Joel's Army

John Peterson

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JOEL’S ARMY TIMELINE

1946: Isinulat ni Franklin Hall Atomic Power sa Diyos sa pamamagitan ng Pag-aayuno at Panalangin.

1947: Sharon Bretheran introduced to Hall’s book through a visit to William Branham’s Crusade in Vancouver.

1947: Sharon Bretheran instituted Hall’s approach of fasting and prayer among students. Revival breaks out.

Si 1951 George Warnock, na naimpluwensyahan ng mga koneksyon sa Branham at Hall, ay sumulat Ang Pista ng Tabernackles, na nagpapahiwatig ng "konsepto ng Manifest Son of God.

1950s - 1980: Paul Cain, Bill Hamon at iba pang mga ebanghelista na may kaugnayan sa Latter Rain revival movement ay nagpapanatili sa mga apostol / propeta at Manifest Sons ng mga konsepto ng Diyos, sa kalaunan ay nagiging pangunahing mga numero sa Propetikong Kilusan at ng Bagong Apostolikong Repormasyon.

1980: The Prophetic Movement officially began, according to Hamon. Conferences followed, expanding the movement’s reach.

c1990: Si Peter Wagner, propesor sa Fuller Seminary, ay napagmasdan ang paglago ng mga independiyenteng simbahan ng "ikatlong alon" at pinangalanan ang kababalaghan na "postdenominational."

c1990: Observing and supporting the concept of an end-times army of Manifested Sons of God, led by prophets and apostles, Wagner himself, his student John Wimber, or evangelist Rick Joyner coined the name “Joel’s Army.”

1994: Ang pagbabagong-buhay ng Toronto Airport ay sumabog, na orihinal na sumusunod sa pagtuturo ng Vineyard.

1994: Binago ni Wagner ang salitang "postdenominational" sa "Bagong Apostolikong Repormasyon" (NAR).

1994 (and following): Prominent members of the NAR such as Wimber, Hamon, Cain, Joyner, Rick Warren, Mike Bickle, Lou Engle, and others developed both the apostles/prophets and the Joel’s Army concepts.

c1996: As the Joel’s Army name became a bit too well known, various adherents chose a bewilderingly long list of alternative names.

c 1996: Ang mga pangunahing tagasunod ay nagsimulang mag-ayos ng mga operasyon sa pagsasanay, kabilang ang mga "kampo ng boot" para sa mga bata.

2008: Todd Bentley (with “Joel’s Army” dogtags tattooed on his chest) lead the Lakeland, Forida revival, using highly militant language, bringing the Joel’s Army concept wider public attention.

2014 - Ang mga Megachurches ng NAR ay patuloy na nagbigay-diin sa apostoliko / propetikong posisyon at lumalaki nang mabilis. Ang retorika tungkol sa katapusan ng panahon na hukbo at kapangyarihan sa lahat ng mga Kristiyano, kasama ang hangarin ng hukbong iyon na lipulin ang mga Kristiyanong lumalaban, ay nagtataas ng mga alalahanin sa mas maraming mga mananampalataya.

FOUNDER / GROUP KASAYSAYAN

The concept of Joel’s Army, a force of immortal overcomers with Christ-like powers and a mandate to dominate the world and create the Kingdom of God on earth, is a direct extension of the Manifest Sons of God theology, frequently associated with The New Order of The Latter Rain. Manifest Sons of God is another name by which it is sometimes known. (Sanchez 2008:5)

The Manifest Sons of God concept arises from a particular reading of Romans 8:19. It suggests that the deeply committed and fully saved will remain on earth to create (by force if necessary) a kingdom of God to which Jesus may return. This is contrary to more orthodox Pentecostal views of the eschatological (end-times) scenario in which the truly saved will be plucked away in the rapture (before a period of tribulation). The Manifest Sons of God concept was not originally as militant and dominionist as the Joel’s Army rhetoric has made it. (Tabachnick 2011:1)

Habang ang ideya ay hindi bago, si Franklin Hall sa kanyang aklat na 1946, Atomic Power sa Diyos Sa pamamagitan ng Pag-aayuno at Panalangin, hinulaang na ang matinding at mahahabang pag-aayuno at panalangin ay maaaring humantong sa mga mananampalataya na maging Manifest Sons of God, magagawa ang mga himala sa suportaof Christianity. This book became very influential in healing revival circles, particularly among those in William Branham’s organization (Branham himself seems to have embraced this position but somewhat later). (Hall 1946; Liichow 2011; Branham n.d.)

In 1947, several leaders of the Sharon Orphanage and Bible School in North Battleford, Saskatchewan, in Canada, visited a Branham meeting in Vancouver. Here, they were blessed by Branham and introduced to Hall’s book (Warnock 1951). These leaders, including George Hawtin, Percy Hunt, and Herrick Holt, returned to Sharon and introduced to the Bible school students what they had learned, especially the ideas of long fasts and intense prayer. Soon one of the students reported a vision and revival broke out, first among the students and then more widely. (Warnock 1951)

The expanding revival was soon known as The New Order of The Latter Rain. Some, but not all, of those involved also accepted as Hall’s concept of the Manifest Sons of God and the eschatology this implied. The Latter Rain movement also embraced the five-fold ministry concept, suggesting that God restored to the contemporary church the leadership of apostles and prophets, as well as those of teachers, preachers, and evangelists (Riss 1987:53-79).

Sa 1951, si George Warnock, na dating isang personal na kalihim sa Ern Baxter, isang kasamahan ni Branham, at sa kalaunan ay sumali ang pamumuno ng Latter Rain movement, ay isinulat ang libro Ang Pista ng mga Tabernakulo. Sa aklat na ito siya ay nakabuo ng konsepto ng mga apostol at propeta sa kasalukuyan at partikular na ang konsepto ng mga Manifest Sons of God (Warnock 1951; Riss 1987: 73). Ang Latter Rain movement ay naglagay din ng diin sa karanasan at sobrenatural elemento ng pananampalataya at propesiya (Warnock 1951; Riss 1987: 53-79).

Ang Latter Rain movement ay nagsimulang magwakas sa huli na mga 1950, na nakuha sa Charismatic Movement, at pagkatapos ay sa Propetikong Kilusan, ngunit maraming mga ebanghelista na na-engganyo sa kilusang Ulan ng Ulan, kapansin-pansing si Paul Cain at Bill Hamon, ay pinananatili ang mga pangunahing konsepto na buhay sa pamamagitan ng kanilang paglahok sa Charismatic and Prophetic movements (Riss 1987: 140-43; "William Branham" nd; Baker 2010: 1,6; Simpson 2002: 7).

Sa bandang huli sila ay naging kasangkot sa mga nasa paligid ng C. Peter Wagner, isang propesor ng Fuller Seminary, na sa panahong iyon ay nakikibahagi sa pagbuo ng konsepto na una niyang tinawag na postdenominational na kilusan at nang maglaon ay tinawag ang New Apostolic Reformation (NAR) (Baker 2010:1). Several of Wagner’s students and associates were involved in this development, as well as the Prophetic Movement, and the various conferences held under these banners. An important aspect of these movements was an emphasis on extra-Biblical revelation and prophecy (Baker 2010:6).

Among those active around this time and a little later were such familiar names as Cain, Hamon, the late John Wimber, Rick Joyner, Rick Warren, Todd Bentley, Mike Bickle, Lou Engle, and others. Soon after, the Toronto Airport Revival broke out, originally in association with Wimber’s Vineyard movement (Wimber later disowned the Toronto organization). Various sources have identified Wimber, Cain, or Wagner as the original coiner of the term “Joel’s Army,” but it may have been in use earlier (Hunter 2009; Hanegraaff 1997; “The Major Players” 2008).

As the term Joel’s Army became somewhat tarnished in popular use, and as individual ministries sought distinctive identities, a large number of names came into use. Among others were the names Overcomers, New Breed, the Phineas Priesthood, First-fruits, Elijah Company, The Bride, New Wave and New Wineskin (Tabachnick 2011:5, van der Merwe 1991:2).

About the same time, various training operations, aimed largely at youth, sprang up around the continent. These included Apostle Bobby Torres’ Elijah Generation spiritual boot camp for young children, Todd Bentley’s (now defunct) training program in Canada, and various youth gatherings and programs offered by the Kansas City International House of Prayer (IHOP) (Tabachnick 2011:5).

Sa 2008, ang Lakeland, Florida, nabuhay ang revival, na pinangungunahan ng maraming buwan ni Todd Bentley. Bentley, isang ebanghelistang taga-Canada na may Joel’s Army dogtags tattooed on his chest, led the meetings until an affair with an assistant and a pending divorce from his wife became public knowledge. During his leadership of the revival, Bentley repeatedly used very aggressive and militant behavior and language, including kicking a woman in the face, bringing Joel’s Army wider public attention, including an article by the Southern Poverty Law Center suggesting that the movement has the potential for violence (Sanchez 2008).

Several churches and groups of churches continue the apostolic/prophetic emphasis on extra-Biblical revelation and the role of an overcoming force with supernatural powers to create the kingdom of God on earth, ready for the return of Jesus Christ. Among these are Wimber’s Vineyard Ministries International, Warren’s Saddleback Church, IHOP in Kansas City, Joyner’s Morningstar Ministries and Bentley’s Fresh Fire Ministries. These groups hold varying degrees of interlocking theories with several branches of Christian dominionism, reconstructionism, Seven Mountains, and Strategic-level Spiritual Warfare strategies.

DOCTRINES / BELIEFS

Joel’s Army belief grows originally from Pentecostal roots in that it is based on an experiential and supernatural view of God’s relationship with believers and the role of the Holy Spirit in the world (dogemperor 2009; van der Merwe 1991:10).

Marami sa tradisyong ito ay tanggapin na tayo ay nasa sitwasyong katapusan ng panahon kung saan ipinagkumbalik ng Diyos sa simbahan ang mga tungkulin ng apostol at propeta. Ang paniniwala ay ang mga lider na espesyal na pinahiran na may direktang komunikasyon sa Diyos, Adan, si apostol Pablo, at iba pang mga hula sa Biblia at ang mga tatanggap ng mga paghahayag na nagpapakahulugan at nagpapalawak ng nilalaman ng Bibliya. Dahil inaangkin nila ang bagong interpretasyon at propesiya ay nagmumula nang direkta mula sa Diyos, mahirap hamunin o itanong pa ang mga pahayag na ito. Ang pangunahing pag-unawa, batay sa Roma 8: 19, ay na, sa mga panahong ito, ang isang malaking katawan ng partikular na dalisay at mapagkakatiwalaang mananampalataya ay ipahahayag bilang mga anak ng Diyos na may mga katulad na katangian ni Cristo sa imortalidad at kapangyarihan. Ang mga paniniwala na ito ay malapit na nakahanay sa iba't ibang mga sangay ng kilusang dominionist, tulad ng Salita ng Pananampalataya, Kaharian Ngayon, Kristiyano Pag-rekonstruktura, at iba pa, sa panahon ng Propeta at Charismatic na paggalaw ng 1970s at 1980s (Hunter 2009: 1-2; Oppenheimer nd : 1-2; Tabchnick 2011: 1-2; Simpson 2002: 7).

Sa pangkalahatan, ang mga grupong ito ay naniniwala na ang mga Kristiyano ay may isang utos na kumuha ng kapangyarihan sa mga pamahalaan at institusyon ng mundo,karaniwan sa pagtingin sa pagtatatag ng rehimen na batay sa Lumang-Tipan. Tulad ng sinabi ng isang komentarista, ang pananaw na ito ay hindi nagtatampok ng demokrasya o pagkakaiba-iba. Ang iba't ibang mga programa at pamamaraan para maisagawa ang layuning ito ay iminungkahi, kapansin-pansin na Espirituwal na Digmaang Espirituwal at ang pitong proyekto ng Bundok. Kasama sa dating ang "pagma-map" ng iba't ibang mga lugar upang makilala ang mga demonyo presensya, na dapat na neutralisado upang maganap ang malakihang evangelism upang magpatuloy. Ang huli ay nagmungkahi ng paglusob ng Kristyano sa mga sektor tulad ng gobyerno, advertising, sining, at pananalapi (Sanchez 2008: 2; Fanning 2009: 2, 5, 7, 8; Enlow 2008).

This theology rejects the traditional eschatology (theology of end-times), -the rapture and tribulation usually associated with Christ’s return, in favor of a belief that God’s kingdom must be established on earth in order for Jesus Christ to return. This belief holds that to establish the Kingdom, Christians must control all governments and institutions. In addition, all churches must be united, one church per city, by force if necessary (Tabchnick 2011:1-2; Oppenheimer n.d.:2).

Dahil ang pagtupad sa lahat ng ito ay nangangailangan ng puwersa, o hindi bababa sa malakas na panghihikayat ng kaluluwa, ang paniniwala na ito ay nagpapahayag na ang mga Manifest Sons of God will constitute a large army. Following Joel 2:28, believers hold that this large and conquering army will be on the order of the army of locusts described in that passage, thus Joel’s Army. Some believers also use other names and other scriptural texts to arrive at the same point. The Joel’s Army concept along with dominionist, reconstructionist and related strategies, is usually found in NAR churches (Sanchez 2008; Baker 2010).

RITUALS / PRACTICES 

Since Joel’s Army and related beliefs do not constitute a church as such, nor are there regular meetings, there are no known rituals associated specifically with this belief. Since most of those holding such beliefs are members of NAR churches, however, it could be assumed that any such rituals would follow the pattern of the most extreme of these organizations. These have been described as a “party atmosphere,” in the case of the Toronto revival, and resembling a rock concert, in the case of Todd Bentley’s leadership of the Lakeland, Florida, revival (Sanchez 2008:2; Hanegraff 1997).

 ORGANISATION / LEADERSHIP

The Joel’s Army theology holds that its irresistible and immortal soldiers will be led by contemporary apostles and prophets. A Ang bilang ng mga ebanghelista na nagpahayag ng kanilang pakikisama sa NAR ay inaangkin ang mga pamagat na ito, ngunit, walang itinatag na istraktura ng pamumuno. Ang grupo ay isang self-kinilala relational istraktura sa halip na isang legal na isa (Hunter 2009: 1ff; Wagner 2011; dogemperor 2008: 5; Tabachnick 2011: 1).

A number of names are often associated with the Joel’s Army concept, prominently including Hamon, Wagner, Wimber, Joyner, Warren, Engle, Torres and Bentley. However, none can be considered an established national leader, with the possible exception of Wagner, sometimes called Mr. Joel’s Army (Hunter 2009; dogemperor 2008:1, 5, 6).

Other than the declared objective of creating a Kingdom of God on earth by establishing dominion over the earth and its institutions, and Bentley’s statement, (“An end-time army has one common purpose — to aggressively take ground…”), there does not appear to be any agreed-upon unifying strategy. Hamon has declared that churches will become armories and training centers for those who are to become the soldiers of Joel’s Army and implied that this development has already begun (Hunter 2009:1-2; Sanchez 2008:1; Tabachnick 2011:4).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

The Joel’s Army concept has caused controversy since its inception. First of all, those holding this position are usually involved with the very large and rapidly growing churches of the New Apostolic Reformation, itself the target of extensive criticism. The NAR, ayon kay C. Peter Wagner, ang propesor ng Fuller Seminary na nagngangalang ito, "ay hindi isang organisasyon. Walang sinuman ang maaaring sumali o magdala ng isang card. Wala itong pinuno. "Walang listahan ng pagiging kasapi. "Ang mga indibidwal mismo ay kailangang sabihin kung itinuturing nila ang kanilang mga kaanib o hindi." Walang newsletter o taunang pagpupulong. Ito ay isang pamanggit, sa halip na isang legal, istraktura. Sa mga simbahan ng NAR na mabilis na lumalaki, siyempre, may mga di-maiiwasang mga singil ng "pagnanakaw ng tupa". Ang iba naman ay nakilala ang mga halimbawang parallel sa unang bahagi ng mga Kristiyanong heresies tulad ng gnosticism, Montanism, at Pelagianism (Wagner 2011: p3ff; Sanchez 2008: 2, van der Merwe 1991: 4; 2011 2: 2002;

Its amorphous organization notwithstanding, the NAR and the Joel’s Army concept have attracted widespread criticism. There seem to be several identifiable sources of that criticism.

Traditional Pentecostal/fundamentalist “heresy watch” groups challenge the concept of apostolic/prophetic governance, contending that apostles and prophets were never replaced after the apostolic age. Further, Pentecostal and fundamentalist groups, as well as others who contend that the Bible is complete and inerrant, reject extra-Biblical revelation. Finally, Pentecostal and fundamentalist groups challenge as heresy the eschatological position that eliminates the rapture and requires that the Kingdom of God be established before Christ’s return (van der Merwe 1991:8, 11, 12; Sanchez 2008:3; Tabachnick 2011:1).

Some critics say the Joel’s Army concept itself is a misreading of Joel. These critics contend that the army mentioned really was of locusts and that the locusts demolished a believing community rather than defending or advancing it (Sanchez 2008:5).

Parehong batay sa relihiyon kritiko at sekular na mga political observer hamon dominionism at ang nauugnay na mga posisyon habang nagbabalak isang teokratiya, isang posisyon tinanggihan ng karamihan sa mga simbahan at kahit ilang dominionists, at sa pamamagitan non-relihiyosong mga kritiko bilang isang paglabag sa Saligang-Batas ng US (Sanchez 2008: 2).

Most often, the whole NAR network, including dominionists of several types and particularly the Joel’s Army concept, has been ignored by mainstream media and observers. However these groups become more noticeable as they have been associated, sometimes as a slur, with right-wing political groups and candidates. One media outlet described them as “America’s Taliban.” Other secular sources have speculated on the potential for violence as suggested by the rhetoric associated with these groups (Sanchez 2008:2; dogemperor 2008; Tabachnick 2011:4; Rosenberg 2011:1, 5).

Mga sanggunian

Baker, D. 2010. "Mga ipinahayag na mga anak ng Diyos na maling pananampalataya at ang Bagong Apostolikong Repormasyon, Magagalak na Walang Hanggan." Na-access mula sa http://rejoiceforevermore.com/tag/joels-army/ sa 14 Pebrero 2014.

Branham, William M. nd "Manifest Sons of God." Sermon na Ipinangaral ni William Branham, Mayo 18, 1960. Na-access mula sa http://churchages.com/en/sermon/branham/60-0518-manifested-sons-of-God Sa 26 April 2014.

dogemperor. 2009. “The AWARE steeplejackers and their deep connections to Joel’ Army and American dominionists.” “Talk To Action, May 8. Accessed from http://www.talk2action.org/story/2009/5/7/222448/6244 sa 22 March2014.

dogemperor. 2008. “Rick Warren’s Connections to Joel’s Army.” Newsvine, December 30. Accessed from http://dogemperor.newsvine.com/_news/2008/12/30/2260274-rick-warrens-connections-to-joels-army sa 30 Enero 2014.

Enlow, Johnny. 2008. Ang Pitong-Mountain Propefesy. Lake Mary, Florida: Charisma House.

Fanning, Don. 2008. "Strategic Level Spiritual Warfare." Na-access mula sa http://digitalcommons./liberty.edu/cgm_missions/8 sa 10 Enero 2014.

Hall, Franklin. 1946. Atomic Power sa Diyos. Heber Springs, AR: Pakasunduan sa Paglilitis.

Hanegraff, Hank. 1997. Counterfit Revival. Dallas, TX: Salita.

Hunter, Bob. 2009. “Joel’s Army Marches On, Christian Research Institute.” Accessed from http://www.equip.org sa 10 Enero 2014.

Liichow, Robert S. 2011. "Ang Propetikong Kilusan sa Ating Panahon." Pag-uunawa ng Ministries International . Na-access mula sa http://discernmentministriesinternational.wordpress.com/2011/06/01/the-prophetic-movement-in-our-time/ sa 28 Enero 2014.

Oppenheimer, Mike. 2012. "Ang Manifest Sons of God pagtuturo, Hayaan sa Amin Dahilan Ministries." Na-access mula sa http://www.letusreason.org/latrain sa 25 Enero 2014.

Riss, Richard M. 1987. Ulat na Ulan. Mississauga, Ontario: Honeycomb Visual Productions.

Rosenberg, Paul. 2011. “America’s own Taliban.” Accessed from http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion Sa 23 April 2014.

Sanchez, Casey. 2008. “Todd Bentley’s Militant Joe’s Army Gains Followers in Florida.” Southern Poverty Law Center, Ulat ng Intelligence. Na-access mula sa http://www.spicenter.org/get-informed/intelligence Sa 17 April 2013.

Simpson, Sandy. 2002. “The Third Wave ‘New Apostolic Reformation’.” Koponan ng Koordinasyon ng Apologetics. Na-access mula sa http://www.deceptioninthechurch.com/thirdwave teachings.html sa 18 March 2014.

Tabachnick, Rachel. 2011. "Ang NAR Apostoles at manifest Sons of God Theology: Pagsasanay sa Army ng Panginoon." Makipag-usap sa Pagkilos. Na-access sa http://www.talk2action.org/story/2011/4/5/141110/1743 sa 11 April2013.

"Ang Major Players." 2008. Ang panlilinlang sa "DominionTheology. "Na-access mula sa http://dominion-theology.blogspot.com/ Sa 25 April 2014.

Van der Merwe, Jewel. 1991. “Joel’s Army Error.” Accessed from http:www.velocity.net/~edju70/JoelsArmy 1.htm on 29 January 2014.

Wagner, C. Peter. 2011. "Ang Bagong Apostolikong Repormasyon." Na-access sa http://mkayla.wordpress.com/2011/08/25/c-peter-wagner-in-his-own-words sa 5 Pebrero 2014.

Warnock, George.1951. Ang Pista ng mga Tabernakulo. Springfield, MO: Bill Britton.

"William Branham." Nd Index ng Apologetics. Na-access mula sa http://www.apologeticsindex.org/b05.html sa 25 Enero 2014.

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26 Abril 2014

 

 

 

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