Manon Hedenborg White

Ordo Oriental Oriental

ORDO TEMPLI ORIENTIS TIMELINE

1855 (June 28): A mụrụ Theodor Reuss.

1875 (October 12): Aleister Crowley mụrụ na Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, Britain.

1901–1902: Reuss nwetara akwụkwọ ikike iji rụọ ọrụ ọtụtụ emume mason dị elu na Germany.

1902: Reuss malitere inye akwụkwọ akụkọ oge Oriflamme.

1904 (Eprel 8–10): Crowley natara Akwụkwọ nke iwu na Cairo, Egypt.

1906 (Jenụwarị 22): Ụbọchị nke iwu mbụ nke "Ancient Order of Oriental Templars," nwere ike iwepụta ya nso na 1912.

1910: Reuss nyere Aleister Crowley akwụkwọ ikike maka "Antient and Primitive Rite."

1912 (Eprel 21): Reuss nyere Crowley akwụkwọ ikike maka Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO) ma kpọọ ya National Grand Master General maka Britain na Ireland. Reuss kpọkwara Crowley “Onye Nnọchiteanya Ọhaneze” maka America n'oge a.

1912 (June 1): Ala Britain nke OTO, "Mysteria Mystica Maxima" ma ọ bụ M\M\M, ka e hiwere na London.

1912 (September): Reuss kwuputara ịdị adị na ozi nke OTO, yana ọkwa Crowley, na mbipụta "Jubilee" nke Oriflamme. Crowley kwuputara n'otu oge "Order of Oriental Templars" na alaka ya Britain, M\M\M, na mbipụta Septemba nke akwụkwọ akụkọ ya. Equinox.

1913: Crowley dere “Ecclesiæ Gnosticæ Catholicæ Canon Missæ,” Mass Gnostic Katọlik, dị ka “ememme etiti” nke OTO.

1913: E hiwere Lodge mbụ nke OTO na London.

1913 (December 20): Crowley nyere James Thomas Windram akwụkwọ ikike OTO maka South Africa, na-eduga na nhazi nke Lodges abụọ.

1913–1914 (c.): Crowley degharịrị emume mmalite OTO ruo VI°.

1914: Crowley bipụtara akwụkwọ akụkọ maka ngalaba Britain nke OTO, "Manifesto M\M\M\".

1915 (Jenụwarị 1): Crowley nyere Charles Stansfeld Jones akwụkwọ ikike, na-ahọpụta ya onye nnọchiteanya OTO na Vancouver.

1915 (November 15): JT Windram nyere Frank Bennett akwụkwọ ikike OTO maka Australia.

1917 (Jenụwarị 22): Reuss kwuputara "Anational Grandlodge" dị ka isi ụlọ ọrụ ọhụrụ nke OTO na utopian commune Monte Verità na Ascona, Switzerland.

1917 (August 15–25): Reuss mere OTO “Anational Congress” na Monte Verità.

1918: Reuss bipụtara Crowley's Gnostic Mass na German n'okpuru nkwado nke Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica (EGC).

1918 (March): Mbipụta asụsụ Bekee mbụ nke Gnostic Mass, na Ndị mba ụwa.

1919 (March 21):  Equinox III (1) ka ebipụtara. Okwu a nwere akwụkwọ metụtara nhazi na ozi nke OTO.

1921 (July): Reuss nyere CS Jones akwụkwọ ikike mba ụwa maka OTO na North America, na akwụkwọ ikike mba maka Germany nye Heinrich Tranker.

1921 (Septemba 3): Reuss nyere Carl William Hansen akwụkwọ ikike OTO, aha ya bụ Ben Kadosh, maka Denmark.

1923 (October 28): Theodor Reuss nwụrụ.

1924 (December): Crowley nabatara ọkwa nke Outer Head of Order (OHO) nke OTO site na nkwado nke Jones na Tränker.

1925 (August): Nzukọ nke Grand Masters mere na Weida, Germany.

1935: Wilfred Talbot Smith, na-arụ ọrụ na Jane Wolfe, guzobere Agape Lodge nke OTO na Southern California.

1940 (Eprel 8): Crowley họpụtara Karl J. Germer ka ọ bụrụ Grand Treasurer General.

1941: Germer kwagara US

1941 (July 18): Crowley kpọrọ Germer dị ka OHO na-esote.

1941: A malitere Grady Louis McMurtry n'ime Agape Lodge nke OTO.

1946 (March 22): Crowley nyere McMurtry ikike ka ọ were nchịkwa OTO na California n'ihe mberede.

1947 (December 1): Aleister Crowley nwụrụ na Hastings, East Sussex. Germer nọchiri ya dị ka OHO.

1948: Agape Lodge mechiri.

1962 (October 25): Karl Germer nwụrụ na West Point, California.

1968–1969: N'ịmụta gbasara ngafe Germer, McMurtry mere ihe na ikike ya gara aga site n'aka Crowley wee kwaga ibidoghachi OTO na California site n'enyemaka nke ndị otu Agape Lodge ochie.

1977 (October 12): McMurtry kwadoro Thelema Lodge na Berkeley, CA, dị ka Grand Lodge nke OTO eweghachiri.

1979 (March 20): Ewebatara OTO dị ka òtù okpukperechi na-anaghị akwụ ụgwọ n'okpuru iwu steeti California.

1985 (July 12): Ụlọ ikpe mpaghara US nke Northern California kwupụtara McMurtry's OTO ịbụ onye nketa ziri ezi nye ọgbakọ Crowley–Germer, nwere ikike iwu pụrụiche maka akwụkwọ edemede Crowley na aha OTO na ngwo.

1985 (July 12): Grady McMurtry nwụrụ.

1985 (Septemba 21): Ndị IX° nke OTO họpụtara William Breeze, nke a na-akpọ Hymenaeus Beta, dị ka onye na-eme OHO.

1996: E hiwere isi ụlọ ọrụ mba ụwa nke OTO, yana United States Grand Lodge (USGL) dị ka otu nọ n'okpuru.

2005: E hiwere United Kingdom Grand Lodge (UKGL).

2006: Australia Grand Lodge tọrọ ntọala.

2014: E hiwere Grand Lodges na Italy na Croatia.

2014 (October 10): National Grand Masters ise tozuru oke ịhọrọ Breeze dị ka de jure OHO.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Ordo Templi Orientis (OTO) ma ọ bụ Order of Oriental Templars bụ usoro anwansi mmalite nke sitere na netwọk ndị na-adịghị mma na nke dị elu nke Central Europe na narị afọ nke iri abụọ. Carl Kellner (1851-1905), onye Ọstrịa bara ọgaranya akwụkwọ chemist na Freemason nwere mmasị na yoga na mgbaasị, bụ nke a na-akpọkarị "nna ime mmụọ" (geistige Vater) na mbụ "Onye isi" nke OTO (Reuss 1912:15) . [Foto dị n'aka nri] Otú ọ dị, iwu ahụ yiri ka ọ sitere na mmekorita dị n'etiti onye German socialist na onye ọbụ abụ Theodor Reuss (1855-1923) na onye mgbaasị Britain, onye na-ede uri, na onye ugwu Aleister Crowley (1875-1947), nke ikpeazụ bụ onye isi ụkpụrụ nke usoro na nkuzi nke usoro nke ugbu a.

Theodor Reuss mụrụ na 1855 site na nne onye England na nna German. N'ịbụ onye na-arụ ọrụ dị ka onye nta akụkọ na 1880, Reuss na 1885 sonyeere Socialist. Njikọ, otu n'ime ọtụtụ mmegharị mmekọrịta ọha na eze mbụ na-apụta na England. A chụpụrụ ya n'afọ na-esote n'ihi ebubo nke ịrụ ọrụ dị ka onye nledo maka ndị uwe ojii Prussian (n'agbanyeghị obere ihe akaebe) (Howe na Möller 1978). N'ime 1890s, Reuss kwagara n'ọtụtụ esoteric na ndị mason. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Nke a bụ ebe Reuss zutere Carl Kellner, onye Reuss mechara kwuo na ọ chọrọ ịmepụta "Academia Masonica" na-ejikọta ogo na usoro niile (Reuss 1912: 15). N'ihe dị ka n'afọ 1900, Reuss nwetara akwụkwọ ikike iji guzobe ọtụtụ emume dị elu na Germany site na Gérard Encausse (alia Papus, 1865-1916), onye malitere Martinist Order; William Wynn Westcott (1848–1925), Freemason na onye nchoputa nke Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn; na Freemason John Yarker (1833–1913). Na 1902, Reuss malitere iwepụta akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ Oriflamme dịka ụgbọ ala maka echiche ya (Höwe and Möller 1978; Kaczynski 2012).

N'ịbụkwa onye na-etinye aka na mmegharị nke neo-Gnostic nke oge ahụ, Reuss gara nzukọ ndị mmụọ nsọ nke Papus haziri na Paris na 1908. N'ebe ahụ, ọ ga-abụ na a họpụtara Reuss bishọp nke Jean Bricaud's (1881-1934) l'Église Catholique Gnostique (emesịa l' 'Eglise Gnostique Universelle). Bricaud (onye bụbu bishọp nke Jules Doinel's (1842–1902) Gnostic Church) agbawala na 1907 wee guzobe ụka nke ya, nke Papus na Louis-Sophrone Fugairon kwadoro (b. 1846). Reuss mechara guzobe alaka ụlọ ụka German nke akpọrọ Die Gnostische Katolische Kirche (GKK) (Toth 2005).

Na 1910, Reuss nyere akwụkwọ ikike maka Yarker's Antient and Primitive Rite nye Aleister Crowley (Reuss 1906 [1910]; Crowley 1989:628–629). Amụrụ na 1875 site na nne na nna bụ ndị otu Plymouth Brethren, onye na-ahụ maka mgbasa ozi. Ndị otu Ndị Kraịst, Crowley abụghị onye ọhụrụ maka mmemme esoteric. Na 1898, ọ sonyeere na Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn na London, na-ebili ngwa ngwa site na akara ule. Ntinye aka ya na usoro ahụ kwụsịrị na 1900. Na 1904, na ezumike ezumike na nwunye mbụ ya bụ Rose (née Kelly, 1874-1932), [Foto dị n'aka nri] Crowley letara otu onye na-achụpụ aha ya bụ Aiwass, bụ onye Crowley weere dị ka onye ozi. nke chi Horus. N'ime ụbọchị atọ, Aiwass nyere Crowley otu ederede: Akwụkwọ nke Iwu, emesia nyere teknuzu aha Liber AL vel Legis (Crowley 2004). Ọ bụ ezie na na mbụ nwere obi abụọ banyere ozi akwụkwọ ahụ, Crowley mesịrị nakwere ọkwá ya dị ka onye amụma nke okpukpe ọhụrụ: Thelema (Grik maka “uche”), nke ya. Akwụkwọ nke iwu ghọrọ isi ihe odide dị nsọ. N'afọ 1907, Crowley na onye bụbu onye ndụmọdụ Golden Dawn George Cecil Jones (1873-1960) tọrọ ntọala Order of the Silver Star ma ọ bụ A \ A \, nke dọtara na nhazi ogo na omume anwansi nke Golden Dawn jikọtara ya na usoro yogic Crowley. amụtala ime njem na Asia (Crowley 1994). Crowley mekwara ọmụmụ nke "Akwụkwọ Nsọ nke Thelema" akụkụ nke usoro ọmụmụ A\A (Crowley 1909). Dị ka Reuss, Crowley bụ onye mbipụta oge, na-ebipụta Equinox dị ka ụgbọ ala A\A kemgbe 1909.

Na 1912, Crowley na Reuss gafere ụzọ ọzọ. Crowley na-ekwu na Reuss chọrọ ya n'ụlọ ya London, na-ebo Crowley ebubo na ọ na-ekesa "ihe nzuzo kachasị elu" nke Reuss Ordo Templi Orientis, jikọtara ya na IX ° nke usoro ahụ. N'ihi ya, Reuss kwuru, Crowley ga-amalite n'ime usoro na ewere emume ṅụọ iyi na nzuzo. Crowley kwuru na ya zaghachiri na ya, n'amaghị ihe nzuzo nke iwu ahụ, ọ pụghị ịbụ onye ikpe mara nke ikpughe ya, nke Reuss zara ya site n'igosi akụkụ nke Crowley's. Akwụkwọ nke Ụgha (nke e bipụtara nke mbụ na 1912, lee Crowley 1980). Crowley na-akọwa ka nghọta siri pụta n'ebe ọ nọ. Na Eprel 21, Reuss si otu a nyefe IX° na Crowley, na-ahọpụta ya National Grand Master of OTO na Great Britain na Ireland (Crowley 1989:709–10). [Foto dị n'aka nri] Reuss họpụtakwara Crowley OTO onye nnọchi anya US. A na-ajụ akụkụ akụkụ nke akaụntụ Crowley ajụjụ site na enweghị ihe akaebe nke OTO dị ka òtù ndị otu tupu 1912. Ọ bụ ezie na iwu nke mbụ nke iwu ahụ dị na Jenụwarị 22, 1906, ọ ga-abụ na e wepụtara akwụkwọ ahụ nso na 1912, ma ọ bụ ya mere e ji dee ya. ezi uche dị na ya iche na OTO dịka nzukọ na-arụ ọrụ pụtara site na mmekorita Reuss na Crowley na tumadi site na 1912 na (cf. Howe and Möller 1978).

Otu ngalaba Britain nke OTO, “Mysteria Mystica Maxima” ma ọ bụ M\M\M, ka e hiwere na London na Jun 1, 1912 (Reuss 1912:14). Na Septemba 1912, Reuss wepụtara “mbipụta Jubilee” nke Oriflamme, na-ekwupụta OTO na ikpughe ọdịdị nke ihe nzuzo kachasị elu nke iwu ahụ: anwansi mmekọahụ, nke a na-ekwu na ọ bụ isi ihe na usoro Hermetic na Masonic (Reuss 1912: 21). N’otu aka ahụ, mbipụta Septemba 1912 nke Crowley Equinox kwuputara "Order of Oriental Templars" na ngalaba Britain, M\M\M\. Ọ bụ ezie na amabeghị ma Reuss edowo Crowley nsọ dị ka bishọp nke Ụka Gnostic Katọlik nke ya, ọkwa Crowley nke OTO kwukwara na “ụka Gnostic Catholic” dịka ụzọ ime mmụọ na usoro ahụ (Crowley 1912).

Site na mmalite mmalite ya, OTO nabatara ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị nha nhata. Ọ bụ ezie na usoro ahụ nwere ihe jikọrọ ya na ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ na-eme mgbaasị dị ugbu a, gụnyere Golden Dawn na Theosophical Society, amụma nke ịmalite ụmụ nwanyị mere ka OTO dị iche na mgbọrọgwụ ya. Mkpebi ịnakwere ụmụ nwanyị nwere ike jikọta ya na anwansi mmekọahụ nke iwu ahụ nkuzi. Site na mmalite, ọtụtụ ụmụ nwanyị nwere ụlọ ọrụ nchịkwa n'ime usoro ahụ, gụnyere Crowley's Grand Secretary General, Vittoria Cremers, na ndị odeakwụkwọ nọchiri anya, Leila Waddell (1880-1932) na Leah Hirsig (1883-1975) (cf. Hedenborg White 2021b). [Foto dị n'aka nri]

Mgbe ewebatachara ya na OTO, Crowley gara n'ihu megharịa usoro ahụ. N'ịbụ onye enweghị afọ ojuju na emume mmalite Reuss, Crowley nwere nkwado Reuss degharịrị mmalite ahụ ruo VI Celsius. Na Moscow na 1913, Crowley dekwara emume neo-Gnostic, Eucharist maka iwu ahụ: “Ecclesiæ Gnosticæ Catholicæ Canon Missæ” ma ọ bụ Mass Gnostic Katọlik, bụ́ nke Crowley bu n'obi ịkọ ihe nzuzo nzuzo mmekọahụ nke etiti OTO (Crowley 1989:714; Crowley). 2007:247–70). Aha Latinized Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica ejibughị aha n'ozuzu ya, ọ bụ ezie na nkuchi Crowley n'okwu a na-ejikọta ememe ahụ n'ụzọ doro anya na mmasị Neo-Gnostic nke Reuss. Ememe a gbadoro ụkwụ na nsọpụrụ nke ụkpụrụ nwoke na nwanyị na njikọ agụụ mmekọahụ ha (lee Rituals/ Practices maka ozi ndị ọzọ). Usoro a gbasakwara na mpaghara gburugburu oge a. Na Disemba 20, 1913, Crowley nyere nwa akwụkwọ ya James Thomas Windram (1877–1939) akwụkwọ ikike maka South Africa, na-eduga na nguzobe ụlọ abụọ. Na Nọvemba 15, 1915, Windram n'aka nke ya nyere Frank Bennett akwụkwọ ikike maka Australia (1868–1930) (Windram 1915).

Ọ bụ ezie na Crowley ejirila mmekọahụ mee ihe iji nweta ebumnuche ime mmụọ n'ọtụtụ oge gara aga (lee dịka ọmụmaatụ, Hedenborg White 2020:54; 76 n89), mmekorita ya na Reuss gosipụtara mmalite nke mmekọrita n'usoro na anwansi mmekọahụ; iji omume mmekọahụ ma ọ bụ ike nweta ihe mgbaru ọsọ a kapịrị ọnụ. Site na 1914 gaa n'ihu, Crowley jiri ọtụtụ ndị mmekọ ma nwoke ma nwanyị nyochaa anwansi mmekọahụ, na-edekọ nnwale ndị ahụ n'ime akwụkwọ akụkọ ya (dịka, Crowley 1983; Crowley 1996). O dekwara akwụkwọ nkuzi maka ogo dị elu nke OTO (dịka, Crowley 1914a; 1914b). N'ịchịkọta nkenke, usoro Crowley gụnyere itinye uche na nsonaazụ achọrọ na ịkwalite na ilekwasị anya n'ike mmekọahụ, na-ejedebe na njedebe nke orgasm site na "ịchaji" nke echiche uche kwesịrị ekwesị. E mechara rie ihe mmiri sitere na akụkụ ahụ ma ọ bụ, n'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ, a na-ete mmadụ mmanụ. Ejikọtara anwansi mmekọahụ na mbụ na OTO's VIII ° na IX°, jikọtara ya na mmega ahụ autoerotic na mmekọ nwoke na nwanyị, n'otu n'otu. Mgbe ya na onye hụrụ ya n'anya na onye na-eso ụzọ ya bụ Victor B. Neuburg (1883-1940) na 1914 na Paris, Crowley gbakwụnyere XI °. A na-ekwenyekarị ogo mmụta a na mmekọ nwoke na nwanyị gbasara ike, nke Crowley na ndị mmekọ nwoke na nwanyị mere (Crowley 1983: eg, 53–64; Crowley 1998:343–409; cf. Bogdan 2006:218). Na 1915, Crowley webatara Thelema n'ụzọ ziri ezi n'ime ngalaba nke OTO n'okpuru ikike ya (cf. Bogdan 2021:34).

N'oge Agha Ụwa Mbụ, Crowley biri na US, ebe Reuss kwagara Switzerland. Na Jenụwarị 1917, Reuss kwupụtara nguzobe nke isi ụlọ ọrụ OTO n'ụdị Grandlodge nke Anational na-aga n'ihu na Monte Verità na nso Ascona, Switzerland (Howe & Möller 1978; Green 1987). N'August afọ ahụ, Reuss kwadoro "OTO Anational Congress," nke gosipụtara ọgụgụ pụrụ iche nke Crowley's Gnostic Mass (Reuss 1917; Adderley 1997:245). Reuss mekwara ntụgharị asụsụ nke Akwụkwọ nke iwu banye German (Reuss nd [1917]), na na 1918 wepụtara ntụgharị asụsụ German gbanwegharịrị nke Gnostic Mass n'okpuru nkwado nke OTO (Reuss 1997:226–38; cf. Hedenborg White, na-abia). Nkwenye nke Mass Gnostic dị ka emume etiti hibere Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica (EGC) dị ka ọgbakọ Thelemic ma gosipụta ezumike n'ụdị mmalite nke Gnostic gara aga.

1918 ka akara nbipụta mbụ n'asụsụ Bekee nke Gnostic Mass na International (Crowley 1918). N'oge nke a, Crowley malitekwara nnukwu nlegharị anya nke emume mmalite OTO maka 0°–III° iji nwetakwuo ọdịiche dị n'usoro ahụ site na mmalite ya (Starr 2003:20–24; 98–100). N'oge equinox mmiri (March 21), 1919, Crowley maliteghachiri ibipụta akwụkwọ akụkọ ya. Equinox mgbe afọ ise gachara. Nke a bụ akụkụ nke mbọ mbipụta ka ukwuu emere site na nkwado nke Detroit dabere na Freemason Albert W. Ryerson (1872–1931) na nne ya ukwu Bertha Bruce (b. 1888/1889), onye ghọkwara onye hụrụ Crowley n'anya. A na-akpọkarị "acha anụnụ anụnụ" Equinox n'ihi agba nke mkpuchi ya, Equinox III (1) na-anọchi anya akara nrịbama na akụkọ ntolite OTO (cf. Kaczynski 2019:1–16). Ọ nwere ọtụtụ akwụkwọ ndị dị mkpa na-akọwa nhazi na ozi nke OTO, gụnyere akwụkwọ akụkọ Crowley edegharịrị maka usoro na ụdị nke Gnostic Mass gbanwetụrụ nke ukwuu nke ghọrọla akwụkwọ nsọ (Crowley 1919).

Crowley laghachiri Europe na December 1919. Ka ọ na-erule n'oge okpomọkụ nke 1921, mmekọrịta ya na Reuss adịkwaghị mma. Ọ bụ ezie na Crowley mesịrị kwuo na Reuss na-akawanye njọ nke uche na-ewepụ ọnọdụ ya n'oge a, na-arịọ Crowley ka ọ weghara ya dị ka Onye isi nke Order (OHO), ọ dịghị akwụkwọ dị ndụ iji gosi nkwupụta a (nke e hotara na Starr 2003: 110-13, 363). Reuss nwụrụ na 1923, na-ahapụ ajụjụ nke onye nọchiri anya azaghị ya. Na 1924, Crowley nabatara ọfịs OHO site na nkwado nke abụọ n'ime National Grand Masters fọdụrụnụ: Charles Stansfeld Jones (1886-1950), onye nwere akwụkwọ ikike mba ụwa maka North America, na Heinrich Tranker (1880–1956), onye. mere akwụkwọ ikike mba maka Germany. Ọ dị ka atọ ahụ amaghị, n'oge ahụ, na Reuss na 1921 enyela Carl William Hansen akwụkwọ ikike mba maka Denmark (alias Ben Kadosh, 1872-1936) (Reuss 1921). Onye nọchiri Hansen Grundal Sjallung (1875–1976) kpọtụrụ Crowley na 1938, na-ekwenye na OTO akwụsịla ịrụ ọrụ na mba ofesi.

Site n'enyemaka nke ezigbo ndị na-eso ụzọ ya, Crowley chọrọ ịgbachitere ikike ya n'ọgbakọ ndị isi mgbaasị nke Tränker kwadoro n'ụlọ ya na Weida, Germany, n'oge okpomọkụ nke 1925. Ndị sonyere na-enwe mmetụta dị iche iche n'ebe Crowley nọ. Mgbe onye ode akwụkwọ Tränker na onye mbipụta bụ Karl J. Germer (1885–1962) kwadoro Crowley, ọgbakọ ahụ welitere nkewa. n'etiti Crowley na Tränker (Lechler 2013; Kaczynski 2010:418–23; maka nkọwa ndị ọzọ, lee Okwu/Ihe ịma aka).

N'ikwekọ na ịrị elu nke ọchịchị aka ike na Europe, Crowley kpebiri itinye mgbalị ya n'ịmepụta OTO na US Wilfred Talbot Smith (1885-1957), onye na-arụbu ọrụ dịka onye otu OTO na Vancouver, Canada, na Jane Wolfe (1875-1958). ), [Foto dị n'aka nri] otu enyi ogologo oge na nwa akwụkwọ nke Crowley bụ onye ya na ya bi na Europe, gara n'ihu guzobe Agape Lodge nke OTO na Los Angeles, California, na 1935. Germer kwagara US n'afọ 1941. Na Julaị 18, Crowley gosiri Germer dị ka onye. OHO nke OTO na-esote (Crowley 1941). N'otu afọ ahụ, nwa akwụkwọ injinia Grady Louis McMurtry (1918-1985) [Foto dị n'aka nri] malitere n'ime Agape Lodge. McMurtry anọwo na Crowley nọ n'England n'oge WWII mgbe ọ nọ n'ebe ahụ dị ka onye agha. N'afọ 1942, Agape Lodge kwagara Pasadena n'ihi ikike nke onye nwe ụlọ ọhụrụ ya, engineer mmanụ ụgbọ elu John "Jack" Whiteside Parsons (1914-1952). N'oge opupu ihe ubi nke 1946, Crowley nyere McMurtry ikike (n'okpuru aha anwansi ya Hymenaeus Alpha) ka o weghara OTO na California n'ihe mberede (Crowley 1946). Ka ọ na-erule njedebe nke WWII, Agape Lodge bụ nanị òtù OTO na-arụ ọrụ n'ụwa (Starr 2003: passim).

Aleister Crowley nwụrụ na Hastings na Disemba 1, 1947. Agape Lodge gbazere n'afọ sochirinụ. Mgbe mmemme ndị otu OTO mechara belata na North America ruo ọtụtụ afọ, Germer lekọtara mbipụta nke ụfọdụ ihe odide Crowley wee soro enyi Crowley bụ Gerald Yorke (1901–1983) rụkọọ ọrụ iji chekwaa akwụkwọ ozi na akwụkwọ nke Crowley na ndị na-eso ụzọ ya (Germer 2016; Kaczynski 2010:553–54).

Karl Germer nwụrụ na West Point, California, na Ọktoba 25, 1962. Mgbe ọ gachara, ọtụtụ mmadụ kwuru na ha ga-anọchi anya ya, gụnyere onye mgbaasị Britain bụ Kenneth Grant (1924–2011), nwa akwụkwọ nke Crowley nke bụbu onye nke ikpeazụ. odeakwụkwọ n'oge ndụ; Herman Metzger (1919–1990), onye duziri ngalaba nke Switzerland; na Thelemite Brazil Marcelo Ramos Motta (1931–1987). Ihe kacha ike na-ekwu maka ịbụ onye nọchiri, na naanị nke a kwadoro n'ụzọ iwu, bụ nke Grady McMurtry. N'ịmụta ọnwụ Germer na 1968, McMurtry mere ihe na ikike ya gara aga sitere n'aka Crowley (dịka, Crowley 1946) wee kwaga iweghachi usoro ahụ site n'enyemaka nke ndị otu Agape Lodge mbụ Phyllis Seckler (1917–2004) na Helen Parsons Smith (1910–2003). ). Na 1977, McMurtry kwadoro Thelema Lodge na Berkeley, California, dị ka Grand Lodge nke OTO eweghachiri. Na Maachị 20, 1979, ewebatara OTO ka okpukperechi anaghị akwụ ụgwọ n'okpuru iwu California. Na Julaị 12, 1985, Ụlọikpe Mpaghara US nke Northern California kpebiri ịkwado McMurtry's OTO, guzobe ya dị ka onye nọchiri ọgbakọ Crowley ma nye ya ikike nwebisiinka pụrụ iche maka ọrụ Crowley. McMurtry nwụrụ n'ụbọchị ụlọikpe mara ọkwa (Wasserman 2012).

Dị ka McMurtry akpọghị onye ga-anọchi anya ya, ọrụ nke ịhọrọ OHO na-esote ka enyefere ndị otu IX Celsius fọdụrụ n'usoro ahụ. Na Septemba 21, 1985, a họpụtara William Breeze (b. 1955) ka ọ na-eme OHO n'okpuru aha Hymenaeus Beta. OTO etoola nke ukwuu n'okpuru nduzi nke Breeze: 1996 gbara akaebe na ntinye nke International Headquarters nke OTO, ya na United States Grand Lodge (USGL) dị ka otu nọ n'okpuru, na nnukwu ụlọ ezumike ndị ọzọ amalitela na UK (2005), Australia ( 2006), Croatia (2014), na Italy (2014). N'October 10, 2014, a họpụtara Breeze n'otu olu de jure OHO site na iwu National Grand Masters ise.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Mkparịta ụka nke nkuzi nke OTO chọrọ ịkpa oke n'etiti afọ mbụ nke usoro a na mmepe ya n'okpuru nlekọta nlekọta na-abawanye ụba nke Crowley na mgbe ọ gasịrị. Dị ka e kwuru, Reuss kwupụtara usoro mbụ nke usoro ahụ ka ọ bụrụ njikọ nke usoro masonic na Hermetic site na igodo, anwansi mmekọahụ. Ọ bụ ezie na ụdị nkuzi Reuss banyere anwansi mmekọahụ tupu ya na Crowley arụkọ ọrụ amabeghị, agụmakwụkwọ gara aga achọpụtala isi mmalite atọ dị iche iche nke mmụọ nsọ. Nke mbụ, Òtù Ụmụnna Hermetic nke Luxor, onye omume gụnyere nkuzi anwansi mmekọahụ nke dibịa, onye mkpochapụ, na onye ime mmụọ Paschal Beverly Randolph (1825-1875) (Deveney 1997). [Foto dị n'aka nri] Echiche Randolph nwere ike ịbịarute Reuss na-apụtaghị ìhè site na Carl Kellner na Hermetic Brotherhood of Light, nke Reuss kwuru na Kellner na-akpọtụrụ (Reuss 1912: 15; Godwin et al. 1995). Isi iyi nke abụọ nke mkpali maka Reuss bụ Phallicism ma ọ bụ Phallism nke narị afọ nke iri na asatọ na nke iri na itoolu, dị ka Richard Payne Knight (1751-1824), Sir William Jones (1746–1794), na Hargrave Jennings (1817–1890) gbasaa, onye ọrụ Reuss. akụkụ ụfọdụ plagiarized n'akwụkwọ Lingam-Yoni (Reuss 1906; cf. Kaczynski 2012:246–8). Isi echiche nke Phalism bụ na okpukpe mbụ nke ihe a kpọrọ mmadụ gụnyere ofufe nke akụkụ ahụ na-emegharị ahụ nke ma nwoke ma nwanyị. Reuss chere OTO ka ụgbọ ala maka otu nzuzo eweghachitere nke Phallus (cf. Bogdan 2006; 2021:33–36). Isi mmalite nke atọ maka Reuss bụ onye Belgium Freemason na onye mmụọ Georges Le Clément de Saint-Marcq (1865-1956) na echiche ya banyere spermatophagy (eri nke semen) dị ka ezi Eucharist guzobere n'oge Nri Anyasị Ikpeazụ (Pasi 2008; Reuss 1993). :56–57).

Ntughari nke Crowley meziri OTO na nkwusi okwu ike na Thelema na ụkpụrụ ya dị ka ewepụtara na isi akwụkwọ nsọ ya, Akwụkwọ nke Iwu. Ebumnuche ya bụ "Mee ihe ị chọrọ ga-abụ iwu dum" ka ahaziri na Francois Rabelais's. Gargantua et Pantagruel (1532), nke nwere “Abbaye du Thélème.” Kama inye iwu ka e mee ihe n'ọchịchọ mkpali ọ bụla, Crowley tụgharịrị "Mee ihe ị chọrọ" dịka ọ na-ekwu maka ọrụ onye ọ bụla nwere ịchọpụta na imezu "ezi uche" ha, nke o kwenyere na ọ bụ nzube pụrụ iche nke ndụ onye ọ bụla ( dịka, Crowley 1974:129–30). Nkwubi okwu metụtara ya: “Ịhụnanya bụ iwu, ịhụnanya n’okpuru uche” (nke St. Augustine’s dictum sere onyinyo ya: “Ịhụnanya, meekwa ihe ị chọrọ”) ka Crowley sụgharịtara na ọdịdị nke ezi uche bụ ịhụnanya, na na Omume ọ bụla e bu n’obi kpachapụrụ anya bụ omume nke ịdị n’otu (ya bụ, ịhụnanya) na okike (dịka ọmụmaatụ, Crowley 1974:163–64; Crowley 2007b). Crowley lere anwansi (ma ọ bụ "Magick," dị ka ọ na-ahọrọ ịkọwa ya) dị ka isi ihe na-achọpụta na ịkwado uche mmadụ, na-akọwa ya dị ka "Sayensị na Nkà nke ime ka mgbanwe mee n'ụzọ kwekọrọ na Will" (Crowley 1994: 128) . N'agbata afọ 1907 na 1911, Crowley depụtara ọtụtụ akwụkwọ ndị ọzọ sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ, bụ ndị gụnyere Akwụkwọ nke iwu nwere “Akwụkwọ Nsọ nke Thelema,” akwụkwọ nsọ nke Thelemic ederede (Crowley 1988; 1998).

Crowley tụlere nnabata nke Akwụkwọ nke iwu ka akara mmalite nke afọ ọhụrụ, nke ọ kpọrọ Aeon nke Horus. N'echiche ya nke aeons (ihe dị ka afọ 2,000 na-ejikọta ya na ọkwa dị iche iche na mgbanwe ime mmụọ nke mmadụ), Crowley sitere na nzụlite ya na Plymouth Brethren na nkuzi nke dispensationalist, na site na echiche Frazerian nke evolushọn okpukpe (Bogdan 2012; 2021:16–20). Aeon nke mbụ Crowley kwuru aha ya bụ Aeon nke Isis, nke ọ na-ejikọta na prehistory prehistory na nsọpụrụ nke chi nwanyị ukwu na-anọchi anya ụwa okike. A nọchiri Isis, dị ka Crowley si kwuo, site n'aka Aeon nke Osiris, nke e ji monotheism nke ndị nna ochie mara, ịdị elu nke mmụọ n'elu ihe, na ofufe nke ụdị dị iche iche nke "Chineke na-anwụ anwụ," dị ka Kraịst, Dionysus, ma ọ bụ Orpheus. Ọchịchị Horus, ụmụ Chineke nke Isis na Osaịris, ga-eji àgwà ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu, imebi echiche efu ochie, na njikọ nke okwu na mmụọ (Crowley 1936; Crowley 1974: 137f; 271ff).

Onyonyo erotic dị n'etiti Thelemic ontology, bụ nke a na-eche dị ka olumba dị n'etiti chi nwanyị Nuit, nke a na-ahụ anya dị ka mbara igwe na-anọchi anya oghere na ikike na-enweghị njedebe, yana njikọ ya Hadit, ike ndụ na-enweghị njedebe nke onye ọ bụla. Njikọ ha na-enwe obi ụtọ na-ebute Ra-Hoor-Khuit (ụdị chi Horus), [Foto dị n'aka nri] jikọtara ya na anyanwụ na ike mgbapụta nke ọhụrụ aeon (Crowley 1974; 2004, passim). Nke a triad na-egosipụta na Akwụkwọ nke Iwu, onye isi nke atọ ka enyere ya na Nuit, Hadit, na Ra-Hoor-Khuit, n'otu n'otu. Thelemic pantheon tinyekwara chi nwanyị Babalon na onye mmekọ ya Chaos. Dabere na nkọwa dị mma nke Akwụkwọ Nsọ akwụna nke Babilọn (Mkpu. 17), Crowley kọwara Babalon na usoro anwansi nke imeghe ma ọ bụ nnabata n'akụkụ niile nke okike, na ịdị nsọ nke nnwere onwe (na karịsịa nke nwanyị) mmekọahụ (Hedenborg White). 2020, afọ). A na-eme mmemme Thelemic pantheon a na Crowley's Gnostic Mass (Crowley 2007).

RITUALS / PRACTICES

OTO na-enye usoro emume mmalite ahaziri ahazi nke ejiri jiri nwayọ mee ka onye mbido mara ihe nzuzo nzuzo. Dịka ekwuru n'elu, a na-eji nwayọọ nwayọọ datu ihe ndị na-ahụ maka mmalite OTO n'okpuru mmetụta Crowley. A na-akụzi anwansi mmekọahụ na ogo dị elu nke usoro. Nhazi mmalite OTO nke oge a (ahaziri n'okpuru M\M\M (lee n'okpuru)) nwere ogo ọnụọgụ iri na atọ site na O° ruo XII° na ogo etiti asatọ. A haziri ogo mmụta ahụ na “ọkwa atọ” ma ọ bụ “Triads”: Nwoke nke Ụwa, Onye hụrụ n'anya, na Hermit. A na-ejikọta ogo mmadụ nke ụwa na usoro chakra ma na-anọchi anya ọganihu dị egwu nke mkpụrụ obi site na incarnation: echiche, ọmụmụ, ndụ, ọnwụ, na gafere (lee Crowley 1982: 122-24: Crowley 1990: 193). Ogo 0 ° (Minerval) dabara na ọkwa nke "onye ọbịa a na-asọpụrụ", ebe akara nke mbụ (I°) na-enye ndị otu zuru oke. Nzere abụọ bụ isi nhazi: X° na-akara National Grand Master, na XII° na-ejide naanị OHO.

Wezụga mmalite, a na-atụ anya ka ndị obodo OTO buru ibu na-enye ememe oge nile nke Mass Katọlik Gnostic, weere dị ka "ememme etiti nke [OTO] ememe ọha na eze" (Crowley 1989: 714). A na-eme Mass Gnostic n'okpuru nlekọta nke Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica (EGC) ma na-emeghekarị ọha na eze, na-arụ ọrụ dị mkpa n'iwebata Thelema na ndị na-achọ ọhụrụ yana inye ahụmahụ ime mmụọ na ohere maka mmekọrịta. Ọ bụ ezie na Crowley kwuru na ya dere Mass Gnostic n'okpuru mkpali nke liturgy nke Katidral St. Basil, ememe Oriri Nsọ ya dị ka Tridentine mass nke Chọọchị Roman Katọlik. Myirịta ozugbo gụnyere ịgụgharị akwụkwọ ikike; nnabata nke ndị bu ụzọ mụọ; ịgụgharị mkpokọta; ngozi diri ndi nwuru anwu; na mgbasa ozi Oriri Nsọ nke mmanya na achịcha (nke a na-akpọ achịcha nke ìhè). Mass Gnostic na-eme ememe echiche ụwa Thelemic na pantheon dị nsọ. N'igosi echiche nke Thelemic nke ịdị nsọ dị ka nke nwere ma akụkụ nwoke na nke nwanyị, onye ụkọchukwu na nwanyị ụkọchukwu na-eme Mass Gnostic nke onye diacon na ndị ọrụ enyemaka abụọ a maara dị ka "ụmụaka." Onye nchụ-aja na onye nchụaja jikọ aka na-akpọku nwoke na nwanyị dị nsọ wee kwado Oriri Nsọ site n’imepụta “alụmdi na nwunye nke omimi,” njikọ mmekọahụ ihe atụ ebe a na-eweda eriri onye ụkọchukwu n’ime iko jupụtara na mmanya (Crowley 2007:247–70).

Na mgbakwunye na ihe ngosi nke Mass Gnostic, EGC nke oge a na-enye ndị otu site na baptism na nkwenye ma na-eme agbamakwụkwọ, emume ikpeazụ na emume ndị ụkọchukwu. Ọtụtụ ozu OTO buru ibu na-enye nnọkọ ọha, otu ọmụmụ ihe, nkuzi, na klaasị na Thelema na mgbakwunye na mmemme mmemme. Ọ bụ ihe a na-ahụkarị maka ndị otu mpaghara ime ememe solstices, equinoxes, na ụfọdụ ma ọ bụ “Ezumike Thelemic” niile na-aka akara ụbọchị dị mkpa na ndụ Aleister Crowley. Ihe omume ndị dị otú ahụ na-emeghekarị maka ndị na-abụghị ndị mbido, yana nke a jikọtara ya na eziokwu ahụ bụ na ọtụtụ nnukwu ozu OTO na-edobe ụlọ arụrụ arụ ụlọ nsọ na-adịgide adịgide na-enye nzukọ ahụ ọnụnọ ọha na eze karịa ọtụtụ iwu mmalite ndị ọzọ.

Nnyocha buru ibu nke omume esoteric nke ndị otu OTO enweghị. Agbanyeghị, enwere ike ibipụta nkwubi okwu nkwubi okwu dabere na ihe onye dere ya kwuru. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụghị ihe a chọrọ, ọtụtụ (ma ọ bụrụ na ọ bụghị ọtụtụ) ndị òtù OTO na-ejigide ụdị omume anwansi nke onwe ha. Ọ bụ ezie na A\A dị iche na OTO, njikọ abụọ abụrụla nke a na-ahụkarị kemgbe Crowley dị ndụ ma ka dị taa. Ọbụlagodi n'etiti ndị otu OTO bụ ndị na-esoghị A\A, ọtụtụ na-ewere akụkụ nke sistemu A\A ka ọ bụrụ omume onwe ha. Nke a gụnyere, ma ọnweghị oke na, idebe akwụkwọ ndekọ anwansi (omume Crowley kuziri ndị na-eso ụzọ ya); ekele kwa ụbọchị nye anyanwụ dịka edebere ya na “Liber Resh vel Helios” nke Crowley (Crowley 1994:645); emume a na-eme mgbe nile na-eje ozi nke ịdị ọcha anwansi dị ka “Ememme Nka nke Pentagram” ma ọ bụ emume “Star Ruby” nke Crowley (Crowley 1980:60); na yogic na omume ntụgharị uche. Ọ bụ ezie na a na-ejikọta anwansi mmekọahụ na ogo dị elu nke OTO, omume anwansi mmekọahụ na nke onwe ya na-apụtakarị n'etiti ndị otu ọkwa na faịlụ (cf. Hedenborg White 2020: 196, passim).

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

N'ịgụ ihe dịka ndị otu 4,000, OTO bụ usoro Thelemic kacha nwee ọnụ ọgụgụ n'ụwa. Dịka nke Jenụwarị 2022, a haziri ya na kọntinent ise n'ihe karịrị mba iri atọ, yana ihe karịrị otu obodo 150 n'ụwa niile. Ụlọ ọrụ International nke iwu (IHQ) bụ ndị Kansụl Kasị Elu na-elekọta ya, gụnyere ndị isi atọ nke mba ụwa nke usoro a. Ndị a bụ: (1) Onye isi nke Iwu ahụ, nke a makwaara dị ka Frater (ma ọ bụ Soror) Onye Kasị Elu ma ọ bụ Caput Ordinis, (2) Secretary General, ma ọ bụ Cancellarius, na (3) Treasurer General, ma ọ bụ Quaestor. IHQ na-elekọta National Grand Lodges na United States, United Kingdom, Australia, Croatia na Italy. N'ime ndị a, United States Grand Lodge (USGL) bụ nke kachasị na kacha arụ ọrụ, gụnyere ihe dị ka otu ụzọ n'ụzọ atọ nke ndị otu zuru ụwa ọnụ. National Grand Lodges bụ onye isi nke National Grand Master General, na-ejide ogo Rex Summus Sanctissimus ma ọ bụ Eze Kasị Elu na Kasị Nsọ (X°). Mba ndị na-enweghị National Grand Lodge nwere ike ịrụ ọrụ dị ka ngalaba mba n'okpuru nlekọta nke onye nnọchite anya Frater Superior (FSR). Na ọkwa Nwoke nke Ụwa, ndị obodo (ahaziri dị ka ogige, Oases, na Lodges, ma dị iche iche site na mmalite na ihe omume a na-atụ anya inye) na-arụ ọrụ ma ọ bụ n'okpuru ikike nke National Grand Lodge ma ọ bụ ozugbo n'okpuru IHQ. Ụdị nhazi ndị ọzọ gụnyere ihe a na-akpọ Chapters of Rose Croix, nke ndị òtù Lover Grade hibere, na Guilds, bụ ndị gbadoro ụkwụ n'ịkwalite otu ọrụ, ọrụ, ma ọ bụ sayensị. Enweghị ọnụ ọgụgụ gọọmentị maka ndị otu ma ọ bụ ndị isi OTO site na okike, n'agbanyeghị na nleba anya na-egosi ntakịrị ọnụ ọgụgụ nwoke n'etiti ndị otu ọkwa na faịlụ (Hedenborg White 2020:198).

OTO nwere emume abụọ mejupụtara: Mysteria Mystica Maxima (M\M\M\) na Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica (EGC). Na mbụ na-egosi ngalaba Crowley nke Britain nke OTO, M\M\M taa na-elekọta mmalite OTO n'ụwa niile. Ọ bụ ezie na sitere dị ka ọgbakọ nweere onwe ya (ma dịkwa dị ka nke kwụụrụ onwe ya, okpukpe anaghị akwụ ụgwọ n'etiti 1979 na 1985) EGC na-ejikọta ya na OTO dị ka ogwe aka ụka ya. Ọfịs onye bishọp (ma ọ bụ nna nna) nke EGC bụ ndị OHO na-ejide, na isi nke ụka ahụ gụnyere National Grand Masters nke usoro ahụ. EGC gụnyekwara episcopate, ọkwa nchụ-aja (ndị ụkọchukwu na ndị nchụaja), na diaconate. Ọ bụ ezie na baptism na nkwenye na EGC achọghị ịbụ onye otu OTO, nchichi nye ndị diconate, ọkwa nchụ-aja, na episcopate chọrọ ogo OTO pụrụ iche.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Okwu gbasara ịchịisi na onye ndu ebutela ihe ịma aka na-aga n'ihu n'ime akụkọ ntolite OTO. Dịka ekwuru n’elu, ọnwụ Reuss sochiri nghọtahie gbasara onye kwesịrị ịnọchite anya ụlọ ọrụ OHO. A kọwapụtara okwu ahụ ná Nzukọ nke Grand Masters, bụ́ nnọkọ ndị isi mgbaasị nke Heinrich Tränker chịkọbara n’ụlọ ya dị na Weida, Germany, 1925. Ndị sokwa ná nnọkọ ahụ bụ onye na-eso ụzọ Crowley bụ́ Martha Küntzel (1857–1941) na ya. onye hụrụ n'anya, Otto Gebhardi; Onye ode akwụkwọ na onye mbipụta nke Tränker, Karl Germer; Nwunye Tränker, Helene: ndị otu Tränker's Pansophical movement, Albin Grau (bụkwa onye otu Crowley's A\A) na Eugen Grosche (1888–1964); Henri Birven (1883–1969); na onye na-ese ihe Oskar Hopfer, yana Crowley na ndị na-eso ụzọ ya Leah Hirsig, Norman Mudd (1889–1934), na Dorothy Olsen (b. 1892). Nzukọ a abụghị ihe ịga nke ọma na-enweghị mgbagha maka onye ọ bụla metụtara. Mgbe Küntzel na Germer kwadoro Crowley, Tränker, Grau, Birven na Grosche kwetara idobe otu Pansophical n'adabereghị na onye ndu Crowley. Tränker mechara jụ Crowley (dịka, Lechler 2013), dịka Mudd na Hirsig mere (cf. Hedenborg White 2021b). N'ịkpọkọta ọtụtụ ndị bụbu Pansophists, Grosche gara n'ihu chọta Fraternitas Saturni, bụ onye weere Crowley dịka onye amụma mana ọ nọgidere na-enwere onwe ya dị ka iwu.

Dị ka e kwuru n'elu, okwu nke ịnọchite anya bilitere mgbe Karl Germer nwụsịrị na 1962. Hermann Metzger, onye isi alaka ụlọ ọrụ Switzerland nke iwu nke metụtara usoro ọmụmụ ya na Reuss, gbara aka na nkwupụta McMurtry na-ekwu na ọ bụ isi oche OTO. Giudice 2015). Mgbe Germer nwụsịrị, ndị otu Metzger họpụtara ka ha họpụta ya dị ka OHO (Weddingen 1963). N'ịbụ ndị enweghị ikike dịka iwu OTO siri dị, ndị otu n'usoro na-anabataghị nsonaazụ ntuli aka a na-abụghị Switzerland. Kenneth Grant bụ onye jere ozi dịka odeakwụkwọ Crowley n'oge ndụ ikpeazụ mere nkwupụta ọzọ maka ịbụisi OTO. N'afọ 1948, mgbe Crowley nwụsịrị, a nabatara Grant dị ka onye mmalite IXº nke OTO, ma mesịa nata akwụkwọ ikike site n'aka Germer iji rụọ ọrụ OTO na London. Na 1955, Grant nyere akwụkwọ akụkọ na-ekwupụta ntọala nke "New Isis Lodge" ya dị ka òtù OTO (Grant 1955). Ngosipụta ahụ gosipụtara na ụwa nọ n'okpuru mmetụta nke mbara ala "transplutonic" aha ya bụ Isis, na ọrụ nke Isis Lodge Ọhụrụ bụ ịkwanye mmetụta ya. Germer weghaara echiche Grant wee chụpụ nke ikpeazụ na OTO. Otú ọ dị, Grant nọgidere na-arụ ọrụ New Isis Lodge ruo 1962. Site na njedebe 1960, Grant kwuru na ya bụ onye isi nke "Typhonian" OTO (na-ezo aka n'echiche nke ọdịnala Typhonian, nke Grant kọwara na itoolu ya "Typhonian Trilogies," bipụtara 1972-2002). Na 2011, aha nzukọ a gbanwere ka ọ bụrụ Typhonian Order (Bogdan 2015).

Ọ bụ onye Brazil Thelemite Marcelo Ramos Motta (1931–1987), onye bụbu A\A nwa akwụkwọ nke Germer bụ onye na-ebipụta mbipụta ọhụrụ nke ọrụ Crowley, butere ya bụ ihe ịma aka kacha mkpa maka nduzi McMurtry, na-enwekarị nkọwa nke ya. Mgbe ọ matara na Crowley enyefela OTO ikike nwebisiinka ya, Motta debara aha nwa akwụkwọ ya James Wasserman (1948–2020), onye ọrụ ụlọ ahịa akwụkwọ Samuel Weiser na New York, iji nyere ya aka n'inweta ikike. Agbanyeghị, Wasserman mechara kwado nkwupụta McMurtry. Ajọ iro ahụ mere ka Motta na 1981 gbaa Weiser akwụkwọ maka mmebi iwu nwebiisinka, na-ekwupụta Society Ordo Templi Orientis nke ya dị ka ịga n'ihu nke Crowley-Germer OTO. Dịka e kwuru n'elu, Ụlọikpe Mpaghara US nke Northern California mechara kpebie maka McMurtry's OTO. Taa, a na-edozi okwu ndị a n'ụzọ dị ukwuu, na obere esemokwu ka dị maka okpukpe Ordo Templi Orientis Inc. bụ onye na-anọchi anya iwu kwadoro nzukọ Crowley-Germer (Wasserman 2012).

Mgbanwe nke ọha mmadụ emetụtala nnabata nke echiche Crowley, gụnyere ịlụ nwanyị na nkwado ikike LGBTQ. The Thelemic milieu (gụnyere OTO yana ndị ọzọ, obere akwụkwọ iwu Thelemic, netwọkụ, na ndị na-arụ ọrụ naanị ya) kemgbe opekata mpe afọ 1990 ahụla mmụba na-abawanye ụba nke mbipụta na atụmatụ (gụnyere ọgbakọ, pọdkastị, akwụkwọ akụkọ, na mgbasa ozi mgbasa ozi ọha) ezubere maka na-akọwapụta olu ụmụ nwanyị na ahụmahụ. Enwere ike ịhụ nhazi nke ọgbakọ ndị inyom Thelemic (na 2006, 2008, na 2016) dị ka akara nrịbama dị mkpa. Na US, ọtụtụ ndị otu OTO buru ibu na-enwe nzukọ oge niile maka ụmụ nwanyị so na usoro a. Alaka US nke EGC, nke kachasị na nke a haziri ahazi, na-egosi mmata maka mkparịta ụka na-aga n'ihu gbasara njirimara nwoke na nwanyị, wee mepụta amụma EGC iji nabata ndị ụkọchukwu na ndị ụkọchukwu na Gnostic Mass, yana ndị na-abụghị ọnụọgụ abụọ na/ma ọ bụ genderqueer chọpụtara. Ndị ụkọchukwu EGC (cf. Hedenborg White 2021a:189–90).

Foto

Foto #1: Carle Kellner.
Foto #2: Theodor Reuss.
Foto #3: Ezinụlọ Crowley.
Foto #4: Aleister Crowley dị ka Baphomet X°.
Foto #5: Leah Hirsig.
Foto #6: Jane Wolfe.
Foto #7: Grady Louis McMurtry.
Foto #8: Paschal Beverly Randolph.
Foto #9: Stele nke Ankh-af-na-Khonsu.

References

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Bogdan, Henrik. 2021. "Deus Est Homo: Echiche nke Chineke na ederede anwansi nke Great Beast 666 (Aleister Crowley)." Aries: Akwụkwọ maka Ọmụmụ nke Esotericism n'Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ 21: 13-42.

Bogdan, Henrik. 2015. "Kenneth Grant na omenala Typhonian." Pp. 323-30 n'arọ Ụwa mgbaasị, Christopher Partridge deziri ya. New York: Routledge.

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Bogdan, Henrik. 2006. "Ịma Aka Omume nke Western Society: iji mmekọ nwoke na nwanyị emekọrịta ihe na mgbaasị nke oge a." Ngwá pọmigranet ahụ 8: 211-46.

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Crowley, Aleister. 1946 (Mar 22). Akwụkwọ ozi e degaara Grady Louis McMurtry. Ebe nchekwa OTO.

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Reuss, Theodor. 1921 (Septemba 3). Charter nye Carl William Hansen maka OTO na Denmark. Ebe nchekwa OTO.

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Reuss, Theodor [Pendragon]. 1906. Lingam-Yoni. Berlin: Verlag Willson.

Starr, Martin P. 2003. Chukwu amaghi ama: WT Smith na ndi Thelem. Bolingbrook, IL: Teitan Press.

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Agbamakwụkwọ, Dorothea. 1963 [May 25]. "Affidavit." Ebe nchekwa OTO.

Windram, James Thomas. 1915 (Nọvemba 15). Charter na Frank Bennett maka OTO na Australia. Ebe nchekwa OTO.

Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
10 April 2022

 

 

 

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