Donna T. Haverty-Stacke

Grace Holmes Carlson

GRACE HOLMES CARLSON TIMELINE

1906 (November 13): A mụrụ Grace Holmes nye Mary Nuebel Holmes na James Holmes na St. Paul, Minnesota.

1906 (December 9): Emere Holmes baptizim na Chọọchị Roman Katọlik na St. Peter Claver na St. Paul, Minnesota.

1922: Nna Holmes, James, sonye na ntigbu nke ụlọ ahịa Railroad Shopmen.

1924–1929: Holmes gara kọleji St. Catherine na St. Paul.

1926 (May 11): Nne Holmes, Mary, nwụrụ.

1929–1933: Holmes gara Mahadum Minnesota wee nweta Ph.D. n'afọ 1933.

1934 (okpomọkụ): Holmes hụrụ na ndị otu egwuregwu Minneapolis gburu.

1934 (July 28): Holmes na Gilbert Carlson lụrụ.

1935–1940: E were Grace Holmes Carlson n'ọrụ dị ka onye ndụmọdụ nrụzigharị aka ọrụ maka Ngalaba Mmụta Minnesota.

1937: Carlson hapụrụ Chọọchị Katọlik wee kewapụ na Gilbert.

1937 (December) - 1938 (Jenụwarị): Carlson jere ozi dị ka onye nnọchiteanya na mgbakọ ntọala nke Trotskyist Socialist Workers Party (SWP) na Chicago.

1940 (Septemba 1): Carlson gbara arụkwaghịm na Ngalaba Mmụta wee gbaa ọsọ maka Senate US site na Minnesota.

1941 (July): Carlson na ndị Trotskyists iri abụọ na asatọ ka e boro ebubo na Minneapolis maka imebi iwu Smith.

1941 (December): Carlson na ndị ikpe iri na asaa ndị ọzọ ka a mara ikpe ma tụọ ha mkpọrọ.

1942: Carlson gbara ọsọ maka onyeisi obodo St. Paul, Minnesota.

1944 (Jenụwarị)–1945 (Jenụwarị): Carlson jere mkpọrọ n’ụlọ mkpọrọ Alderson.

1945 (June-September): Carlson duziri njem nlegharị anya nke "ụmụ nwanyị nọ n'ụlọ mkpọrọ" na mba ya wee bipụta akụkọ gbasara mgba ụmụ nwanyị na-arụ ọrụ na Onye agha.

1946: Carlson gbara ọsọ maka United States Senate si Minnesota.

1948: Carlson gbara ọsọ maka osote onye isi ala US na Farrell Dobbs onye gbara ọsọ maka onye isi ala na mkpọsa mba mbụ nke SWP.

1950: Carlson gbara ọsọ maka US Congress si Minnesota.

1951: Nna Carlson James Holmes, nnukwu mmetụta na ndụ ya, nwụrụ.

1952 (June 18): Carlson kwụsịrị na SWP, laghachi na Chọọchị Katọlik, ma jikọta ya na Gilbert.

1952 (November)–1955 (August): Carlson rụrụ ọrụ dị ka odeakwụkwọ na ngalaba nlekọta ụmụaka nke St. Mary's Hospital na Minneapolis ma tinye aka na ọrụ ebere dị iche iche.

1955 (August)–1957 (Eprel): Carlson rụrụ ọrụ dịka onye ntụzi-aka na-elekọta mmadụ maka ụlọ akwụkwọ nọọsụ nke St. Mary's Hospital; Carlson kwuru okwu ihu ọha n’ihu òtù ndị Katọlik n’isiokwu ndị dị ka “Nlaghachikwute Chineke” na “The Paradox of Communism.”

1957 (Eprel): E goro Carlson ụgwọ dịka onye nkuzi na Ngalaba Nọọsụ na College of St. Catherine.

1957–1965: Carlson kwusara okwu ndị Katọlik dị iche iche na ndị na-ege ntị na ụwa gbasara mkpa ndị Katọlik na-eso ndịozi nakwa n'ụzọ ọrụ ụmụ nwanyị.

1964: Carlson na Nwanna nwanyị AJ Moore, CSJ, wepụtara St. Mary's Plan, atụmatụ ntọala maka St. Mary's Junior College (SMJC) ọhụrụ na Minneapolis ebe e goro Carlson dị ka prọfesọ nke nkà mmụta uche.

1968: Carlson kwuru okwu ya, “Ntụleghachi nke ndị Katọlik na ndị ekpe.”

1979: Carlson lara ezumike nká na nkuzi na SMJC wee malite kọlụm "Carlson's Continuing Commentary" na akwụkwọ akụkọ kọleji. Ozi ọma.

1980–1984: Carlson rụrụ ọrụ n'ụlọ ọrụ SMJC alumnae.

1982: Carlson hiwere Grace Carlson Student Loan Loan Fund iji nyere ụmụ akwụkwọ SMJC aka na obere ego mgbazinye ego na-enweghị ọmụrụ nwa.

1984: Carlson hapụrụ ndị okenye ya na ọrụ akwụkwọ akụkọ na SMJC iji lekọta Gilbert nke nwụrụ na May 13.

1988: Carlson kwagara Madison, Wisconsin.

1992 (July 7): Grace Holmes Carlson nwụrụ mgbe ọ dị afọ iri asatọ na ise.

BIOGRAPHY

A zụlitere Grace Holmes Carlson [Foto dị n'aka nri] onye Katọlik na St. Paul, Minnesota, ma hapụrụ Chọọchị na njedebe 1930 na njedebe nke oké ịda mbà n'obi iji nweta ọrụ na Trotskyist Socialist Workers Party (SWP). Ihe karịrị afọ iri, dịka onye nhazi, onye ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, na onye nyere aka na akwụkwọ akụkọ otu ahụ, Onye agha, ọ raara ndụ ya nye SWP. Mgbe ọ laghachiri na Chọọchị Katọlik na 1952, Carlson ewepụghị nghọta Marxist ya banyere mkpa ọ dị iwepụ ịkpa ókè agbụrụ. O lere nkwa ya n'ịgbaso ikpe ziri ezi nke ọha mmadụ site na oghere Marxist mana, dị ka onye Katọlik ọzọ, ọ ghọtakwara nkwa ahụ dị ka ozi ozi ọma itinye onwe ya n'ihe gbasara ụwa iji "weghachite ihe niile nye Kraịst" (Carlson 1957). Carlson na-arụ ọrụ a dị ka nwanyị nkịtị na-arụsi ọrụ ike na parish ya, dịka onye nkuzi na St. Mary's Junior College (SMJC), na dịka onye na-ekwu okwu ọha. N'adịghị ka a maara nke ọma ọnụ ọgụgụ nke Catholic ekpe, dị ka Ụbọchị Dorothy, Carlson ewereghị ụzọ onwe onye maka okwukwe na mgbanwe mmekọrịta mmadụ. O kweghịkwa n'omume ịgba akaebe n'otu n'otu dị ka nguzogide, dịka ndị Fada Daniel na Philip Berrigan mere nke ọma. Kama, ọ nọgidere na-agba mbọ ime mgbanwe mmekọrịta ọha na eze na nke akụ na ụba site n'ihe ọ kpọrọ ngwa ngwa na "usoro mmụta na-arụsi ọrụ ike nke ịkụziri na ịgbasa mgbasa ozi" (Carlson 1970) n'ikwu okwu n'ihu ọha na n'ọrụ ya na SMJC.

A mụrụ Grace Holmes na St. Paul, Minnesota na 1906 n'ime ezinụlọ ndị Katọlik nke Irish na German na-arụ ọrụ. Ụmụ nwanyị okpukpe ndị kụziiri ya na St. Vincent's parish school, St. Joseph's Academy high school, na College of St. Catherine (CSC) [Foto dị n'aka nri] bụ mmetụta na-emepụta ihe. Site na nkuzi okpukperechi na mmemme ndị ọzọ, ụmụnna nwanyị St. Joseph nke Carondelet kuziri Carlson na ijere mmadụ niile ozi n’enweghị ihe ọ bụla bụ ụzọ isi jeere Chineke ozi. Akwukwo nso na ozi ntọlite ​​ụmụnna nwanyị ka akọwara nzikọrịta ozi ha gbasara ọrụ ozi-ọma a. Ụmụnwaanyị ndị a ji okpukpe kpọrọ ihe, tinyere ndị ụkọchukwu parish bụ ndị Fada John Ryan nyere ọzụzụ na St. Paul Seminary nke Archbishọp John Ireland hiwere, kpughekwara Carlson n'ozizi mmekọrịta ọha na eze nke Ụka Katọlik banyere ùgwù ọrụ, izi ezi nke òtù ndị ọrụ, na mkpa maka ụgwọ ọrụ ziri ezi iji kwado ndụ dị mma maka ndị ọrụ. N'ime ọtụtụ ederede Carlson gụrụ dị ka onye na-agụghị akwụkwọ na CSC bụ Pope Leo XIII's 1891 encyclical, Ọkpụkpụ Novarum, bụ́ nke kwalitere ozizi ọha mmadụ ndị a. Ya mere, ọ matara arụmụka nke Nzukọ-nsọ ​​maka nkwuputa ndị ọrụ maka ugwu mmadụ ha site na nkwado nke ọrụ na ego. Ma Carlson gụkwara akwụkwọ n'ịdị n'otu nke ndị ọrụ na esemokwu klaasị mgbe nna ya, James Holmes, bụ onye na-ere ọkụ na Great Northern Railway, sonyeere ndị na-ere ahịa ụgbọ okporo ígwè ibe ya n'ọrụ na 1922. Carlson chetara ndị ọzọ, na-enweghị ego, na-emetụta ọrụ ya na-eto eto. -klas na ọha-ikpe ziri ezi gbakwasara nsụhọ, gụnyere nne nne ya onye na-agụ Mkpesa Socialist.

Mgbe Carlson malitere akwụkwọ ngụsị akwụkwọ ya na Mahadum Minnesota na 1929, o kpebisiri ike na-enyere ndị a na-erigbu aka ma nwee njirimara klaasị siri ike. Mgbe ọ nwetasịrị Ph.D. na akparamaagwa na 1933, ọ ghọrọ onye ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ma kwado mkpọsa Minnesota Farmer-Labor Party nke Floyd Olson maka gọvanọ. Ma n'oge okpomọkụ nke 1934, ka ọ na-ahụ na Minneapolis Teamsters pụtara, ọ dọtara mmasị na Marxism mgbanwe nke ndị isi Trotskyist nke nkwụsị ọrụ ahụ kwadoro. Carlson malitere ịga nzukọ Sọnde kwa izu nke mmegide aka ekpe nke ndị Kọmunist (dị ka ndị na-eso ụzọ Leon Trotsky, bụ ndị a chụpụrụ na Communist Party na 1928, bịara mara) wee mụta maka ntinye aka ha na socialism mgbanwe mba ụwa. Mwakpo 1934 bụ oge ọmụmụ ihe na njirimara ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ya na-agbanwe, dịka afọ ya na-arụ ọrụ dị ka onye ndụmọdụ nhazigharị aka ọrụ (1935-1940). Mgbe ọ gbalịsiri ike inyere ndị ahịa nwere nkwarụ aka ịchọta ọrụ na akụ na ụba na-akụda mmụọ na ka ọ na-aga Trotskyist Sunday Forums, ọ bịara kwere na ọ bụ naanị socialism ga-egbo mkpa akụ na ụba ndị mmadụ. Ka Carlson na nwanne ya nwanyị Dorothy nwere ntụkwasị obi karịa na ndị Trotskyists, di Carlson Gilbert, nwa akwụkwọ iwu nke ọ lụrụ na Julaị 1934, bịara kpachara anya. N'ịbụ onye ụkọchukwu nọ n'ógbè ahụ dọrọ aka ná ntị na mmadụ apụghị ịbụ ezigbo onye Katọlik na onye na-elekọta mmadụ n'otu oge, Gilbert Carlson aghọghị onye òtù nke ndị mmegide ekpe. Otú ọ dị, Grace Carlson mere: o sonyeere ndị Trotskyists na Party Workers na 1936. N'oge ụfọdụ n'ime oge a, Grace na Gilbert kewara na Grace hapụrụ Chọọchị Katọlik. Carlson ghọrọ onye nnọchi anya mgbakọ ahụ na Chicago ebe ndị Trotskyists hiwere otu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị mgbanwe mgbanwe nke ha, Socialist Workers Party, na Jenụwarị 1938.

N'ime afọ iri na anọ sochirinụ, Carlson bụ onye dị mkpa na SWP, na-eje ozi dị ka onye nhazi steeti na Minnesota wee bụrụ nwanyị mbụ jere ozi na Kọmitii Mba nke otu ahụ. Na 1941, Carlson nwetara aha ama dị ka otu n'ime Trotskyists iri abụọ na itoolu bụ ndị otu ndị juri gọọmenti etiti boro ebubo maka imebi iwu 1940 Smith. Ọ bụ otu n'ime mmadụ iri na asatọ ahụ a mara ikpe n'ikpeazụ maka ịgba mbọ ịkwado ọchịchị ime ihe ike n'ihi nkwenkwe ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ya. Na Disemba 8, 1941, a tụrụ ya mkpọrọ ọnwa iri na isii n'ụlọ mkpọrọ gọọmenti etiti. Mgbe mkpegharị ikpe dara ada, Carlson jere ozi nanị ihe karịrị otu afọ n'ụlọ mkpọrọ Alderson, a tọhakwa ya na parole na Jenụwarị 1945. Ọ nọgidere na-arụsi ọrụ ike na SWP, na-eduzi mba ahụ dum.
na-ekwu njem nlegharị anya na "Ụmụ nwanyị nọ n'ụlọ mkpọrọ," na-ede akwụkwọ akụkọ otu ahụ, Onye agha, na-arụ ọrụ dị ka onye nhazi oriri na ọṅụṅụ na Minnesota na New York City, na-agba ọsọ maka ọfịs na mkpọsa dị iche iche, gụnyere maka osote onyeisi oche nke United States na 1948. agbụrụ na June mgbe ọ mara ọkwa na ọ na-ahapụ SWP na-alaghachi na Chọọchị Katọlik.

Ọpụpụ Carlson na SWP sitere na nkeonwe, ọ bụghị nke ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, ebumnuche. Nna ya, James, nwụrụ na Septemba 1951 na ọnwụ ya mere ka Carlson ghọta na ọ chọkwuru Chineke azụ na ndụ ya. Marxism adịkwaghịzi enwezi azịza nile, ma ọ na-esiri ya ike ịnakwere òkù okwukwe ya. O mechara kọwaa otú "Echere m na m na-achọ afọ ojuju onwe m na ịrara mmegharị ahụ" (Romer 1952: 8). Ọ nọrọ ọnwa ole na ole na-agbasi mbọ ike na mmetụta ya. Na mkparịta ụka ya na Fada Leonard Cowley, onye ụkọchukwu duziri ya n'ịlaghachi na Ụka, ọ kọwara na ọ bụghị iwu na ya ga-ahọrọ n'etiti Chineke ya na "echiche ya banyere nsogbu ọha mmadụ ma ọ bụrụhaala na ọ megideghị ụkpụrụ omume. (Ndị Rom 1952:8). Site na mmesi obi ike nke a, Carlson hapụrụ SWP na June 1952 wee sonye na Ụka ​​Katọlik n'echiche Marxist ya nke ọma. Ya na di ya bụ́ Gilbert jikọtarakwa n’oge a.

Dịka Marxist, nlọghachi Carlson na Ụka ​​Katọlik n'oge oge McCarthy adịghị mfe, ma n'oge na-adịghị anya ọ chọtara ndị ọzọ na-aga n'ihu na gburugburu ebe ọ ga-enwe ike ịchụso ofufe ime mmụọ ya na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ya. Ndị a gụnyere St. Mary's Junior College dị na Minneapolis. Mgbe ọ hapụsịrị SWP na 1952 ọ na-esiri Carlson ike ịchọta ọrụ n'ihi na edebanyela ya n'akwụkwọ. Nwanna nwanyị Rita Clare Brennan, otu n’ime ụmụnna nwanyị St. Joseph nke Carondelet, nyeere ya aka inweta ọrụ odeakwụkwọ n’ụlọ ọgwụ St. Mary. Ka ọ na-erule 1957, e goro Carlson ka ọ kụzie na mmemme nọọsụ ụlọ ọgwụ wee bụrụ onye dị mkpa na ngalaba ngalaba na ihe ghọrọ St. Mary's Junior College (SMJC). Ọ nwere mmasị na ohere nke "ịkụzi na ịme ikpe ziri ezi" ruo mgbe ọ lara ezumike nká na 1979. Ya na Nwanna Nwanyị AJ Moore, CSJ, Carlson dekọrọ atụmatụ ntọala maka kọleji na 1964 nke na-akpọ maka agụmakwụkwọ nkà na-emesapụ aka sara mbara iji kwado na ọzụzụ nkà na ụzụ maka ụmụ akwụkwọ nọọsụ ka ha wee nwee ike iji nkà ha na-ejere ndị ọzọ ozi dị ka ụzọ isi jeere Chineke ozi. Carlson webatara ozi a n'ọtụtụ ọrụ afọ ofufo ya n'ime na n'azụ ụlọ akwụkwọ. Ọ ghọrọ onye ndụmọdụ maka ụmụ akwụkwọ nwanyị na-enweghị atụ, kwupụta ọtụtụ okwu ihu ọha n'oge ngwụcha 1950s na 1960 nke o kwuputara ọhụụ ya nke onye Katọlik na-akwado ndị mmụọ ozi, wepụtara onwe ya n'ụlọ maka ụmụ nwanyị nọ n'ihe ize ndụ na Minneapolis, wee jee ozi na kọmitii liturgy parish ya. . Carlson hụrụ na ndị Katọlik bụ ndịozi (ụka na-akụzi na ndị nkịtị niile bụ ndị Chineke nyere ọrụ nkịtị site na Baptizim na nkwenye ha iwulite Ụka na ido ụwa nsọ n'omume ha na ndụ kwa ụbọchị) ka ọ bụrụ ihe mkpali na nduzi nye ya. rụọ ọrụ n'akụkụ ọhụrụ a nke ndụ ya.

Carlson nọgidere na ndị SMJC obodo mgbe ọ lara ezumike nká na nkuzi na 1979, na-arụ ọrụ dị ka onye ọrụ alumnae, na-edozi ego mberede maka ụmụ akwụkwọ, na-ebipụta kọlụm kwa izu na akwụkwọ akụkọ ụlọ akwụkwọ. Na 1984 ọ lekwasịrị anya ya na Gilbert, bụrụ onye nlekọta mbụ ya n'afọ ikpeazụ nke ndụ ya. Na 1988 ọ kwagara Madison, Wisconsin ka ọ bịaruo nwanne ya nwanyị Dorothy nso. Grace Holmes Carlson nwụrụ na Madison na Julaị 7, 1992.

TEACHINGS / DOCTRINES

Ndị ụkọchukwu Carlson gbanyere mkpọrọgwụ n'okpukpe Katọlik ya nke a zụlitere na Ụka ​​n'oge ọ bụ nwata na n'oge ọ bụ nwata na n'oge ikpeazụ ya mgbe ọ zaghachichara òkù nke okwukwe ya ọzọ na 1952. Ná mmalite ndụ ya, ọ bụ kpụrụ okwukwe ya. ntụzịaka ọ nwetara site n’aka ụmụnna nwanyị St. Joseph nke Carondelet na site n’ikpughe ya na nkuzi mmekọrịta ọha na eze nke Chọọchị Katọlik. Obi abụọ adịghị ya na ọ makwa mmemme liturgical nke ngwụcha afọ 1920 nke kpọrọ oku ka ndị ọgbakọ na-ekere òkè n'ụdị ofufe, ọkachasị n'oge Mass Carlson na St. Joseph's Academy na CSC gụnyere nsọpụrụ ọnwa nke Sacrament a gọziri agọzi na nnabata kwa izu. Oriri Nsọ. Site na omume ndị a Carlson nwere ike kpughee nkuzi nke Ụka banyere ahụ omimi nke Kraịst, nke kwenyere na site na Oriri Nsọ, njikọ nke ndị Katọlik banye n'ime ahụ nke mmụọ na Kraịst ka isi ha na-ewusi ike. O yikarịrị ka a kụziiri ya na njikọ dị omimi nke a na Kraịst jikọtara ndị Katọlik na ibe ha na Chọọchị ma mee ka ọrụ nke ime ihe n'ụwa na-ejere Kraịst ozi n'otu n'otu (Ndị Efesọs 4: 4-13; Jọn 15: 5-12; 1 Ndị Kọrint 10:17). Ozizi a metụtara mmegharị nke Catholic Action nke 1930 na, n'agbanyeghị n'okpuru nlekọta kpọmkwem nke ndị bishọp, kpọrọ ndị nkịtị Katọlik ka ha "tinye n'okwukwe ha n'ụzọ ndị metụtara ọha mmadụ" (Harmon 2014: 52). Ka ọ na-erule oge a, Carlson nọ na-apụ na Ụka, mana echiche nke itinye aka na mmekọrịta ọha na eze nke okwukwe (na òtù Katọlik ndị na-eku n'ala ya, dị ka Ọrụ Katọlik) nọgidere na-enye Carlson nkume aka mgbe ọ laghachiri na Nzukọ-nsọ ​​na 1952.

N'ọtụtụ okwu ndị o kwuru site na njedebe 1950 site na mmalite 1960s, na oge ozugbo tupu Vatican II, Carlson kpọkuru ugboro ugboro maka onye ụkọchukwu Katọlik nke na-etinye aka na nchegbu nke ụwa ụwa wee ghọọ "ndị mgbasa ozi maka Kraịst" (Carlson 1957). , 1958). N'okwu ndị dị ka "Nọọsụ na ndị Parish" na "Onyeozi Lay," Grace gbasoro nghọta nke okwukwe Katọlik nke lekwasịrị anya n'otu oge ma ndị na-agafe agafe na nke anụ ahụ, n'ịhụnanya na ijere Chineke ozi na ịdị n'otu na Chineke. na ụmụ mmadụ site n'ọrụ Katọlik nkịtị. Ọ rụrụ ụka na mgbe a bịara “ịna-asọrịta mpi uche ụmụ mmadụ . . . A ghaghị imegide ekweghị na Chineke, "ma "dị ka Marxist aku na uba" nwere ike inwe "mgbagwoju anya obibia" nke nwere ike inwe "mmekọrịta na mmekọrịta na Chineke na ibe" (Carlson 1965). O mere okwu ahụ maka nzaghachi Ndị Kraịst nọ n’anụmanụ nye mkpa nke ndị mmadụ site n’ihota Rev. Peter Riga, bụ́ prọfesọ nkà mmụta okpukpe na St. John Vianney Seminary na East Aurora, New York, na “Ịbụ Onye Kraịst abụghị nanị ije ozi. Chineke, ma ọ bụkwa ụkpụrụ omume mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya na-akpa ike, na-ejere ụmụ mmadụ ozi; ọ bụghị naanị nkà mmụta okpukpe, kamakwa nkà mmụta gbasara mmadụ” (nke ekwuru na Carlson 1965).

Carlson abanyela n'oké mmiri ozuzo na-asọba na Ụka ​​Katọlik tupu Vatican II (1962–1965) nke kwusiri ike mkpa ndị nkịtị dị ka ụmụnna nwoke na ụmụnna nwanyị n'ime Kraịst bụ ndị nwere ikike ịrụ ọrụ Chineke n'ụwa. Ọgba mmiri ndị ahụ (gụnyere ngagharị liturgical, ngagharị nke Catholic Action, na ozizi nke Mystical Body of Christ nke e mepekwuru na Pope Pius XII's 1943 encyclical). Mystici Corporis Christi) "Kụrụ mkpụrụ maka ọrụ mkparị nke sochiri Council Vatican nke Abụọ" (Bonner, Burns na Denny 2014:17). Ma e mesịrị kwalite ọrụ ahụ site n'iwu ndị si na Kansụl Vatican nke Abụọ pụta, karịsịa Lumen Gentium (The Dogmatic Constitution of the Church) na Gaudium et Spes (Ụkpụrụ Ụkọchukwu na Ụka ​​n'ụwa taa). Lumen Gentium " kwusiri ike na chọọchị ahụ bụ ndị pilgrim, ọ bụghị ụlọ ọrụ na-agbanwe agbanwe." Ọ malitere echiche nke Nzukọ-nsọ ​​dị ka ndị nke Chineke dabere na nkwenye na “site na baptism, a na-akpọ Onye Kraịst ọ bụla ka o jee ozi n’aha nke Kraịst” (Gillis, 1999:86–90). Gaudium et Spes kwusiri ike na ndị kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi aghaghị “ịghọta ezi ihe ịrịba ama nke ọnụnọ na nzube Chineke” n’ụwa wee bụrụ “àmà nye Kraịst n’etiti ọha mmadụ” (nke e hotara na McCartin 2010:114).

NDỤ

Dị ka nwanyị nkịtị, Carlson kpọkuru ndị ọzọ ugboro ugboro (ma mee ihe n'onwe ya) ịbụ onyeozi nkịtị, “onye na-agbasa echiche maka Kraịst,” n'ụwa ọbụna tupu Vatican II. nyere iwu na-ekweta na baptizim na-akpọ ozi. Na mgbakwunye na ọtụtụ okwu ndị o mere maka ọrụ dị otú ahụ, mbọ Carlson gbara n'ichepụta atụmatụ usoro ọmụmụ maka ihe ghọrọ SMJC na 1964 kwadoro nke a na-eso ụzọ.. Carlson na Nwanna nwanyị AJ Moore [Foto dị n'aka nri] haziri kọleji dị obere ka ọ bụrụ ebe a na-agba ụmụ akwụkwọ na mmemme teknụzụ ume ka ha zụlite echiche nke ọrụ mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, ọ bụghị naanị ọganihu nke onwe ha yana “Iji zụlite mmadụ n'ezie nke ọma. mkpa nke ụkpụrụ ime mmụọ jupụtara n'ọchịchọ ijere Chineke na ndị agbata obi ya ozi" (Carlson na Moore 1964). Iji nyere ụmụ akwụkwọ SMJC aka mezue agụmakwụkwọ ha ka ha wee nwee ike ịrụ ọrụ a, Carlson guzobekwara ego mberede n'akpa nke ya na 1982 nke nyere obere ego mgbazinye ego na-enweghị ọmụrụ nwa nye ụmụ akwụkwọ nọ na mkpa.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Ọrụ ya na SMJC abụghị naanị ụzọ Carlson si bụrụ onye mgbasa ozi maka Kraịst. Otú ahụ ka ọ bụkwa mkpesa ya megide itinye aka America na agha Vietnam na nkwado ọ na-akwado òtù mgbochi nuklia. Ọ bụ ezie na Carlson nwere mmasị maka ihe ndị bụ isi na New Left, ọ kwụsịrị na mmegharị ahụ n'ihi ụzọ Katọlik pụrụ iche na Old Left Marxist na okwu ndị ahụ, ọnọdụ nke ọ kwupụtara nke ọma n'okwu 1968 ya, "Ntụle nke ndị Katọlik na ndị Katọlik. Aka ekpe." Dị ka onye kọwara onwe ya bụ “onye na-agbasa echiche maka socialism nke Ndị Kraịst,” ọ kọwara na ya “na-enwe ajọ mbunobi megide ndị na-eji omume ime ihe n'otu n'otu na-akparịta ụka: na-achọ ka e nwee mkparịta ụka na chọọchị dị iche iche n'usoro ọchịchị onye kwuo uche ya; kpasuo uche site n'okwu rụrụ arụ; gbaa akwụkwọ ndekọ ma ọ bụ wụsa ọbara n'ahụ ha" (Carlson 1968). N'ịkatọ ihe ọ hụrụ dị ka ihe rụrụ arụ nke New Left, ọ chọtara ihe jikọrọ ya na Dorothy Day, bụ onye na-enweghị mmasị na "ọnụma na okwu rụrụ arụ, enweghị nkwanye ùgwù na ịkwa iko, enweghị obi umeala" nke ọtụtụ ndị na-emegide agha (Loughery na Randolph 2020: 316). Otú ọ dị, ụbọchị jụrụ ya n'ihi ụkpụrụ omume. Maka Carlson, ọ bụ mmegide ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. Ọ rụrụ ụka na "njehie bụ isi nke New Left-Katọlik ma ọ bụ na ọ bụghị bụ mgbochi ọgụgụ isi. . . 'Echere m ya mere m bụ,''' ma chekwaa mmegharị ọhụrụ ahụ na Old Left nke ọ bụbu akụkụ nke "ịghara 'eme ihe gị' kama ime ihe ga-eme ka mmegharị ahụ gaa n'ihu" bụ ihe a na-elekwasị anya na iji weta "njedebe nke mmegbu agbụrụ na nke ọha na eze na akụ na ụba nke mmadụ site na mmadụ" (Carlson 1968, akara edemede dị ka ọ dị na mbụ). Maka Carlson, mgbanwe mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya—n'ezie nhazigharị mgbanwe nke usoro mmekọrịta akụ na ụba dị adị—bụ ihe kacha mkpa. N'ụzọ dị iche, Dorothy Day, nke Peter Maurin na-emetụta, onye na-arụkọ ọrụ nke Catholic Worker Movement, lekwasịrị anya na "obere ụzọ," nke ọ bụ maka iweta "mgbanwe n'echiche, ọ bụghị mgbanwe nke usoro akụ na ụba" ( Loughery na Randolph 2020:139). Ihe dị iche n'ebe a abụghị naanị na mgba ọkụ nke ụbọchị ahụ gbanyere mkpọrọgwụ na pacifism ya na ọdịnala amụma nke Ụka gbadoro anya na njedebe nke eschatological, mana na Carlson ka gbadoro ụkwụ na Old Left Marxism. Ha abụọ kweere na mgbanwe obi na echiche; ma maka Daybọchị, nke ahụ bụ mgbanwe, ebe maka Carlson, ọ bụ itinye mgbanwe ahụ na usoro mmekọrịta ọha na eze na nke akụ na ụba nke dị mkpa na ụwa nke oge a.

Echiche aka ekpe ochie nke Carlson jikọtara ya na mmemme Katọlik ya iji mepụta usoro Marxist Katọlik ngwakọ nke o weere na okwu ndị dị ugbu a n'ime 1960s na gafere. Ọ bụkwa ihe dọọrọ mmasị ya Slant, otu ndị Katọlik na-ekpe aka ekpe na England. Slant (aha a na-edekarị aha ya mgbe niile) bụ mmegharị nke hiwere na 1964 n'etiti "otu ndị na-agụsị akwụkwọ na mahadum Cambridge na ndị ndụmọdụ ha nke ụkọchukwu" bụ ndị malitere otu akwụkwọ akụkọ nke otu aha na "onye nzube ya bụ nyocha nke nkà mmụta okpukpe Katọlik omenala. iji kwalite ihe mgbaru ọsọ ọha mmadụ nke Oziọma.” Maka Slant Ndị otu "ebumnobi ndị ahụ pụtara mgbanwe mgbanwe mmekọrịta ọha na eze" (Corrin 2013: 216). Ha kwuputara echiche ndị "dị oke egwu, na-adọta njikọ echiche n'etiti nkà mmụta okpukpe Ndị Kraịst na Marxism mgbanwe" (Corrin 2013: 224). Carlson malitere “mkparịta ụka ya na ọtụtụ ụmụ akwụkwọ ahọpụtara” wee malite ngalaba nke Slant na SMJC n'etiti ha na ụfọdụ ndị otu ngalaba. N'ime nke a, ọ na-eme ihe ọ kwusara: ịrụ ọrụ iji mee mgbanwe mmekọrịta ọha na eze "site na usoro nkuzi na ịgbasawanye ike" (Carlson 1970).

NKWUKWU N'OGE NDỊ NDỊ NNE NA-EZI

Akwụkwọ ozi nke Carlson na-ekpughe ụdị dị iche iche nke ndị inyom nkịtị Katọlik na-agba akaebe n'etiti - na ngwụcha narị afọ nke iri abụọ United States. Mana ụzọ ndụ ya na-adịghị ahụkebe bụ ihe pụrụ iche. Akụkụ ya na-elekwasị anya n'ịme mgbanwe mmekọrịta ọha na eze gụnyere otu atụmatụ nwanyị nke nwere mgbọrọgwụ n'ime afọ ya na College of St. Catherine, ebe ọ mụtara site na Sista St. Joseph nke Carondelet mkpa ọ dị ịzụlite nkà ọgụgụ isi ya iji tinye n'ime ya. ijere Chineke ozi site n’ijere ndị ọzọ ozi. Ọrụ a gụnyere ịchụso agụmakwụkwọ gụsịrị akwụkwọ na ọrụ n'èzí ụlọ nke ọ ga-esi na-ejere ndị ọzọ ozi, dị ka o mere n'ọrụ ya dị ka onye na-enye ndụmọdụ gbasara ọrụ aka site na 1935 ruo 1940. N'ime afọ ya na Socialist Workers Party, Carlson zụlitere njirimara nwanyị ya. n'ihu na naanị site na ntinye aka ya na mmetụta Marxist ụwa. Ọ gakwuuru “ajụjụ nwanyị” ahụ dị ka onye Trotskyist, na-ahụ mgba klaasị dị ka isi na ntọhapụ ụmụ nwanyị si n'ike ọchịchị ike, bụ nke ọ ghọtara dị ka isi iyi nke mmegbu niile. Mgbe ọ laghachiri na Chọọchị Katọlik na 1952, Carlson nọgidere na-enwe ọnọdụ ndị a mana ọ jikọtara ha na okwukwe Katọlik ọhụrụ ya. N'ịkọ n'akụkụ ụfọdụ nke nkuzi mmekọrịta ọha na eze Katọlik na mmegharị okpukpe na Catholic Action, Carlson rụrụ ụka na "Nwanyị Katọlik Apostolate" na "onye okike aghaghị inyewo ụmụ nwanyị àgwà nke uche na mkpụrụ obi ịrụ ọrụ ya," nke gụnyere ọrụ na-abụghị nke okpukpe. ụlọ nke mere ihe dị iche na ọha mmadụ (Carlson 1959). N'ụzọ dị otu a, mmasị nwanyị ya na-emetụta ụfọdụ ndị inyom Katọlik bụ ndị kọwapụtara ịbụ nwanyị Katọlik iji tinye nkwenye nke oku ha na-aga ịrụ ọrụ n'ụwa nke onye ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme Mary J. Henold (2008) mụrụ. Mana Carlson si na ụmụ nwanyị ndị a kewapụrụ onwe ya ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ otu o siri na ụmụnne ya nwanyị Trotskyist mbụ. Ọ gbanyereghị nghọta ya banyere nwanyị Katọlik n'ihe gbasara mkpa ma ọ bụ mmekọ (ozizi nke ndị poopu narị afọ nke iri abụọ malitere site na Pope Pius XII nke na-ekwupụta ọdịiche dị mkpa ma nhata nke nwoke na nwanyị); ma ọ bụ dabere na ya nanị n'echiche Marxist nke isi mgba klaasị ahụ. Kama, o jikọtara ndị Katọlik mmetụta site na nwata ya na ahụmahụ ya na-arụ ọrụ na Trotskyism ka ọ na-arụ ọrụ maka ikpe ziri ezi na-elekọta mmadụ na afọ ya na St. Mary's Junior College. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ihe si na ya pụta, n'ihe banyere Carlson, bụ nwanyị nke na-agbagha ma mmegbu nke ndị isi obodo na usoro ndị nna ochie na nchụso nke ịtọhapụ ụmụ nwanyị na ijere Chineke ozi.

Mgbasa ozi nke Carlson na-ekpughekwa ụfọdụ ụdị dị iche iche dị na American Catholic Left n'oge Agha Nzuzo, karịsịa Marxist Catholic uzo ozo nke jụrụ ime ihe ike mgbe ọ na-achọ, dị ka ozi ozioma, mgbanwe mgbanwe mmekọrịta ọha na eze na akụ na ụba. Site n'okwu ya, akwụkwọ ozi, na ọrụ nhazi ụlọ akwụkwọ, Carlson gbalịrị iweta ihe n'ọnọdụ ndị Katọlik America bụ, dị ka ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme David J. O'Brien si kwuo, nke na-efunahụ ya - ụzọ "iji zụlite akụkụ mmekọrịta ọha na eze na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke [ mgbe ahụ] mgbanwe dị ugbu a na chọọchị" (O'Brien 1972: 213). Site n'ịgwakọta echiche Old Left ya na ndọrọndọrọ Katọlik ya, Carlson kere ụzọ Katọlik Marxist nke o were n'ọrụ a.

Foto

Foto #1: Grace Holmes Carlson, Minneapolis, 1941. Foto Acme 10-29-41, site n'ikike David Riehle.
Foto #2: Grace Holmes na ndị gụsịrị akwụkwọ na ibe ya, College of St. Catherine, 1929. Ndị gụsịrị akwụkwọ na Klas nke 1929, Foto 828, f. 7, igbe 166, mkpokọta foto nke Archives University, Archives and Special Collections, St. Catherine University. Site n'ikike nke Archives and Special Collections, St. Catherine University, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Foto #3: Grace Holmes Carlson na-agba mbọ maka osote onye isi ala na 1948. Foto nke Grace Carlson na podium, f. Mgbasa ozi onye isi ala nke 1948—Ọgọst. 1948, igbe 1, Grace Carlson Papers, Minnesota Historical Society. Site n'ikike nke Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Foto #4: Grace Carlson na Nwanna Nwanyị Anne Joachim Moore, 1981. St. Mary's School of Nursing, Series 8, Photographs, Box 11, Archives and Special Collections, St. Catherine University. Site n'ikike nke Archives and Special Collections, St. Catherine University, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Foto #5: Grace Carlson n'ụlọ ọrụ ya na St. Mary's Junior College, 1983. Grace Carlson, 1983, St. Mary's School of Nursing, Series 8, Photographs, Box 11, Archives and Special Collections, St. Catherine University. Site n'ikike nke Archives and Special Collections, St. Catherine University, St. Paul, Minnesota.

References

Bonner, Jeremy, Jeffrey M. Burns, na Christopher D. Denny. 2014. "Okwu mmalite." Pp. 1-17 n'arọ Inye Ndị Chineke Ike: Ihe omume Katọlik tupu na mgbe Vatican II gasịrị, nke Jeremy Bonner, Christopher D. Denny, na Mary Beth Fraser Connolly deziri. New York: Fordham University Press.

Carlson, Grace. 1959. “Onye Mkpesa nke Nwanyị Katọlik.” Jenụwarị . f. SMJC Okwu na Nkuzi Ihe edeturu 2, igbe 1. Grace Carlson Papers, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota (nke emechaa kpọọ CP, MHS).

Carlson, Grace. 1965. "Ọgbaghara n'etiti Kọmunist na Iso Ụzọ Kraịst." Nọvemba. f. Ederede Okwu na nkuzi SMJC 3, igbe 1. CP, MHS.

Carlson, Grace. 1958. "Onyeozi Lay." Jenụwarị 20. f. Ederede Okwu na nkuzi SMJC 2, igbe 1. CP, MHS.

Carlson, Grace. 1970. Akwụkwọ ozi Emeric Lawrence, OSB. Ọgọst 31. f. Nkwekọrịta Jen. na Misc., igbe 2, CP, MHS.

Carlson, Grace. 1957. "Nọọsụ na Parish." October 10. f. Ederede Okwu na nkuzi SMJC 1, igbe 1. CP, MHS.

Carlson, Grace. 1968. "Ntụle nke ndị Katọlik na ndị ekpe." Nọvemba 13. f. Ederede Okwu na nkuzi SMJC 3, igbe 1. CP, MHS.

Corrin, Jay P. 2013. Ndị Katọlik na-aga n'ihu na England mgbe Vatican II gasịrị. Notre Dame: Mahadum Notre Dame Press.

Gillis, Chester. 1999. Roman Katọlik na America. New York: Ụlọ ọrụ University Press.

Harmon, Katherine E. 2014. "The Liturgical Movement and Catholic Action: Women Biving the Liturgical Life in the Lay Apostolate." Pp. 46-75 n'arọ Inye Ndị Chineke Ike: Ihe omume Katọlik tupu na mgbe Vatican II gasịrị, nke Jeremy Bonner, Christopher D. Denny, na Mary Beth Fraser Connolly deziri. New York: Fordham University Press.

Henold, Mary J. 2008. Ndị Katọlik na ndị nwanyị: Akụkọ ịtụnanya nke American Catholic Feminist Movement. Chapel Hill, NC: Mahadum nke North Carolina Press.

Leo XIII, Pope. 1891. Ọkpụkpụ Novarum. Akwụkwọ ozi Encyclical, Mee 15. Enwetara ya https://www.vatican.va/content/leo-xiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_l-xiii_enc_15051891_rerum-novarum.html na 25 March 2022.

Loughery, John, na Blythe Randolph. 2020. Ụbọchị Dorothy: Ụjọ na-emegiderịta Voice nke American Century. New York: Simon na Schuster.

McCartin, James P. 2010. Ekpere nke Ndị Kwesịrị Ntụkwasị Obi: Ndụ Ime Mmụọ Na-agbanwe nke Ndị Katọlik America. Cambridge, MA: Mahadum Harvard University.

O'Brien, David J. 1972. Ọhụrụ nke American Catholicism. New York: Oxford University Press.

Romer, Sam. 1952. “Grace Carlson, Nke Okwukwe Na-akpagbu, Laghachiri n'Okpukpe Katọlik.” Minneapolis Morning Tribune, Julaị 1:1 na 8 .

AJỤRỤ AKWỤKWỌ NDỊ

Carlson, Grace. 1958–1959. “Iso Ụzọ Kraịst na Ndị Kọmunist n’Ụwa Taa.” Kaadị ndetu maka okwu e kwuru na November 1958, Jenụwarị 1959, na February 1960. f. Ederede Okwu na nkuzi SMJC 2, igbe 1, CP, MHS.

Carlson, Grace. nd Akwụkwọ. Minnesota Historical Society. Paul, Minnesota.

Carroll, Jane Lamm, Joanne Cavallaro, na Sharon Doherty, ed. 2012. Ebe nsọ nnwere onwe: Afọ 100 nke agụmakwụkwọ ụmụ nwanyị na kọleji St. Catherine. New York. Akwụkwọ Lexington.

Ikpe, Mary Anne. 2016. "Ọrụ nke ndị Popes na mmepụta nke mmekọ na mmetọ nwoke na nwanyị nke Vatican." Okpukpe & Gender 6: 155-72.

Haverty-Stacke, Donna T. 2021. Ndụ dị egwu nke Grace Holmes Carlson: Katọlik, Socialist, Feminist. New York: New York University Press.

Haverty-Stacke, Donna T. 2021. “Onye Katọlik Marxist na Agha Nzuzo America: Grace Holmes Carlson na onye ekpe Katọlik tụgharịrị uche.” Catholic Historical Review 107: 78-118.

Haverty-Stacke, Donna T. 2013. "'Ntaramahụhụ nke naanị nkwado ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị': The FBI, Teamsters Local 544, and the Origins of 1941 Smith Act Case." Akwụkwọ akụkọ American History 100: 68-93.

McGuinness, Margaret M. 2013. Akpọrọ ka ọ jee ozi: Akụkọ banyere ndị nọn na America. New York: New York University Press.

Murphy, Laura. 2009 "Enwere 'ikike a na-apụghị ibibi': John Ryan na Catholic Origins of US Living Wage Movement." Ọrụ: Ọmụmụ na Akụkọ Ọrụ-Klas nke America 6: 57-86.

Pius XII, Pope. 1943. Mystici Corporis Christi. Akwụkwọ ozi Encyclical, June 29. Nweta site na https://www.vatican.va/content/pius-xii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xii_enc_29061943_mystici-corporis-christi.html na 25 March 2022.

Raasch-Gilman, Elizabeth. 1999. "Ụmụnna nwanyị na mgbanwe mgbanwe: Holmes Sisters na Socialist Workers' Party." Akụkọ Minnesota 56: 358-75.

Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
30 March 2022

 

 

Share