BAHAY PARA SA LAHAT NG MGA SINNER AT SAINTS TIMELINE
1969: Nadia Bolz was born.
1986: Bolz got the first of her many tattoos.
1996: Nadia Bolz married Matthew Weber, a Lutheran seminary student.
2004: Bolz-Weber lead the funeral of a friend who had recently committed suicide at her local comedy club. This is the moment in which she felt called to do work in the church and lead people similar to herself to God.
2005: Bolz-Weber graduated from the University of Colorado, Boulder and enrolled in a seminary.
2007: Bolz-Weber began having meetings in the living room of her home that led to the formation of the House for All Sinners and Saints.
2008: The House for All Sinners and Saints was founded.
2008: Nadia Bolz-Weber was ordained as an Evangelical Lutheran Pastor by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) after attending seminary at the Illif School of Theology in Denver, Colorado.
2008: Pastor Nadia Bolz-Weber’s book Ang Kaligtasan sa Maliit na Screen? 24 Mga Oras ng Christian Television na-publish .
2013: Bolz-Weber’s book Pastrix: the Cranky, Beautiful Faith of a Sinner & Saint ay nai-publish at naging isang New York Times Pinakamabentang teolohiko talaarawan.
2015 (September 8): Bolz-Weber’s book Ang mga Di-sinasadyang mga Banal ay inilabas.
2018 (July): Bolz-Weber resigned as pastor of House for All Sinners and Saints.
2019: Bolz-Weber’s book, Walang hiya: Isang Sekswal na Repormasyon, ay na-publish.
FOUNDER / GROUP KASAYSAYAN
Sa pamamagitan ng kanyang sariling account, Nadia Bolz lumaki sa isang mapagmahal, konserbatibo (Iglesia ni Kristo) relihiyon pamilya, ang anak na babae ng isang militar officer in Colorado Springs. She describes her religious upbringing as “harsh” and “fundamentalist” (Little 2015). During her childhood she experienced a thyroid disorder that “ caused her eyes to bug far out of her head,” a condition that resulted in constant teasing by her peers and a personal sense that she did not belong (Boorstein 2013). When she was seventeen years-old, she experienced a rapid growth spurt that resulted in her reaching her current height of just over six feet. She reports being extremely self-conscious of her ungainly physical appearance. It wasn’t until she attended a military banquet where someone referred to her as “ a long-stemmed rose ” that she begin to view her height in a positive way. Shortly after the banquet Bolz chose her first tattoo: a long-stemmed rose. After getting the tattoo, she reports having felt “ like a little outlaw ” (Tippett 2013). Bolz briefly attended Church of Christ affiliated Pepperdine University after graduating from high school, but soon dropped out and moved to Denver.
After moving to Denver, Bolz went through a ten-year period during which she was a heavy drug and alcohol user. During this period, she openly states that she was “an angry, self-endangering teenager who was happy dying before age 30” (Byassee 2013). In addition to using alcohol and drugs, Bolz-Weber, participated in the feminist performance art group Vox Femina, worked as a stand-up comedienne in Denver and experimented with a variety of religious traditions, such as Wicca, Quakerism, and Unitarianism. In 1996, she met a young Lutheran seminary student named Matthew Weber. They fell in love, married, and later had two children. The marriage lasted until 2016; Matthew Weber currently pastors his own Lutheran Church (Tippett 2013). Bolz-Weber was drawn to Lutheranism because it resonated with her personal experience. As she put it, “When I learned about simil justus et peccator I was like, ‘Oh yeah, we are all sinners and saints at the same time’” (Byassee 2011).
It wasn’t until 2004 that Bolz-Weber felt the drive to become a leader of her own church community. A friend had committed suicide and Bolz-Weber was asked to lead his funeral. She performed the funeral at the Denver comedy club that she had frequented throughout her early adult life. It was at that moment she felt that these were her people and that God was calling her to lead them (Boorstein 2013). She recalls that “I looked out and I thought: ‘These are my people and they don’t have a pastor – and maybe I’m actually called to be a pastor to my people'” (Little 2015). Bagaman ang kanyang mga magulang ay napaka-konserbatibo sa relihiyon, nang ipahayag niya ang kanyang desisyon na pumasok sa ministeryo, agad na sinusuportahan siya ng kanyang ama:
“My father did not read the 1st Timothy passage about women being silent in church. He read from Esther. From my father I heard only these words: ‘But you were born for such a day as this.’ He closed the book and my mother joined him in embracing me. They prayed over me and gave me a blessing…” (Falsani 2013).
She later reported that “He is so unbelievably supportive of me and this ministry. I’m not sure he’s ever failed to tell me how proud he is of me every time I see him” (Byassee 2011). In 2008, Bolz-Weber, who was still a student at Iliff Seminary, and five friends planned the start of what is now the House for All Sinners and Saints in her living room. Her bishop was also supportive of her innovative initiative. She recalls that “I actually told my bishop at some point during the process, ‘Look, you could put me in a parish in the suburbs of some small town, but you and I both know that would be ugly for everyone involved, so how about I just start one?’ He goes: ‘Yeah, that sounds like a better idea'” (Little 2015).
MGA DOCTRINES / RITUALS
One of Bolz-Weber’s most important theological touchstones is that individuals are simultaneously saints and sinners, the struggle out of which the name of the church was born. As she has put it, “It’s dark in there,” she said tapping her chest over her heart. “We’re all simultaneously sinners and saints. We live in response to God’s grace. Nobody’s climbing the spiritual ladder” (Draper 2011). She elaborated that “I have this enormous capacity for destruction of myself and other people, and I have an enormous capacity for kindness as well. So I felt like someone was finally able to say, yeah, you’re simultaneously both of these at all times” (Tippett 2013). Because we are both sinners and saints, we continually need God’s grace. We unify with Christ through the rituals of baptism and Eucharist, but must struggle to maintain a connection; life is “continual death and resurrection” (Tippett 2013). The struggle is therefore ongoing but never complete. As Bolz-Weber has summarized the matter, “It’s not like ‘I once was blind, and now can see’: it’s more like, ‘I once was blind and now I have really bad vision’” (Brown 2014).
Habang si Bolz-Weber, bilang bahagi ng umuusbong na kilusang iglesia, ay nagnanais na magpabago, siya ay naglalayong manatiling tapat at nakakonekta sa tradisyon ng Lutheran sa pamamagitan ng pag-insister na "Kailangan mong maunlad sa tradisyon upang magpabago sa integridad" (Byassee 2011; Draper 20110). Ang isang pundasyon ay ang assertion na ang pananampalataya ay hindi gumagana na siyang pinagmumulan ng kaligtasan. Ang isa pang pundasyon ay ang kanyang pangako sa Biblia at kay Jesus. Sa pagsasaalang-alang na ito, itinatakda niya ang kanyang sariling kurso habang tinatanggihan niya ang parehong mga alternatibo sa kanan at konserbatibo na kaliwa at progresibo. Sa mga progresibo sinabi niya na "tinatanggihan ko ang saligan na madalas kong marinig sa progresibong Kristiyanismo upang upang masugpo ang multiculturalism o may kapayapaan at katarungang panlipunan na kailangan mong iwaksi ang Biblia at si Jesus. Sa palagay ko ang mga ito ang dalawang bagay lamang na ginagawa namin para sa amin "(Vicari 2013). Sa mga konserbatibo, itinuturing niya na ang Bibliya ay dapat hindi lamang pinarangalan kundi pati na rin "pinag-aalinlanganan at nakipaglaban;" at tinukoy niya ang Biblia bilang isang "duyan para kay Cristo" ngunit hindi ang tunay na ebanghelyo (Vicari 2013).
Ang mga serbisyo sa lingguhang simbahan ay gaganapin sa mga gabi ng Linggo, na may ilang mga makabagong tampok. Ang santuwaryo ay nakaayos sa pag-ikot kaya na ang altar, ang sabi ni Bolz-Weber, ay "ganap na literal at metaphorically sa gitna ng aming mga buhay magkasama bilang isang komunidad" (Tippett 2013). Ang serbisyo mismo ay lubos na nakikilahok habang maaaring piliin ng mga miyembro na humantong sa mga partikular na seksyon ng serbisyo. Sa karamihan ng mga Linggo, si Bolz-Weber ay naghahatid ng sampung hanggang labinlimang minutong sermon mula sa hindi nakapaloob na sentro ng lupon ng congregational. Ang pagkanta ng kongregasyon, kung minsan ng mga himno sa Latin, ay ganap na acapella. Ang Eukaristiya ay ibinahagi sa bawat linggo. Kapag natapos ang serbisyo, may sampung minuto na "bukas na espasyo," isang oras kung kailan maaaring tahimik ng mga miyembro ng kongregasyon ang kanilang karanasan sa serbisyo (Tippett 2013). Bilang karagdagan sa mga serbisyo ng Linggo, ang mga miyembro ng simbahan ay nagtitipon para sa "mga oras ng opisina" sa mga lokal na kape ng bahay, at ang mga tagasuporta ng simbahan ay mga taunang "beers and hymns" at "bendisyon ng mga bisikleta" na mga kaganapan (Verlee 2013).
Sa kanyang pinaka-kamakailan-lamang na teolohiko writings, direkta na kinuha Bolz-Weber sa tradisyonal na Kristiyano aral sa sekswalidad, at lalo na ang sekswal na panunupil na fostered sa pamamagitan ng ang ideya na ang kabanalan sa sekswalidad ay inherently sa pag-igting. Inilaan niya ang kanyang posisyon sa Walang kahihiyan: Isang Sekswal na Repormasyon (2019), isang aklat na lubhang pinagtatalunan sa loob ng komunidad na konserbatibong Kristiyano. Ang isang pag-uusap na may Eliza Griswold (2019) ay nagbubuod sa kanyang posisyon:
Ang ideya na ang kaligtasan ay dumarating sa pamamagitan ng sekswal na panunupil, "sinabi ni Bolz-Weber," ang tae ay lumabas patagilid. "Sa" Walang kahiya-hiya, "nagtatakda siya upang bumuo ng isang sekswal na etika sa paligid ng tao yumayabong sa halip na sa paligid ng mga panuntunan na naka-encode ng mga tao mga siglo na ang nakakaraan. Ito ay nagsisimula sa pagkilala na sa kasarian, tulad ng lahat ng iba pa, "hindi tungkol sa pagiging mabuti-ito ay tungkol sa biyaya." Ito, siya argues, ay talagang lamang ang natural na extension ng klasiko Lutheranism.
PANGANGALAGA / ORGANISASYON
"Bahay," bilang mga kalahok na madalas sumangguni sa ito, ay impormal na inilunsad sa Fall 2007. Si Bolz-Weber ay unang nagtatag ng House for disaffected young adults, and she refers to House as a “freak show” church. The church reaches out to and has a core membership (about one third) of gays, transgenders, and a variety of social marginals (Brown 2014). Indeed, a mural featured by House depicts Jesus at the Last Supper surrounded by a collection of these social outcasts (Bolz-Weber 2012). As one journalist noted, “Part of House’s gift is that it reaches people whom much of the rest of the church, even those trying to be gay-inclusive, never could reach” (Byassee 2011). As another describes her appeal to outsiders, “She’s a tatted-up, foul-mouthed champion to people sick of being belittled as not Christian enough for the right or too Jesus-y for the left” (Boorstein 20013). Bolz-Weber is well aware of House’s Millennial generation base and advises others “Don’t market a product to them like you would to their boomer parents, because they will … resent you…” (Byassee 2011). Gay inclusiveness is particularly emphasized; Bolz-Weber performed a civil union as soon as civil unions became legal in Colorado, and House has “naming rites” for transitioning transgender members (Byassee 2013; Tippett 2013).
The first meeting of what would become the House for All Sinners and Saints took place in Bolz-Weber’s living room with only eight persons in attendance. Five years later, services were drawing over 100 attendees, and weekly attendance continued to grow to around 600. House’s influence extends well beyond the relatively modest worship services, however. Resonating with Millennial generation culture, House reaches out through its website, Facebook, Meetup, a blog, sermons posted on the Sojourner and Patheos websites, and Bolz-Weber’s string of books (2015, 2014, 2013, 2018, 2019). As one member put it, “We live our life online, and lots of outsiders consume and comment on what we do” (Byassee 2011).
House for All Sinners and Saints has received preferential treatment from the ELCA, which elevates the church as a model.. The standard requirement of serving in a traditional parish for three years before leading one’s own church was waived by the denomination. Rather than reduce financial support for newly planted churches, the denomination has continued to support two-thirds of her modest salary. In this regard, Bolz-Weber has commented that “They just recognized it was a calling….They trust me as a theologian and recognize I’m reaching a culture not typically reached” (Draper 2011).
Si Bolz-Weber mismo ay isang arresting figure at pinaka-madaling makikilala sa pamamagitan ng kanyang katakut-takot na dami ng mga tattoo. Bilang Brown (2014) ay naglalarawan sa kanya natatanging hitsura:
It’s not just the four-inch oval belt buckle she wears, with an enamelled icon in the middle of it, and the words: “Jesus loves you” etched around the top. Her left arm is almost like a cathedral window, covered in scenes from the Bible. There’s a creation, surprisingly small; a nativity; Jesus in the desert; the raising of Lazarus; the angel at the empty tomb; and Mary and the disciples at Pentecost. She is having the Annunciation tattooed all over her back.
On her forearms, Bolz-Weber displays “tattoos of Mary Magdalene, Lazarus, and an image of the women who stayed with Jesus during the crucifixion—unlike the disciples, who were conspicuously absent.” Asked about the women, Bolz-Weber replied “They’re the only ones who fucking showed up” (Griswold 2019). Bolz-Weber herself focuses on the religious significance of the tattoos: “In a way, my arms are like the stained glass in a medieval cathedral. They are pedagogical” (Brady 2013).
During her tenure as pastor, Bolz-Weber sought to flatten the church structure and create a participatory, interactive atmosphere. She downplayed her own authority, describing it as a constraint on herself rather than a source of power over others. “It’s not that I’m special, I’m just set apart not to have the same freedom as everyone else,” she says. “I’m not free to flirt with people here, to have my emotional needs be met by people here, I’m not free to preach anything else but Christ and him crucified” (Byassee 2011).
Noong Hulyo 2018 Bola-Weber inihayag ang kanyang pagbibitiw bilang pastor ng House at mga plano upang magpatuloy sa pag-uusap at pagsulat. Sa kanyang pahayag ipinahayag niya iyon
I am not leaving to take another job. I am not leaving because of any reason other than the fact that it is my job as the founder to do so and I think it’s the right time. I am leaving simply because my work here is done. I told Pastor Reagan this week that if he weren’t so damn good at being the pastor of this church I’d stay longer, so really it’s partly his fault (Cachero 2018)
ISSUES / CHALLENGES
Habang ang Bolz-Weber ay madalas na inilarawan bilang isang Lutheran "rock star," mayroon siyang bahagi ng mga detractors. Siya ay inakusahan ng self-promotion (Graham 2013):
So, to borrow from Reverend Nadia’s vernacular, this is bull excrement.This woman is all about the marketing and the calculated coolness, from the pop-culture and NPR references down to the tattoos and the cursing. You don’t get to boast you have “no outreach strategy” when you have a book, an Amazon video, a church tour, and interviews with several Washington Post writers you had at “Hello, you little s–t.”
At siya ay inakusahan ng teolohiko at moral na kakulangan:
… there are problems with Rev. Bolz-Weber, big problems. The problems I’m referring to rest in two areas, her teaching/theology, which is non-Biblical in many important areas, and moral issues that she seems to take pride in and actively flaunts (“Exposing Nadia Bolz-Weber 2013).
Bolz-Weber has created a challenge for House by taking positions that have raised concerns with both progressive Christians on the left and evangelical Christians on the right. For example, she experimented with Unitarianism but rejected the church, stating that they have “a high opinion of humans” while in reality “People are flawed” (Tippett 2013). She accuses progressives of turning church into simply a nonprofit organization (Boorstein 2013). To conservatives she admonishes that church isn’t supposed to be “’the Elks Club with the Eucharist’…. Religion should be “something that’s so devastatingly beautiful it can break your heart. Instead it’s been: ‘Recycle.’ And ‘Don’t sleep with your girlfriend’” (Boorstein 20013). And she refers to reading the Bible literally as “reading idolatry.”
The most recent controversy surrounding House comes directly from Bolz-Webers call for a Sexual Reformation in Shameless (2019). One target of her writing has been “purity culture. In Bolz-Weber’s words, “Purity culture equals rape culture,”…“It says to young women that your bodies aren’t your own and you can’t be a sexual being until you are the property of your future husband” (Griswold 2019). Bolz-Weber launched a campaign against purity rings, inviting young women to send her the gold rings, which she promised to melt down and recast (with Artist Nancy Anderson) into a “golden vagina” sculpture (Kuruvilla 2018). Those donating rings were promised a “Certificate of Impurity.” From Bolz-Weber’s perspective the purity rings combine the worst of capitalism with the worst of conservative secular culture, marketing virginity as a fusion between religion and patriarchy (Griswold 2019). Bolz-Weber generated even more visibility for her position when she confronted Vice-President Mike Pence over his defense of his wife’s acceptance of a teaching position at a conservative Christian school that formally prohibited homosexual behavior. She tweeted in response that “We will stop criticizing it when you stop using Christ’s name for education that promotes bigotry” (Griswold 2019).
Sa huli, ang pinakamalaking hamon na nakaharap sa Bahay ay maaaring lumalaki ang katanyagan nito. Habang natanggap na ng simbahan at ng Bolz-Weber ang pambansang publisidad, ang mga serbisyo ng iglesya ay nakuha ang lumalaking bilang ng mga pangunahing indibidwal. Ang kumbinasyon ng mga mas malaking pagtitipon at isang mas maginoo kongregasyon ay humaharap sa aktibong paglahok ng indibidwal at pagkakaisa ng congregational. Ang Bolz-Weber ay lubos na may kamalayan sa hamon na ito at direktang natugunan ito (Bolz-Weber 2012):
Alam ko na may ilan na naging bahagi ng simbahang ito para sa ilang sandali na nakadarama ng kawalan ng pagkawala sa paligid ng paglago. Nagkaroon ng mas malaking pakiramdam ng pagiging matalik at komunidad bago kami lumaki. Gayundin ... wala pang linya sa istasyon ng panalangin. Ngunit nagkaroon din ng mas kaunting pagkakaiba. Gusto kong igalang ang tunay na damdamin ng pagkawala na kanilang nararanasan, ngunit sa parehong oras nais kong maging malinaw tungkol sa isang bagay: hindi ito ang aming simbahan. Ito ay isang regalo na ibinigay sa atin ng Diyos. Ang simbahang ito ay narito bilang isang regalo mula sa Diyos para sa amin at para sa amin upang ibahagi upang ang iba ay makakatanggap din ng kung ano ang aming pinayaman. Dalawang taon na ang nakalilipas nagtanong ang isang tao sa akin kung ano ang pinakamalaking isyu na nakaharap sa kongregasyon. Ang katotohanan na ang lahat ng kasangkot ay kagustuhan ito sa paraang ito ang aking sagot.
Clearly, House is a work in progress and the ultimate outcome of its innovation and experimentation remains to be determined. At least part of the answer may become apparent in the wake of Bolz-Weber’s resignation as pastor.
Bolz-Weber, Nadia. 2015. Hindi Sinasadyang mga Banal: Hinahanap ang Diyos sa Lahat ng Maling mga Tao. New York: Convergent Books.
Bolz-Weber, Nadia. 2014. Pastrix: The Cranky, Beautiful Faith of a Sinner & Saint. Nashville, TN: Jericho Books.
Bolz-Weber, Nadia. 2013. Mapanglaw, Magandang Pananampalataya: Para sa Mga Hindi Regular (at Regular) Mga Tao. Norwich, United Kingdom: Canterbury Press.
Bolz-Weber. 2012. Whose Church Is This? Mine, Yours, Theirs, or God’s? Accessed from http://www.patheos.com/blogs/nadiabolzweber/2012/01/goldilocks-church-what-size-is-just-right/ sa 3 Hulyo 2015.
Bolz-Weber. 2012. "Mural ng Huling Hapunan sa Bahay para sa Lahat ng mga makasalanan at mga Santo." Na-access mula sa http://www.patheos.com/blogs/nadiabolzweber sa 3 Hulyo 2015.
Bolz-Weber. Ang Kaligtasan sa Maliit na Screen? 24 Mga Oras ng Christian Television. New York: Mga Libro ng Seabury.
Boorstein, Michelle. 2013. “Bolz-Weber’s liberal, Foulmouthed Articulation of Christianity Speak to Fed-up Believers.” Ang Washington Post, Nobyembre 3. Na-access mula sa http://www.washingtonpost.com/local/bolz-webers-liberal-foulmouthed-articulation-of-christianity-speaks-to-fed-up-believers/2013/11/03/7139dc24-3cd3-11e3-a94f-b58017bfee6c_story.html sa 29 Hunyo 2015.
Brady, Tara. 2013. “’I Swear Like a Truck Driver’: Tattooed Female Weightlifter Who Boozed and Took Drugs Becomes Rising Star of the Lutheran Church.” Daily Mail, Nobyembre 5. Na-access mula sa
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2487631/Tattooed-female-weightlifter-Nadia-Bolz-Weber-hit-Lutheran-minister.html#ixzz3eYC58QPh sa 30 Hunyo 2015.
Brown, Andrew. 2014. "Matangkad, Tattooed at Forthright, Maaari Nadia Bolz-Weber I-save ang Evangelicism?" Ang tagapag-bantay, Setyembre 6. Na-access mula sa http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/sep/06/tattooed-nadia-bolz-weber-save-evangelism-christianity sa 30 Hunyo 2015.
Byassee, Jason. 2011. "Ancient Liturgy for Scruffy Hipsters with Smartphones: Isang profile ng Nadia Bolz-Weber at House para sa Lahat ng mga makasalanan at mga Santo. " New Media Project sa Christian Theological Seminary, Oktubre 18. Na-access mula sa http://www.cpx.cts.edu/docs/default-source/nmp-documents/ancient-liturgy-for-scruffy-hipsters-with-smartphones-a-profile-of-nadia-bolz-weber-and-house-for-all-sinners-and-saints.pdf?sfvrsn=0 sa 29 Hunyo 2015.
Draper, Electa. 2011. "Ang Pastor ay Nakabukas ang Mga Pinuno sa pamamagitan ng Pag-blending Tradisyon at Hindi Pagsisiyasat. " Ang Denver Post, Abril 23. Na-access mula sa http://www.denverpost.com/ci_17912633 sa 29 2015 Hunyo
"Pag-expose ni Nadia Bolz-Weber." 2013. Na-access mula sa http://www.exposingtheelca.com/exposed-blog/exposing-nadia-bolz-weber sa 3 Hulyo 2015.
Gingerich, Barton. 2013. “Lutheran Pastor Nadia Bolz-Weber Cuts Through Some of the Ways in which We’ve Made Christianity Too Comfortable.” Manalangin, Nobyembre 21. Na-access mula sa http://humanepursuits.com/a-cranky-god/ sa 3 Hulyo 2015.
Graham, Tim. 2013. “WashPost Rinses and Repeats Praise for Tattooed Pastor And Her ‘Bull Excrement’ Gospel.” Newsbusters, November 17. Accessed from http://newsbusters.org/blogs/tim-graham/2013/11/17/washpost-rinses-and-repeats-praise-tattooed-pastor-and-her-bull-excremen sa 3 Hulyo 2015.
Griswold, Eliza. 2019. “The Lutheran Pastor Calling for a Sexual Reformation.” Bagong Yorker, Pebrero 8. Na-access mula sa https://www.newyorker.com/news/on-religion/the-lutheran-pastor-calling-for-a-sexual-reformation sa 15 Pebrero 2019.
Kuruvilla, Carol. 2018. “This Pastor Is Melting Purity Rings Into A Golden Vagina Sculpture.” Huffington Post, Nobyembre 28. Na-access mula sa https://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/nadia-bolz-weber-purity-ring-vagina-sculpture_us_5bfdac5ee4b0a46950dce000 sa 15 Pebrero 2019.
Nadia Bolz-Weber Website. Na-access mula sa http://www.nadiabolzweber.com sa 29 Hunyo 2015.
Tippett, Krista. 2013. “Transcript for Nadia Bolz-Weber – Seeing the Underside and Seeing God: Tattoos, Tradition, and Grace.” Sa pagiging, Setyembre 5. Na-access mula sa http://www.onbeing.org/program/transcript/nadia-bolz-weber-seeing-the-underside-and-seeing-god-tattoos-tradition-and-grace sa 29 Hunyo 2015.
Verlee, Megan. 2013. “Pastor Leads A New Brand of Church for ‘Sinners and Saints’.” NPR, Disyembre 24. Na-access mula sa http://www.npr.org/2013/12/20/255281434/pastor-leads-a-new-brand-of-church-for-sinners-and-saints on 29 June 2015 .
Vicari, Chelsen. 2013. "Kilalanin ang Bagong" Punk "Powerhouse ng Emerging Movement." Juicy Ecumenism, Nobyembre 7. Na-access mula sa http://juicyecumenism.com/2013/11/07/meet-liberal-evangelicals-rising-star/ sa 3 Hulyo 2015.
Petsa ng Pag-publish:
10 2015 Hulyo