Massimo Introvigne

La Famille

MGBE LA FAMILLE

1640:  Augustine, Bishọp Cornelius Jansen, bụ onye nwụrụ mgbe ọ nwụsịrị, bụ nke e bipụtara na Louvain.

1642: Akpadoro mbido Pontifical nke "Jansenism".

1713 (Septemba 8): Papal ehi Unigenitus site n'aka Clement nke Iri na Isii mara nkatọ ikpeazụ nke Jansenism.

1727 (May 1): Deacon François de Pâris nwụrụ na Paris.

1731: A malitere ịkọ ọrụ ebube na ili Deacon François de Pâris na ebe a na-eli ozu Paris 'Saint-Médard.

1733: A na-ebugharị usoro "Convulsionaries" n'okpuru ala.

1740s: Obe na omume ndị ọzọ siri ike metụtara (ọkachasị ụmụ nwanyị) Convulsionaries bidoro.

1744 (February 23): Claude Bonjour mụrụ na Pont-d'Ain, na Eastern France.

1751 (Jenụwarị 4): François Bonjour mụrụ na Pont-d'Ain.

1762 (July 25): Jean-Pierre Thibout mụrụ na Épinay-sur-Seine, nke dị nso na Paris.

1774: A họpụtara Claude Bonjour dị ka ụkọchukwu parish nke Fareins, Dombes, France.

1783: Claude Bonjour gbara arụkwaghịm dị ka ụkọchukwu ụka Fareins iji kwado nwanne ya nwoke François.

1787 (October 10): wastiennette Thomasson kpogidere na parish ụka Fareins.

1788: Ikpe ikpe ndị omekome megide ụmụnna Bonjour bidoro.

1789 (Jenụwarị 5): Marguerite Bernard nwụrụ na Paris, na-esote oke nsogbu.

1790 (June 6): E jidere ụmụnne Bonjour na ọtụtụ ndị na-eso ụzọ.

1791 (Septemba 10): A tọhapụrụ Claude Bonjour n'ụlọ mkpọrọ.

1791 (November 19): Franuois Bonjour tọhapụrụ n'ụlọ mkpọrọ.

1791 (Disemba 5): Ezinụlọ Bonjour hapụrụ Fareins wee kwaga Paris.

1792 (Jenụwarị 21): Jean Bonjour, nwa François Bonjour na Benoite Françoise Monnier mụrụ na Paris.

1792 (August 18): Israël-Elie Bonjour (Lili), nwa François Bonjour na Claudine Dauphan, amụrụ na Paris.

1799: Nwanne nwanyị Élisée (Julie Simone Olivier) nabatara dị ka olu amụma n'ime ìgwè Bonjours.

1800: François Bonjour kwuru na ozi amụma nke Nwanna nwanyị Élisée “esiteghị na Mmụọ Nsọ.”

1805 (Jenụwarị 20): E jidere François Bonjour na Paris ya na ndị ikwu ya na ndị na-eso ụzọ ya iri na ise.

1805 (May): Fran wereois Bonjour na ezinụlọ ya chụpụrụ Switzerland (ma ọ bụ kwenye ịga ebe ahụ iji zere ijide ya ọzọ).

1812 (Jenụwarị 4): Israël-Elie Bonjour lụrụ Marie Collet.

1814 (March 6): Claude Bonjour nwụrụ na Assens, Canton nke Vaud, Switzerland.

1817 (ụbọchị amaghi): Sista Élisée nwụrụ na mpaghara Paris.

1819 (Jenụwarị 2): Jean-Pierre Thibout na François Joseph Havet hazigharịrị ụmụazụ Bonjours na Paris.

1836 (July 12): Jean-Pierre Thibout nwụrụ na Paris.

1846 (Eprel 24): François Bonjour nwụrụ na Paris.

1863 (Eprel 25): Paul-Augustin Thibout (Mon Oncle Auguste) mụrụ na Paris.

1866 (Septemba 4): Israël-Elie Bonjour nwụrụ na Ribemont, Aisne, France.

1920 (Mars): Paul-Agustin Thibout nwụrụ na Villiers-sur-Marne.

1961–1963: Ndị bụbu ndị otu La Famille haziri kibbutz na Pardailhan, Hérault, nke ụfọdụ ndị mgbasa ozi France jiri chọpụta na La Famille dị.

2013 (abalị n'etiti June 10 na 11): La Famille's villa na Villiers-sur-Marne (Les Cosseux) gbara onye na-ere ọkụ ọkụ ma mebie nke ukwuu.

2017 (July 4): Ndị kpọburu ya, ndị ọrụ gọọmentị France na-emegide ofufe nzuzo MIVILUDES bipụtara akwụkwọ na-akatọ La Famille.

2020–2021: N'iji ihe onye otu onye mmegide megidere na Facebook, ọtụtụ mgbasa ozi French bipụtara na La Famille.

2021: Odeakụkọ Suzanne Privat bipụtara akwụkwọ ahụ La Famille. Ihe nzuzo Itinéraires d'un.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Jansenism bụ usoro mmụta okpukpe a mụrụ na narị afọ nke iri na asaa nke webatara Katọlik ụfọdụ ụfọdụ ndị Protestant, gụnyere nkuzi nke akara aka, ụkpụrụ omume nke ịdị ọcha, nnwere onwe nke ụka mba, na iwebata ọgụgụ na French karịa na Latin n'ime usoro okpukpe Katọlik. O were aha ya n'aka onye bishọp Dutch bụ Cornelius Jansen (1585-1638), [Foto dị n'aka nri] ọ bụ ezie na onye nke ikpeazụ achọghị ịmepe ọ bụla, akwụkwọ ya Augustine E bipụtara naanị mgbe ọ nwụsịrị, na 1640. Ọ zutere na ọ fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ikpe Papal na 1642 dị ka ịkwalite ụdị crypto-Protestantism.

Ihe a kpọrọ “Jansenism” nwere ihe ịga nke ọma na France, bụ́ ebe o duhiere ndị ọgụgụ isi a ma ama, dị ka ọkà ihe ọmụma Blaise Pascal (1623–1662), na ọnụ ọgụgụ buru ibu nke ndị bishọp na ndị ụkọchukwu. Maka ebumnuche ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị yana nke okpukpe, Chọọchị Katọlik na ọchịchị French kwụsịrị ya na narị afọ nke iri na asatọ. Akwụkwọ kacha sie ike bụ Papal ehi Unigenitus site n'aka Clement XI (1649-1721) na 1713, ọ bụ ezie na mmetụta ọdịnala ya gara n'ihu na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu wee gbasaa ruo mba ndị ọzọ (Chantin 1996).

Jansenism abụghị otu ndị ọgụgụ isi naanị. Otu Jansenism ama ama gbasoro gburugburu ofufe (nke ndị Katọlik anaghị akwado ya) nke “ndị nsọ” dịka Jansenist Deacon François de Pâris (1690–1727). Ya ili dị na Parisian na-eli ozu nke ụka Saint-Médard parish hụrụ ihe ịtụnanya mbụ nke "Convulsionaries," ndị merụrụ ahụ, tụbọọ, tie mkpu, buru amụma, ma kwuo na a gwọọla ya n'ọrịa dị iche iche.

N'ikpeazụ, ngagharị nke ndị Convulsionaries gbasaa site na Paris ruo ọtụtụ obodo na obodo nta dị na France, ma gbakwunye na ngọngọ nke omume ndị a na-akpọ secours, ebe ndị na-efe ofufe, ọkachasị ụmụ nwanyị, ji obi ha kwenye iji tie ihe, ntaramahụhụ, na ọbụna ịkpọgide n'obe iji jikọọ Jizọs na Ndị Kraịst oge mbụ nwụrụ n'ihi okwukwe ha. [Foto dị n'aka nri]. Ndị ọkà mmụta mbụ nke Jansenism lere Convulsionaries anya dị ka ndị na-emehie emehie, ebe ndị ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme mechara mesie ọganihu dị n'etiti Jansenism "a zụlitere" na "ama" (Chantin 1998; Strayer 2008).

Ndị Convulsionaries abughi otu jikọrọ ọnụ. Ha guzobere netwọk, ndị na-efe ofufe na-anabatakwa ndị na-efe ofufe na-esi n'otu obodo French gaa n'obodo ọzọ. Ọtụtụ mgbe, obere obere groups katọrọ ma kpọọ ibe ha, ọkachasị mgbe ụfọdụ ndị isi ahụ kwuru na ha onwe ha (Chantin 1998; Maury 2019).

Otu ihe ịga nke ọma nke Ndị Convulsionaries malitere site na 1770 gburugburu Fada François Bonjour (1751-1846: ụbọchị zuru ezu, mgbe ọ dị, na-eweta na usoro iheomume dị n'elu), nke mechara mara dị ka "Silas," onye ụkọchukwu parish nke Fareins, obodo dị na French mpaghara nke Dombes, ihe dị ka kilomita iri abụọ na ise site na Lyon. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ọrụ Fada François, nke e mere site na nkwado nke nwanne ya nwoke nke okenye na onye bu ya ụzọ dịka ụkọchukwu paris nke Fareins, Fada Claude Bonjour (1744-1814), na ndị ụkọchukwu ndị ọzọ, bụ nke kachasị oke nku nke ndị Convulsionaries.

Nkpọgide n’obe na 1787 nke otu nwanyị ji obi ya niile fee ofufe, Etiennette Thomasson (onye lanarịrị, ebe nwanyị ọzọ parish, Marguerite “Gothon” Bernard, nyefere ndị nchekwa siri ike nwụrụ na mbido 1789), dugara ndị uwe ojii, ụmụnne Bonjour mechara banye nga (Chantin 2014). Ọgba aghara nke afọ nke mgbanwe French mere ka ha nwere onwe ha, mana Nna François kpebiri ịhapụ Fareins na 1791 [Foto dị n'aka nri] wee kwaga Paris. Isi ihe kpatara nke a bụ na, na-azọrọ na e nyere ya iwu ime nke a site na mkpughe sitere n’aka Chineke, onye ụkọchukwu ahụ kpọọrọ ndị abụọ hụrụ ya n’anya, onye na-ejere ya ozi Benoite Françoise Monnier, na Claudine Dauphan (mgbe ụfọdụ edepụtara “Dauphin,” 1761–1834: François Bonjour nwere ike bụrụ na ọ lụrụ ya na nzuzo na Nọvemba 23, 1790), onye odibo nke onye ndu ndị Convulsionaries na Lyon, ma ha abụọ dị ime (Maury 2019: 136–44).

N'ikpeazụ, Fada François kọwara ihe ndị mere n'ime usoro mmụta nke otu puku afọ. Benoite ga-amụ nwa nwoke, Jean Bonjour (1792-1868), onye ga-arụ ọrụ dị ka John Baptist na mmụọ ọhụrụ nke Chineke, nwa Claudine Israël-Elie Bonjour (1792-1866), aha ya bụ Lili, onye ga-emeghe ụzọ Narị Afọ Iri. Ọ bụghị ndị Convulsionaries na Paris nakweere “ezi ezinụlọ” dị nsọ nke Fada Franisois, mana ụfọdụ nabatara ya, e jiri oke ịnụ ọkụ were mee ọmụmụ ọmụmụ Lili. Otu onye amụma nwanyị, "Nwanyị nwanyị Elisee" (Julie Simone Olivier, d. 1817), sonyeere ndị otu ahụ wee buo amụma banyere ọbịbịa nke Millennium na-erughị peeji 18,000 nke mkpughe, n'agbanyeghị na mgbe otu afọ nke imekọ ihe ọnụ ọ dara na Bonjours wee hiwe ndị otu ya dị iche na 1800 (Maury 2019).

Ndị na-eso Bonjours bụ ndị otu nke ndị Convulsionaries ndị nabatara mgbanwe nke French dị ka ntaramahụhụ kwesịrị ekwesị maka Chọọchị Katọlik na ọchịchị ndị kpagburu ha (ebe ndị ọzọ Convulsionaries nọgidesiri ike n'akụkụ Eze ahụ ma guzogide mgbanwe). Kaosinadị, mgbanwe ahụ anabataghị ndị a na-akpọzi "Bonjouristes," ọkachasị mgbe Napoleon bịanyere aka na 1801 ya na Concordat na Katọlik. Na Jenụwarị 1805, ndị Bonjours, gụnyere Lili dị afọ iri na atọ, na otu ndị na-eso ụzọ ka ejidere wee mesịa n'otu afọ ahụ (na Mee) chụgara Switzerland (ma ọ bụ, dị ka ndị ọzọ na-eche, na gọọmentị nwere mkparịta ụka ịkwaga Switzerland) dị ka ihe ọzọ na-nga).

Na Paris, Jean-Pierre Thibout (1762–1836), onye nlekọta ụlọ ebe Bonjours bi, pụtara dịka onye ndu nke "Bonjouristes" fọdụrụ. O mechara kwuo na Lili, tupu ọ hapụ France, enyefere nwa nwoke nwoke Pierre, onye dị afọ atọ mgbe ahụ bụ Augustin Thibout (1802–1837), nke a maara dị ka “St. John Baptist ”n’etiti ndị na-efe ofufe (maka ozi a na ozi sochirinụ lee La Famille nd [1] na Havet 1860).

Afọ ole na ole mgbe mgbanwe ahụ gbagwojuru anya. E kwere ka Bonjours lọghachi France na 1811, ma o yiri ka ha enwekwaghị mmasị n'okpukpe ọhụrụ ha. Lili, onye mere omume dịka onye nwere mmetụta dịka iwe na nwata, lụrụ nwa nwanyị nke onye ahịa bara ụba, Marie Collet (1794–1829), onye nyere ya ụmụ iri. Site na nna nwunye ya, Lili ghọrọ onye ọrụ mmepụta ihe na-aga nke ọma. Ọ bụkwa colonel na National Guard wee nye ya Legion of Honor na 1832. Ọ nwụrụ na 1866, na dịka nna ya François, onye nwụrụ na 1846, arụghị oke ọrụ na mmepe nke Bonjouristes, ọ bụ ezie na ụfọdụ nọgidere na-edegara ya akwụkwọ ozi ma nata ngọzi ya.

N'ezie, Jean-Pierre Thibout wuru "Bonjourisme" na-enweghị Bonjours, bụ nke gara n'ihu na-asọpụrụ Lili dị ka ọnụnọ dị omimi na-enweghị onwe ya na ezigbo Lili anụ ahụ na ọbara, bụ onye na-arụsi ọrụ ike n'ebe ọzọ na azụmahịa ya. Ndị otu a gara n'ihu na-eme emume ncheta nke ịhazigharị usoro ahụ na Satọde mbụ nke Jenụwarị 1819 (Jenụwarị 2). Nke a bụ ụbọchị mgbe Thibout na-akparịta ụka banyere ọrụ Lili na kọfị kọfị dị na mpaghara Saint-Maur nke dị na Paris na onye otu ya na onye okpukperechi François Joseph Havet (1759-1842) N'oge a na-akwụ ụgwọ ahụ, ha debere mkpụrụ ego abụọ na tebụl, na mkpụrụ ego nke atọ, ha kọrọ, pụtara n'ụzọ ọrụ ebube, ihe ịrịba ama na-egosi na Chineke na-agọzi ọrụ ha.

Mana n'eziokwu otu otu ezinaụlọ ejirila okwukwe na Lili, ma ga-aga n'ihu na-ezute nwayo ma lụọ di na nwunye. "La Famille," dịka a kpọrọ ya, siri ọnwụ na o nweghị onye ndu, mana n'eziokwu ụmụ nwoke ndị okenye nke ezinụlọ Thibout, ndị niile aha ha bụ Augustin dị ka Lili rịọrọ, nwere ọfụma na njem ahụ wee kwuo ụfọdụ n'ime omume ndị dị ugbu a (lee n'okpuru, n'okpuru Iwu / Omume).

Somefọdụ ndị otu 3,000 (ọ bụ ezie na ọnụ ọgụgụ doro anya siri ike) na-anọgide na njem ahụ, ma na-ebi taa taa n'otu mpaghara Paris (11th, 12th, na 20th arrondissements), mgbe mgbe n'otu ụlọ ahụ.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

La Famille nwere nkà mmụta okpukpe Ndị Kraịst bụ isi, mana ọ na-akụzi na ụka niile emerụọla na Chineke hapụrụ ya n'ụwa dịka obere ndị fọdụrụ iji weta Millennium, alaeze nke Chineke n'elu ụwa nke ga-adịgide otu puku afọ.

La Famille nke oge a na-eme emume ndị Convulsion dị ka ndị nna ochie dị nsọ, mana anaghị emeghachi omume ha, dịka ndị Roman Katọlik na-asọpụrụ ndị nsọ na-eme oke ego ma ha anaghị e imitateomi ha.

La Famille na-agụ maka Lili, ma na-atụ anya na ya ma ọ bụ mmụọ ya ga-alaghachi n'ụzọ ọ bụla iji weta Millennium ahụ, mana ọ nweghị ụbọchị ọ bụla maka nloghachi a.

Ndị nkatọ nke La Famille na-akọwa njikọ Jansenist ya dị ka "nke dịpụrụ adịpụ," mana abụ ya ka jupụtara na Jansenist reminiscences. Oge dị ukwuu nke Jansenism ka na-eme emume, dịka onye nsọ bụ Deacon François de Pâris. A katọrọ Chọọchị Rome dị ka onye gbagọrọ agbagọ (ebe ọ jụrụ Jansenism dị ka ohere ikpeazụ ya maka mgbanwe) wee mebie, yana ụda olu dị ka narị afọ nke iri na iteghete nke France. A na-akpọ ndị na-abụghị ndị otu “ndị Jentaịl,” na agbanyeghị na akara aka ha na Narị Afọ Iri ahụ ka bụ ihe edoghị anya, a na-akatọkarị ha n’abụ ahụ dịka ndị so na ndị Chineke họọrọ iso ya ma chebe eziokwu ahụ n’oge ọchịchịrị (La Famille nd [2) ])

Ọ bụ ezie na mmalite nke La Famille dị na Roman Katọlik na Jansenism (yana ụfọdụ ederede nke Jansenism nke narị afọ nke iri na asatọ ka na-agụ na mmegharị ahụ), ndị agbata obi na-akọwakarị ha dị ka "ndị Protestant," n'ihi na omume ha na ụkpụrụ omume na-agbanwe agbanwe yiri ndị Evangelical karịa ka ndị Katọlik.

N'aka nke ọzọ, n'agbanyeghị ịdị ọcha ya na mgbọrọgwụ Jansenist, La Famille na-enwe mmekọrịta chiri anya nke Chukwu, onye a na-akpọ "Bon Papa," ma tụkwasị obi na obiọma ya na nlekọta ya. N’anya ndị na-efe ofufe, nke a bụ mgbọrọgwụ nke omume ịhụnanya na nlekọta nke ndị otu n’ebe ibe ha nọ, nke na-eduga ọtụtụ ka ha nọrọ na La Famille, agbanyeghị na o siri ike.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Na 1892, Paul Augustin Thibout (1863-1920), onye sitere na Jean-Pierre Thibout nke akpọrọ "My Uncle Auguste" (Mon Oncle Auguste), [Foto dị n'aka nri] nyere usoro iwu iji chebe La Famille site kọntaktị ya na ọha mmadụ buru ibu, nke o kwenyere na ọ merụrụ n'enweghị olileanya.

Ihe o nyere n'iwu bu ihe esemokwu n'etiti ndi otu na ndi mmegide. N'ezie, o nwetụrụ obere ọmịiko maka ụlọ akwụkwọ ọha, ezumike, na ọrụ na-abụghị obodo. Eleghara ụkpụrụ ndị a anya ugbu a, yana ụmụaka nke La Famille (belụsọ nke ndị pere mpe nke ezinụlọ ochie na-achọghị mgbanwe, nke na-ahọrọ ụlọ akwụkwọ ụlọ akwụkwọ) na-aga ụlọ akwụkwọ ọha na eze (na-enwekarị ezigbo nsonaazụ), soro ndị mụrụ ha na-eme ezumike, nwee ọ enjoyụ egwu nke oge a. Ha nwere ike nweta nsonaazụ ọkachamara dị mkpa na ọrụ Deede Auguste agaghị akwado ya (ọ bụ ezie na ha aghọghị ndị dọkịta ma ọ bụ ndị ọka iwu, na-ekwenye naanị Chineke bụ onye isi ahụike na iwu).

Mụ nwanyị taa anaghị eyiri uwe ogologo ma ọ bụ mee ka ntutu ha dị ogologo, dị ka iwu ndị ọzọ nke Uncle Auguste si kwuo, ọ bụ ezie na ụfọdụ na-eme ya. Otú ọ dị, ihe fọdụrụ n'ihe nketa ya bụ na La Famille anaghị emegharị ndị mmadụ ma ghara ịnabata ndị ọhụrụ si n'èzí. Ọzọkwa, ndị na-efe ofufe anaghị alụ “ndị mba ọzọ,” ya bụ ndị na-abụghị ndị otu. Nke a ebutela ọnọdụ ebe ndị otu niile nọ na La Famille bụ ndị aha asatọ ikpeazụ pụtara.

Deede Auguste na-a celebratedụkwa mmanya mmanya dị ka njikọ dị n'etiti ndị nwoke na-eme njem ahụ, na-ekwu maka ụkpụrụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ, na ememe mmanya na-eme mkpọtụ anọgidewo bụrụ ihe pụrụ iche nke La Famille. O weputara omume nke ime oriri ndi isi nke obodo na nke ndi Kristian (na ufodu ihe omuma nke La Famille, dika ncheta nke nhazighari nke otu na 1819) na ala ya nke Les Cousseux, na Villiers-sur-Marne . [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ihe onwunwe ahụ ka bụ nke La Famille ma weghachite ya mgbe onye na-ere ọkụ (ikekwe onye bụbu onye otu iwe) tinyere ọkụ na 2013. Agbamakwụkwọ (ọtụtụ n'ime ha bụ mmemme okpukpe, edeghị aha maka nkwado iwu) na-emekarị na Les Cousseux.

Bụ abụ bụ akụkụ bụ isi nke emume La Famille, na ukwe bụ akụkụ bụ isi nke akwụkwọ ụkọ ya ndị ọzọ.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

La Famille nọgidere bụrụ onye na-amaghị ama na ndị mgbasa ozi na ndị ọkà mmụta, yana akwụkwọ na Bonjourisme na-ezighi ezi na-ekwupụta na etisasịwo na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu. Otu o sila dị, n’afọ 1960 onye otu ezi-na-ụlọ nke Thibout, Vincent (1924–1974), onye gara Israel, kpebiri iguzobe kibbutz na Pardailhan, Hérault, na ọ kpọọrọ ihe dịka ezi-na-ụlọ iri abụọ sitere na La Famille. Ọ bụ ezie na nnwale ahụ, nke dara na 1963, bụ ndị ndị obodo Paris ghara inye ikike ma duga na nkewa kpamkpam na La Famille, ọ dọtara uche nke ọtụtụ ụzọ mgbasa ozi, nke kwukwara aha Famille nke ndị guzobere ya. [Foto dị n'aka nri]

Mgbe ngwụcha nke Pardailhan kibbutz gasịrị, Vincent Thibout guzobere azụmahịa abụọ a na-achịkwa dịka nkà ihe ọmụma kibbutz si dị. Mgbe ọ nwụsịrị, e boro otu n'ime ndị nọchiri ya ebubo ime ihe ike megide ndị ọzọ na-efe ya. Ndị nkatọ jiri ihe a mee ihe iji wakpo La Famille n'agbanyeghị eziokwu ahụ bụ na ndị otu Vincent nwere mmekọrịta esemokwu na La Famille.

Pardailhan kibbutz nwere, agbanyeghị, echefuru ya nke ukwuu site na narị afọ nke iri abụọ na otu. Ihe butere La Famille na esemokwu bụ mkpọsa ndị gọọmentị na-akwado iji buso òtù nzuzo na France. Ndị bụbu ndị otu La Famille matara maka mkpọsa ndị a wee kpọtụrụ ndị ọrụ gọọmentị na-emegide òtù nzuzo MIVILUDES na afọ iri malitere na 2010. Na 2017, ndị MIVILUDES bipụtara akwụkwọ na-ekweta na ọ siri ike itinye ụdị "òtù nzuzo" ya na La Famille ( MGBE AH 2017 XNUMX). Na ihe atụ ndị na-emegide òtù nzuzo French, a ghọtara “otu nzuzo” nke ọ bụla na-eduzi site na "guru" nke na-erigbu ndị na-eso ụzọ. Ọ bụ ezie na ụdị onye ndu ndị a anọghị na La Famille, MIVILUDES ka chọtara "dérives sectaires" (ọrụ ofufe dị iche iche), echiche e ji amata nsogbu "dị ka òtù nzuzo" n'ọtụtụ ọtụtụ ndị otu ndị otu na ndị otu na-emegide òtù nzuzo katọrọ. Ndị òtù mbụ hụkwara mmepe nke mkpọsa ndị na-emegide òtù nzuzo na netwọk mmekọrịta, otu onye bụbu onye otu guzobere otu Facebook dị egwu.

Akwụkwọ akụkọ mgbasa ozi malitere ịpụta, wee gbasaa na 2021 (lee eg Jacquard 2021; Cala na Pellerin 2021), ka ndị nta akụkọ na-ewepụta ihe site na saịtị Facebook maka edemede maka "nzuzo nzuzo dị na etiti Paris." N'otu afọ ahụ, onye nta akụkọ Suzanne Privat bipụtara La Famille. Ihe nzuzo Itinéraires d'un [Foto dị n'aka nri]. Ọ malitere nyocha maka akwụkwọ ya mgbe ọ chọtara na ndị na-eto eto nke otu okpukpe (nke ọ kọrọ na ọ maghị banyere ya), bụ ndị yiri ibe ha ma nwee obere aha nna, nọ n'otu ụlọ akwụkwọ na Paris na ụmụ ya abụọ. Ebe ọ bụ na ọ nweghị ike gbaa ndị otu nọ ugbu a ajụjụ ọnụ ma dabere na akaụntụ ndị otu ndị omekome, akwụkwọ Privat nyere aka na ọha mmadụ asọmpi La Famille.

Ihe kacha ewute ndị na-emegide òtù nzuzo France na MIVILUDES banyere La Famille bụ "nkewa," okwu e ji na France ịkatọ otu dị iche iche. Ndị otu La Famille anwụọla kemgbe ọtụtụ narị afọ site na ịnọrọ nke ukwuu, yana ọtụtụ nkọwa pụtara na ndị dọtara mmasị ndị nkatọ. Ndị otu anaghị esonye na ntuli aka, alụghị di na nwunye edebanyeghị iwu, ụmụ ha gụrụ akwụkwọ n'ụzọ dị iche, enweela ụfọdụ ọrịa ọrịa mkpụrụ ndụ n'ihi ndị otu endogamy.

La Famille anaghị eju ya anya na esemokwu ọ na-enwe dị ka ihe ọ na-ekwu maka mkpagbu ndị e buru n'amụma na amụma ya. Agbanyeghị, mmesi ike French ugbu a na "mgbochi nkewa" nwere ike ibute nsogbu ndị otu ahụ ahụbeghị kemgbe oge Napoleonic.

Foto
Image # 1: Bishọp Cornelius Jansen.
Foto # 2: “Oge nche” na 18th- narị afọ lithograph.
Foto # 3: Fada François Bonjour, “Silas.”
Foto # 4: ụka ụka dị na Fareins.
Foto # 5: Paul Augustin Thibout, "Mon Oncle Auguste."
Foto # 6: Les Cosseux, na Villiers-sur-Marne, n'oge "Uncle Auguste."
Foto # 7: Ndị otu obodo Pardailhan, 1961.
Image # 8: Akwụkwọ nke akwụkwọ Suzanne Privat.

References

Cala, Jeanne, na Juliette Pellerin. 2021. “'La Famille', une secte au cœur de Paris.” Paris Match, Eprel 20. Nweta site na https://www.parismatch.com/Actu/Societe/La-Famille-une-secte-au-coeur-de-Paris-1734414 na 18 July 2021.

Chantin, Jean-Pierre. 2014. Ọ bụ otu croix, ou la curieuse et édifiante histoire du crucifiement de la Tiennon na 1787, na ụlọ ndị ọzọ. Villefranche-sur-Saône: Mmegharị du Poutan.

Chantin, Jean-Pierre. 1998. Les Amis de l'Œuvre de la Vérité. Jansénisme, ọrụ ebube et fin du monde au XIXe na narị afọ. Lyon: Pịa universitaires de Lyon.

Chantin, Jean-Pierre. 1996. Le Jansénisme. Entre hérésie imaginaire na rhosistance catholique. Paris: Ọla.

Nwere, Walstein. 1860. “Mémoire du Grand-Père Walstein.” Ihe odide. Ezitere na peeji dị oke egwu https://www.facebook.com/lafamille.secte/ na Jan, uary 30 2021 [ọ pụtara na 2020 na peeji ọzọ dị oke egwu, adịkwaghị adị].

Jacquard, Nicolas. 2021. “Dans le secret de« la Famille », une communauté religieuse très discrète en plein Paris.” XNUMX. "Dans le nzuzo de« la Famille », Parisian, June 21. Nweta site na https://www.leparisien.fr/faits-divers/dans-le-secret-de-la-famille-une-communaute-religieuse-tres-discrete-en-plein-paris-21-06-2020-8339295.php na 18 July 2021.

La Famille. nd [1]. “Recueil sur la Sainte Famille.” Ihe odide. Ezitere na peeji dị oke egwu https://www.facebook.com/lafamille.secte/ na Jenụwarị 30, 2021 [ọ pụtara na 2020 na peeji ọzọ dị oke egwu, adịkwaghị adị].

La Famille. nd [2]. "Cantiques." Ihe odide. Ezitere na peeji dị oke egwu https://www.facebook.com/lafamille.secte/ na Jenụwarị 30, 2021 [ọ pụtara na 2020 na peeji ọzọ dị oke egwu, adịkwaghị adị].

Maury, Serge. 2019. Une secte janséniste convulsionnaire sous la Révolution française. Fmụ nwanyị Fareinistes (1783-1805). Paris: L'Harmattan.

UMUAKA. 2017. "Rịba ama ihe ọmụma banyere ndị 'La Famille.'" Paris: MIVILUDES.

Privat, Suzanne. 2021. La Famille. Ihe nzuzo Itinéraires d'un. Paris: Les Avrils.

Strayer, Brian E. 2008. Ndị nsọ na-ata ahụhụ: Jansenists na Convulsionaires na France, 1640–1799. Eastbourne, Sussex: Sussex Ọmụmụ Press.

Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
20 July 2021

 

Share