Michelle Mueller

Ighaghachi amoosu

AKWKWỌ AKW WKWỌ WITCHCRAFT

1951 (June 7): Starhawk mụrụ Miriam Simos.

1976: Victorhaw na Cora Anderson bidoro Starhawk na Omenala Feri. N'oge na-adịghị anya, ọ malitere ịmalite ọgbụgba ndụ ọhụrụ: Compost, Raving, na Honeysuckle.

1979 (October 31): Afọ mbụ nke Dance Dance, nke a na-eme na Samhain, emere na Fort Mason, yana njikọta akwụkwọ ịhapụ akwụkwọ maka Starhawk Ogwurugwu Igwe.

1980: Starhawk na Diane Baker duziri klas nke mbụ claghaghachi, "Ihe nke Ime Anwansi." Ndị amoosu ndị na-emegharị aha na-akpọ nzukọ ha Reclaiming Collective. Nke mbụ Iweghachi Akwụkwọ Akụkọ e biri ebi.

1981/1982: Ndị na-agba ume na-abanye na mgbochi gburugburu Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant.

1982: Starhawk bipụtara Na-arọ nrọ n'ọchịchịrị, ihe odide nke usoro mmụta nna ya ukwu nyefere Mahadum Antioch.

1985: Mkpokọta Mkpokọta nwere izu ụka na-ekpo ọkụ nke na-eme ka ọ ghọọ nke Witchcamps.

1994: Nchịkọta Mkpokọta akpọkọtara dị ka 501 (c) (3) na California.

1997: Nchịkọta Na-ewegharịtaghachi ahazigharịrị onwe ya dị ka Wheel karịa otu ọrụ na-arụ ọrụ.

1997: Nzukọ ahụ dere "Reclaiming Principles of Unity" nke mbụ ya. Iweghachi Akwụkwọ Akụkọ e retit Ghaghachi Quarterly.

2005: Mgbe ọtụtụ afọ gasịrị na Herbst Pavillion nke Fort Mason, a na-agba Egwuregwu Spiral na Kezar Pavilion, nke bụ ọnọdụ maka afọ iri na-esote.

2011:  Ghaghachi Quarterly gbanwere naanị mbipụta dijitalụ.

2012: Na Nchịkọta Dandelion kwa afọ, Nweghachi na-emezigharị ụkpụrụ ya nke ịdị n'otu, na-ekwusi ike na nkà mmụta okpukpe na-abụghị nwoke na nwanyị. Ihe omume a dugara na nkwenye ọha na eze site n'aka ụkọchukwu M. Macha NightMare.

2016: A gbara Egwuregwu Egwuregwu na Yerba Buena Center maka Arts na San Francisco.

2019: Emere Iri Afọ Iri Afọ Gburugburu Dance na Craneway Pavillion na Richmond, California.

2020: A na-eduzi Egwuregwu Egwuregwu Egwuregwu na ntanetị n'ihi COVID-19.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Ọ bụ Starhawk (b. Miriam Simos 1951) na Diane Baker hiwere Reclaiming Witchcraft Tradition, site n'enyemaka nke ndị ọzọ gụnyere Kevyn Lutton na Lauren Gale (clanakọta Mkpokọta 1980; Craig [1998?]; Salomonsen 2002: 44). [Foto dị n'aka nri] Starhawk natara ọzụzụ tupu Victor na Cora Anderson na ọdịnala ha nke ndị ọgọ mmụọ, "Feri Tradition" (mgbe ụfọdụ edepụtara "Faery Tradition"). Site na 1976 ruo 1979, Starhawk guzobere ọgbụgba ndụ atọ: Compost, Raving, na Honeysuckle. Nke mbụ, Compost, bụ nwoke na nwanyị jikọrọ ọnụ, na abụọ na-esote, Raving na Honeysuckle, bụ maka ụmụ nwanyị naanị (Salomonsen 2002: 37-39). Baker nọ na-eme ọhụụ Pagan Witchcraft (aka "Craft") na California, ọ na-akwadebe ịkwaga New York, ebe ọ na-amaghị ndị amoosu (Salomonsen 2002: 37). Ihe mbu nke Baker na Starhawk bu imeputa "ulo akwukwo" nke amoosu, ya na akwukwo ozo bu akwukwo Starhawk na abia, Ogwurugwu Igwe (Salomonsen 2002: 37). Malite na imejuputa ọhụụ a, na 1980, Starhawk na Baker mepụtara klas mbụ Reghaghachi, "Elements of Magic," ma kụziere ya dị ka usoro izu isii maka otu ụmụ nwanyị nọ na Northern California (NightMare 2000; Salomonsen 2002: 39) ). N'ịnata arịrịọ maka ihe ọzọ, ha gbara usoro nke abụọ "Elements" wee mepụta klaasị ndị ọzọ, "Iron Pentacle" na "The Rites of Passage." Usoro ọmụmụ ndị a ghọrọ ntọala maka ọdịnala ịta amoosu, ma ndị isi gburugburu ụwa nọ na-ahụ ma na-akụzi.

Starhawk si Ogwurugwu Igwe wepụtara na ngwụsị ọnwa Ọktoba 1979, wee zubere emume Samhain na njikọna akwukwo a weputara. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ememe a nke Samhain, nke akpọrọ "The Spiral Dance," ghọrọ ihe omume kwa afọ nke Bay Area Reclaiming Witches kwadoro ma na-ahụ kwa afọ kwa afọ kemgbe (nke dịpụrụ adịpụ n'oge COVID-19). Ihe omume a toro site na otu na-eme na Fort Mason (onye bụbu ndị agha na-eche ugbu a maka ebe a na-eme mmemme na mmemme ọdịnala) ọnụ ụlọ mgbazinye ikike nke 400 (NightMare, nkwukọrịta onwe onye) nye onye na-abịa karịa puku mmadụ (Craig [ 1998?]; Nweghachi Mpaghara Mpaghara [2009?]). A na-atụle akwụkwọ Starhawk na mkpakọrịta Margot Adler Na-agbada Ọnwa na Zsuzsanna “Z” Budapest si Akwụkwọ Nsọ nke ụmụ nwanyị ihe omimi. Akwụkwọ atọ a gbasara Okpukpe, nke ndị ụkọchukwu atọ nọ na North America dere n'otu n'otu, bipụtara n'otu afọ.

Na mmalite mmalite nke ịghaghachi, Starhawk kụziri na chta amoosu bụ ụdị okpukpe chi nwanyị nke baara ụmụ nwanyị uru karịsịa (Starhawk 1999; Feraro 2017). Kemgbe ọtụtụ iri afọ, ịta amoosu agbanweela ghọọ ọdịnala nke ịta amoosu. Classeslọ akwụkwọ mbụ nke Starhawk na Diane bụ maka ụmụ nwanyị, mana ụmụ nwoke sonyeere mkpokọta mkpokọta n'oge na-adịghị anya na mbido 1980s (Salomonsen 2002: 41). Ka ọ na-erule 1990, Nchịkọta Na-ewepụta Ọnụ gụrụ mmadụ iri na itoolu (Salomonsen 2002: 41). Site na 1980 ruo 1997, Mkpokọta Mkpokọta ahụ gụrụ ihe ruru mmadụ iri ise na abụọ (Salomonsen 2002: 42). Ka ọ na-erule ngwụsị 1990s, e nwere “ikekwe ọtụtụ puku ndị amoosu na-agbapụta mmụọ na US yana ọtụtụ mba ọzọ” (Salomonsen 2002: 43).

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Site na mbido ya, Usoro ịta amoosu a na-agbapụta agbadoro gburugburu njikọ nke anwansi na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị aka ekpe. N'ime njikọta nke emume na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, ọdịnala Traditionghaghachi yiri Quakerism, a na-ahụkarị mmetụta sitere na Quakerism (NightMare 2000; Salomonsen 2002: 108; Adler 2006: 123). Omume mmekọrịta, anwansi, na ọgwụgwọ onwe onye bụ ogidi nke omume Nweghachi (Starhawk, NightMare, na Nweghachi Mkpokọta 1999: 14).

Omenala ọdịnala nke Reclaiming bụ onye na-enweghị ikike na onye na-abụghị onye ọchịchị. Banyere nkọwa anwansi, Starhawk ekwuputakarị Dion Fortune si - “nka nke ịgbanwe uche gị mgbe ọ masịrị” (Cf Starhawk nd; Starhawk, NightMare, na Reclaiming Collective 1999: 14). Ghaghachi amoosu bụ eclectic. Ighaghachi nkwenkwe nke ndi amoosu na okwu ndi di iche iche di iche iche. Ọdịnala ahụ mere ememme chi nwaanyị dị ka ike na-adịghị adị adị nke dị nsọ na-emetụta mmadụ niile, usoro okike na mbara igwe a maara. Ndi mkpochapu ndi mmadu na - achota otutu ndi mmadu na asusu ndi mmadu, na-aru oru iji megharia ma megharia asusu ndi nwoke na nwanyi na ndi nwoke na ndi nwoke na ndi nwoke na ndi mmadu. Naanị nkwenkwe achọrọ bụ nkwekọrịta na ụkpụrụ nke ịdị n'otu (NightMare 2000; Reclaiming Collective nd):

Valueskpụrụ nke omenala Reclaiming sitere na nghọta anyị na ụwa dị ndụ na ihe niile dị ndụ dị nsọ na njikọta. Anyị na-ahụ chi nwanyị ahụ dị ka nke na-adịghị agbanwe agbanwe na usoro ọmụmụ nke ụwa, uto, ọnwụ, ire ere na imu ọmụmụ. Omume anyị na-esite na ntinye miri emi, nke ime mmụọ na ụwa, iji gwọọ ma jikọta anwansi na omume ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị.
Onye ọ bụla n’ime anyị gosipụtara chi dị iche iche. Ikike ime mmụọ anyị kachasị dị n'ime, anyị achọghịkwa onye ọzọ ga-atụgharịrị anyị ihe dị nsọ. Anyị na-azụlite àgwà ịjụ ajụjụ, ma na-asọpụrụ nnwere onwe ọgụgụ isi, nke ime mmụọ na nke okike.
Anyị bụ ọdịnala na-agbanwe agbanwe, na-agbasi ike ma jiri mpako na-akpọ onwe anyị ndị amoosu. Omume anyị dịgasị iche iche na ahụmịhe nke Chineke na-agbanye eriri nke ọtụtụ eriri dị iche iche. Anyị gụnyere ndị na-asọpụrụ Mysterious Ones, Goddesses, na Gods nke ọtụtụ okwu, ụdị nwoke, na ọnọdụ nke ịbụ, na-echeta na ihe omimi karịrị ụdị. Emume anyi nke ndi obodo n’eme ka ndi mmadu nwee obi uto, na eme ememe oge na ndu anyi, na eme ka ume di ike maka ndi mmadu.
Anyị maara na onye ọ bụla nwere ike ịme mgbanwe ndụ, ọrụ mmeghari ụwa nke anwansi, nka nke ịgbanwe uche mgbe ọ bụla. Anyị na-agbasi mbọ ike ịkụzi ma na-eme omume n'ụzọ na-akwalite ikike onwe onye na mkpokọta, iji tụlee ikekọrịta na ịmeghe ọrụ onye ọ bụla. Anyị na-eme mkpebi site na nkwekọrịta, ma dozie nnwere onwe onye ọ bụla na ọrụ mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya.
Omenala anyị na-asọpụrụ anụ ọhịa, ma na-akpọ maka ijere ụwa na obodo ozi. Anyị na-arụ ọrụ n'ọtụtụ ụzọ, gụnyere ịme ihe na-enweghị isi, maka ụdị ikpe ziri ezi niile: gburugburu ebe obibi, mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, agbụrụ, okike na akụ na ụba. Anyị bụ ọdịnala na-emegide ịkpa ókè agbụrụ na-agbasi mbọ ike ịkwalite na etiti olu BIPOC (Black, Indigenous, People of Color). Nwanyị anyị na-agụnye nyocha nke ike, na-ahụ usoro mmegbu niile dị ka nke nwere njikọta, gbanyere mkpọrọgwụ na usoro ịchịisi na njikwa.
Anyị na-anabata ndị niile gbasara nwoke na nwanyị, akụkọ gbasara nwoke na nwanyị, agbụrụ niile, afọ niile na mmekọ nwoke na nwanyị na ụdị ọdịiche niile dị na ndụ, nzụlite, na ikike nke na-eme ka iche iche anyị dịrị. Anyị na-agbasi mbọ ike ime ka ememme ndị anyị na-eme na ọha na eze nwee ike ịnwe nsogbu. Anyị na-anwa ịmezi mkpa ọ dị ịkwụghachi ụgwọ ọrụ anyị n'ụzọ ziri ezi na ntinye aka anyị iji mee ka ọrụ anyị ruo ndị mmadụ aka.
Ihe niile dị ndụ kwesịrị ka a kwanyere ya ugwu. A na-akwado ihe niile dị nsọ nke ikuku, ọkụ, mmiri na ụwa. Anyị na-arụ ọrụ iji mepụta ma kwado obodo na ọdịbendị nke gosipụtara ụkpụrụ anyị, nke nwere ike inye aka gwọọ ọnya nke ụwa na ndị ya, na nke ahụ nwere ike ịkwagide anyị ma zụlite ọgbọ ndị na-abịa n'ihu.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Ndị amoosu na-emegharị emegharị na-eme ọtụtụ ememme ọnwa na anyanwụ ndị metụtara ọdịnala Wicca, kpọmkwem ọnwa zuru ezu (Esbats) na Sabbats asatọ (solstices abụọ, equinoxes abụọ, na ụbọchị anọ gafere). Ndị amoosu amata na-amalitekwa n'ime ọgbụgba ndụ, dịka ọtụtụ ndị otu Wiccan. Elements nke Ime Anwansi na klaasị ndị ọzọ nke Starhawk na Diane Baker bidoro ịnọgide na-abụ ntọala nke ọdịnala claghaghachị ọha na eze, ya na ọtụtụ ndị nkuzi gburugburu ụwa na-etinye usoro ọmụmụ ahụ n'ọrụ na ihe ha rụpụtara. Ndị pụrụ iche na Witgba amoosu nke clagbapụta bụ Witchcamps, ụfọdụ ndị metụtara ezinụlọ (eg Northern California's Redwood Magic and Witchlets in Woods). Witchcamps sitere na oge ọkọchị na-aga nke ọma site na 1985. Ndị nnọchi anya Witchcamps nọchiri anya ikike isi Reclaiming, "The wheel," site na ọnụ na-ekwuchitere.

Ndị amoosu na-agbapụta mmụọ na-eji anwansi anwansi maka emume, usoro ihe omume a na-ahụkarị na British Traditional Witchcraft na ụdị Wicca ndị ọzọ (yana yana ọdịnala ndị ọzọ nke ọdịda anyanwụ). Maka claghaghachi amoosu, gburugburu na-anọchi anya a kpokọtara ngwa nke ụkpụrụ nke grassroots ịhazi, a pụrụ iche atụ ogho na anwansi okirikiri eji na ndị ọzọ esoteric iche iche. Salomonsen dere, sị: “Ndị mmadụ na-anọdụ ala, na-eguzo, na-edina ala ma ọ bụ na-ejide aka, mgbe niile gburugburu. Enweghị oche, tebụl ma ọ bụ ebe a na-ekwu okwu, naanị ala a na-emeghe na ebe ịchụàjà guzobere n'akụkụ mgbidi ahụ. Site na ịhọrọ usoro a maka nkuzi, ụmụ nwanyị nwere olile anya ịbawanye mgbanwe ndị mmadụ ga-eme ọgbụgba ndụ mgbe klaasị gwụchara ”(Salomonsen 2002: 40). Nweghachi nke ime anwansi na-egosi njikọta anwansi, ọnọdụ ime mmụọ, na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke na-akọwa ọdịnala ahụ.

Ndị ndu na-ekwuputaghachi na-anya isi na omume mmekọrịta mmadụ na ngosipụta gụnyere omume nnupụisi. Ihe omume a na-echefu echefu maka ndị guzobere ntọala bụ ikere òkè na mkpọchi 1982 gburugburu Diablo Canyon Nuclear Power Plant, nke ha na ndị ọzọ kwenyere na ọ bụ mbibi gburugburu ebe obibi, n'ihi na ọ dị nso na isi nsogbu dị na California (Starhawk 1997: xxix; NightMare 2000) ; Adler 2006: 124). Starhawk na-akọ, sị: “Ihe mgbochi ahụ ghọrọ ahụmahụ dị oke mkpa na nghọta m ọ bụghị naanị na tiori ahụ kamakwa nke omume ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị / ọrụ ime mmụọ dabere na ụkpụrụ nke ike-site n'ime" (Starhawk 1997: xxx).

Akwụkwọ Starhawk na-arụkarị ọrụ dị ka azụ azụ nke Usoro ịta amoosu a na-agbapụta agbapụta. Ogwurugwu Igwe, dị ka e kwuru na mbụ, bụ usoro ọmụmụ mbụ nke sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ Nweghachi. Na-arọ nrọ n'ọchịchịrị bu ihe mmeghari nke edemede nna ukwu Starhawk maka Mahadum Antioch. Akwụkwọ ahụ na-egosi echiche ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ụwa nke na-eme ka a mata anwansi, ememe, na nkà mmụta okpukpe. Ihe Ise nke Dị Nsọ bụ akwụkwọ utopian nke gosipụtara nkwenye Starhawk na ike nke emume maka iduga mgbanwe mmekọrịta mmadụ na gburugburu ebe obibi. Akwụkwọ na-ekpere arụsị nke ibi na ịnwụ anwụ emepụtara iji mejupụta ihe efu na ememe iru uju na ntuzi aka na-acha akwụkwọ ndụ maka ndị ọgọ mmụọ. Iri na Abụọ Swans, na-eme dị ka akwụkwọ ọgụgụ na Reclaiming magic, na-egosi etu ndị amoosu na-agbapụta agbawa jiri akụkọ ifo na akụkọ ifo sitere na ọdịbendị ụwa dị iche iche.

Starhawk kọwara claghaghachi ụdị ejiji dị ka obi ụtọ, nkwalite, nzukọ, sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ, na organic ("EIEIO"). na kwa nnwale, eclectic, na evolving (Starhawk nd). Vestiges sitere na ọdịnala Feri gụnyere emume na klaasị, Iron Pentacle na Pentacle nke Pearl; echiche nke ato atọ (Onye Ntorobịa (amaghị ihe ọ bụla), Okwu Na-ekwu Okwu (Okwu doro anya) na Deep Onwe (Chineke n'ime); na idobe aha (aha maka imeghari na ufodu amoosu / ndi ojoo). Onweghi chi dị iche iche ejiri soro na Reclaiming Witchcraft Tradition. Ndị amoosu na-agbapụta mmụọ na-arụ ọrụ na chi nwanyị na chi sitere n'ọtụtụ ọdịbendị ụwa.

Mpaghara Bay Mpaghara anabatala Dance Annual Spiral Dance ya ihe karịrị afọ iri anọ. N'oge mgbasa COVID-19, a kpaliri Spiral Dance na ntanetị n'elu ikpo okwu, nke mere ka ndị na-eme atụmatụ ịkwalite nsonye mba. (E nwere ụfọdụ ọdịda na teknụzụ na ntinye (Maxina Ventura, nkwupụta nkeonwe).

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Omenala a na-eweghachite gụnyere onye ọchichị na-ahọpụta ndị amoosu kwenyere na ụkpụrụ nke ịdị n'otu (NightMare 2000). Mkpokọta Mkpokọta bụ nzukọ a na-ahụkarị nke mepụtara site na omume Bay Area Reclaiming. Ejikọtara Mkpokọta Mkpokọta dị ka 501 (c) 3 na California ma na-eme ka usoro iwu emelitere. Witghachite amoosu na-eme mkpebi site na nkwenye dịka o kwere mee (Cf Reclaiming Collective 1997; Salomonsen 2002: 108, 301). N’ịzaghachi uto ọdịnala ahụ, nzukọ a hazigharịrị na 1997 ka ọ bụrụ usoro “Cell-Cells-and-Wheel”. [Foto dị n'aka nri] A na-akpọ Ndị Nduzi Nchịkọta Reclaiming “Wheel.” Otu Onye ndu, "Triad," nwere ndị otu Wheel atọ ndị Wheel họpụtara na nzukọ kachasị ọhụrụ. Ugboro anọ na-ezukọta kwa ọnwa, ndị otu nwere azụmahịa ngwa ngwa n'etiti nzukọ na-ezo aka na Triad (Nchịkọta Mkpokọta 2018: Nkebi 15).

Mpaghara mweghachi nke mpaghara ("obodo") dị n'ime ọtụtụ obodo mepere emepe na US na Canada (dịka, Bay Area Reclaiming, Philly Reclaiming, Portland Reclaiming, Tejas Web, Chicago Reclaiming, British Columbia Witchcamps / Vancouver Reclaiming, Toronto Reclaiming, na Nweghachi Montreal) nakwa na Australia, Brazil, Venezuela, Costa Rica, Spain, Germany, Netherlands, na England. Ndị Amoosu na-agbapụta mmụọ na-eji okwu ahụ bụ "sel" site na ntọala ndị na-ahazi maka ndị ọrụ anwansi, ndị isi okpukpe, na ndị ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. Ihe atụ gụnyere spokescouncils nke Wheel (eg, SF Teachers cell, Samhain (aka Spiral Dance cell), na Special Projects cell).

Nweghachi na-ebipụta akwụkwọ akụkọ ruo ọtụtụ afọ. Na mbido Iweghachi Akwụkwọ Akụkọ, a na-edegharị oge a Ghaghachi Quarterly na 1997. N’etiti afọ 2000, Ghaghachi Quarterly mbipụta kwụsịrị, na-ebizighị ndụ dị ka aha ya nke “Quarterly.” Mmepụta nke okwu bịara nwee ntụpọ, wee ghara ịdị adị mgbe afọ 2014 gachara iji tụteghachi akwụkwọ mweghachi, otu mbipụta nke Caghaghachi Cauldron e bipụtara na 2020.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

N'iji ya tụnyere ọdịnala ndị ọzọ nke ndị ọgọ mmụọ, ọdịnala Reclaim ejirila ngwa ngwa pụta mgbe a bịara n'ihe metụtara njirimara nwoke na nwanyị. Karịsịa ndị a na-ewu ewu na Millennial Pagans na Gen Z Pagans (ma e jiri ya tụnyere British Traditional Witchcraft), claghaghachi Omenala Anwansi agbanweela mgbanwe ọdịbendị gbasara nwoke na nwanyị. (Groupsfọdụ ndị ọzọ dị iche na-agbasi mbọ ike na nsonye transgender ma bụrụ isiokwu nke esemokwu n'etiti ndị ọgọ mmụọ (Mueller 2017).)

Ighaghachi amoosu malitere na ụkpụrụ nke umu nwanyi. Akwụkwọ Starhawk Ogwurugwu Igwe, onye kacha ere ahịa nke natara ọtụtụ mbipụta ncheta, kwusiri ike banyere chta Amoosu dị ka okpukpe nwanyị nke ofufe Chukwu. Dabere na akwụkwọ akụkọ mbụ nke nzukọ ahụ, "Anyị [Na-agbazigharị Ndị Amoosu] na-eji okwu ahụ 'Witch' dị ka nkwenye nke ike ụmụ nwanyị ịkpụzi eziokwu" (Reclaiming Collective 1980: 2). Otu akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ kpọsara usoro izu izu isii maka ụmụ nwanyị (The Rite-of-Passage) na maka ụmụ nwoke (Ime Anwansi maka Menmụ nwoke), na-egosi na enyerela ụmụ nwoke ohere na Nweghachi site na mbido (Na-eweghachi Mkpokọta 1980: 3). N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, ọdịnala na-emegharị ahụ taa na-ekwusi ike itinye ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwanyị n'etiti ndị na-eme ihe na chi ha.

Nzukọ a agafewo oge na-ahọrọ nwanyị, okwu mmekọrịta na ndị ọzọ nke iji ọtụtụ okwu na / ma ọ bụ karịa okwu ndị na-abụghị ọnụọgụ abụọ. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, Starhawk na ndị ọzọ ahọrọla “thealogy” karịa “theology” (Cf Starhawk 1999: 13-18) ma were “ụkọchukwu nwanyị” dịka okwu nwoke na nwanyị na-anọpụ iche (Starhawk na Valentine 2000: xxiv). Amoosu ka chi nwaanyị okpukpe abụrụla isiokwu dị ugbu a n'oge ederede Starhawk. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, a bịakwutere ya kpọmkwem ma gbanwee ya na nkà mmụta okpukpe Reclaiming na 2012. Na mkpokọta Dandelion nke afọ ahụ, ndị Reclaiming Collective kwadoro okwu ọhụrụ maka "cikpụrụ nke Unitydị n'Otu," na-enyefe okwukwe ọzọ na-abụghị nke ọnụọgụ abụọ. Tù ahụ dochiri nkwupụta ha nke ikwere na “Chi nwanyị na Chineke” nke e ji omume nke iji “ihe oyiyi nke nwanyị na nke nwoke” eme ihe na nke a na-akwado “iji gosi na e nwere ọtụtụ chi nwanyị na chi 'nke ọtụtụ okwu [na ndị na-edina ụdị onwe' enweghị ọnụọgụ abụọ doro anya iji kewaa ha ”(Mueller 2017: 260). Ihe omume nke Dandelion Gathering dugara na nkwenye ọha na eze site na ịghachite ụkọchukwu M. Macha NightMare (aka Aline O'Brien) (NightMare 2012). Macha zoro aka na enweghi enweghi mmekorita ma obu eziokwu dika ihe kpatara ya iji wepu onwe ya na iweghachite.

Ọzọkwa, ụfọdụ esemokwu amalitela n'akụkụ nkụja nke clakpụrụ na-ahazi ntọala nke Reclaiming na sistemụ Wiccan ọdịnala, nke bụ nke doro anya na usoro nhazi usoro (Salomonsen 2002: 42). Na Wicca ọdịnala, mbido (ndị na-eme ihe mbido) amaghị banyere ọrụ dị n'ime emume ha na-aga ime. Ihe nzuzo (ma ọ bụ ihe omimi, dị ka ndị ọrụ si kwuo) na-atụnye ọdịdị ọdịdị nke ọdịnala ahụ, mana ihe nzuzo ahụ na-ewepụkwa ikike dị iche iche dị ukwuu n'etiti ndị mbido na mbido, nke ụfọdụ na-eche dị ka ihe na-adịghị mma iji nweta ụkpụrụ mmekọrịta ọha na eze (Salomonsen) 2002: 42).

Ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ emume na omume esoteric (Esbats, Sabbats, na usoro nnabata) na-esonye na Wicca ọdịnala, ndị Reclaiming Collective na-eji akara akpọrọ "Amoosu." Ọ bụ ezie na iche iche amoosu na Wicca dị iche tupu esemokwu a na-adịbeghị anya (NightMare 1998), ọdịiche nke ofghaghachi dị ka Witta Amoosu karịa Wicca metụtara esemokwu na nso nso a n'ime obodo ndị ọgọ mmụọ. Na 2013, okwu a, "Ihe ùgwù nke Wiccanate," bụ ihe eji eme ihe n'etiti ndị ọgọ mmụọ dị ka nkatọ dị n'ime Wicca na Hegemony n'ime oge ndị ọgọ mmụọ. Mara banyere ihe ùgwù nke Wiccanate mere ka ọtụtụ ndị na-ekwupụta ọnọdụ ha dị ka Wiccan ma ọ bụ dị ka ndị na-abụghị Wiccanate. Mighttù ndị sitere na Wicca nwere ike ịkpọ dị ka "Wiccanate," ọ bụ ezie na esemokwu nke ihe ùgwù Wiccanate mere ka ọ bụrụ mmadụ ole na ole ma ọ bụrụ na otu ọ bụla nabatara aha ahụ "Wiccanate" maka onwe ha. A na-esekarị mmalite nke ndị otu Pagan / Witchcraft dị iche iche, dịkwa ka a na-enwe njikọ dị n'etiti ndị isi dịka Victor na Cora Anderson na Gerald Gardner (Cf Adler 2006: 76).

Ọnọdụ maka Annual Spiral Dance abanyela na ụfọdụ esemokwu, na-emetụta ndị Bay Area Reclaiming community. Mkpesa banyere Kezar Pavillion (ọnọdụ maka 2005-2015) gụnyere na o nweghi ihe okike, nke ụwa (ma ọ bụ, ụfọdụ, ọfụma ọ bụla), enweghị ike ịnweta maka ndị mmadụ na-eji oche nkwagharị, ọ nweghịkwa ike ịnweta site na njem ọha na eze. Na-achọ ebe ga-abụ oche nkwagharị na ebe mgbazinye ego na akụ na ụba, ndị na-ahazi lebara Ogwe aka na San Francisco anya dị ka saịtị ọhụrụ maka Spiral Dance. Na 2013, ndị otu obodo mara na ndị na-ahazi Dance Dance na-atụle ngwa agha na San Francisco dịka saịtị ọhụrụ maka Spiral Dance. Fọdụ ndị òtù chere na ịtụle echiche nke Armory dị ka ebe enwere ike kwekọrọ na nkwado Reclaiming maka usoro mmekọahụ niile. Ndị ọzọ sitere na nnukwu imegide echiche nke nkwado nkwado maka BDSM na-arụ ụka na Armgbọ agha anaghị adabara ezinụlọ nwere ụmụ.

Foto

Image # 1: Starhawk (Miriam Simos).
Image # 2: 1979 Spiral Dance Flyer. Site n'ikike nke Diane Fenster.
Foto # 3: Nzukọ-sel-na-Wheel nzukọ.

References

Adler, Margot. 2006. Idolata Ọnwa: Ndị amoosu, ndị ọrịa, ndị na-efe Chineke na ndị ọzọ na-ekpere arụsị na America. Emezigharị na nke emelitere na mgbakwunye mgbakwunye III. New York: Akwụkwọ Penguin.

Mgbapụta Mpaghara Bay. [2009?]. "Akụkọ Egwú Ahụ." Ighapu Gburugburu Dance. Nweta site na https://www.reclaimingspiraldance.org/history na 1 July 2021.

Craig, Georgie. [1998?]. "Mmalite nke gburugburu Dance: Ọ bụ afọ 20 gara aga…" Ghaghachi Quarterly. Nweta site na http://www.reclaimingquarterly.org/web/spiraldance/spiral4.html na 1 July 2021.

Feraro, Shai. 2017. "Ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke Chi nwanyị: Radical / Cultural Feminist Influen nke Starhawk's Feminist Witchcraft." Pp. 229–48 na Ndi Ndu Ndi Ozo n'oru Okpukpe, nke Inga Bårdsen Tøllefsen na Christian Giudice dere. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.

Mueller, Michelle. 2017. "Chalice na egwurugwu: Esemokwu dị n'etiti ọnọdụ ime mmụọ ụmụ nwanyị na ikike Transgender na US Wicca na 2010s." Pp. 249–78 n’ime Ndi Ndu Ndi Ozo n'oru Okpukpe, nke Inga Bårdsen Tøllefsen na Christian Giudice deziri.– Palgrave Studies in New Religions and Alternative Spiritualities. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan.

NightMare, M. Macha. 2012. "Onye na-arụkọ ọrụ na-ewepụ akwụkwọ na omenala." Broomstick Ihe E Mere, August 6. Nweta site na https://besom.blogspot.com/2012/08/a-co-founder-withdraws-from-reclaiming.html na 1 July 2021.

NightMare, M. Macha. 2000. "clachọgharị Amoosu Omenala." Nkwupụta. Nweta site na https://reclaimingcollective.wordpress.com/reclaiming-tradition-witchcraft/ na 1 July 2021.

NightMare, M. Macha. 1998. "Okwu 'W': Ihe Mere Anyị Ji Kpoo Onwe Anyị Ndị Amoosu." Ghaghachi Quarterly 71:16–17, 49–50.

Lecthapụ mkpokọta. 2018. “Iwu iwu.” Nyochaa 2018.

Lecthapụ mkpokọta. 2014. "Archives na Azụ Issues." Ghaghachi Quarterly. Nweta site na http://reclaimingquarterly.org/backissues.html na 1 July 2021.

Lecthapụ mkpokọta. 1997. "Ihe - 1997 nhazigharị." Nkwupụta. Nweta site na https://reclaimingcollective.wordpress.com/about-1997-restructuring/ na 1 July 2021.

Lecthapụ mkpokọta. 1980. Iweghachi Akwụkwọ Akụkọ 1, Oge oyi.

Lecthapụ mkpokọta. nd “Prinkpụrụ nke Unitydị n'Otu.” Nweta site na https://reclaimingcollective.wordpress.com/principles-of-unity/ na 1 July 2021.

Salomonsen, Jone. 2002. Ndi Nwanyi Enchanted: Ritual, Gender and Divinness N'etiti ndi amoosu nke San Francisco. New York: Routledge.

Starhawk. 1999. Egwuregwu Egwuregwu: Ihe omumu nke Okpukpe Oge Ochie nke Great Goddess. Iri abụọ na ncheta Edition. San Francisco: Harper Collins.

Starhawk. 1997. Nrọ Ọchịchịrị: Ime Anwansi, Mmekọahụ, na Ndọrọ Ndọrọ Ọchịchị. Iri na ise ncheta mbipụta. Boston: Mgbama Pịa.

Starhawk. Na “Nkọwa Na-arụ Ọrụ Mgbapụta.” Nkwupụta. Nweta site na https://reclaimingcollective.wordpress.com/about-working-definition/ na 1 July 2021.

Starhawk, M. Macha NightMare, na mkpokọta Nweghachi. 1999. Akwụkwọ na-adịghị mma nke ibi na ịnwụ anwụ: Iwu bara uru, ekpere, ngọzi, na ntụgharị uche na ịgafe. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco.

Starhawk, na Hilary Valentine. 2000. Umu ohia iri na abuo: njem nke di n’ime ime anwansi, ogwu na ihe. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco.

Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
3 July 2021

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