Małgorzata Oleszkiewicz-Peralba

Nwaanyị nke Guadalupe

NWA ANYI GUADALUPE TIMELINE

1322: Otu onye ọzụzụ atụrụ na Extremadura, Spain, chọtara ihe oyiyi 59 cm nke nwa agbọghọ na-amaghị nwoke nke Guadalupe.

1340: Eze Alfonso XI hiwere ebe nsọ na Guadalupe na Villuercas, Extremadura, Spain.

Oge Tupu Hispanic: A na-asọpụrụ Chi nwanyị Tonantzin-Coatlicue na Tepeyac Hill na Mexico.

1519: Hernán Cortés wetara ọkọlọtọ ya na Virgin Mary nke Immaculate Conception n'oge mmeri Mexico.

1531: Ọdịdị ise nke Virgin Mexico nke Guadalupe mere na Tepeyac Hill, Mexico

1556: Fray Francisco de Bustamante kwuputara okwuchukwu na-akatọ oke okpukpere chi nke onye na-ese ụmụ amaala Marcos Cipac de Aquino na-etinye na eserese nke Guadalupe.

1609: Ewubere ebe nsọ Spanish na Guadalupe na Tepeyac Hill.

1648 na 1649: E bipụtara akwụkwọ akụkọ mbụ banyere òtù nzuzo Guadalupe Mexico na edemede nke Miguel Sánchez na Luis Lasso de la Vega, n'otu n'otu.

1737: A kpọsara Guadalupe dịka onye nlekọta obodo Mexico City.

1746: A kpọsara Guadalupe dị ka onye nlekọta ọrụ nke New Spain (Mexico).

1754: E hiwere ezumike Guadalupe na kalenda Katọlik.

1810-1821: Guadalupe rụrụ ọrụ ịhụ mba n'anya n'oge agha Mexico nke nnwere onwe.

1895: Echiri Guadalupe okpueze.

1910: Guadalupe bụ onye nkwado nke Latin America.

1935: A kpọsara Guadalupe ịbụ onye nchebe nke Philippines.

1942: Ndị inyom Katọlik America bụ ndị Mexico kwadoro Guadalupana Societies.

1960s: Guadalupe ghọrọ akara ngosi omenala maka ndị ọrụ ugbo United na-alụ ọgụ na mgba Movimiento Chicano ndị ọzọ.

1966: Pope Paul VI nyere Guadalupe rose ọla edo.

1970s-Ọ dị ugbu a: Mwube, ntinye, na mgbanwe nke omenala Guadalupe omenala site na otu Chicanos / dị ka ihe dị iche iche na-elekọta mmadụ na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị emeela.

2002: Pope John Paul II kwadoro onye India Juan Diego, onye bụ ihe ngosi nke Guadalupe na 1531.

2013: Pope Francis nyere Guadalupe rose ọla edo nke abụọ.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Akwụkwọ sitere na isi mmalite dị iche iche malitere na narị afọ nke iri na isii na-akwado na, tupu Cortés's Conquest of Mexico-Tenochtitlan na 1519-1521, ndị Mesoamerican fere nne chi Tonantzin-Ciuacoatl (Nne anyị-Nwunye nke Agwọ / Nwanyị Snake) n'ụdị ya dị iche iche. , na-eme njem kwa afọ n'ebe arụsị ya dị n'ugwu Tepeyac. A na-asọpụrụ Tonantzin n'otu ebe ahụ ebe ihe ngosi 1531 nke Virgin nke Guadalupe mesịrị mee na ebe Virgin's Basilica guzo taa. Franciscan Fray Bernardino de Sahagún nke narị afọ nke iri na isii, na-ekwu banyere ọnọdụ ihe na mmalite nke Mmeri ahụ, kwusiri ike, sị: “[O] n Tepeyacac ​​. . . . ha nwere ụlọ nsọ edoro nsọ nye nne nke chi, nke a na-akpọ Tonantzin, nke pụtara 'nne anyị' . . . ndị mmadụ sikwa n’ebe dị anya bịa . . . ma ha wetara ọtụtụ onyinye” (Sahagún 1956, mpịakọta 3:352). Fray Juan de Torquemada na ndị Jesuit Clavijero kwadoro akaebe Sahagún. N'oge usoro ntụgharị nke ndị India, ebe nsọ ochie nke Tepeyac nwere ikike ọhụrụ site n'iji ihe oyiyi Ndị Kraịst dochie chi Aztek nke dịbu adịbu. Ọ bụ chọọchị kwalitere omume a na-emekarị. Ọ bụ ezie na e mere iwu a, chi nwanyị bụ́ Tonantzin-Ciuacoatl akwụsịghị. N'ụzọ ziri ezi, ọ na-synthesized n'ime Virgin nke Guadalupe. Ọhụrụ ngwakọ ọnụ ọgụgụ a bụ ezigbo isi mmalite nke okwukwe n'ihi na eclectic ọnụ ọgụgụ nke Spanish Vice-Royalty nke New Spain. Otú ọ dị, usoro ahụ emeghị n'enweghị ihe ijuanya.

Dị ka akụkọ ifo Virgin nke Guadalupe si kwuo, Meri pụtara n'ihu onye India dị umeala n'obi bụ́ Juan Diego Cuauhtlatonzin n'ugwu Tepeyac na 1531, na-ekwupụta uche ya ka e wuo ya ụlọ nsọ n'ebe ahụ. Ihe ndekọ Nahuatl a nke mpụta, nke akpọrọ Nicon Mopohua (Ebe a ka a na-ekwu), nke ekwuru na onye India gụrụ akwụkwọ Antonio Valeriano, nke Lasso de la Vega bipụtara na 1649 (Torre Villar na Navarro de Anda 1982:26-35). Ọ were ngosipụta anọ, ọgwụgwọ ọrụ ebube, Roses n'oge, na akara nke ihe oyiyi Mary na tilma (mkpuchi) nke Juan Diego iji mechaa kwenye Archbishọp Zumárraga na ngosipụta ahụ bụ eziokwu. N'ụzọ na-akpali mmasị, isi mmalite nke narị afọ nke iri na isii, dị ka Sahagún's Akụkọ izugbe, depụta oké nraranye nye chi nwanyị bụ́ Tonantzin-Ciuacoatl hiwere isi n’ugwu Tepeyac, ma ọ dịghị ihe ndekọ e dere ede banyere ọdịdị ọdịdị ahụ ma ọ bụ nke Virgin nke Guadalupe ruo n’etiti narị afọ nke iri na asaa. N'afọ 1648, Imagen de la Virgen María Madre de Dios Guadalupe, milagrosamente Aparecida en la ciudad de México (Onyinye nke Virgin Mary Nne nke Chineke Guadalupe, pụtara n'ụzọ ọrụ ebube na Mexico City) nke Miguel Sánchez dere, na na 1649, Nicon Mopohua, e bipụtara. N'ezie, ihe enwere ike ịhụ tupu 1648 bụ mwepu ma ọ bụ ọgụ gbasara òtù nzuzo Tepeyac (Maza 1981: 39-40). Dị ka ihe atụ, na September 8, 1556, Fray Francisco de Bustamante kwuru okwuchukwu na Mexico City, na-akatọ òtù nzuzo gabigara ókè a na-etinye na ihe osise nke Marcos India mere ma tinye ya na ụlọ nsọ Guadalupe, n'ihi na ọ hụrụ òtù nzuzo a dị ka ikpere arụsị:

O yiri ya na nraranye nke obodo a debere na a ụfọdụ hermitage ma ọ bụ ụlọ nke anyị Lady, na ha kpọrọ Guadalupe, (bụ) na nnukwu nsogbu nke ụmụ amaala, n'ihi na ha mere ka ha kwere na ihe oyiyi nke onye India [Marcos. ] na-ese ihe na-arụ ọrụ ebube . . . na ugbu a ịgwa ha [ndị India] na ihe oyiyi nke onye India na-ese na-arụ ọrụ ebube, na nke a ga-abụ nnukwu mgbagwoju anya na ọ ga-emezi ihe ọma ahụ a kụrụ, n'ihi na ofufe ndị ọzọ, dịka Lady anyị nke Loreto na ndị ọzọ, nwere. ezigbo ala na nke ahụ a ga-ewu nke ukwuu na-enweghị ntọala, Ọ tụrụ ya n’anya” (Torre Villar na Navarro de Anda 1982:38-44).

Ọbụna ugbu a, nnukwu esemokwu gbara okwu banyere mpụta nke Virgin nke Guadalupe na onye India e mere baptizim ọhụrụ bụ Juan Diego. Na ọtụtụ ọmụmụ metụtara akụkụ dị iche iche nke apparitions na ama image n'onwe ya, dị ka ndị na-enyocha agba, ákwà, na-atụgharị uche na Virgin anya, na na, aparicionistas (ndị kweere na apparitions) na antiaparicionistas (ndị ahụ). ndị na-emegide ihe ngosi), gbalịa gosipụta isi ihe ha kwuru. Ihe anyị maara n'ezie bụ na ọdịdị enweghị ike igosi, karịsịa narị afọ isii ka e mesịrị. Ma hà bụ ndị dị adị ma ọ bụ ndị e wuru, anyị ga-elekwasị anya n’ihe a na-enyo enyo na-enyo enyo wetara na chọọchị colonial, n’ihe metụtara mba, na ndị Mexico.

N'ịgbaso ụkpụrụ nke Span ndị ọzọ hibere

N'ịgbaso ụkpụrụ nke ndị mmeri Spanish na Portuguese ndị ọzọ hibere, Hernán Cortés bịara Tenochtitlan (Mexico City taa) na 1519, n'okpuru ọkọlọtọ nchebe nke Onyeozi Santiago (Saint James) na Virgin Mary. N'uche ndị Spen, mmeri America bụ ịga n'ihu nke Reconquista ma ọ bụ Mweghachi nke Spain megidere narị afọ asatọ (AD 711–1492) nke ọchịchị Moors. Afọ 1492, ụbọchị akara “nchọpụta” America, nwere ọtụtụ uru. Ọ bụ afọ ikpeazụ e meriri ndị Moors na Granada na nchụpụ a chụpụrụ ndị Juu na Spen. Ihe omume ọzọ dị mkpa nke 1492 bụ mbipụta nke mbụ Spanish (Castilian) akwụkwọ ụtọ asụsụ na ụtọ asụsụ mbụ ebipụtara nke asụsụ obodo, Nkà nke Asụsụ Castillian, nke Antonio de Nebrija dere. Omume ndị a na-egosipụta ịnụ ọkụ n'obi iji mee ka ịdị n'otu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke ndị Spen sikwuo ike site 'na-asachapụ' okwukwe ha na site n'ịhazi asụsụ obodo nke Spain ọhụrụ e jikọrọ ọnụ. Egwu egwu egwu ama ama nke Moros na cristianos, ihe nnọchianya nke agha n'etiti Moors na Spaniards, nọgidere na New World dị ka Danza de la conquista, Danza de la pluma, na Tragedia de la muerte de Atahuallpa, site n'otu mgbanwe, ndị mmụọ nsọ ọhụrụ, ndị India, nọchiri Moors. Nwa agbọghọ na-amaghị nwoke, bụ́ nke ejikọrọ ya na oké osimiri, bụ ogologo oge onye nchebe nke ndị na-akwọ ụgbọ mmiri (Nuestra Señora de los Navegantes) na nke Mmeri ahụ. Cristóbal Colón (Columbus) kpọrọ ụgbọ ala flagship ya "Santa María" na nsọpụrụ ya. Hernán Cortés, dị ka ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ meriri Ụwa Ọhụrụ, sitere na mpaghara Extremadura nke Spen dara ogbenye. Ọ bụ onye ofufe nke Virgin nke Guadalupe nke Villuercas, onye ebe nsọ ya a ma ama dị nso n'ebe o si bịa, Medellín. Villuercas, tọrọ ntọala

ish na Portuguese mmeri, Hernán Cortés bịara Tenochtitlan (Mexico City taa) na 1519, n'okpuru ọkọlọtọ nchebe nke Onyeozi Santiago (Saint James) na Virgin Mary. N'uche ndị Spen, mmeri America bụ ịga n'ihu nke Reconquista ma ọ bụ Mweghachi nke Spain megidere narị afọ asatọ (AD 711–1492) nke ọchịchị Moors. Afọ 1492, ụbọchị akara “nchọpụta” America, nwere ọtụtụ uru. Ọ bụ afọ ikpeazụ e meriri ndị Moors na Granada na nchụpụ a chụpụrụ ndị Juu na Spen. Ihe omume ọzọ dị mkpa nke 1492 bụ mbipụta nke mbụ Spanish (Castilian) akwụkwọ ụtọ asụsụ na ụtọ asụsụ mbụ ebipụtara nke asụsụ obodo, Nkà nke Asụsụ Castillian, nke Antonio de Nebrija dere. Omume ndị a na-egosipụta ịnụ ọkụ n'obi iji mee ka ịdị n'otu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke ndị Spen sikwuo ike site 'na-asachapụ' okwukwe ha na site n'ịhazi asụsụ obodo nke Spain ọhụrụ e jikọrọ ọnụ. Egwu egwu egwu ama ama nke Moros na cristianos, ihe nnọchianya nke agha n'etiti Moors na Spaniards, nọgidere na New World dị ka Danza de la conquista, Danza de la pluma, na Tragedia de la muerte de Atahuallpa, site n'otu mgbanwe, ndị mmụọ nsọ ọhụrụ, ndị India, nọchiri Moors. Nwa agbọghọ na-amaghị nwoke, bụ́ nke ejikọrọ ya na oké osimiri, bụ ogologo oge onye nchebe nke ndị na-akwọ ụgbọ mmiri (Nuestra Señora de los Navegantes) na nke Mmeri ahụ. Cristobal Colón (Columbus) kpọrọ ụgbọ ala flagship ya "Santa María" na nsọpụrụ ya. Hernán Cortés, dị ka ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ meriri Ụwa Ọhụrụ, sitere na mpaghara Extremadura nke Spen dara ogbenye. Ọ bụ onye ofufe nke Virgin nke Guadalupe nke Villuercas, onye ebe nsọ ya a ma ama dị nso n'ebe o si bịa, Medellín. Villuercas, tọrọ ntọala na 1340 site n'aka Eze Alfonso XI, bụ ebe nsọ Spanish kacha amasị site na narị afọ nke iri na anọ ruo n'oge mmeri. O nwere ihe oyiyi ojii a ma ama, triangular, ihe oyiyi dị sentimita iri ise na itoolu dị elu nke Nwa agbọghọ na Kraịst nọ n'apata ya, nke onye ọzụzụ atụrụ n'ógbè ahụ chere na ọ chọtara ya na 1322 (Lafaye 1976: 217, 295). [Foto dị n'aka nri]

Otú ọ dị, ihe chọrọ nlebara anya anyị bụ ihe nnọchianya dị iche nke Nwa agbọghọ na-amaghị nwoke bụ́ Mary nke e bu n'elu ọkọlọtọ na-eso Cortés na Mmeri Mexico, ugbu a na Mexico City's Chapultepec Castle Museum. Onyonyo a na-egosi Meri dị nwayọọ, nke nwere akpụkpọ oliv nke nwere aka apịajide, isi ya gbadara ntakịrị n'aka ekpe, nke kewara ntutu n'etiti. Uwe na-acha uhie uhie na-eyi ya n'ahụ, okpueze nwere kpakpando iri na abụọ dịkwa n'isi uwe mwụda kpuchiri. Nsụgharị a nke Nwa agbọghọ na-amaghị nwoke bụ́ Meri yiri ọmarịcha ihe nnọchianya nke nwa agbọghọ na-amaghị nwoke nke Mexico nke Guadalupe. Ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme Italy Lorenzo Boturini (1702–1775) kọwara ọkọlọtọ Cortés si otú a: “E sere ihe oyiyi mara mma nke Virgin Mary na ya. O yikwasịrị okpueze ọla edo ma kpakpando ọla edo iri na abụọ gbara ya gburugburu. O ji aka ya na-ekpekọ ekpere, na-arịọ nwa ya nwoke ka o chebe ma nye ndị Spen ume ka ha wee merie ndị ọgọ mmụọ ma mee ka ha bụrụ ndị Kraịst" (nke e hotara na Tlapoyawa 2000). Dị ka Kurly Tlapoyawa si kwuo, onye India Markos Zipactli's (Marcos Cipac de Aquino's) eserese, nke edobere n'ụlọ nsọ Tepeyac, dabere na ọkọlọtọ Cortés. Onyonyo a yikwara ihe osise Ịtali nke narị afọ asatọ a na-akpọ Immaculata Tota Pulcra, [Foto dị n'aka nri] na 1509 Central Italian nnọchiteanya nke Madonna del Soccorso site na Lattanzio da Foligno na Francesco Melanzio. Otú ihu ya si dị, ụdị uwe mwụda ya na uwe mwụda ya, na ihe ndị gbara ya gburugburu na okpueze ya fọrọ nke nta ka ha yie nke Nwa agbọghọ Mexico na-amaghị nwoke nke Guadalupe. Ihe dị iche bụ na na eserese Madonna del Soccorso Mary nọchitere anya na-agbachitere nwa ya n'aka ekwensu na ụtarị ma ọ bụ osisi. Ọzọkwa, Francisco de San José, na nke ya akụkọ ihe mere eme, na-ekwusi ike na Guadalupe nke Mexico bụ ihe osise enyemaka nke Meri e debere n'òtù ukwe chere ihe oyiyi Guadalupe nke Spanish n'ebe nsọ Villuercas ya. N’aka nke ọzọ, Lafaye (1976:233) nakwa Maza (1981:14) na O’Gorman (1991:9–10) kwenyere na ihe mbụ ndị Spen debere na Tepeyac bụ nke Spanish Guadalupe, La. Extremeña, nke nanị afọ ole na ole ka e mesịrị, bụ nwa agbọghọ Mexico nọchiri anya ya. Lafaye chere na mgbanwe nke ihe oyiyi kwekọrọ na mgbanwe nke ụbọchị e mere ememe Guadalupe na Mexico site na December 8 ma ọ bụ 10 ruo December 12: “Anyị maara nke ọma . . . na ngbanwe nke onyinyo ahụ weere ọnọdụ mgbe 1575 na mgbanwe nke kalenda ụbọchị oriri mgbe 1600 gasịrị" (Lafaye 1976: 233). Disemba 8 bụ ụbọchị mmemme nke Virgin nke Guadalupe nke Villuercas, Spain, yana nke Virgin of the Immaculate Conception. Ozizi Fray Bustamante a tụlere na mbụ kwadoro echiche a.

Ma ọ pụtara na mmadụ ma ọ bụ na akwaaji, Guadalupe doro anya na ọ bụ ihe atụ, nwere ma ndị Katọlik na ndị Mesoamerican. Aha mbụ ya sitere na Arabic wadi (osimiri) na Latin lupus (wolf) (Zahoor 1997). Enweela nkọwa na-arụ ụka na aha Mexico Guadalupe sitere na Nahuatl Cuauhtlapcupeuh (ma ọ bụ Tecuauhtlacuepeuh), Onye Na-abịa site na Mpaghara nke Ìhè dị ka Ugo nke Ọkụ (Nebel 1996: 124), ma ọ bụ Coatlayopeuh, Ugo nke Na-aga n'elu Agwọ ahụ. (Palacios 1994:270). N'ụzọ dị ịtụnanya, aha Juan Diego bụ Cuauhtlatonzin (ma ọ bụ Cauhtlatoahtzin). Cuahtl pụtara "ugo," Tlahtoani bụ "onye na-ekwu okwu," Tzin pụtara "na-asọpụrụ." Nke a ga-atụ aro na Juan Diego bụ Ugo Onye Na-ekwu okwu, onye nwere ọkwa dị elu na Order of Eagle Knights, na-aga n'ihu na ozi nke eze ukwu Aztec ikpeazụ Cuauhtemoc, Ugo nke na-agbadata ("Ebee ka Aha Guadalupe si bịa?" 2000), mana ụfọdụ ndị ọkà mmụta na-enwe obi abụọ banyere ịdị adị nke Juan Diego. Ebe ọ bụ na asụsụ Nahuatl agụnyeghị ụda nke “d” na “g,” iji aha Guadalupe mee ihe nke pụtara n’elu pụrụ igosi mgbanwe n’asụsụ Arab-Spanish okwu.

Banyere akụkụ ndị ọzọ nke nwa agbọghọ Mexico na-amaghị nwoke nke Guadalupe, uwe ya kacha mkpa. Uwe elu Guadalupe abụghị acha anụnụ anụnụ, àgwà nke European Virgins, kama turquoise ma ọ bụ na-acha anụnụ anụnụ, nke na akụkọ ifo Aztec na-anọchi anya mmiri, ọkụ, ọganihu na ụba. [Foto dị n'aka nri] N'asụsụ ndị Mexico, dị ka Nahuatl, e nwere naanị otu okwu maka blue na akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ. Acha anụnụ anụnụ, jed, ma ọ bụ turquoise bụ agba dị nsọ, nnukwu onye nchụàjà Huitzilopochtli na-eyikwa ya. Turquoise bụkwa agba dị nsọ nke ụwa na ọnwa Nne Chi Tlazolteotl (Chi nke unyi), chi nwanyị mmiri na ọmụmụ ọmụmụ Chalcutlicue (Onye nwere uwe nke Green Stones), na ọkụ na chi agha nke ndịda, Huitzilopochtli. E kweere na chi a “na-ezuru nnọọ okè” nke nne ya, bụ́ chi nwanyị Coatlicue (Lady of the Serpent Skirt) tụụrụ ime. Blue bụkwa agba nke ndịda na nke ọkụ, na “n'asụsụ nkà mmụta okpukpe Mexico 'turquoise' pụtara 'ọkụ.'” N'aka nke ọzọ, uwe mwụda Virgin na-acha ọbara ọbara, na-egosi ọwụwa anyanwụ (ọwụwa anyanwụ), ntorobịa, obi ụtọ, na ịmụgharị ya (Soustelle 1959:33–85). Ya mere, akara Aztec nke isi agba nke Mary (acha uhie uhie na-acha anụnụ anụnụ) na-adaba na àgwà Ndị Kraịst ya dị ka nwa agbọghọ na-amaghị nwoke na nne tozuru okè. Ọ bụ ihe ịtụnanya n'ezie na ụda akpụkpọ ahụ nke ihu ma Guadalupe na mmụọ ozi ahụ na-acha aja aja, dị ka ọ dị na foto nke ọkọlọtọ Cortés na ihu ndị India n'onwe ha.

Mmekọrịta ndị ọzọ na-apụta n'akwụkwọ amụma dị n'etiti Guadalupe, nwanyị nke Apọkalips, na Nwa agbọghọ Na-amaghị Nwoke nke Immaculate Conception. Dị ka Akwụkwọ Mkpughe si kwuo, “oké ihe ebube pụtara n'eluigwe; otu nwaanyị nke yi anyanwụ yiri uwe, na ọnwa n’okpuru ụkwụ ya, okpueze n’isi ya nke nwere kpakpando iri na abụọ.”Edisana Bible). N'ihe nnọchianya Mexico ya tupu narị afọ nke iri na itoolu, Guadalupe yikwara okpueze nwere kpakpando iri na abụọ, dị na foto nke ọkọlọtọ Cortés. Mgbe e mesịrị, e kpochapụrụ okpueze ahụ. N'ụzọ doro anya, e megharịrị ihe pụrụ iche nke nwanyị Apọkalips kpọmkwem n'ihe oyiyi Virgin nke Guadalupe, bụ́ onye na-eyikwa uwe kpakpando, okpueze nke kpakpando iri na abụọ, bụ ụzarị anyanwụ gbara ya gburugburu, guzokwa n'elu ọnwa. Ihe ndị a na-ahụ maka mbara igwe (anyanwụ, ọnwa, na kpakpando) nyekwara òkè dị mkpa n'okpukpe Aztec. N'ezie, Tonacaciuatl, chi nwanyị nke eluigwe dị elu na Lady of Nutrition Anyị, ka a na-akpọkwa Citlalicue, Onye nwere Starry Skirt (Sustelle 1959: 102). Chi ndị ọzọ dị ka Xochiquetzal (Flowery Quetzal Feather), Tlazolteotl-Cihuapilli (Chi nwanyị nke Filth-Fair Lady), Temazcalteci (Nne nke Ụlọ ịsa ahụ), Mayahuel (Ọgbara Ike, Lady Maguey), na Tlazolteotl-Ixdyalth-Lazolteotl-Ixdyalth (Goddess-Lathss) Cotton) jiri ihe ịchọ mma yiri mgbanaka mee ihe dịka akụkụ nke uwe ha. Ọzọkwa, akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ ahụ sitere ná Mkpughe “Mgbe dragọn ahụ wee hụ na a chụdara ya n'ụwa, ọ kpagburu nwanyị ahụ . . . E nyekwara nwanyị ahụ nku abụọ nke nnukwu ugo, ka o wee fega n'ọzara, n'ebe a na-edozi ya" (nke e hotara na Quispel 1979: 162) dabara na akụkọ ntọala Aztec. Akụkọ a na-akọwa otú e si nye ndị Aztek ntụziaka ka ha chọọ akara ugo nke na-eri agwọ mgbe ọ nọ n'elu cactus nopal. Ihe ịrịba ama ahụ rụrụ ọrụ dị ka ihe ngosi nke Chineke nke ala nna na-adịgide adịgide, Tenochtitlan, maka ndị na-akwagharị na-abịa site na mpaghara ugwu Aztlán. Ebumnuche ugo na-eme ugboro ugboro na akụkọ ifo Aztec. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, chi nwanyị Ciuacoatl, ma ọ bụ Nwunye nke Agwọ (nke a na-akpọkwa Tonantzin), pụtara n'akụkụ dike ya nke e ji ábụbà ugo chọọ ya mma:

Ugo
Ugo Quilaztli
Na ọbara nke agwọ
Ọ̀ gbachiri ihu ya gburugburu
Na feathers mma
Ugo-plumb ọ na-abịa
, , ,
Nne anyi
Nwanyi agha
Nne anyi
Nwanyi agha
Deer nke Colhuacan
Na plumage n'usoro
("Abụ nke Ciuacoatl," Codex nke Florentine, Sahagún 1981, vol. 2:236).

Enwere ike ịhụ njikọ nke Nwa agbọghọ na-amaghị nwoke nke Guadalupe na ugo na cactus n'ihe ngosi ngosi nke New Spain na mmalite 1648, ọ na-esiwanye ike n'oge ọgba aghara nke ịhụ mba n'anya nke etiti narị afọ nke iri na asatọ.

Ntụaka mbụ nke akụkọ ihe mere eme banyere ofufe Guadalupe nke Mexico na-amaghị nwoke pụtara n'ụdị edemede Miguel Sánchez dere na 1648 na Lasso de la Vega na 1649. Dị ka Lafaye si kwuo, “ha nwere ihe pụrụ iche ọ pụtara . . . n'ihi na ha bụ nzọụkwụ mbụ iji mata Guadalupe dị ka akara mba Mexico." Bachiller Creole Sánchez kere ọhụụ amụma banyere Mmeri Spen, na-ekwu na “na Chineke mezuru atụmatụ ya magburu onwe ya n’ala Mexico a, merie n’ihi ihe ndị dị ebube dị otú ahụ, nwetara ka ihe oyiyi kasịnụ nke Chineke wee pụta n’ebe a.” Dị ka aha nke isi nke mbụ nke akwụkwọ ya, "Prophetic Original of the Holy Image Piously Pious Foreseen by Evangelist Saint John, n'Isi nke Iri na Abụọ nke Mkpughe," Sánchez na-esetịpụ myirịta n'etiti mpụta nke Guadalupe na Tepeyac na ọhụụ Saint John. nke Nwanyị nke Apọkalips na Patmọs (Lafaye 1976:248–51). Ihe osise nke narị afọ nke iri na asatọ, dị ka nke Gregorio José de Lara Visión de san Juan na Patmos Tenochtitlan na ndị na-amaghị aha Imagen de la Virgen de Guadalupe con san Miguel y san Gabriel y la visión de san Juan en Patmos Tenochtitlan, gosi ọhụụ Saint John banyere Guadalupe nwere nku na nke Guadalupe nke ugo Aztec so ya n'ugwu Tepeyac. Site n'inye ihe yiri ya ọ bụghị nanị n'etiti Nwanyị Apọkalips na Guadalupe kamakwa n'etiti Patmos na Tenochtitlan, ndị na-ese ihe n'ógbè ahụ gosipụtara Mexico dị ka ala a họọrọ. Echiche a gosikwara n'abụ abụ. Na 1690, Felipe Santoyo dere, sị:

Ka ụwa nwee mmasị;
Eluigwe, Nnụnụ, ndị mmụọ ozi na ndị mmadụ
kwụsịtụ nkwughachi,
kpachie olu:
n'ihi na na New Spain
banyere Jọn ọzọ ka a na-anụ
Apọkalips ọhụrụ,
ọ bụ ezie na mkpughe dị iche iche! (nke ekwuru na Maza 1981:113)

O doro anya na "nchọpụta nke eziokwu Mexico na Ala Nsọ na akwụkwọ amụma," yana nkwupụta ndị dị ka "Edewo m [akwụkwọ a] maka patria m, maka ndị enyi m na ndị enyi m, maka ụmụ amaala nke Ọhụrụ a. Ụwa” na “nsọpụrụ Mexico City . . . ebube nke ndị nile kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi bụ ndị bi n’ime ụwa ọhụrụ a” (e hotara na Lafaye 1976:250–51), mee Miguel Sánchez ka ọ bụrụ onye mba n’obodo Creole nke ihe odide ya nwere nsonaazụ dị mkpa maka ntọhapụ nke Mexico. Mmepe na iconography nke na-egosipụta akụkọ ihe mere eme Mexico na-eme ka o doo anya na Virgin nke Guadalupe enwetawo ụlọ ọrụ na-arịwanye elu na mpaghara ọha na eze na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị.

N'ezie, ọ dị mkpa maka ụlọ ọrụ nchebe dị ike n'etiti ndị bi na New Spain. Site ná ngwụsị narị afọ nke iri na asaa ruo n’etiti narị afọ nke iri na asatọ, ọtụtụ puku mmadụ dabara ná ọdachi ndị dị ka idei mmiri, ala ọma jijiji, na ọrịa na-efe efe kwa afọ. E nwekwara ngwa ngwa maka ọdịdị nke ihe atụ nke nwa afọ, nke nwere ike ime ka agbụrụ, agbụrụ, ọdịbendị, na klaasị dị iche iche nke Mexico dị n'otu, na-eje ozi maka ebumnuche nke njirimara, na ịkụnye mpako mba. Echiche akụkọ ihe mere eme na-akọwa ihe kpatara Guadalupe ji bụrụ ọnụnọ sine qua non n'oge oge colonial; ọ dịghị ihe dị mkpa oyiyi ma ọ bụ omume nke a ga-ahapụ ya. Ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke narị afọ nke iri na itoolu bụ́ Mexico Ignacio Manuel Altamirano zoro aka n'ememe Guadalupe e mere na 1870 mgbe o dere na ofufe Guadalupe mere ka “agbụrụ nile dị n'otu . . . klas niile . . . nkedo niile . . . echiche niile nke ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị anyị . . . Okpukpe nke nwa agbọghọ Mexico bụ nanị njikọ nke na-ejikọta ha" (nke e hotara na Gruzinski: 199-209).

Mmụba nke nraranye a na Guadalupe nabatara mkpa Creoles nwere ịchọta akụkụ nke ha nke ga-amata ọdịiche dị n'etiti ha na ndị Spen: “[T] ebe a ga-enwekwa ndị Creoles, bụ́ ndị na narị afọ nke iri na asaa ga-enye ọnọdụ doro anya. akụkọ ihe mere eme na guadalupanismo(Maza 1981:40). N’ihi ya, e wuru ebe nsọ Spanish nke mbụ na Tepeyac na 1609. N’ihe dị ka n’afọ 1629, ndị njem ala nsọ rịọrọ ya ka ọ napụta ndị mmadụ n’ihe ize ndụ nke idei mmiri na-esi na Tepeyac gaa Mexico City mee ihe oyiyi Guadalupe. N'ịbụ onye nwetaworo ihe mgbaru ọsọ a, a kpọsara Guadalupe "onye na-echebe ndị isi megide mmekpa ahụ," ma "o nwetara ikike n'elu ihe nchebe ndị ọzọ nke obodo" (Lafaye 1976: 254). Ka ọ na-erule ná ngwụsị narị afọ nke iri na asaa, e gbakwụnyere akụkọ ifo n’ihe oyiyi Guadalupe, si otú ahụ mee ka ihe nnọchianya ya zuo ezuo. Akụkọ ifo ahụ, Non fecit talliter omni nationali ([Chineke] emebeghị otú ahụ maka mba ọ bụla), bụ Fada Florencia wepụrụ site n’Abụ Ọma 147. Ọ ghọrọ ihe jikọrọ ya na ihe oyiyi dị nsọ (Lafaye 1976: 258), na-ewusi mba ya ike. agwa. Ma, ọ bụ n'ihe dị ka n'etiti narị afọ nke iri na asatọ ka Guadalupe ghọrọ ebe bụ́ isi na-ekpo ọkụ. Na 1737, a kpọsara ihe oyiyi ahụ dị ka onye na-elekọta obodo Mexico City, na, na 1746, nke New Spain nile. Na 1754, Pope Benedict XIV kwadoro iyi nkwado a, na ezumike Guadalupe ka e hiwere na kalenda Katọlik (Gruzinski 1995: 209).

Nne anyi nke Guadalupe rụkwara oke oke n’agha nke nnwere onwe sitere na Spain (1810–1821). E buziri ya na ọkọlọtọ ndị nnupụisi ahụ, nke Fada Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla na-edu na mgbe e mesịrị Fada José María Morelos, na-emegide ndị eze Spain bụ ndị bu Peninsular Virgen de los Remedios.. Onye isi ala mbụ nke Mexico nwere onwe ya gbanwere aha ya site na Manuel Félix Fernández gaa Guadalupe Victoria n'ịsọpụrụ Virgin ịhụ mba n'anya. Mgbalị ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na mmekọrịta ọha na eze ndị Mexico ndị ọzọ, dị ka Agha nke Ndozigharị (Guerra de la Reforma, 1854-1857), Mgbanwe Mexico (1910-1918), na Cristeros Rebellion (1927-1929), ka emekwara n'okpuru ọkọlọtọ nke Guadalupe (Herrera-Sobek 1990:41–43). Usoro nke ibuli elu nke Virgin nke Guadalupe na nke Juan Diego na-aga n'ihu. Na July 30, 2002, Popu John Paul nke Abụọ kpọpụrụ onye India bụ́ Mexico, na-akpọ ya onye senti nke Chọọchị Katọlik. Emere nke a n'agbanyeghị na ọbụna ụfọdụ ndị ụkọchukwu Katọlik Mexico, dị ka nna Manuel Olimón Nolasco, na-enwe obi abụọ banyere ịdị adị nke Juan Diego (Olimón Nolasco 2002: 22). N'aka nke ya, na December 1, 2000, mgbe e ṅụsịrị iyi dị ka onyeisi oche Mexico ọhụrụ, Vicente Fox duziri nzọụkwụ mbụ ya na Virgin nke Guadalupe Basilica na ugwu Tepeyac, bụ ebe ọ rịọrọ Virgin maka amara na nchebe n'oge ọchịchị ya. Nke a bụ ikpe a na-enwetụbeghị ụdị ya na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị Mexico (“Fox empezó la jornada en la Basílica” 2000), dị ka nkewa siri ike n'etiti ụka na steeti ka etinyere n'iwu kemgbe Mgbanwe mgbanwe Mexico. Ọzọkwa, Nwa agbọghọ na-amaghị nwoke nke Guadalupe kwuru na ha meriri omenala na iwu ndị ọchịchị.

Site na mmalite, e gosipụtara mmetụta ịhụ mba n'anya nke Virgin nke Guadalupe na iconography na ihe ngosi ndị ọzọ. Ka ihe oyiyi ya nwetara uru mba na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na-abawanye ụba, a na-etinye ya n'elu uwe agha Aztec (ugo na-eri agwọ n'elu nopal (prickly pear) na Mexico City-Tenochtitlan. Mgbe ụfọdụ, a na-ese onyinyo ahụ site na ihe atụ na-anọchi anya America na Europe. , dị ka ọ dị na eserese narị afọ nke iri na asatọ Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de México, Patrona de la Nueva España (Nwanyị anyị nke Guadalupe, Onye nlekọta nke New Spain) (lee Cuadriello, Artes de Mexico 52). N'ime Ihe osise Josefus de Ribera na Argomanis nke 1778 Verdadero retrato de santa María Virgen de Guadalupe, patrona principal de la Nueva España jurada en México. (Ezigbo Eserese nke Holy Mary Virgin of Guadalupe, Main Patron of New Spain Sworn in Mexico), onye India na-abụghị nke Ndị Kraịst na-anọchite anya America, na Juan Diego, onye Europe nwere mmetụta na-ese onyinyo ya. Na nka nke oge a, anyị na-ahụ Mexico na-aga n'ihu nke Guadalupe na-egosipụta n'iji agba nke ọkọlọtọ Mexico (acha uhie uhie, akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ na ọcha) nakwa na ịgba ọchịchịrị na India nke atụmatụ ya. [Foto dị n'aka nri]

Ya mere, Guadalupe rụrụ ọrụ dị mkpa na mgba Mexico maka nnwere onwe pụọ n'aka ndị mmegide si mba ọzọ, maka nnwere onwe, na maka ikpe ziri ezi nke ọha mmadụ.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Asọpụrụ anyị nwanyị Guadalupe, nke a na-akpọkwa Virgin nke Guadalupe, bụ akụkụ nke okpukpe Katọlik, na Guadalupe bụ otu n'ime ihe ngosi nke Virgin Mary (Nne nke Chineke). Ekwenyere na ọ bụ ya bụ onye mụrụ Onye-nzọpụta, Jisus Kraịst, tụụrụ ime n’ụzọ dị ebube, n’etinyeghị aka nke mmadụ. E kwenyekwara na Meri n'onwe ya tụrụ ime n'ụzọ na-enweghị ntụpọ, n'ihi ya, a na-akpọ otu n'ime okwu ya Echiche Na-adịghị Mma. N'ime ọtụtụ ihe ngosi ndị ọzọ, e nwere Nwa agbọghọ na-amaghị nwoke nke ogidi, nke El Carmen, nke Montserrat, nke Fatima, nke Sorrows, nke Regla, nke Częstochowa, wdg. Ụfọdụ n'ime ha bụ oji, ụfọdụ agba aja aja, na ndị ọzọ na-acha ọcha. Mgbe ụfọdụ, a na-egosi na nwa agbọghọ na-amaghị nwoke nọ ọdụ na nwa ya dị nsọ n'apata ya, na ndị ọzọ ọ na-eguzo naanị ya; ka o sina dị, ihe oyiyi ya nile na-ezo aka n'otu Meri mere eme bụ́ onye bi na Nazaret ma mụọ Jizọs na Betlehem, ná mmalite nke Oge Anyị. Ndị na-efe ofufe na-asọpụrụ Virgin dị ka Guadalupe, mgbe mgbe karịa chi ọ bụla ọzọ nke ụka, na-etinye ihe oyiyi na ebe ịchụàjà ya n'ụlọ ha. Ha na-ele ya anya dị ka nne na-echebe ya bụ́ onye na-anọnyere ha mgbe nile, na-azụ ha ma na-echebe ha pụọ ​​n’ihe ize ndụ, karịsịa n’oge agha na ọdachi. Ihe omume a na-eme n'ofe klaasị ọha, mana ọ bụ ihe a ma ama n'etiti ndị na-enweghị ikike na-enweta ihe isi ike na nnukwu mkpa. Nke a abụghị omenala ọhụrụ, ebe ọ bụ na nwa agbọghọ na-amaghị nwoke bụ onye nketa nke nnukwu chi nwanyị nke ndụ, ọnwụ, na mmalite dị ka nne na-azụ ma na-echebe ụmụ ha, ma na-anabatakwa ha n'oge ọnwụ.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Ememe maka Virgin nke Guadalupe bụ otu ihe ahụ a na-eme maka Marys na-amaghị nwoke, ha gụnyere Rosaries, Novenas, na ọtụtụ. Kpọmkwem, e nwere nnukwu njem njem mba ụwa kwa afọ na basilica ya na ugwu Tepeyac dị na Mexico City, ebe ndị obodo na ụdị ndụ niile na-abịarute, mgbe mgbe ha gachara ruo ọtụtụ izu, na mgbe ụfọdụ na-egbu ikpere n'ala, iji nye ya. nsọpụrụ na Disemba 12, ụbọchị oriri ya. Nke a bụ ụlọ nsọ Katọlik kacha eleta n'ụwa (Orcult 2012). Omume ọzọ na-emekarị bụ arịrịọ, nkwa (votos) na onyinye nke ex-votos, ihe ndị na-amasị ndị na-efe ofufe bụ ndị nwa agbọghọ na-amaghị nwoke nyere amara. Ha na-agụnye ọla, crotches, na ihe atụ ihe nnọchianya nke nhụjuanya ndị a gwọrọ, ma ọ bụ nke amara ndị e nyere. Ọ na-apụta n'ihe osise na ebe ịchụàjà, ma n'ụlọ ụka ma n'ebe ọha na eze ndị ọzọ, yana n'ebe obibi ndị mmadụ na-akpachi anya. Ọtụtụ mgbe, ọ bụ ihe a na-arụ n'ụlọ arụsị n'ihu ụlọ ndị mmadụ, n'ụlọ, na n'okporo ụzọ ọha. [Image na nri]

Ọ na-enye nchebe na nduzi nye ndị kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi ma kwenyere na ọ bụ ọrụ ebube. Ọ bụ ezie na nraranye ya bụ akụkụ nke okpukpe Katọlik, ọ gafere ókèala okpukpe, na n'ọtụtụ ọnọdụ, òtù nzuzo nke Virgin Guadalupe na-eguzo naanị ya, n'agbanyeghị okwukwe nke ndị okpukpe. Ekwenyere na nwanyị anyị bụ nwanyị kachasị ọcha na akara ya bụ rose nwere agba.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Nhazi na ndu nke nraranye nye Nwanyị anyi nke Guadalupe na-apụta n'ime usoro Ụka Katọlik, mana otu dị iche iche, dị ka Guadalupanas, na ndị na-ahazi Rosaries na ihe omume ndị ọzọ maka nsọpụrụ ya, bụ ndị ụmụ nwanyị na-edu. Sociedades Guadalupanas (Ndị Guadalupe Societies) bụ òtù okpukpe Katọlik nke ndị inyom America Mexico kwadoro na 1942 ("Guadalupanas"; "Sociedades Guadalupanas"). Ụbọchị Guadalupe kachasị mkpa bụ Disemba 12, Ememme Guadalupe, mgbe ọtụtụ nde ndị njem ala nsọ na-eleta basilica ya na Mexico City, kamakwa n'ọtụtụ ebe ndị ọzọ na mpaghara. Enwere nnukwu netwọkụ akpọrọ Guadalupe ụka, ụlọ arụsị, na ụlọ ụka ọkachasị na Mexico, Latin America, United States. Basilica dị na Mexico City nke nwere ihe osise dị ebube nke Guadalupe nke e depụtara na Juan Diego's tilma (mkpuchi) nke boro ebubo na ọ guzogidere ca. Afọ 500 na-enweghị mmebi, bụ saịtị Katọlik kacha eleta n'ụwa. Kemgbe etiti narị afọ nke iri na asatọ, mgbe akpọpụtara Nwanyị anyị nke Guadalupe dị ka onye nkwado nke New Spain, ma guzobe ezumike ya, ndị poopu dị iche iche akwadowo ya. E chiri ya okpueze n’ụbọchị oriri ya na 1895, ma kpọpụtakwara ya ịbụ onye nkwado nke Latin America na 1910, na nke Philippines na 1935. Na 1966, popu Paul VI nyere ya rose ọla edo ihe atụ, na 2013 site n’aka popu Francis. Pope John Paul II nyere Juan Diego n'afọ 2002, ma kwupụta Nwanyị anyị nke Guadalupe Patroness of the Americas ("Our Lady of Guadalupe").

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Kemgbe mmalite nke nraranye nke Virgin nke Guadalupe, enwere esemokwu n'etiti aparicionistas na antiaparicinistas, dị ka akọwara n'elu. Ndị nke mbụ kwenyesiri ike na ọdịdị ọrụ ebube nke Guadalupe na Tepeyac Hill na 1531. Ndị nke ikpeazụ na-ekwu na e nyere onye na-ese ihe na-eme ihe nkiri bụ Marcos Cipac de Aquino ihe oyiyi ọhụrụ ya onye na-ese ya na-agbaso ihe oyiyi omenala nke Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception, gụnyere nke Mexico. ọkọlọtọ Hernán Cortés meriri. N'echiche ikpeazụ a, Ewubere onwe ya na nraranye ya maka ebumnuche nke Iso Ụzọ Kraịst n'oge oge ọchịchị. Mgbe e mesịrị, ọ jere ozi dị ka ike na-emekọ ihe maka mba Mexico nke ọtụtụ agbụrụ na nkwalite nke ịhụ mba n'anya. Na mgbakwunye, mgbanwe ndị dị ugbu a na ntinye nke onyonyo ya, ọkachasị ndị otu Chicanx US, iji wepụta echiche ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, mmekọrịta ọha na eze, ma ọ bụ nwanyị, na-enwekarị nnukwu esemokwu, na ịjụ ụka na ndị Katọlik ọdịnala. Mmepe nke afọ iri abụọ gara aga bụ asọmpi dị n'etiti Guadalupe na ndị nsọ na-akwadoghị, karịsịa La Santa Muerte, [Foto dị n'aka nri] nke na-esote ya na-abawanye ụba. Ọtụtụ ndị na-efe ofufe na-eche na a gbahapụrụ ha ma tụkwasị obi na chọọchị na ụlọ ọrụ obodo, ma na-ahọrọ ikpe ekpere nye ndị dị nsọ dị ike nke na-adịghị ekpe ha ikpe ma na-achọghị ndị na-emekọrịta ihe, dị ka La Santa Muerte (lee Oleszkiewicz-Peralba 2015: 103-35).

Foto

Foto #1: Nwanyị anyị nke Guadalupe, Villuercas, Spain (Site na ebe nchekwa nke Antonio D. Portago).
Foto #2: Immaculata Tota Pulchra, Italy, 8th Afọ.
Foto #3: Virgin nke Guadalupe, Basilica nke Guadalupe, Mexico City.
Foto #4: Nwa agbọghọ na-amaghị nwoke nke Guadalupe nwere agba nke ọkọlọtọ Mexico. Foto sitere n'aka onye edemede.
Foto #5: Ebe ịchụàjà okporo ụzọ nke Guadalupe. El Paso Street, San Antonio, Texas. Foto sitere n'aka onye edemede.
Foto #6: Santa Muerte dị ka Nwanyị anyị nke Guadalupe. Mkpuchi, La biblia de la santa muerte.

References

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