racial superiority and whites as evil is contradictory to the teachings of racial equality found in Orthodox Islam. Although the title of this group seems to infer that they are part of the Orthodox Islam religion, this is not the case. There are significant differences ranging from interpretation of the Five Pillars to the perception that the members of the NOI have in regards to our diverse culture. The NOI is much more inclusive and politically radical than Orthodox Muslims. Two of the Black Muslims’ doctrines are at the heart of the controversy: their insistence that blacks must separate themselves from the abhorrent and doomed race and their belief that it is the manifest destiny of the Black Nation to inherit the earth. These doctrines are in flagrant contrast to orthodox Islamic ideals of an all-embracing unity of mankind. 21
Pagkakaiba sa pagitan ng Nation of Islam at Orthodox Muslim Church:
One great difference between members of the Nation of Islam and Orthodox Muslims is their perspective on the Qur’an. Orthodox Muslims believe that it was Allah’s last revelation to mankind and that this occurred between the years of 610 and 632 CE. The Nation of Islam teachings on the subject are contradictory. On the one end, they state that they believe in the Qur’an and the writings of all the prophets of God. On the other side, the members also state that they believe that they are the original nation, the writers of the Bible and Qur’an, and the creators of history. 22
Ang isa pang pagkakaiba ay sa paniniwala ng personipikasyon ng Allah. Ang Nation ng Islam ay nagpahayag na ang Allah ay nagpakita sa laman bilang WD Fard. Naniniwala ang mga Orthodox Muslim na sa anumang oras ay hindi lumitaw ang Allah sa anumang pisikal na anyo. 23
Al Islam nagtuturo na ang Propetang si Muhammad ay ang huling ng mga mensahero na ipinadala sa amin ng Allah, at ang isa para sa lahat na susundan. Naniniwala ang Nation of Islam na si Elijah Muhammad ay isang mensahero din. Siya ay itinuro ng Diyos mismo (WD Fard). 24
Sa pangkalahatan, naniniwala ang mga Orthodox Muslim sa pagkakapantay-pantay ng lahat. Walang isa pang nakahihigit na grupo sa iba. Ang mga hierarchical na istruktura ay batay sa kakayahang sumailalim sa kalooban ni Allah. Ang Nation of Islam ay higit pa sa isang kilusang pampulitika na umaasa na makahanap ng solusyon para sa kalagayan ng African-American. 25
Naniniwala ang mga tagasunod ng Nation of Islam sa espirituwal na:
There is only one God whose name is Allah as well as a belief in Allah’s prophets and the scriptures they brought to the people.
They follow the Holy Qu’ran and believe in the scriptures of all of the prophets of God.
Naniniwala rin sila sa katotohanan ng Biblia ngunit nakikita na ang katotohanang ito ay sinasaktan at hindi naunawaan.
Naniniwala sila sa Kahatulan, ngunit ang unang paghatol ay magaganap sa Estados Unidos.
In addition NOI followers see themselves as God’s chosen people who can mentally be resurrected. 26
Black Muslims are expected to pray five times daily: morning, noon, mid-afternoon, sundown, and before bed. These prayers must be made facing east (towards Mecca) only after one thoroughly cleanses the body. They are required to attend at least two temple meetings per week. Black Muslims are also forbidden from eating certain foods such as pork and corn bread, not only because they contribute to a “slow death,” but that they are unclean or foods that constituted part of a slave diet. 27.
May mahigpit na mga kodigo sa moral sa pagitan ng pakikipag-ugnayan ng mga kasarian at kung paano dapat kumilos ang mga kasarian. Ang mga babaeng Muslim ay hindi maaaring magsuot ng pampaganda o masikip at nagsisiwalat na mga damit at hindi dapat mag-isa sa sinumang tao maliban sa kanilang mga asawa. Mahigpit na ipinagbabawal ang sekswal na pakikipag-ugnayan ng interracial at sinuman na nakikibahagi sa naturang mga gawain ay nahaharap sa pagpapatalsik mula sa samahan. Ang mga malinaw at malinaw na pagkakakilanlan ay ginawa upang ipahiwatig ang pag-uugali at panlipunang tungkulin na angkop para sa mga lalaki at babae. Ang mga kababaihan ay natututunan ang mga tuntunin ng pag-uugali sa panahon ng Muslim Girls Training habang ang mga lalaki ay natututo ng kanilang mga tungkulin bilang mga miyembro ng Bunga ng Islam. 28
The teachings proclaim that the black man is the original man, ancestor to the entire human race, and that the white race is the result of an experiment of an evil scientist named Yacub. Approximately six thousand years ago Yacub used a recessive gene in the Black race to create the biological mutated Caucasians. These mutated Blacks were “Bleached of the essence of humanity [and] were without soul.” 29.To NOI members, “the white man is a devil by nature, absolutely unredeemable and incapable of caring about or respecting anyone who is not white [and] is the historic, persistent source of harm and injury to black people” 30. Because of Yacub’s malicious mischief, Whites would rule humanity for an extended period of time until the black race once again gains control. They believe the coming of Farad is the beginning spark to the black race regaining control. 31
Members of the Nation of Islam see themselves as “Asiatic,” the direct descendants of the black nation of Asia part of the continent of Africa. “The Original Man is the Asiatic Blackman, the Owner, the cream of the planet earth, God of the Universe” 32. Within the Asiatic Nation is the “Tribe of Shabazz,” those of direct African descent and earth’s original people, who were enslaved by whites for hundreds of years. It was Fard and Elijah Muhammad who were sent to find this lost nation and relocate them into an independent state. This separatism was based, in part, on the idea that “Blacks” were never Americans by nature or race and therefore renounces their citizenship as Americans and denounce their loyalty to the United States. 33
Bilang isang kilusang panlipunan, ang Nation of Islam ay may pangunahing tatlong layunin:
Ang United Front of Black Men
Paghihiwalay sa Lahi
Economic Separation 34.
Ang United Front of Black Men
Ito ang ideya ng Black unity: upang magkaroon ng lahat ng mga Black na lalaki sa Amerika reunited sa kanyang sarili. Upang magkaroon ng lahat ng Black men na magkakasama sa ilalim ng payong ng Nation of Islam upang makamit ang kanilang mga layunin nang sama-sama para sa may lakas sa mga numero.
Paghihiwalay sa Lahi
Quite simply, this idea states that there be complete separation of the Black and White races. “Only with complete racial separation will the perfect harmony of the universe be restored.” 35
The ideal of this goal is to have complete economic withdrawal from the White community because white economic dominance gives them ultimate power over blacks. The key to black economic separatism and security lay in five steps labeled the “Economic Blueprint:”
Kilalanin ang pangangailangan para sa mga aktibidad ng pagkakaisa at grupo.
Pool ang iyong mga mapagkukunan, pisikal pati na rin sa pananalapi.
Itigil ang walang pakundangan pamimintas sa lahat ng bagay na itim na pagmamay-ari at itim na pinatatakbo.
Tandaan na ang paninibugho ay sumisira sa loob.
Work hard in a collective manner” 36.
Mga Isyu / Kontrobersiya
Malcolm Little was born on May 19, 1925 to Louise and Earl Little of Omaha, Nebraska. Mrs. Little was a mulatto born in Grenada and his father was a Baptist minister and organizer for Marcus Garvey’s Universal Negro Improvement Association.
Malcolm never finished high school and became accustomed to living in a hustler society. He was nicknamed “Red” because of the color of his hair, and lived up to this title. He was quick-tempered and able to commit acts of violence. On February of 1946, Malcolm was convicted on a robbery charge and sentenced to seven years in prison. 37
While in prison, Malcolm became a follower of the Nation of Islam. He was initially introduced to NOI teachings by two incarcerated members of the Detroit Temple and began a correspondence with Elijah Muhammad. They communicated through mail and Malcolm became further and further intrigued by the NOI beliefs. With the support of his sister and brother, he became a member of the Nation of Islam. He discarded his master’s surname and changed it to X, a practice done by NOI members that signifies the unknown, true tribal name of their African ancestors. After his parole in 1952, Malcolm X performed organizational tasks for the nation under the guidance of Elijah Muhammad. Almost immediately, Malcolm became the main spokesman for Elijah Muhammad. Because of his charismatic speaking and his mass appeal, he was responsible for dramatically increasing the number of NOI followers during the early 1960s. 38
Partly due to tensions within the Black Muslim Movement, Malcolm X became critical of his leader, Elijah Muhammad. What sparked this criticism were allegations of Elijah’s Muhammad’s sexual exploits with many of his secretaries. What disturbed Malcolm about these accusations was not so much that Elijah Muhammad was capable of doing such immoral acts, but that he was denying and even trying to cover up what he had done instead of “facing what he had done before his followers, as a human weakness or as a fulfillment of prophecy — which Muslims would have understood…or at least accepted.” 39
Due to this conflict, Malcolm allegedly began receiving death threats from loyal NOI supporters. The final straw that compounded the tension between Malcolm and the NOI occurred after he negatively commented on the assassination of John F. Kennedy, saying that the assassination was a case of “the chickens coming home to roost” (the implication being that the President brought the assassination upon himself). Because of this, he was silenced for ninety days from all speaking and official duties. During that period, he left the Nation of Islam and founded the Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. 40
Sa 1964, naglalakbay si Malcolm X sa paglalakbay sa Mecca. Pinilit siya ng hajj na suriin ang kanyang mga ideya sa pagsasama at tanggapin ang tradisyunal na mga halaga ng Islam. Matapos ang paglalakbay, naniwala siya na posible para sa mga taga-Caucasians na mag-ambag sa pakikibaka. Pagkatapos ay pinagtibay niya ang pangalang El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz.
Noong Pebrero 21, 1965, si Malcolm X ay pinaslang sa Audubon Ballroom sa Manhattan habang tinutugunan ang mga tagasuporta. Tatlong miyembro ng Nation of Islam ang nahatulan para sa pagpatay. Ito ay pinaghihinalaang din ng marami sa kanyang mga tagasunod na ang pamahalaan ay mayroon ding isang bagay na gagawin sa kanyang pagpatay. Ang mga paratang na ito ay hindi pa nakumpirma. 41
Si Louis Farrahkan ay isa sa mga pinaka-kontrobersyal na figureheads na nauugnay sa Nation of Islam. Si Farrakhan ay ipinanganak na Louis Eugene Walcott sa Bronx, NY sa 1933, ngunit inilipat sa Boston, Mass. Kasama ang kanyang ina at kapatid na lalaki sa edad na apat. Ito ay sa lungsod ng Boston na siya ay ipinakilala sa NOI. Sa dalawampu't dalawa, naging interesado siya sa samahan samantalang si Malcolm X ay nasa Boston na nagtatatag ng Templo No. 11. 42
Through his dedication to the movement, he eventually became one of the heads of the Boston Temple and remained with the organization until he left in 1977 due to dissatisfaction with the changes implemented by Wallace’s leadership. In breaking from the organization he set out to reestablish the legacy of Elijah Muhammad.
At first, Farrakhan went along with the changes implemented by Wallace Muhammad. But as more and more changes began debunking Elijah Muhammad’s vision, Farrakhan became uneasy. Wallace was destroying the work and the teachings that Farrakhan believed in. Farrakhan could no longer be a part of an organization that held different beliefs from him. “Something had to give and it did. In 1977 after some thirty months of the Wallace reformation, Farrakhan left Wallace Muhammad’s world community of Islam in the West to rebuild Elijah’s Lost Found Nation of Islam.” 43
Ang ideolohiya ng Nation of Islam sa ilalim ng Farrakhan ay halos hindi makikilala sa kung ano ito ay sa ilalim ni Elias Muhammad; Gayunpaman, may mga bahagyang pagkakaiba. Ang isang naturang pagbabago ay hindi na nagnanais ng isang hiwalay na estado, sa halip ay ang mga ID ng opt para sa paghihiwalay lamang ng ekonomiya.
Gayunpaman ang kontrobersyal na Farrakhan ay maaaring, sa mga kontemporaryong itim ang mensahe ng panlipunan at pang-ekonomiya na kanyang ipinangangaral ay kaakit-akit. Sa pamamagitan ng kanyang mga mensahe, binigyan niya ang maraming mga itim na lunsod ng isang pakiramdam ng pag-asa at sinisisi ang kanilang kalagayan sa panlipunan at pang-ekonomya sa sistema, at ang mas malaking racist white society; ngunit Louis Farrakhan ay pinaka-kilala na kilala para sa walang pigil sa pagsasalita at humahantong sa itim na komunidad at ang kanyang nagpapasiklab pahayag tungkol sa mga Hudyo.
Million Man March
Noong Oktubre 16, humigit-kumulang sa isang milyong itim na lalaki ang nagtipon para sa isang araw ng pagkakaisa, pagtubos, at pagkakasundo sa Washington DC Ito ay isang martsa upang palakasin ang itim na komunidad. Ang kilusan na ito ay nakita ng kontrobersyal na Louis Farrakhan. Inayos ng Farrakhan ang martsa upang matulungan ang pag-alis ng negatibong larawan na ang publiko ay may mga itim na lalaki (1995K AIFF sound o 210K WAV sound). Ito ay isang tawag para sa mga itim na lalaki na kumuha ng responsibilidad para sa kanilang sarili at sa kanilang mga pamilya. Nagtataguyod din ito ng paglaban sa mga droga, karahasan, at kawalan ng trabaho.
Ang isang suliranin sa ilan ay hindi ang layunin nito, hindi ang mensahe nito, kundi ang mensahero nito na si Louis Farrakhan. Marami ang nagtingin sa Farrakhan bilang pinipilit at maraming Black church na tumangging mag-endorse o suportahan ang martsa. Mga araw bago ang martsa, si Farrakhan ay nakagawa ng malawak na pagsasalita laban sa mga Semitiko at lahi tungkol sa mga Hudyo, Koreyano, at mga taga-Vietnam na nagsasamantala sa itim na komunidad. 44 Commentaries such as these make many nervous and angry. It had people asking: how can one so filled with hate and prejudice lead a civil rights march that asks for equality and justice? In addition to the racial issues Farrakhan’s presence evokes, many women see the march as sexist. Organizers of the march asked women to “stay at home,” a request that was a flagrant slap in the face to most black women who have fought for equality and justice alongside men. 45
Sa marami, ang martsa ang simula. Ang mga tagasuporta ay hinamon na ipagpatuloy ang misyong ito at upang makatulong na makagawa ng pagkakaiba. Na-kredito para sa isang pagtaas sa pagpaparehistro ng botante, mga aplikante upang magpatibay ng mga itim na bata, isang pagbawas sa Black-on-Black crime, at isang mas mataas na interes sa paglilingkod sa Black community.
Nation ng Islam kumpara sa mga Hudyo
Ang isa sa mga pinaka-kontrobersyal na isyu tungkol sa mga paniniwala ng Nation ay ang kanilang damdamin sa komunidad ng mga Hudyo. Bagaman tinanggihan ng mga Black Muslim ang ideya na mayroon silang espesyal na antipathy para sa mga Hudyo, ang kanilang mga pagkilos at mga pahayag ay madalas na nagpapatunay.
Karamihan sa mga konteksto sa likod ng Black anti-Semitism ay na-root sa 1960s kapag nagkaroon ng isang marahas na pagguho ng Black-Jewish relasyon. 46 Ang ganitong mga isyu ng mga Hudyo na may kontrol sa mga paaralan sa mga itim na komunidad (dahil sa ang malaking porsyento ng mga guro ng mga Judio) sa pakiramdam na ang mga Hudyo, na dating masugid na mga tagasuporta ng mga karapatang sibil, ay tumalikod sa mga itim dahil sa pangkalahatang pagtanggi sa Amerikanong anti -Semitismo. Hindi na kailangan ng mga Hudyo ang mga karapatang sibil dahil nakuha nila ang kanilang pagpapalaya sa likod ng mga itim. 47 Idagdag sa na ang katotohanan na ang mga Hudyo nanirahan, sa makabuluhang mga numero, sa itim na mga komunidad at nakita upang makita bilang leeching off ng mga itim. Ang lahat ng ito ay nagtulak ng mga itim na anti-Semitiko na damdamin.
One of the issues regarding Jews is their racial classification. If Jews are thought of as Semites, then they are not really ‘white’ and should be considered Arabs and part of the Black Nation. 48 Although some Muslim ministers hold this view, the majority disregard this distinction and classify them as white. Most see “the Jew as a white man because he is accepted as a white man.” 49
Ang mas malalim na poot sa mga Hudyo ay nagmumula sa mga ideya na sinisikap nilang madaig ang itim na komunidad sa pamamagitan ng pagpapahina sa kanila nang matipid. 50 The argument is that Jewish merchants move into black neighborhoods and then open family business in those communities. They then profit off of the community and become extremely wealthy, all the while never employing blacks. “[Blacks] are footing the bill, but there isn’t a single black face behind a single counter in the store.” 51
By many of the Nation’s members, the Jews are accused of attempting to overpower the Black community. The members of the Nation of Islam believe that the Jews keep a tight hold on public opinion through their control of mass communication. They claim that the Jewish communities own much of the television and radio stations and use these methods of communication to further their cause. Black Muslims also resent the presence of the Jews in the Black communities. Oftentimes, a Jewish merchant will open a family business in the lower class community. This is seen as the Jewish man leeching on the Black community since he will take their money, but not hire them to work or associate with them. 52
Ang aklat na pinamagatang Ang Lihim na Relasyon sa pagitan ng Blacks at Hudyo, written by the Historical Research Department of the Nation of Islam, explores its distrust and animosity towards the Jewish Community. Basically, the main idea is that Jews have been directly linked to participating in and perpetuating the slave trade. “Jews have been conclusively linked to the greatest criminal endeavor ever undertaken against an entire race of people — the Black African Holocaust. "53
The book argues that Jews not only dominated the Atlantic slave trade but were also major slave traders and slave owners in the south. In addition, it claims that Jews exploited blacks during and after reconstruction. The book also claims that Jews, being greedy and money hungry, enjoyed reaping the financial benefits that such exploitation provided. Allegations such as these, for obvious reasons, angered and offended the Jewish community. Critics of the book argue that it is “fictitious, lopsided historical overview…[that] distorts the complex factors which led to the trans-Atlantic slave trade. 54 Ang patuloy na mga pag-atake ng anti-Semitiko at mga pahayag tulad ng mga ito, ay nakalikha ng hindi mapalagay at tensyon na relasyon sa pagitan ng mga miyembro ng NOI at mga Hudyo.
Sentimento tungo sa Nation of Islam
When most American (that is, white Americans) think of the Nation of Islam, the image that strikes them is one of an organization that is racist, anti-white, and anti-American that is now headed by Louis Farrakhan, a “anti-Semite, racist, sexist, homophobe, and looney.” 55
The image white American has of the Nation of Islam comes not from first hand interaction with its members, but from media portrayals of the NOI and its leaders such as Louis Farrakhan. Black Nationalism is often interpreted in the popular media as being anti-white “and is uniformly portrayed as being bad for American race relations.” 56 Nakikita nila ang mga taong tulad ng Farrakhan at NOI bilang nakakapinsala: pinipigilan at giniba ang pagpapaubaya ng lahi sa Estados Unidos.
What seems to be the real negative feelings behind white America’s sentiment against the NOI is fear: Fear of the NOI’s message of being angry and fed up with white America’s treatment of the black man. Their fear can also be seen as fear of the unfamiliarity, not only with the organization but also with the potential power (against whites) that it is capable of yielding. When a young member of the NOI was invited to a college class room 57 many white students were not only stunned by him being there but they also “said they had felt scared speechless in his presence…they assumed that [he] hated them because he was a member of the Nation of Islam. “ 58 Karamihan sa kanilang reaksyon sa batang miyembro ng NOI ay limitado sa portrayal ng media ng NOI at lider nito Farrakhan.
Farrakhan has received more press coverage than any other African American, with the exception of Jessie Jackson. The coverage of his statements and beliefs however anti-Semitic and anti-white they may be, have ironically made him more sympathetic to blacks. “The irony is this: the more the media portray Farrakhan as a menace to society, the more sympathetic he seems to African Americans.” 59 Ang nangyari ay na ang media ay may posibilidad na mag-focus sa mga puting reaksyon sa Farrakhan, pati na rin ang mga isyu na may kinalaman sa relasyon sa lahi. Dahil madalas na ang negatibong reaksyon sa Farrakhan ay negatibo, ito ay nagiging sanhi ng pagbabalik sa panig o pagkapanig sa Farrakhan.
Farrakhan and the NOI in general, have had a profound impact on the black youth. “No leader has had more of an impact on the Hip-Hop Generation than Louis Farrakhan.” 60 Few leaders and organizations make themselves accessible to the youth. “Farrakhan has a unique ability to reach deeply into the souls of black youth.” 61 When he speaks he “seems to be able to talk to young blacks in a way that makes them listen even when he puts them down.” 62
In addition, youth are drawn to Farrakhan because like their predecessors, they too face economic hardships and Farrakhan’s message of economic empowerment via economic separation is a welcome remedy to their financial problems.
Mga Kamakailang Paghahayag
In an unprecedented event, Minister Louis Farrakhn met with Wallace Muhammad on February 25th, 2000. This meeting marked reconciliation between the two opposing groups. The meeting between the two also implied possible acceptance of the NOI under the umbrella of Mainstream Orthodox Islam. This possible acceptance comes after Farrakhan’s proclamation of “ending the cycle of violence and hatred” in the world and “uplifting fallen humanity regardless of race, color or creed.” Whether or not Farrakhan adheres to this new ideology still remains to be seen.
Alexander, Amy. ed, 1998.The Farrakhan Factor: African-American Writers on Leadership, Nationhood, at Minister Louis Farrakhn. New York: Grove Press
Brackerman, Harold.1994.Ministry of Lies: The Truth Behind the Nation of Islam’s ‘The Secret Relationship Between Blacks and Jews” New York: Apat na Walls Eight Windows.
Clegg, Claude Andrew. 1997. Isang Orihinal na Tao: Ang Buhay at mga Panahon ni Elijah Muhammad New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.
DeCaro, Louis A.1998. Malcolm at ang Krus New York: New York University Press.
Lincoln, C.Eric. 1994. Ang Black Muslims sa America: ikatlong edisyon Michigan: William B. Edmunds Publishing Company.
Marsh, Clifton. 1996. Mula sa Black Muslim sa Muslim: ang Pagkabuhay na Mag-uli, Pagbabagong-anyo, at Pagbabago ng Nawala-Natagal na Nation ng Islam sa Amerika, 1930-1995 Maryland: Scarecrow Press, Inc.,
Mimiya, Lawrence H. and C. Eric Lincoln. 1998.”Black Militant and Separatist Movements.” Encylopedia ng American Religious Experience Dami II,Charles H. Lippy and peter W. Williams, eds. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons,pp. 755-774.
Claiborne, William. 2000. “Rival Black Muslims Groups Reconcile” Ang Washington Post(Peb. 26, 2000)
Dreier, Peter. 1995. “What Farrakhn Left Out: Labor Solidarity or Racial Seperatism?”Commonweal(Disyembre 15)
Howard, John R. 1998. “The Making if a Black Muslim” Lipunan (Marso 18).
Shore , Paul . 1995. “What is Behind the Nation of Islam’s Anti-semetic Rhetoric?” USA Today Magazine (Enero)
Turner, Richard Brent. 1997. “From Elijah Pool to Elijah Muhammad, Chief Minister of Islam.” American Visions (Oktubre-Nobyembre)
“Louis Farrakhn Leader of the Nation of Islam-the Million Man March Assembled at Farrakhn’s Fiery Beckoning.” oras (Sa Hunyo 17, 1996)
- Lincoln pp.269
- Marsh pp.1
- Ibid p. 7
- Ibid p. 17
- Ibid p. 27
- Ibid p. 29
- Marsh pp.30-35
- Marsh pp.37
- Lincoln pp. 73
- Marsh p. 38
- Lincoln at Mamiya p. 765
- Marsh p. 49
- Ibid p. 39
- Ibid p. 69
- Marsh p. 70
- Alexander, ed. p. 53
- Marsh p. 98
- Ibid p. 108
- Ibid p. 98
- Lincoln pp. 221
- Marsh pp.47
- Lincoln pp.76
- Ibid p. 77
- Mimiya pp. 766
- Alexander, ed. pp 60
- Lincoln pp. 79
- Lincoln pp.79-80
- Lincoln pp. 83
- Marsh p. 43
- Marsh p. 51
- Ibid p. 57
- Marsh p. 58
- Lincoln pp. 263
- Lincoln pp. 268
- Lincoln pp. 163
- Lincoln pp. 160
- Ibid p. 161
- Brackerman pp. 25
- Alexander, ed. pp 103
- Ibid p. 104
- Ibid p. 104
- Ibid p. 25
- Ibid p. 104
- Ibid p. 184
- Ibid p. 186
Nilikha ni Jan Dodoo
Espesyal na salamat kay Loryn Lawson na lumikha ng mas naunang bersyon ng pahinang ito
Para sa Soc 452: Sosyolohiya ng Mga Relihiyosong Kilusan
Spring Term, 2000
University ng Virginia
Huling binago: 05 / 29 / 01