Elizabeth Goodine

Onye nsọ JULIAN nke NORWICH

Onye Nsọ JULIAN nke NORWICH TIMELINE

1342/1343: A mụrụ Julian nke Norwich.

1343 na 1362 (na oge ụfọdụ na-agagharị na narị afọ nke iri na anọ): Idei mmiri dị egwu mere na Norwich.

1348–1349, 1361, 1369, 1375, 1383, 1387: Otiti tiri Norwich.

1373 (Mee 8 ma ọ bụ Mee 15): Julian nwere ọhụụ dị iche iche n'oge ọ na-arịa ọrịa na-egbu egbu.

1378–1417: Western (Papal) Schism mere. A gbara ụka banyere Papacy ahụ na ndị bishọp nọ na Avignon na Rome nke ọ bụla na-azọrọ ikike ọchịchị.

1381: Nnupụisi nke ndị nkịtị ahụ mere gafee England.

1382: John Wycliffe wepụtara nsụgharị Bekee mbụ nke Latin Vulgate Bible.

1382: Lollard bidoro site na ndị mbụ soro ụzọ John Wycliffe.

1384: John Wycliffe nwụrụ.

Ihe dị ka 1393: possiblebọchị nwere ike ime Julian banyere na arịlịka ya na Norwich.

1415: Ndi bekee meriri ndi France n’agha nke Agincourt.

1413–1416: Margery Kempe gara leta Julian nke Norwich.

Ka afọ 1416 gasịrị: Julian nke Norwich nwụrụ na Norwich, England.

Akwukwo Igbo / BIOGRAPHY

Saint Julian, onye ngwụsị nke iri na anọ na mmalite nke narị afọ nke iri na ise si Norwich, England, [Foto dị n'aka nri] ka amaara ma cheta ya site na ịkọghachi ọhụụ nke ọhụụ iri na isii ọ natara mgbe ọ na-arịa ọrịa na-egbu egbu. Dabere na akụkọ Julian, ọhụụ a bịakwutere ya na Mee nke 1373 mgbe ọ dị afọ iri atọ. Ugbua ọ bụ nwanyị nwere ezigbo okwukwe, ọ na-akọ na n'ọchịchọ ya ịbịarukwu Kraịst nso, ọ rịọworị maka onyinye atọ doro anya sitere n'aka Chineke: “nke mbụ bụ ncheta agụụ ya; nke abụọ bụ ọrịa nke anụ ahụ n’oge ntorobịa mgbe ọ dị afọ iri atọ; nke atọ bụ site n'onyinye Chineke nyere ọnya atọ; ” ọfụma nke “ezi nchegharị,” “ọmịiko,” na “agụụ na-agụsi Chineke ike”Nkpughe isi nke 2, John-Julian 2009: 67, 69). Olile anya Julian n’ario maka onyinye ndia di iche, nke juputara na nmeru aru, bu “ka egosiri m kari inwe ezi nmuta nke ihe omuma nke Kraist. . . [na] ka e wee mee ka m dị ọcha site n'ebere nke Chineke wee mesịa bie ndụ ka nsọpụrụ nke Chineke n'ihi na oria. . . ”(Nkpughe isi nke 2, John-Julian 2009: 67, 69). N’ụzọ dị ịrịba ama, n’ezie ọ rịara ọrịa siri ike mgbe ọ dị afọ iri atọ, [Foto dị n'aka nri] n'oge o yiri ka ọ gafere ma na-amaghị maka ọtụtụ ụbọchị. N'abalị nke anọ, mgbe a na-atụghị anya na ọ ga-anwụ ruo mgbe chi bọrọ, a kpọrọ onye ụkọchukwu ma mee ememme ikpeazụ. Site na obe nke ejiri n’ihu ya mee, onwu bidoro n’aru ya, rue mgbe ọ mataghị ihe ọbụla ma ọbụghị ahụhụ nke ya na ịdọgbu onwe ya n’ọrụ; na mgbe emesịrị, nkwụsị nke ihe mgbu niile na mmetụta nke izu oke (Nkpughe isi nke 3, John-Julian 2009: 71). Dị ka Julian si kwuo ya, ọ "juru ya anya na mgbanwe a na mberede," mana "mmetụta nke nkasi obi enweghịrị m ike zuru oke, n'ihi na ọ dị m ka ọ ga - amasị m ka a napụta m n'ụwa a" (Nkpughe isi nke 3, John-Julian 2009: 73). Ma, nnapụta dị otú ahụ agaghị adị n'ụwa. Utu ke oro, ke ini okpo esie okodude ke ufọt n̄kpa ye uwem, mme n̄kukụt oro ẹma ẹtọn̄ọ ye mmọ, Abasi ama ọtọn̄ọ ndinọ enye “ata unan” oro enye ekeben̄ede; nke ahụ bụ, ikpughere ya ezi nchegharị nke Chineke, ọmịiko na agụụ na-agụ ya, na ịkụziri ya na Chineke bụ ịhụnanya n’ezie (ịhụnanya niile) na enweghị ụdị ịhụnanya a ga-agbahapụ mmadụ.

Aha ya Ihe ngosi or Mkpughe, ọhụụ ndị a e nyere Julian ka edere na nke obere na nke dị ogologo. Ekwenyere n'ozuzu ya na ọ gwụchara nke mbụ obere oge ọ gbakechara n'ọrịa ya; nakwa na nke ikpeazụ, nke ka ogologo oge, edere ya mgbe ọtụtụ afọ nke ekpere na ntụgharị uche, ebe ọ bụ na ọ gụnyere ọ bụghị naanị ọhụụ kamakwa nkọwa nke Julian n'onwe ya gbasara ihe ọhụụ ndị ahụ pụtara (Spearing 1998: xii – xiii). Site na ịtụgharị uche na ncheta nke ahụmịhe ya n'ime ọtụtụ afọ, Julian sooro Chineke na-enwe mmekọrịta na-aga n'ihu site na nke a na-ekpughere ya ịhụnanya na-enweghị atụ banyere ịhụnanya Chineke. Ya mere, nye ya, ọbụnadị ihe odide ogologo ahụ bụ "ederede ederede na - agwụbeghị" n'ihi na a na-enwekarị ihe ka Chineke nwee ike ịhọrọ ikpughe site na usoro nke ncheta ya (Yuen 2003: 198). O di nwute, odighi ihe odide mbu edebere rue oge a, mana mbipụta nke ogologo ma nke di mkpirikpi di (John-Julian 2009: 17). [Foto dị na peeji nke 3] versiondị nke ogologo ahụ nwere 86 isi dị mkpirikpi ma bụrụ onye ama ama maka ịbụ akwụkwọ mbụ nwanyị dere na Bekee. Ọ dịkwa ịrịba ama na mgbe ịghasịrị ihe nzuzo ruo ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ narị afọ isii, ọrụ ahụ toro na-ewu ewu kemgbe akụkụ ikpeazụ nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ. Ọhụụ Julian, nke na-atụgharị uche n'ụdị Chineke na mmekọrịta dị n'etiti Chineke na mmadụ, na ihe mmehie na mgbapụta pụtara, n'ekpere, na n'ikpeazụ na mkpụrụ obi na Chineke, yiri ka ọ na-enye ndị na-achọ mmekọrịta miri emi ohere ọhụrụ ha na Chineke na mmadu ibe ha.

Ihe pere mpe mara banyere nwanyị ochie a, ewezuga ederede ya, nke na-akpali ndị mmadụ taa. N'ihi ọdịiche dị n'etiti ihe odide abụọ bụ isi, enwere nghọtahie banyere ụbọchị ahụ nke ọhụụ ahụ rutere Julian, mana o doro anya na ọrịa ahụ wee si otú a malite ọhụụ ma ọ bụ na asatọ ma ọ bụ nke iri na atọ nke Mee 1373 (John- Julian 2009: 35–38) mgbe Julian dị afọ iri atọ (Nkpughe isi nke 3, John-Julian 2009: 69). Maka nke a, a na-echekarị ụbọchị ọmụmụ nke 1342/1343. Kọwa ụbọchị ọnwụ bụ ihe siri ike karịa. Ihe odide ochie kacha ochie bụ otu Short Version, nke malitere na narị afọ nke iri na ise. Ọ na-agụnye akwụkwọ mmeghe nke a ga-esi na ya mata ma ọ dịkarịa ala ruo na 1413 ebe ọ bụ na akwụkwọ a na-agụ, sị: “ọhụụ a gosiri, site n'ịdị mma nke Chineke, nye nwanyị na-anụ ọkụ n'obi, aha ya bụ Julian, ọ bụkwa akwụkwọ nkwado na Norwich, ọ ka dị ndụ n'afọ nke Onyenwe anyị 1413. " (Nkpughe isi 1, Na-ekwu okwu, 1998: 3). Na mgbakwunye, otu akwụkwọ nke nyere ego iji nye "Julian recluse na Norwich," na 1416 na-akwado ọ ga-abụ na o biri ma ọ dịkarịa ala ruo oge ahụ. Fọdụ ekenyela ụbọchị ọnwụ na 1420s dabere na mkpebi ndị ọzọ; otu na 1429, dịka ọmụmaatụ, hapụrụ onyinye “arịlịka na mbara ụlọ ụka nke St. Julian's, Conesford na Norwich” (John-Julian, 2009: 31). Akaebe ndị dị ka ndị a emewo ka ụfọdụ nwee mgbagwoju anya ebe ọ bụ na a maara na Julian ọzọ, nke a maara dị ka Dame Julian Lampett, bụ arịlịka na Carrow Priory (nakwa na Norwich) n'etiti 1426 na 1481 (John-Julian 2009: 31-32). Akụkụ ọzọ dị mkpa nke akụkọ ihe mere eme nke na-egosi na Saint Julian dịrị ndụ ruo oge ụfọdụ na 1415 sitere na Akwụkwọ nke Margery Kempe (ihe dị ka 1440), nke onye ọhụụ a maara nke ọma na-ede banyere nleta nke ya na Dame Julian, ihe arịlịka ahụ na Norwich (edemede nke John-Julian, 2009: 33-34 na Spearing, 1998: 192–93). Ofbọchị nleta a n'etiti ụmụ nwanyị abụọ ahụ ejighi n'aka; ọ nwere ike ime na 1413 (John-Julian 2009: 33) ma ọ bụ dịka 1415 (Spearing 1998: xi).

Otu eziokwu doro anya bụ na n’oge ụfọdụ na ndụ ya, Julian ghọrọ onye arịlịka nọ na Chọọchị St. Julian dị na Norwich, England. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, dị ka ụbọchị nke anụ ahụ ọ nwụrụ, a maghịkwa ụbọchị ọ raara onwe ya n'ihe ndọba arịlịka ahụ. Kama nke ahụ, a na-ajụ ọtụtụ ajụjụ banyere nwanyị a, gụnyere aha a na-akpọ Julian, nke e ji mara ya n’akụkọ ihe mere eme, yana aha ọrụ okpukpe ya, mmekọrịta ezinụlọ ya na ọnọdụ ọhaneze, na agụmakwụkwọ ya.

Nanị etu Saint Julian si nweta aha ahụ bụ “Julian” bụ ihe a na-atụle n’oge na-adịbeghị anya. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ ihe nkịtị iji chee na ọ kpọrọ aha a mgbe ọ banyere arịlịka-na St Julian's Church na Norwich (dịka ọmụmaatụ, Spearing 1998: xi na Milton 2002: 9), a na-ajụkarị echiche a, ya na ụfọdụ ndị ọkà mmụta na-ekwukwa na o yikarịrị ka ọ bụ chọọchị naara ya aha ya. Na nsụgharị na nkọwa ya sara mbara banyere Mkpughe, Fada John-Julian kwuru na “enweghị ihe akaebe nke ụdị ọ bụla ọ bụla English arịlịka mgbe weere 'aha okpukpe' ọhụrụ, n'ekwughị ihe ọ bụla banyere ịkpọ aha onye nsọ nke chọọchị ahụ ọnụ ụlọ mkpọrọ ya na ya nọ na ya. Ihe ndekọ akụkọ ihe mere eme na-egosi na ọ bụ n'ezie ọ bụghị a 'omume nkịtị'. . . ” (John-Julian 2009: 21–22). N'otu aka ahụ, na-agbaso usoro nhazi nke arịlịka nke diocese Norwich ruo 1540 (gụnyere ndị nọ na St. Julian's Church na St. Edward's Church na Norwich), EA Jones na-ekwu na "N'ezie, ọ dịghị ebe ọ bụla ememe ndị dị ugbu a maka imechi arịlịka ebe a na-akọwa ma ọ bụ na-egosi ngbanwe nke aha. ” Ọ bụ ezie na echiche dị otú ahụ dabere na omume a na-ejikarị eme ihe n'usoro okpukpe, a naghị ele arịlịka anya dị ka akụkụ nke usoro ọ bụla, eziokwu nke na-eme ka ntụnyere ahụ belata nke ukwuu (Jones 2007: 1, 3). Ọzọkwa, Jones na-ekwu na aha ahụ, Julian, "abụghị naanị, ma ọ bụ ọbụna n'ụzọ bụ isi, aha nwoke na Middle Ages" (Jones 2007: 9). N'ịkọtara ọmụmụ ihe abụọ dị iche iche yana ndekọ ụtụ isi nhoputa nke narị afọ nke iri na anọ, ọ chọpụtara na Julian edeghị aha ụmụ nwoke mana ọ bụ ihe a na-ahụkarị maka ụmụ nwanyị, nke dabara na aha nke oge a, Gillian (Jones 2007: 9). Yabụ, ọ na - arụ ụka na ọ ga - ekwe omume na Julian, nwere ike bụrụ aha aha Saint Julian, na ya jigidere aha ahụ mgbe ọ banyere arịlịka arịlị na Norwich.

N'akụkụ ajụjụ banyere aha mbụ enyere Julian, e nwekwara ihe ndị ọzọ a na-ejighị n'aka gbasara ihe nketa ya na ndabere ya. Nanị onye nwanyị a bụ? Ebee ka o si bia, olee otu o siri bido dika ihe mgbakwasi obi nke chochiri na ulo uka St. Julian na Norwich? Enweela ụfọdụ ịkọ nkọ na ọ bụ a Nri, nke ahụ bụ, nwanyị nwanyị nkịtị jikọtara na nzuzo na ụmụ nwanyị ndị ọzọ tinyere onwe ha n'ekpere na nlekọta nke ndị ọzọ, bụ ndị were nkwa dị mfe, karịa nke siri ike (Milton 2002: 11). Otú ọ dị, ikekwe n'ihi na Carrow Abbey, ebe obibi ndị nọn nke Julian ga-amata, dị na nso ije nke Julka St. Julian, echiche a na-ewu ewu karị bụ na ọ nwere ike bụrụ onye nọn Benedictine. N’ezie, otu akụkụ pụtara ìhè nke windo ugegbe tụrụ ntụ, [Foto dị n’aka nri] nke na-egosi ya dị ka nke a, ka enyere ọrụ na 1964 maka Katidral Norwich, na nyocha ha na ntụgharị 1978 sara mbara nke ọrụ Julian, Edmund Colledge na James Walsh kwubiri na ọ bụ “ mee ka o doo anya na ọ banyere n'okpukpe mgbe ọ ka dị obere "(Colledge na Walsh 1978: 20).

N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, enwere ọtụtụ ihe na-egosi na Saint Julian bụ n'ezie onye nọn. Nke mbu, n’ihe odide ya, Julian ekwughi okwu ọ bụla gbasara ndụ ebe obibi ndị nọn. N'ezie, nke a n'onwe ya, bụ naanị arụmụka si na ịgbachi nkịtị. Ekwesiri ighota na obu ezie na o nekwu otutu okwu banyere ohuru ya na mmetuta ya ndi gbara ha gburugburu, na o nyere ihe di ole na ole, ma oburu na odi ihe banyere ndu nke onwe ya. Otú ọ dị, nke ka mkpa bụ obere nkọwa ọ na-agụnye mgbe ọ na-akọwa ahụmahụ ya. Nke mbụ, nne ya na ndị ọzọ bịara n’oge ọ na-arịa ọrịa. Nke a agaraghị abụrịrị ma ọ bụrụ na ọ bụrụ Benedictine nọn bi n'ụlọ ndị nọn ahụ. Nke abụọ, Julian na-akọ na ọ bụ onye “curate” ya bịara ịbịa emume ikpeazụ ma tinyekwa obe ahụ n’ihu ya. Ebe ọ bụ na okwu ahụ bụ "curate" na-ezo aka kpọmkwem na onye ụkọchukwu ego ma ọ bụ parish, ọ dị ka ihe ijuanya na Julian gaara eji ya ebe a ma ọ bụrụ na ọ bụrụ onye ụkọchukwu ya na ndị nọn ya (John-Julian 2009: 26 na ihe odide ala ala peeji nke # 6, 70; Nkpughe isi nke 2, Na-egosi 1998: 5). Na mgbakwunye, na isi nke 4 na 8, Julian ji okwu Latin, Benedicite Domino mee ihe n'ụzọ na-ezighi ezi, kama na-ekwu Benedicite Domine. Ọ bụrụ na ọ bụ onye nọn bụ onye nke a bụ ekele nkịtị na nke ọdịnala nke a ga-abụ mmejọ na-enweghị atụ (John-Julian 2009: 26 na Nkpughe isi nke 4, 75 na isi nke 8, 89).

Na-ekwenyeghi na Saint Julian nke Norwich bụ onye sista, agbanyeghị na Carrow Abbey dị nso na Julka St. Julian, Fada John-Julian arụrịta ụka na nso nso a na ọ nwere ike bụrụ nwanyị nkịtị; ọkachasị, Nwanyị Julian Erpingham Phelip, onye otu ezi na ụlọ n’ezinụlọ mara mma na narị afọ nke iri na anọ Norwich bụ onye di ya nwụrụ ugboro abụọ ma nwee ụmụ atọ site na alụmdi na nwunye ya nke abụọ. Enwere ọtụtụ ihe iji kwado echiche a. Ihe ndekọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Norwich na-egosi na Julian Erpingham, nwanne nwanyị okenye nke Norfolk knight, Sir Thomas Erpingham, lụrụ mbụ Roger Hauteyn bụ onye e gburu, o doro anya na ya na Sir John Coleby na-alụ ọgụ, na 1373. Julian a lụgharịrị, nke ugbu a na Sir John Phelip I nke Suffolk wee mụta ụmụ atọ, nke ikpeazu na 1389. Dịka nkwupụta Fada John-Julian si kwuo, usoro iheomume nke ndụ Lady Julian Erpingham dabara na nke Saint Julian. Iji maa atụ, ọ nwere ike ọbụghị ihe mere na Saint Julian dara ọrịa ma hụ ọhụụ ya na 1373, otu afọ ahụ Julian Erpingham chere ọnwụ ọnwụ di ya mbụ, Roger Hauteyn ihu. Ọzọkwa, mgbe di ya nke abụọ nwụrụ na 1389, ọ ga-abụ na o dekọtara Long Version nke ọhụụ ya wee banye njigide arịlịka n'afọ ndị na-esote. Eziokwu ahụ bụ na o nwere ụmụ atọ agaraghị ekwe omume n'ihi na ndekọ na-egosi na nwa ya nwanyị, bụ Rose, lụrụ na 1389. Banyere nlekọta nke ụmụ ya ndị nwoke ndị tọrọ, o doro anya na na mba England oge ochie nke ụmụ klas ndị elu nọ ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ mgbe niile ka ezinụlọ ndị ọzọ nọ n'ọkwá dị elu iji kwalite nzụlite kwesịrị ekwesị. N'iburu ọnọdụ nke ndụ Nwanyị Julian Erpingham, Fada John-Julian rụtụrụ aka na n'afọ 1389, ọ gaara enwe '' ihu nhọrọ anọ: alụmdi na nwunye nke atọ, ọnọdụ nke 'ikwere nwanyị' (n'okpuru nkwa nke ịdị ọcha ma ibi n'ụwa ), na-abanye ebe obibi ndị nọn, ma ọ bụ na-emechi ya dị ka arịlịka "(John-Julian 2009: 24). O doro anya, ọnọdụ nke arịlịka nwere ike ịbụ "ihe kachasị mma" (John-Julian 2009: 24). Ọzọkwa, e nwere ihe bara uru banyere nkwado. Tupu imechi arịlịka, ọ dị mkpa ka bishọp nwee obi ike na onye ahụ ejidere ya nwere ụzọ dị mkpa iji kwado ihe fọdụrụ na ndụ ya. Nkwado dị otú ahụ nwere ike ịbịa site n'ọtụtụ ebe, agbanyeghị, isi mmalite kacha pụta bụ ihe ejiri n'aka ezinụlọ ya. Site na ezi na ụlọ ya, site kwa na njikọ nke emere site na di ya nke abụọ, Sir John Phelip, Nwanyị Julian Erpingham Phelip nwere akụnụba chọrọ iji mesie bishọp obi ike na a ga-elebara ya anya nke ọma na ọ gaghị abụ ọnye akụ na ụba nke ụka. (John-Julian 2009: 24–5 na ihe odide ala ala peeji nke # 30, 415).

N'ikpeazụ, n'etiti ndị ọzọ na-ejighị n'aka na ajụjụ nke "Onye bụ Saint Julian?" bụ ihe gbasara agụmakwụkwọ ya. Ebe ọ bụ na ọ bụ nwanyị izizi debara akwụkwọ na bekee, akwụkwọ nke n'anya ọtụtụ mmadụ bụ ezigbo ihe ọmụmụ gbasara mmụọ, mmadụ nwere ike iche na ọ ga-abụrịrị onye gụrụ nnukwu akwụkwọ. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, n'ụwa nke narị afọ nke iri na anọ, Bekee bụ asụsụ a na-asụkarị. Ọ bụghị asụsụ metụtara mmụta ka elu na n'ezie ọ bụghị ihe odide nke Roman Katọlik. N’Ingland n’oge a, John Wycliffe, onye gụrụ akwụkwọ na Oxford, kwuru na a sụgharịa Bible gaa n’asụsụ Bekee, e mesịa, e lere ya anya dị ka “onye jụrụ okwukwe” nke dị nnọọ ize ndụ nke na ọtụtụ afọ mgbe ọ nwụsịrị na 1384, e wepụrụ ozu ya, kpọọ ya ọkụ, kpokwasị ntụ ya n'ime osimiri Swift (Gonzalez 2010: 411-15). N’iburu ọnọdụ a n’uche, o yiri ka ọ bụrụ na Julian nwere ike ide ihe n’asụsụ Latin karịa n’asụsụ Bekee, ọ gaara eme otú ahụ. N'ihi ya, ọtụtụ ndị ọkà mmụta na-anakwere ya n'okwu ya mgbe, na isi nke 2 nke ọrụ ya, ọ na-akọ na "E gosipụtara mkpughe ndị a nye ihe okike dị mfe nke na-amụtaghị mkpụrụedemede" (Nkpughe isi nke 2, John-Julian 2009: 67). Ma, ọ ga-ekwe omume na okwu ndị a na-egosipụta nanị ịdị umeala n'obi Julian ma ọ bụ obi umeala banyere ọrụ ya. Uzo di otua agagh adi nfe kari inwe ike nwayi ede ihe na uwa nwoke. N'ihi ya, echiche ndị ọkà mmụta banyere ọkwa agụmakwụkwọ Julian dị iche iche, site n'agụmakwụkwọ gụrụ oké akwụkwọ ma ọ bụ gụrụ akwụkwọ. Ikekwe ọ maara Bekee, Latịn, French, na ikekwe asụsụ Hibru, ma ọ bụkwanụ ya abụrụ na ọ maghị asụsụ ọzọ karịa Bekee. Ikekwe ọ nwere ike ịgụ ụfọdụ n'ime asụsụ ndị a, gụnyere Bekee, mana enweghị ike ide ha, ọkwa mmụta nke na-agaraghị abụ nwanyị na-enwe ọkwá dị elu na narị afọ nke iri na anọ (maka nchịkọta nke echiche dị iche iche, lee John- Julian 2009: 27–29). Ikekwe Grace Jantzen, onye ama ama ama na onye okacha amara nke ndi nwanyi na ndi okacha-amara, rutere nso nke oma na-ekwusi ike na nrutu aka nke Julian banyere onwe ya dika “onye namutagh akwukwo” “kwesiri ka ewere ya nudi oge ya iji gosi na enwegh akwukwo dika nke gaara adi dịịrị ụmụ nwoke na ụlọ akwụkwọ ndị mọnk na katidral na mahadum ”mana nke na-agaraghị enwe ike ị nweta ya dị ka nwanyị na narị afọ nke iri na anọ (nke e hotara, John-Julian 2009: 28). N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, enweghị agụmakwụkwọ dị otú ahụ agaghị egbochi ohere o nwere ike inweta ogo mmụta agụmakwụkwọ dị elu site n'ọmụmụ ihe onwe onye na-anọghị n'ozi. N'ime ihe a niile, o doro anya na ọkwa agụmakwụkwọ Julian, yana otu o si nweta ya, nwere ike ọ gaghị amata ma ọlị. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, ebumnuche o ji dekọọ ọhụụ ya nke ọma: ọ chọrọ ịbịaru Chineke ya nso ma nyere ya aka inyere ndị nkịtị aka ime otu ihe ahụ. O nwere ike bụrụ na ọ ma asụsụ ndị ọzọ ma nwee ike dee ederede mmụta okpukpe na Latin. Ọ bụ site na ịde ederede na Bekee ka ọ nwere ike ịkọrọ ndị nkịtị ahụmịhe ya. Dị ka ya onwe ya si kwuo ya:

Adịghị m mma n'ihi ngosipụta a, mana ọ bụrụ naanị na m hụrụ Chineke n'anya karịa; ndien adan̄a nte mbufo ẹmade Abasi ọfọn akan, enye okpon akan mbufo. Agaghị m agwa ndị maara ihe ihe a, n'ihi na ha maara ya nke ọma, mana m na-agwa gị ndị dị mfe, maka abamuru gị na nkasi obi gị, n'ihi na anyị niile bụ ndị nwere ịhụnanya (Nkpughe isi 9, John-Julian 2009: 93).

N'ezie, ruo ọtụtụ afọ, ozi ịhụnanya nke Julian na-emetụta ndị o dere kpọmkwem banyere ha; nke ahụ bụ, ndị mmadụ nkịtị. N’ime ọkara nke ikpeazụ nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ, Chọọchị England na Episcopal Church na United States wepụtara ụbọchị asatọ nke ọnwa Mee ka ụbọchị a ga-eji echeta ya (John-Julian, 8: 2009–35). Ọzọkwa, ọ bụ ezie na ọ dịghị mgbe a na-etolite ya ma ọ bụ na-ede aha ya na Chọọchị Roman Katọlik, a na-akpọkarị ya “Saint” Julian, “Mama” Julian, ma ọ bụ Julian “gọziri agọzi” n’ihi nsọpụrụ ndị mmadụ na-enwe, ndị Katọlik na-emekwa ememme ncheta ya dị ka “onye a gọziri agọzi” na Mee 36 (“Julian a gọziri agọzi nke Norwich” 13; “Julian Saint nke Norwich” 2021). Olile anya n’etiti otutu mmadu na onodu Julian n’ulo uka Roman Katoliki nwere ike igbanwe dika onye na-ewu ewu na-abawanye. N’afọ 2021, Jesuit Giandomenico Mucci depụtara Julian nke Norwich n’ime ndị nọ na nchere aha “Doctor of the Church” (Magister 1997); na 2011 Pope Benedict XVI raara otu General Audience nye Julian nke o mesiri ozi ya bụ isi na Chineke bụ ịhụnanya (Benedict 2010).

MGBE

Site na oge ugbu a, o siri ike iche n'echiche nke ụdị ndụ anchoritic, na karịa karịa, otu ụdị arịlịka dị ka Julian ga-esi nwee mmetụta dị ukwuu na obodo niile, ma ọ bụ nwee ike ịnakọta ndị na-eso ụzọ. A sị ka e kwuwe, ịghọ arịlịka pụtara ịbụ ihe e mikpuru n'ụzọ ọdịbendị, ya bụ, ibi ndụ ndụ ndị ọzọ fọdụrụnụ na cell ma si otú a, bipụ n'akụkụ ndị ọzọ nke ụwa. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, n'adịghị ka ihe nwere ike iyi, ọmụmụ gosipụtara na enwere ọtụtụ ndị bi ndụ anchoritic na England n'oge ochie, na n'oge Julian, Norwich nwere ndị a karịa ndị obodo Bekee ọ bụla (Spearing 1998) : xi). A dọtara ma ndị nwoke ma ndị nwanyị na ndụ a, mana maka ụmụ nwanyị ọkachasị, ọ nwere ike ị nyetụ ụfọdụ nnwere onwe nke a na-enweghị ike inweta ma ọlị, agbanyeghị na nnwere onwe dị otu a bịara na-efu nnukwu ụlọ mkpọrọ. N'ihe banyere Julian, ili, ma ọ bụ sel, ọ na-eme emume, chere na o nwere windo atọ; nke mbụ, obere obere windo, `` dị ntakịrị '' nke dị na ọ na-enye echiche dị warara n'ime chọọchị ahụ, na-enye ya ohere ile ebe ịchụàjà na sacrament ahụ anya. Emeghe windo nke abụọ n'otu ọnụ ụlọ ebe otu onye (ikekwe abụọ) ndị ohu raara onwe ya nye ya ga-arụ ọrụ ha. Ọ bụ na windo a ka a ga-esi nye Julian nri, sitekwa na windo a ka a ga-esi na-asa akwa, yana ihe ọ bụla chọrọ mkpofu, dị ka nsị anụ ahụ. Ọ bụ windo nke atọ nke gaara enye Julian naanị kọntaktị na ụwa ọzọ, yabụ, windo nke atọ a nke ọ nwere ike inwe mmetụta dị ukwuu (John-Julian 2009: 39).

Banyere ndị obodo, ndị anchorit, gụnyere Julian, nyere ọtụtụ elele. Ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ oge ha raara onwe ha nye ekpere, na-agbasokarị mgbe Iwu Benedictine (nke nyere oge asaa maka ikpe ekpere n'oge ọ bụla n'ime oge elekere iri abụọ na anọ), oge enyere maka ndụmọdụ (Milton 2002: 10). Nke a ga - eme naanị na windo nke atọ nke arịlịka ahụ nwere ike ige ntị ma kwuo okwu, mana nke na-ekpuchikarị ya ka onye ọ bụla ghara ịhụ ihu ya ma ọ bụ hụkwa nke ha (John-Julian 2009: 39). Ihe akaebe na-egosi na a na-ewere ọtụtụ arịlịka dị ka ndị ndụmọdụ; na n'eziokwu, ha rụrụ ọrụ dị ka ndị bu ụzọ nye ndị nọ na ndụmọdụ ndụmọdụ taa, dịka "ndị isi mgbaka, ndị na-elekọta mmadụ na ndị ndụmọdụ ọzụzụ atụrụ" (Milton 2002: 10). N'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ, ha nwere ike ime ihe na mpaghara ndị ọzọ, dịka ọmụmaatụ, n'ịzụlite ego maka ndị ogbenye, enyemaka na ụlọ akụ, na ọbụna na-enye enyemaka ahụike mgbe ọ dị mkpa (Mayr-Harting 1975: 337-52) Ma Julian, o yiri ka a na-akwanyere ya ùgwù n'oge nke ya ebe ọ bụ na a hapụrụ ya ọtụtụ onyinye, gụnyere nke ụfọdụ ndị nwere ọkwá dị elu. Ọ bụ ihe ezi uche dị na ya iche na e ji onyinye ndị a nye onyinye maka ọrụ ndị a rụrụ. Na mgbakwunye, o doro anya na Julian nyere ọrụ ndụmọdụ ebe ọ bụ na Margery Kempe (1373–1438) dekọrọ akụkọ banyere nke a onye dere na "Onye-nwe anyị nyere ya iwu ka ọ gaa arịlịka n'otu obodo ahụ [Norwich, ebe ọ natara ndụmọdụ site n'aka friar William Southfield] onye a na-akpọ Dame Julian "(Spearing 1998: 192). N'ime akwụkwọ a banyere njem ya na ahụmịhe ime mmụọ ya, Margery dekwara ọtụtụ ihe si na "mkparịta ụka dị nsọ" nke ya na arịlịka ahụ "bụ onye maara ihe na ụdị ihe a ma nwee ike inye ezigbo ndụmọdụ" (Spearing 1998: 192).

Mgbe ọnwụ ya gasịrị, Julian na ọrụ ya dabara n'ọchịchịrị. Ebe ọ bụ na o dere na Bekee ọ ga-ekwe omume na arụ ọrụ ahụ kwụsịrị ka ọ ghara ibute enyo enyo nke nduhie. N'ime oge a, Lollardy, otu ndị ama ama na-akwado ọtụtụ nkuzi nke John Wycliffe (ọkachasị echiche bụ ka e nyere ndị nkịtị Akwụkwọ Nsọ n'asụsụ ha) ka e lere anya dị ka ịjụ okwukwe dị njọ, ndị Rom wee kpagbuo ndị na-eso ụzọ ya nnukwu. Ndị isi ụka Katọlik. Na 1397, ọnọdụ ahụ kara njọ karịa ka ndị isi ụka wee nwee ihe ịga nke ọma ime ka ndị omeiwu kwenye ịmejuputa usoro ga-enye ndị isi ụka ikike ịtụba ma jụọ ndị a na-enyo enyo na nduhie. A ga-enyefe ndị ahụ ikpe mara na aka ha dị n'aka n'aka ndị ọchịchị ka e gbuo ha. Iwu izizi nke usoro a nyere n'aka eze Henry IV na 1401 ma kpọọ ya "On the Burning of the Heretics" nke lekwasịrị anya Lollards ọkachasị, na-ezo aka na ha dị ka "ndị ụgha na ndị gbagọrọ agbagọ dị iche iche nke ịrọ òtù ọhụrụ" (Deane 2011: 230). Iwu a mere ka e nwee njide nke ndị jụrụ okwukwe bụ́ ndị ndị ọchịchị nweziri ike igbu. Ọnọdụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị a nwere ike ịbụ nnukwu ọrụ na eziokwu ahụ bụ na agbasaghị ihe ederede Julian n'afọ ndị sochiri ọnwụ ya. Ka o sina dị, o doro anya na obodo ụfọdụ aghaghị ịchekwa ma chebe ya ebe ọ bụ na mbipụta abụọ dị ndụ nke Long Version dị na narị afọ nke iri na asaa (John-Julian 2009: 17).

N'ikpeazụ, a na-achọtaghachi akụ a nke lara ọrụ n'ọchịchịrị ogologo oge. Kemgbe akụkụ ikpeazụ nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ, e mepụtara ọtụtụ agụmakwụkwọ na akwụkwọ ndị a ma ama, edemede, na nkwupụta banyere Julian na ọhụụ ya. Rowan Williams (b. 1950), bụ Achịbishọp nke Canterbury nke 104, kwuru banyere akwụkwọ Julian dị ka ọrụ nke "nwere ike bụrụ ọrụ kachasị mkpa nke ntụgharị uche Ndị Kraịst n'asụsụ Bekee" (Akwụkwọ azụ azụ-Watson na Jenkins 2006 ma hotara, John-Julian 2009: 3). N’otu aka ahụ, onye a na-akwanyere ugwu nke ukwuu n’oge a, Thomas Merton (1915–1968), lere ya anya dị ka otu n’ime ndị ọkà mmụta okpukpe Bekee kacha ukwuu; "Enweghị obi abụọ otu n'ime ndị kasị ọmarịcha olu nke olu Ndị Kraịst niile ”(John-Julian 2009: 3). Na olu ya gafeela ọtụtụ narị afọ ma na-aga n'ihu na-agwa ndị mmadụ okwu n'obi pụtara ìhè site n'ọnụ ọgụgụ na-arịwanye elu nke ndị mmadụ na-achọzi ịkpụzi ndụ ha etu ọ dị. Na 1985, Fada John-Julian, OJN, hibere Order of Julian nke Norwich nke dabeere na Wisconsin, n'ebumnuche nke inye ndụ ndị mọnk na-atụgharị uche na ịgba akaebe dị ka ihe iko achịcha nke ime mmụọ ọhụrụ na Churchka Episcopal "(The Order of Julian of Norwich 2021). Obodo ọzọ "nke sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ nke Mkpughe nke Lovehụnanya Chineke," bụ Enyi nke Julian nke Norwich, nke na-arụsi ọrụ ike ma na Norwich yana ụwa niile site na ntanetị na ọrụ nke itolite na "ịhụnanya nke Chineke na ndị njem ala ibe" (Enyi nke Julian nke Norwich 2021). Na mgbakwunye na obodo ndị a, ofka St. Julian na Shrine na Norwich abụrụla ebe ndị njem na-aga. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ọ bụ ezie na bọmbụ bibiri ya na Agha IIwa nke Abụọ bibiri, e wughachiri chọọchị ahụ na 1953 ma gụnye nwughari nke mpaghara a chere na ọ bụbu cell nke Julian (Church of St. Julian and Shrine, Norwich 2021).

Ọ bụ ezie na ọ na-adọta ọtụtụ ndị ileta ọnụ ụlọ mkpọrọ Julian kwa afọ, ọ bịara doo anya na mmetụta ya erutela n'akụkụ oke mgbidi ahụ. Isi ozi ya, na Chineke bụ ịhụnanya nakwa na enwere olile anya, ọbụlagodi mgbe ihe àmà niile pụtara na nke ahụ, na-enye ọtụtụ ndị ume. Ikekwe ọ dịghị ebe ọ bụla ekwuputara nke a karịa nke abụ abụ a ma ama nke TS Eliot, "Little Gidding," nke o dere na 1942 mgbe ọ na-eje ozi dị ka onye na-ekiri ọkụ n'abalị n'oge mwakpo nke London. Ebe ụwa na-ere ọkụ n'ụzọ nkịtị, Eliot chetara n'uche nke ya olu Julian: "Mmehie dị Behovely" mana, "ihe niile ga-adị mma yana / Ihe niile ga-adị mma" (stanza atọ, amaokwu nke abụọ nke "Little Inye ego, ”Abrams 1993: 2168–9). [Foto dị n'aka nri] ojiji Julian ji okwu a, "behovely," (behovabil) atụgharịala n'ụzọ dị iche iche, oge ụfọdụ dị ka ihe a na-apụghị izere ezere (ihe odide ala ala peeji nke # 3, Abrams 1993: 2168); ma ọ bụ dị ka ihe kwesịrị ekwesị (Na-egosi 1998: 79). Na echiche Julian, ọ dị ka ọ na-egosi otu ihe a na-apụghị izere ezere na n'ụzọ ụfọdụ dị mkpa; ya mere, mmehie na ihe mgbu ọ na-akpata ka a ghọtara dị ka ihe a na-apụghị izere ezere, ọbụna dị mkpa ma ọ bụ kwesịrị ekwesị; ma emesiri gbanwee ma tinye ya n'ọrụ maka ezi ihe na akụ na ụba nke Chineke (John-Julian 2009: 408–9). Na "Little Gidding" Eliot na-adọta otu ozi olileanya na ntụkwasị obi nke Julian rapaara na narị afọ nke iri na anọ ka ọ diri ọnwụ nke ndị a hụrụ n'anya, ọtụtụ ihe otiti, ụka na ọgba aghara, ime ihe ike na agha (John-Julian 2009: 381 –86 na 49–52). N'iburu okwu Julian n'uche nke ya, ọ na-akọwa, na narị afọ nke iri abụọ, otu ike mgbanwe ahụ nke ọnụnọ na ịhụnanya nke Chineke, ọbụlagodi obodo nta nke Little Gidding. Dị ka Julian, ọ hụrụ ọdachi na egwu na-agbawa obi. Ma, n'ụzọ ụfọdụ ọ makwaara na ọ bụghị naanị n'oge dị mma kamakwa n'ụzọ ụfọdụ, ọbụlagodi n'oge kachasị njọ, "Ihe niile ga-adị mma."

Ọ bụ ezie na ọmarịcha, uri dị ka nke Eliot, yana ọrụ dị iche iche na okwu ndị ọkà mmụta okpukpe, abụghị naanị ebe ndụ Julian na ọrụ ya na-eme nke ọma taa. Nchọgharị ịntanetị dị ngwa na-ekpughe ọtụtụ saịtị ozi na ofufe na ọtụtụ onyinye onyinye dị maka ịzụta: iko, akpa akpa, akpa, kaadị, t-shirts, niile na-ebu ozi nke ịhụnanya Chineke gafere site na mgbakwunye nke narị afọ nke iri na anọ a ( Julian nke Norwich Onyinye 2021). Ka ọtụtụ narị afọ gasịworo n'ọchịchịrị, ọ dị ka emesiri mata ya ma nwee ekele maka onye ọ bụ: ọkà mmụta okpukpe, ihe omimi, na nke kachasị mkpa, ezigbo onye hụrụ Chineke n'anya. Taa, Churchka England na Episcopal Church na United States na-echeta Dame Julian na Mee 8 (John-Julian 2009: 35–6), ebe Roman Katọlik wepụtara May 13 ka ọ bụrụ ụbọchị oriri ya. Ihe dị iche na ụbọchị a na-asọpụrụ Julian bụ nsonaazụ sitere na ọdịiche dị n'ihe odide ederede banyere ụbọchị ahụ nke ọhụụ ya malitere (John-Julian 2009: 35-38).

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Ndabere nke mkpughe nke Julian Julian bụ na Chineke bụ ịhụnanya (ịhụnanya zuru oke na nke zuru oke) nakwa na ihe ọ bụla dị adị nwere ịhụnanya Chineke. Echiche a, na Chineke bụ ịhụnanya nakwa na ọ dịghị ihe dị adị, nke na-abụghị na ịhụnanya Chineke, gosipụtara Julian na mbido ọhụụ ya n'ụdị hazelnut, ikekwe otu n'ime ihe oyiyi ya a kacha mara amara. Ka ọ na-akọ, Chukwu gosiri ya obere ihe gbara ọkpụrụkpụ, “nke hazelnut, n'ọbụ aka m” (Nkpughe isi 5, John-Julian 2009: 77). [Foto dị n'aka nri] Mgbe ị jụrụ ihe nke a nwere ike ịbụ, azịza ya bịara na, “Ọ bụ ihe niile ka emere” (Nkpughe isi 5, John-Julian 2009: 77). Ma mgbe ajuru ya ajuju otua nkpuru di otua puru isi buru “ihe emere,” a zara Julian: “O n’aga n’ihu na aghaghi iru, nihi na Chineke huru ya nanya; ma n'ụzọ dị otú a ihe ọ bụla sitere na ịhụnanya nke Chineke ”(Nkpughe isi 5, John-Julian 2009: 77). N'ihi ya, n'ime obere hazelnut a na-ezu ike n'ọbụ aka ya, Julian hụrụ na ihe niile, "ihe niile e mere," nwere ntọala ya na Chukwu maka "Chineke mere ya," "Chineke hụrụ ya n'anya," na "Chineke na-edebe ya" (Nkpughe isi 5, John-Julian 2009: 77). Ọ dịghị ihe dị adị, n'agbanyeghị oke ma ọ bụ obere, dị ma e wezụga ịhụnanya nke Chineke onye kere ya, hụrụ ya n'anya ma na-echebe ya. Ihe niile Julian mere na ọhụụ na ihe ndị ọ na-atụgharị uche na ọhụụ ndị ahụ, na-adabere na ntọala a, na Chineke bụ ịhụnanya nakwa na ihe niile dị n'ime ịhụnanya Chineke. Dika ohuru a gosiputara ihunanya miri emi nke Chineke na enweghi njedebe n’ebe mmadu no, ha na-edugakwa ya ka o tinye omimi nke isiokwu di iche iche dika odidi nke Chineke na mmadu, eziokwu nke nmehie na olile anya nke mgbaputa, na ikpe azu nke ikpe ekpere na idi n’otu. Chineke.

N’oge niile Julian na-ekpughere ya, ọnụ ọgụgụ nke pụtara ìhè bụ nke Kraịst n’etiti oke agụụ ya. Nke a abughi ihe ijuanya ebe ọ bụ na ọ dinara na delirium, onye ụkọchukwu na-eme emume ikpeazụ na-ejidekwa obe n'obe. Ka osila dị, enweghị ike ichefu na isonye na agụụ nke Onyenwe ya ma soro keta ọnya ya bụ arịrịọ ahụ ọ rịọrịrị na Chineke. Site na nkọwa nkọwa ya banyere ọbara na-agba ọbara nke Onye Nzọpụta na ahụ e tiri ihe o doro anya na enyere ya arịrịọ ya ịmata mmasi ya nke ukwuu. Ma, mkpughe ndị ọ na-anata abụghị nanị ahụhụ nke Jizọs diri n'obe. Kama, ngosi a na-egosi mgbe niile ihe karịrị ihe ọ rịọrọ maka ya. Site na ha, ọ ga-amata ọ bụghị naanị oke agụụ nke Onye Nzọpụta ya kamakwa uju nke Chukwu, Atọ n'Ime Otu, n'ụdị ntụgharị uche ya niile. Dị ka ọ na-ekwu, "Mgbe ọ bụla Jizọs pụtara, a gọziri agọzi Atọ n'Ime Otu" (Nkpughe isi nke 4, John-Julian 2009: 75),

n'ihi na Atọ n'Ime Otu bụ Chineke, Chineke bụ Atọ n'Ime Otu; Atọ n'Ime Otu bụ Onye kere anyị, Atọ n'Ime Otu bụ Onye na-elekọta anyị, Atọ n'Ime Otu bụ Onye hụrụ anyị n'anya ruo mgbe ebighị ebi, Atọ n'Ime Otu bụ Ọ Joụ na Obi lesstọ anyị na-enweghị njedebe, site n'aka Onyenwe anyị Jizọs Kraịst na n'ime Onyenwe anyị Jizọs Kraịst (Nkpughe isi 4, John-Julian 2009: 73).

Ya mere, ka Julian na-ele ihe oyiyi nke Kraịst anya, ọ ghọtara ọ bụghị naanị chi-nwoke na-anwụ n'elu obe kamakwa izu ezu nke Chineke; njikọ na-abụghị usoro nchịkwa nke Onye ọ bụla nke Atọ n'Ime Otu dị iche iche iji rụọ ọrụ mana ya na Chihead.

Ọ bụ ezie na nghọta a bụ isi banyere Atọ n’Ime Otu adịghị iche n’ozizi Chọọchị Ọtọdọks, asụsụ Julian ji kọwaa nke ahụ pụrụ iche ma bụrụ otu ihe adịkarịghị ala. Ka ọ na-achọ igosipụta ihe ekpughere nye ya, ọ na-eji asụsụ nwoke na nwanyị edekọ ihe iji kọwaa akụkụ atọ nke Chineke: "akụkụ nke Nna, akụkụ nke ịbụ nne, na akụkụ nke ịbụ onye nwe, na otu Chineke" (Nkpughe isi 58, John-Julian 2009: 279). Ọ bụ ezie na kemgbe ọtụtụ narị afọ, ndị Kraịst amarala asụsụ nwoke ikwu okwu mgbe ha na-ekwu okwu banyere Onye Nke Atọ n'Ime Otu (Onye Okike) dị ka Nna, na Onye nke Abụọ (Onye Mgbapụta) dị ka Ọkpara, ọ dịkarịsịrị asụsụ ụmụ nwanyị. mgbe ị na-ekwu maka mmadụ abụọ a nke Atọ n’Ime Otu. Na mkparịta ụka nke aka ya banyere ọrụ nke Onye ọbụla n’otu chi ahụ, Julian na-agbaso ọdịnala ahụ site na ịkọwa Onye mbụ dị ka Nna; otu o sila dị, ọ hapụrụ ọdịnala ahụ n'ụzọ miri emi gbasara Onye nke abụọ ọ kọwara dịka "Nne" nke ọ na - akpọkarị "Nne Jizọs" (dịka ọmụmaatụ, Nkpughe isi 60 na 61, John-Julian 2009: 289, 293). Nye Julian, “ihe niile ọrụ dị ụtọ nke ịbụ nne kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi jikọtara ya na Onye nke Abụọ ”(Nkpughe isi 59, John-Julian 2009: 285) n'ihi na ọ bụ Onye a nke chi isi a "yikwasịkwara onwe ya uwe wee were onwe ya wee jụọ onwe anyị mma n'anụ ahụ na-adịghị ike, ka Ya onwe Ya nwee ike ịrụ ọrụ na ọrụ nne n'ime ihe niile" (Nkpughe isi 60, John-Julian 2009: 287). [Foto dị n'aka nri] N'ezie, n'ime anụ ahụ Kraịst, Julian na-ahụ Onye ahụ "na-eburu anyị n'ime onwe ya n'ịhụnanya, ma na-arụ ọrụ ruo oge zuru oke ka O wee nwee ike ịnwụ akpịrị mgbu na mgbu ọmụmụ nke siri ike karịa ma ọ bụ mgbe ọ bụla ga-abụ ”(Nkpughe isi 60, John-Julian 2009: 287). Ọ bụ onye a, "ezigbo nne anyị Jesus, Ya-hụrụ n'anya niile — [onye mechara nwụọ] mụrụ anyị n'ọ joyụ na ndụ agwụghị agwụ" (Nkpughe isi 60, John-Julian 2009: 287). Ma, dika Julian huru ihunanya nke “Mama Jisos” nke awụsara n'ọbara nke agụụ ya ọ bịara ghọta na ọbụlagodi na mgbe Ọ nwụghị ọnwụ ọzọ, "Ọ gaghị akwụsị ịrụ ọrụ" (Nkpughe isi 60, John-Julian 2009: 289). Kama, ọ na-anọ ma na-arụ ọrụ mgbe niile dịka ezigbo nne anyị nke karịrị ndị ọzọ niile. Ka Julian na-ele Kraịst anya akpọgidere n'obe, ọ bịara ghọta oke omimi nke nzụlite na ihunanya nke Chukwu, n'ihi na dịka ekpughere ya "nne ọ bụla nwere ike inye nwa ya ara site na mmiri ara ya, mana Nne anyị dị oke ọnụ ahịa Jesus nwere ike nye anyị nri. ya na Onwe ya; ma ọ na -eme ya n'ụzọ dị nwayọ ma nwayọ nwayọ na Sakrament nke Agọziri Agọzi, nke bụ oke oke ọnụ ahịa nke ezi ndụ ”(Nkpughe isi 60, John-Julian 2009: 289). Ọzọkwa, n’ịghọta na nwatakịrị chọrọ ịdị nro na olile anya dịka nri, ọ hụrụ na “nne ọ bụla nwere ike ịdakwasị nwa ahụ n’ ara n ’ara ya, mana nne anyị dị nro bụ Jizọs nwere ike iduba anyị n’ime ara Ya a gọziri agọzi site na akụkụ ya dị ụtọ, ma gosipụta n’ime ya akụkụ-akụkụ nke Chukwu-Ya na akụkụ nke ọysụ nke elu-igwe, jiri eziokwu ime mmụọ nke obi ụtọ ebighi ebi ”(Nkpughe isi 60, John-Julian 2009: 289).

Ya mere, nye Julian o doro anya na ọ bụ nne Jesus, onye nke atọ nke Atọ n'Ime Otu, nke na-esite n'aka onye ụmụ mmadụ wee mụọ ha, zụlite ha, ma jikọta ha ọnụ ọzọ na Chineke ha. Ọ dị oke mkpa icheta, isi okwu nke ọ na-eme ka ọ pụta ìhè na ọrụ ya niile na, "mgbe ọ bụla Jizọs pụtara (n'ọhụụ ya), Atọ n'Ime Otu dị nsọ na-aghọta"Nkpughe isi nke 4, John-Julian 2009: 75). Dị ka ọ na-ede:

Aghọtara m ụzọ atọ nke ile anya ịbụ nne na Chukwu: nke mbụ bụ imepụta ọdịdị mmadụ anyị; nke abụọ bụ nnara ọdịdị anyị nke mmadụ (ma malitezie ịbụ nne nke amara); nke ato bu nne n'omume (ma na nke ahu bu oke igbasa aru..) na ihe niile bu ihunanya (Nkpughe isi 59, John-Julian 2009: 285).

Ọ bụ ezie na ọrụ ịbụ nne jikọtara na mmadụ nke abụọ nke Atọ n’Ime Otu, ịbụ nne n’onwe ya na-emetụta ihe dị mkpa nke Chineke ma bụrụ ihe dị mkpa iji ghọta Julian ọ bụghị naanị banyere Kraịst, kamakwa izu ezu nke Chineke, ya bụ, Atọ n’Ime Otu.

Nye Julian, ọ bụghị nanị na ịbụ nne bụ ihe kasị mkpa nke ịbụ isi nke chi kamakwa ọdịdị mmadụ n'onwe ya. N’ụzọ dị mkpa, ọ bụghị n ’obi mmadụ nke abụọ ghọrọ anụ ahụ mmadụ n’oge a mụrụ Jizọs n’ụwa. Kama nke ahụ, ọ bụ na Kraist (Onye nke abụọ) abụgogo '' mmụọ nke mmụọ '' nelu igwe, "ihe odide ala ala peeji nke # 3, John-Julian 2009: 274) ebe" e kenyere Ya ọdịdị mmadụ ".Nkpughe isi 57, John-Julian 2009: 275). Ọdịdị mmadụ, n'ikwu ya n'ụzọ ọzọ, ọ bụrụlarịị ma bụrụ mgbe niile n'ime ihe dị mkpa nke isi-chi ahụ. Dị ka Fada John Julian si kọwaa ya, maka Julian, “Ọkpara ahụ bụ mmadụ tupu mmadụ niile. Ọ bụ 'ọsụ ụzọ' nke ụmụ mmadụ, na ụmụ mmadụ anyị bụ n ofomi nke Ya ”(ihe odide ala ala peeji nke # 3, John-Julian 2009: 274).

Isi okwu a, na mmadụ n'onwe ya sitere na Chukwu, na-emetụta nghọta Julian nke mmekọrịta dị n'etiti Chineke na ụmụ mmadụ. Nye ya, o zughi na Chineke mere ka onwe ya bụrụ nke Chukwu. Dika ekpughere ya nye Julian, Chineke jikọtara onwe ya na nke ayi, site na Kraist jikọtara ọdịdị ime mmụọ na nke anụ arụ n'ime onwe anyị, ma n'otu oge ahụ mee ka anyị dị n'otu; “Maka na Atọ n’Ime Otu gụnyere Kraịst” n’ime ya onye “akụkụ [anyị] dị elu” [mmụọ] gbadoro mkpọrọgwụ na ya, ọ bụkwa n’ime ya ka e werela “akụkụ ala” anyị [anụ ahụ]Nkpughe isi 57, John-Julian 2009: 275). N’ụzọ dị otú a, Kraịst “sitere n’otu n’ime Atọ n’Ime Otu. . . kpoo anyi ma dozie anyi n'onwe Ya ”(Nkpughe isi 58, John-Julian 2009: 277). N'ihi ya, Julian bịara ghọta na "[Chineke] adịghị ọdịiche dị n'ịhụnanya n'etiti mkpụrụ obi a gọziri agọzi nke Kraịst na mkpụrụ obi pere mpe a ga-azọpụta" n'ihi na "Chineke bi n'ime mkpụrụ obi anyị" na "mkpụrụ obi anyị bi n'ime Chineke” (Nkpughe isi 54, John-Julian 2009: 263). N'ezie, Julian kwuru na ya

ahụghị ọdịiche dị n'etiti Chineke na isi anyị. . . . Chineke bụ Chineke, ihe kachasị anyị mkpa bụ ihe okike Chineke. . . . Anyi nọ n’ime Nna, anọrọ anyị n’ime Ọkpara, ma anyị nọ n’ime Mụọ Nsọ; na Nna dị n’ime anyị, na Ọkpara nọ n’ime anyị, na Mmụọ Nsọ nọ n’ime anyị: ike niile, Amamihe niile, ịdị mma niile, otu Chukwu, otu Onyenwe (Nkpughe isi 54, John-Julian 2009: 263).

 Julian na-agba mgba nke ukwuu na enweghị ọdịiche a, echiche a nke otu ness n'etiti Chineke na ụmụ mmadụ. Mgbe hazelnut n'ọbụ aka ya kpughere na "ihe ọ bụla sitere n'ịhụnanya nke Chineke" (Nkpughe isi 5, John-Julian 2009: 77), na mgbe ọhụụ ya gosipụtara ya ugboro ugboro na isi ihe Chineke bụ ịhụnanya, otu ihe a enweghị ike ikwu maka mmadụ. Olee otú ọ ga-esi kwe omume na ihe niile dị n'ịhụnanya ebe o doro anya na e nwere ọtụtụ mwute na ajọ omume n'ụwa? Oleekwa otu a ga-esi enweghị ọdịiche dị n'etiti ihe bụ isi nke Chukwu na ihe bụ isi nke mmadụ mgbe mmadụ bụ onye mmehie o doro anya? Ya mere, nnabata nke nmehie nke madu na nmeghari Chineke nyere ya wutere ya nke ukwuu. O doro ya anya nke ukwuu na ọhụụ ya ekpugheghi iwe ọ bụla ma ọ bụ ntaramahụhụ iwe nke Chineke na-enye ụmụ mmadụ. Ọ bụ na ịhụnanya nke ịhụnanya agaghị ejupụta n'ezi iwe n'agbanyeghị mmehie? Na ọ bụ na, ọbụghị na chi dị otú ahụ ekwesịghị ịchọ ịta ndị mmehie ahụhụ?

N’ịza ajụjụ ndị dị otú ahụ, Julian na-akọ na e nyere ya otu ihe atụ, nke metụtara ọhụụ banyere Onyenwe anyị na ohu ya. Akụkọ a bụ nke ọ ga-abụrịrịrịrịrịrịrị nnukwu oge na afọ ndị na-eso ọrịa ya, maka ịkọgharị ya, yana nkọwa ya na-esote, mejupụtara akụkụ kachasị ogologo na Long Version nke mkpughe ya.

N’akụkọ ya banyere ọhụụ a, Julian na-akọ na ọ hụrụ mmadụ abụọ, onyenwe “nke ji ịhụnanya lekwasị ohu ya anya” na otu onye ohu nke “kwụpụrụ n’ụzọ nkwanye ugwu, dị njikere ime uche Onyenwe ya” (Nkpughe isi 51, John-Julian 2009: 227). Ka ilu a na-eme, ohu were nwayọ gbapụ ọsọ ka ọ mee ihe nna ya ukwu rịọrọ ya. Otú ọ dị, na ngwa ngwa ọ gbasoro ma si otú ahụ gosi nna ya ukwu na ọ hụrụ ya n'anya nke ukwuu, ohu ahụ hiere ụzọ na mberede, daba n'olulu miri emi ma merụọ onwe ya ahụ nke ukwuu. Julian kwuru na ka ọ na-ele nwa odibo ahụ anya ka ọ na-efegharị na nnukwu ọdachi ya, ọ hụrụ ya ka ọ na-atachi obi n'ọtụtụ ihe mgbu na oke ahụhụ, nke kachasị n'ime ya bụ na ọ nweghị ike ịtụgharị isi ya iji lelee ihu nke onye nwe ya hụrụ n'anya nke na-eme mgbe niile lere ya anya “n'ụzọ dị nro. . . dị umeala n'obi nwayọ nwayọ nwayọ ma nwekwaa ọmiko ”(Nkpughe isi 51, John-Julian 2009: 229). Ka Julian nọ na-ele ihe nkiri a na-eju anya, o kwuru na ya “kpachaara anya” wee mata ma ohu ahụ ọ̀ dara ada; ma naanị ihe ọ hụrụ bụ na ọ "dị mma n'ime" na ọ bụ naanị "ọ bụ ezi uche ya na oke agụụ ya [ime ihe ga-amasị nna ya ukwu, ka ọ bụ ya kpatara ọdịda ya" (Nkpughe isi 51, John-Julian 2009: 229). Ọzọkwa, ọ nọ na-ele anya iji hụ ma “onyenwe ya ga-ekenye ya ụta, ọ dịghịkwa onye a hụrụ” (Nkpughe isi 51, John-Julian 2009: 229). Kama nke a, onyenwe a nwere ọmịiko, wee jiri ịhụnanya na-ele ohu ya anya ka ọ na-akpọsa

Lee, lee, ohu m m hụrụ n’anya. Lee nsogbu na ahụhụ o natala n'ijere m ozi n'ihi ịhụnanya m, ee, n'ihi kwa uche ọma ya! Ọ bụ na ọ bụghị ihe ezi uche dị na m ịkwụghachi ya ụgwọ maka ụjọ ya na ụjọ ya, mmerụ ya na ọnya ya, na ahụhụ ya niile? Ọ bụghị naanị nke a mana ọ naghị adabara m inye ya onyinye ka nke ya mma karịa nke ahụ ike ya? ” (Nkpughe isi 51, John-Julian 2009: 231).

Ọ ga-abụrịrị na ilu ahụ tụrụ Julian n'anya n'ihi na ọ na-ede na ya amaghị ihe ọ pụtara nke ọma ruo ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ afọ iri abụọ mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị mgbe ọ "natara nkuzi nke ime," epiphany, dị ka a pụrụ isi kwuo ya, na-agwa ya ka ọ tụgharịa uche na ya, na-ewere toaa ntị na ọtụtụ nkọwa ya ọbụna ndị ahụ nwere ike iyi ihe na-enweghị mmasị (Nkpughe isi 51, John-Julian 2009: 233). N’ịgbaso ntuziaka a, Julian hụrụ ọtụtụ ihe na-apụtabeghị na mbụ ya na nkọwa nkọwa nke ilu ahụ malitere ịdị. N'ime Onyenwe anyị, ọ hụrụ otu onye nke yi uwe mara mma ma mara mma nke na ọ dị ka “ọ gbachitere n'ime eluigwe niile na ọ joyụ niile na ọissụ” (Nkpughe isi 51, John-Julian 2009: 237). N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, onyenwe a dị ebube nke na-ele anya anọkwaghị n'ocheeze dị ebube kama, kama nke ahụ, ọ bụ n'ala nkịtị nke dị na mbara ọzara. N’ịtụgharị uche n’agwaetiti ahụ, ihe ọmụma ahụ bịara nye Julian na onyenwe a bụ Chineke Nna na “sittingnọdụ ala ala ya na mbara ọzara” ga-egosipụta na “O mere mkpụrụ obi mmadụ ka ọ bụrụ ocheeze nke Ya na ebe obibi Ya , ” ebe obu ezie na o juputara na uzuzu ma ghara imi, O we site na ihunanya Ya di uku, inodu ichere oge mgbe a ghaghachi humanityndi mmadu odidi Ya site na nzoputa nke Okpara Ya O huru n'anya (Nkpughe isi 51, John-Julian 2009: 237).

Ka ọ na-ele onyenwe anyị anya n'ụzọ zuru ezu, ya mere Julian malitere ịmatakwu banyere ohu ahụ. Odibo a, ka o siri kwuo, putara ihe dika onye oru ugbo, yi uwe ya dinara ma dichaa ya, ya na ajirija nke aru ya na unyi site na ala. Ma n'ime ọlụ a dị umeala n'obi, ọ chọpụtakwara amamihe miri emi na “ntọala nke ịhụnanya o nwere n'ebe Onyenwe anyị nọ nke ya na ịhụnanya nke onye nwe ahụ nwere n'ebe ọ nọ;” na nghọta bịara ya na onye ọrụ a na-ese onyinyo mmadụ mbụ ahụ, Adam (ma si otú a bụrụ mmadụ niile), na Ọkpara Chineke, Onye nke Atọ nke Atọ n'Ime Otu, onye ga-abịa napụta ụmụ mmadụ site na olulu nke obi nkoropụ (Nkpughe isi 51, John-Julian 2009: 239). N’ime nkọwa a niile, ekpughere ihe miri emi ilu a pụtara nye Julian: nwa odibo ahụ ịdaba n’olulu na-anọchi anya na “Mgbe Adam dara, Ọkpara Chineke dara - n’ihi ezigbo njikọ ahụ emere n’eluigwe [n’etiti onye nke abụọ. nke Atọ n'Ime Otu na ụmụ mmadụ] ”(Nkpughe isi 51, John-Julian 2009: 243). Ya mere, ka nwoke ahụ (na mmadụ niile) dinara, na-apị apị, ma na-apịpịa, n'ime olulu miri emi nke mmehie, ọnwụ na obi nkoropụ, otu a ka Kraist dina ya, na-anaghị ahapụ nanị ya, na -ekere òkè na nhụjuanya ya mgbe nile. , ihere ya, na mmechuihu ya. Ma Ọkpara ahụ agaghị ahapụ Adam ruo mgbe ebighị ebi n'ime olulu. Ka ihe omimi a na-apụta, Julian ghọtara na nwa odibo ahụ, Ọkpara Chineke, “ga-arụ ọrụ kachasị na ndọgbu kachasị ike bụ-ọ ga-abụ onye na-elekọta ubi; Igwu ala na igbapu mmiri, na igba nkpu na nchapu ala, na itughari uwa. . . ọ ga-anọgide na-arụ ọrụ ya. . . ọ gaghị alaghachikwa ”ruo mgbe ọ chọtara nnukwu akụ̀ ahụ nke onyenwe ya zipụrụ ya na mbụ — akụ nke obi ụtọ ebighị ebi na ịdị n’otu nke Nna ya ọ hụrụ n’anya ga-eji kwụọ ụgwọ ma kwụghachi ohu ya ọ hụrụ n’anya ezigbo ụgwọ maka ezi uche ya na ozi ọ raara onwe ya nye. (Nkpughe isi 51, John-Julian 2009: 241).

Itinye aka na ilu a bụ isi okwu gbasara mmụta Julians nke mmehie na mgbapụta. Ọ dị mkpa na anya nke onyenwe ahụ anaghị esite n’aka ohu ahụ pụta ma na -elegide anya mgbe niile na ọmịiko, ọmịiko, na ịhụnanya, ọ dịghị mgbe iwe, ọnụma, ma ọ bụ ụta. Nye ya, mmehie n'onwe ya, "enweghị isi ọ bụla ma ọ bụ akụkụ ọ bụla nke ịbụ" (Nkpughe isi 27, John-Julian 2009: 149). Ọ na - eme dị ka ihe na - adịghị mma "ịhapụ ịhụnanya," ya bụ, ịhapụ Chineke nke na - eme n'ihi ọdịdị ala (anụ ahụ) nke mmadụ (Nkpughe isi 37, John-Julian 2009: 179). Ma n'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, akụkụ dị elu nke ọdịdị mmadụ (mmụọ) nke ha sitere na ya jikọta ha na Kraịst, ụmụ mmadụ nwekwara "uche Chineke nke na-anabataghị mmehie ọ bụla ma ọ bụ mgbe ọ bụla ga-eme" (Nkpughe isi 37, John-Julian 2009: 179). Ya mere, n'ime ohu (mmadụ), Chineke na-ahụ naanị ihe gosipụtara site na Kraịst: ezi uche, ntinye, na ịhụnanya, ọ bụghị uche ọjọọ, ọchịchọ ọjọọ, ma ọ bụ nzube.

Ka o sina dị, nzaghachi ịhụnanya Chineke nyere mmehie azaghị, maka Julian n'ụzọ dị mfe ịza ajụjụ ihe mere e ji kwe ka mmehie dịrị na mbụ. “A na m echekarị ihe kpatara na, site na oke amamihe dị na mbụ nke Chukwu, egbochighi mmalite nke nmehie, maka mgbe ahụ, ọ dị m ka, ihe niile agara aga nke ọma” (Nkpughe isi 27, John-Julian 2009: 147). Na mbu, ,tughari Julian ajuju ajuju nke Jisos zara site na nzaghachi si, “Mmehie bu ihe anaghaghi agha, ma ihe nile g’esi di nma, na ihe nile ghari, ihe nile gagh adi nma” (Nkpughe isi 27, John-Julian 2009: 147). N’ikpeazụ ọ hụrụ “ọmarịcha ihe nzuzo dị omimi zoro ezo na Chukwu,” ihe nzuzo nke a ga-eme ka a mara nke ọma n’eluigwe (isi 27, John-Julian 2009: 149). Ihe nzuzo a, nke Chineke malitere ikpughere Julian, kpughere nye ya nke ọma karịa n'ezie ihe nile ekere andhụnanya Chineke dikwa n’ime ya. Ka ọ malitere ịghọta ya, ọ nweghị ihe ọ bụla Chineke kere ga-ala n'iyi. Kama, Chineke n’ịhụnanya dị ukwuu, ga-emecha gbanwee ihe niile, ma mmehie kacha njọ, ka ọ bụrụ otuto na ebube. } B gh only náán would na Chineke gaeme ka mmehie gbanwee rue ns] pr, ma n'ihi obi ebere ya na loveh n'anya ya (dika egosiri n'ilu onye-nwe na odibo a), Chineke g'enweta ihe kariri mgbaputa. } B gh only náán will na agaagbap ta nd sinners mmehie, ha g willweta kwa rewardedgw rewarded n'ihi ihe mgbu na iru uju nke ahuru n'ihi mmehie. Dị nnọọ ka onyenwe anyị n’ilu ​​a họọrọ ọ bụghị naanị iweghachi ohu ya raara onwe ya nye kamakwa iji kwụghachi ya ụgwọ ọrụ na ọ eternalụ ebighi ebi na ọ joyụ ruo mgbe ebighị ebi, otu a ka Chineke ga-esi gbapụta onyemmehie ahụ kamakwa kwụghachi ya ụgwọ “n’eluigwe [na] ọtụtụ aysụrị dị ukwuu ọ gaara enwe ma a sị na ọ daa ”Nkpughe isi 38, John-Julian 2009: 183). Ya mere, na nghọta Julian, “nmehie bu ihe-otiti kacha njọ” ma, site n'ịhụnanya Chineke, ihe ụfụ na ihere niile mmehie na-akpata ga-emecha 'gbanwee bụrụ nsọpụrụ na ọ moreụ karị' ebe ọ bụ na "ọdịda anyị anaghị egbochi Ya ghara ịhụ anyị n'anya ”(Nkpughe isi 39, John-Julian 2009: 183 na 185).

N'ihi ya, n'ikpeazụ, nghọta nke ntọala Julian banyere Chineke dị ka ịhụnanya niile na-eduga ya na nghọta dị iche nke mmehie, na mmekọrịta dị n'etiti Chineke na mmadụ, karịa nke a na-ahụkarị n'oge ya na n'ọtụtụ akụkọ Ndị Kraịst. Nye Julian, mmehie abụghị ihe ọjọọ dị oke njọ dị ka ọ bụ ihie ụzọ mmadụ. Ya mere, nzaghachi nke Chineke nye nmehie abughi iwe na ntaramahuhu, kama o bu obi ebere na ihunanya. N'echiche a, Chineke enweghị ike iwe iwe ma ọ bụ iwe n'ihi na ezi uche adịghị n'iwe na oke iwe site n'ịhụnanya. Kama nke ahụ, ịhụnanya Chineke na-eme ka ọbụna mmehie bụrụ ụzọ isi too na ibaga n'ebe Chineke nọ. Na, tinyere, na n’okpuru oke ịhụnanya nke Chineke ọbụna njọ kacha njọ ka a gbanwee ka ọ bụrụ ihunanya na ọmịiko n’ime usoro nke ime ka ihe niile dị mma.

Maka Julian, mgbe ahụ, ndụ Onye Kraịst niile bụ usoro nke ịbịakwute Chineke, usoro nke mkpụrụ obi na-enweta otu nọnyere Chineke na mgbe ebighi ebi. Ruo oge nke obi ụtọ ebighi ebi ahụ, Chineke gara n'ihu na ọrụ mgbanwe ya, na-enye onyinye nke ekpere dị ka ụzọ na-aga n'ihu nke njikọ n'etiti mmadụ na Chineke, maka "Ndị na-ekpe ekpere bụ mkpụrụ obi nye Chineke" (asụsụ mbụ). Nke a dị mkpa, “nihi na mkpụrụ obi na-adịkarị ka Chukwu n’ụdị ya na isi ya (amara sitere na ya), ọ na-adịkarị ka Chineke na mpụta ya site na mmehie nke mmadụ” (Nkpughe isi 43, John-Julian 2009: 201). N'ihi ya, ekpere bụ onyinye nke Julian bịara ghọta na ọ dị, dịkwa ka ihe ọ bụla ọzọ e kere eke, naanị site n'ịhụnanya Chineke, n'ihi na dịka Onyenwe anyị kpughere nye ya, "Abụ m ala nke ekpere gị" (Nkpughe isi 41, John-Julian 2009: 191). Na mkpughe ahụ, Julian ghọtara na n'adịghị ka ihe a na-ekwenyekarị, na ọ bụghị site na omume mmadụ na-ebute ma ọ bụ na-aza ekpere kama ọ bụ naanị site na "ịdị mma nke njirimara nke Chineke" n'ihi na, ka ngosi ahụ gara n'ihu, Onyenwe anyị kọwara: “Nke mbụ, ọ bụ achọrọ m ka i nwee ihe, ọzọ m ga-eme ka ị chọọ ya, ma emesịa, m na-eme ka ị na-ekpe ekpere maka ya. ”Nkpughe isi 41, John-Julian 2009: 191).

Julian na-ekwu na isi ihe mgbochi abụọ na-ebilite n’ekpere mmadụ. Nke mbu bu na, nihi na anyi chere na o rughi oru, anyi adighi ejighi n'aka mgbe nile na Chineke na-anu olu anyi; na nke abụọ bụ na anyị nwere ike "enweghị mmetụta ọ bụla," na-anọgide dị ka "nwanyị aga na nkụ mgbe ekpere anyị dị ka anyị dị na mbụ" (Nkpughe isi 41, John-Julian 2009: 191). Banyere nke mbu, ilu nke Onye nwe anyi na Ohu ya na-egosiputa oke uru Chineke n’ahu n’ime mmadu dara ada. Ọ bara uru nke ukwuu nke na ọ dịghị mgbe a ga-egbochi ịhụnanya ya n'anya, ọ gaghịkwa ahapụ ohu ahụ ka ọ ghara ileghara ya anya ma nọrọ naanị ya na olulu jọgburu onwe ya. Banyere ihe mgbochi nke abụọ, ngosi ahụ na-ekpughere Julian na Onyenwe anyị na-a andụrị ọ andụ ma na-enwe obi ụtọ n'ekpere anyị ọbụlagodi na anyị enweghị mmetụta ọ bụla. Chineke, ọ bụghị mmetụta nke onwe (n'agbanyeghị etu ha siri sie ike ma ọ bụ gbanwee), bụ ntọala nke ekpere mgbe niile. Ọzọkwa, ekpughere ya na Chineke “na-eche maka [ekpere] ma ọ na-achọ ịnụ ụtọ ya, n'ihi na site na amara ya ọ na-eme anyị ka anyị dị ka Ya onwe anyị n'omume dịka anyị bụ n'okike ''Nkpughe isi 41, John-Julian 2009: 193). Mgbe ahụ, ekpere abụghị ụzọ ụmụ mmadụ ga-esi nweta ihu ọma Chineke ma nwee ike ịtụ anya na a ga-aza ma ọ bụ leghara ya anya. Kama nke ahụ, ekpere na-agbanwe agbanwe, amara dị ike nke Chineke nyere nke ejiri mee ka anyị yie Chineke. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ọ bụ ezie na mmehie mgbe ụfọdụ na-eme ka anyị gbakụta Chineke azụ, ekpere bụ usoro nke esite na ya weghachi anyị nye anyị Chineke; ma ọbụghị nanị anyị onwe anyị mana n’ikpeazụ ndị ọzọ, na kwa ihe nile ekere-eke. N'ekpere, Chineke na-eme anyị “ndị mmekọ na uche Ya na omume Ya, ya mere Ọ na-akpali anyị ikpe ekpere maka ihe ọ masịrị Ya ime,” ka Julian si kwuo. “A hụrụ m ma chọpụta na ịdị mma Ya na ịdị ebube Ya zuru oke bụ ike anyị niile” (Nkpughe isi 43, John-Julian 2009: 201, 203).

 Dika nghota nke Julian banyere nmehie na ngbaputa, nkpughe ya banyere ekpere dabere na ntukwasi obi na ikwughachi kwa mgbe nile na Chineke bu ihunanya nile, na ihe nile di n’ime Chineke. N'ihi ya, Chineke bụ ịhụnanya nke mgbe niile na mgbe ga-abụ. Na mmekorita ndi mmadu na Atọ n'Ime Otu a gọziri agọzi, enweghị mmalite na njedebe agaghị enwe njedebe.

Tupu e kee anyị, Chineke hụrụ anyị n’anya. Mgbe e kere anyị, anyị hụrụ Chineke n’anya. Yabụ na ọ bụ Chineke mere mkpụrụ obi anyị, n'otu oge ahụ, ka anyị na Chineke dị n'otu. . . . Ejidere anyị ma chebe anyị n'ịhụnanya a na-enweghị njedebe nke Chineke site na mmalite. Anyị ga-anọgide na-esonyere Chineke na oke ịhụnanya a ruo mgbe ebighi ebi (isi 53, Milton 2002: 79).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Ọ bụ ezie na Julian na-ezo aka na onwe ya dịka "onye okike dị mfe" onye dekọtara ọhụụ ya maka ọdịmma nke ndị ọzọ nkịtị, ya Nkpughe enweghị ike ikwu na ọ dị mfe (Nkpughe isi nke 2, John-Julian 2009: 67). Ọ bụ ezie na ozi ọ na-ekwupụta na Chineke bụ ịhụnanya enweghị ike ịchụpụ ya ọbụlagodi ịgụ akwụkwọ na-enweghị atụ, etu o siri dee ya na-eju ndị mmadụ anya mgbe ụfọdụ, na nguzo ya na-enweghị mgbagha na Chineke ga-emezi ihe niile nke ọma akpalitewo ajụjụ banyere iguzosi ike n'ihe nke ya gaa na Roman Catholic Church. Karịsịa, ọ metụtara ma ọ bụ onye na-akwado maka nzọpụta nke ụwa, nkwenye na n'ikpeazụ ọ gaghị enwe ikpe ọmụma ebighi ebi. Kama, mmadu nile, obuna ihe nile ekere eke, g’eme ka ha na Chineke di n’otu n’otu.

Isiokwu nke mbụ metụtara ụdị ọrụ ọrụ Julian dị. Okwu mmalite nke nsụgharị Elizabeth Spearing na-ekwu na narị afọ nke iri na anọ bụ oge mgbe omume ofufe na-adịwanye “wanye Christocentric na ndị ọzọ emetụta karịa nke Ndị Kraịst oge mbụ ”(Spearing 1998: xiv, ọ bụ ezie na mbụ). [Foto dị n'aka nri] N'etiti ọtụtụ ndị ji obi ha niile fee Chineke, e nwere ọchịchọ na-eto eto ịkọrọ ndụ na ahụmịhe nke Jizọs, ọkachasị na Ọmịiko Ya, mana maka "mmetụta ndị ahụ a na-achọ ka a na-emegharị mgbe niile, a ga-eme ka mmekpa ahụ nke Kraịst na-akawanye njọ nkọwa zuru ezu, ruo n'ókè nke na ndị na-agụ akwụkwọ Julian nke oge a na ndị edemede ndị ọzọ ji ofufe Chineke kpọrọ ihe nwere ike ịchọta ihe na-asọ oyi na ọbụna ọgbụgbọ ”(Spearing 1998: xiv). N'iburu ọnọdụ a n'uche, ọ bụghị ihe ijuanya na onyinye mbụ Julian rịọrọ n'aka Chineke bụ ịkekọrịta na ncheta nke agụụ Ya. Obu kwa ihe ijuanya na mgbe obula ochicho ohuru nke enyere ya nihe banyere aririo a, oneme ya nke oma, na echetara anya nke ihu nke obe Kraist nke okpu eze ya gbadara ya:

Oke ọbara ọbara dara site na okpu ọma dị ka pelle, ọ dị ka a ga - asị na ha si na veins pụta; ma mgbe ha pụtara, ha na-acha ọbara ọbara-ọbara ọbara (n’ihi na ọbara ahụ hiri nne nke ukwuu) ma na-agbasa ha na-acha ọbara ọbara; Ọbara we ba na ntughari-ya, n'ebe ahu ka miri nile nālacha; na agbanyeghị na ọbara ọgbụgba ahụ gara n'ihu. . . (Nkpughe isi 7, John-Julian 2009: 85 na 87).

Dika ochicho ahu si n’isi rue aru dum nke Kraist n’ahuhu, ya naga niru.

Ahụrụ m ahụ ahụ nke ukwuu na-agba ọbara (dika enwere ike ịtụ anya na iti ihe otiti) n'ụzọ dị otu a: akpụkpọ ahụ mara mma gbawara n'etiti anụ ahụ dị nro site na iti ihe na-eti ihe niile ahụ a hụrụ n'anya; ya mere oke ọkụ na-agbapụta ọbara ọkụ nke na mmadụ enweghị ike ịhụ anụ ma ọ bụ ọnya, mana, dị ka a pụrụ isi kwuo ya, ọbara niile. . . . Ọbara a riri nne nke ukwuu nke na ọ dị m ka, ọ bụrụ na ọ bara ụba n'ụdị na n'okwu n'oge ahụ, ọ gaara eme ka ihe ndina ahụ bụrụ ọbara niile ma juputa na mpụga (Nkpughe isi 12, John-Julian 2009: 105).

"Gịnị mere o ji yie ka ihe ji ọbara ju gị anya? ” Anyị nwere ike ịjụ. Ọ bụ na anyị enweghị ike ịgafe ebe ndị ahụ ma jide nsị nke ahụmịhe Julian? Ikekwe. Mana ma eleghị anya ọ bụghị. N’otu isiokwu nke ọ na-enyocha ma tụlee arụrụala a na-eme megide nwoke n’ikwu okwu gbasara mmụọ na ihe nkiri sịnịma, Kent Brintnall, onye ọkammụta okpukperechi na nwoke na nwanyị, na-ekwusi ike na “ihe nnọchianya nke ime ihe ike nwere ụkpụrụ iwu dị mkpa n’ihi na ha nwere ike itinye uche anyị ma mepụta ọmịiko n'ụzọ ụfọdụ. ” Ọbara mmadụ, ọnya ọnya, ọnyá mmadụ nwere ike ije ozi "dị ka usoro maka iwepụta nkatọ ụkpụrụ omume, ikpe omume na mgbanwe mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya" (Brintnall 2004: 74, 71). Banyere ihe odide Julian, Brintnall na-ekwu na ọ na-ejikọta ọmịiko na obi ọjọọ n'ụzọ doro anya, ma na-atụ aro echiche sitere n'aka ya na "ịtụgharị uche na ahụhụ Jizọs ga-eme ka ọmịiko dịkwuo elu. . . na "ihe eji eme ya bu ichoro banyere ihe ngosi nke aru meruru aru" (Brintnall 2004: 70). N'ezie, ederede ederede na-akwado echiche a. Ka Julian na-erugharị n’etiti ọnwụ na ndụ, ọ na-echeta ọchịchọ ya n’oge mbụ maka ọnya nke abụọ ahụ, ọmịiko, ma cheta na ya kpere ekpere “ka ihe mgbu ya bụ ihe mgbu m nke ọmịiko” (Nkpughe isi 3, John-Julian 2009: 73).

N'iburu na enwere onyonyo ihe onyonyo nke obe nke Kraist nwere ike ime ka enwere obi ebere karie, ndi na-agu akwukwo nke oge a nwere ike choo ịkpachara anya banyere onwunwa ileghara ihe omimi nke Julian dere nke oma. N'ezie, ọrụ Brintnall na-ewelite ajụjụ ndị dị mkpa maka ọmụmụ ihe n'ọdịnihu:

Ọ bụrụ na ikiri ihe ike nwere ike ịmasị anyị ma mee ka anyị mee omume ọma, gịnị ga-efunahụ anyị mgbe anyị na-eleghara ihe nkiri anya ọjọọ anya? Gịnị ga-efu mgbe Jizọs ghọrọ ezigbo onye nkụzi na-akụzi omume kama ịbụ onye a tara ahụhụ n'ihu ọha? (Brintnall 2004: 72).

 Ewezuga ụzọ edemede ya, ma na-adọrọ adọrọ, nkà mmụta okpukpe Julian nke Chineke dị ka Lovehụnanya niile emeela esemokwu ọzọ, na-akpata esemokwu banyere nhazi ya (ma ọ bụ enweghị ya) na ndị isi okpukpe, karịsịa n'okwu banyere nzọpụta. Ndi azoputara ufodu ndi ebighebi ebe ndi ozo gha abia ebighebi dika ndi uka uka Rom? Ma ọ bụ ga-, n'ikpeazụ, niile ga-azọpụta. Okwu a gosipụtara esemokwu maka Julian onye dere, sị:

otu isi okwukwe anyị bụ na a ga-ama ọtụtụ ndị e kere eke ikpe (dịka ndị mmụọ ozi ahụ dara n’eluigwe n’ihi mpako — ndị bụ ndị mmụọ ọjọọ ugbu a), na ọtụtụ ndị nọ n’ụwa na-anwụ n’èzí okwukwe nke Nzukọ Nsọ (nke ahụ bụ ịsị , ndi bu ndi mba ozo ma bukwa ndi natara ndi Kristian ma ha bi ndu nke ndi Kraist nebe ha nwua nenwegh ihunanya) ndia nile gabu ihe anwu ala mo rue ebighebi dika nzuko nso di na akuziri m ikwere (Nkpughe isi 32, John-Julian 2009: 163).

Ma mgbe ahụ, ọ gara n'ihu:

N’inye ihe a niile, ọ dị m ka ọ gaghị ekwe omume na ụdị ihe niile ga-adị mma dịka Onyenwe anyị gosipụtara n’oge a; ma banyere nke a, enweghị m azịza ọ bụla ọzọ na ngosipụta ọ bụla nke Onyenwe anyị Chineke ma ewezuga nke a: “Ihe na - agaghị ekwe gị omume, ọ gaghị ekwe m omume. M ga-edebe okwu m n'ihe niile, m ga-emekwa ka ihe niile dị mma. ” Otu a ka akụziri m site n’amara nke Chineke na m kwesịrị ịnọgidesi ike n’okwukwe dịka m siri kọwaa ya na mbụ, na kwa na m ga-ekwenyesi ike na ihe nile ga-adị mma dịka Onye-nwe-anyị gosipụtara. . . (Nkpughe isi 32, John-Julian 2009: 163).

N’ụzọ doro anya, Julian adịghị njikere ikwu okwu n’ụzọ megidere nkụzi ụka n’okwu a, ma o kwenyere n’enweghị nsogbu na ya aghọtaghị otu a ga-esi mee nke ọma ma ọ bụrụ na a kara ụfọdụ ndị ikpe ọnwụ ebighi ebi. Site n’ihe ọ hụtara n’ọhụ nke onyenwe na nwa odibo a o doro anya na Chineke agaghị ahapụ nwa ya ọ hụrụ n’anya n ’olulu ịlụ ọgụ nanị ya. N'ikpeazụ, ọ na-ekwupụta na "ọ dị mkpa ka anyị hapụ itinye onwe anyị" na otu Chineke ga-esi dozie nsogbu a maka "ka anyị na-agbasi mbọ ike ịmara ihe nzuzo Ya na nke a ma ọ bụ n'ihe ọ bụla ọzọ, ka anyị ga - anọkwu na ihe ọmụma ahụ n'ime ha ”(Nkpughe isi 33, John-Julian 2009: 167).

Ikike Julian nwere ibi ndụ na esemokwu n'okwu a nwere ike igbochi ebubo ebubo ịjụ okwukwe n'oge ya, mana o gbochighị esemokwu n'oge a banyere ma ọ dabere ma ọ bụ na ọ dabere na nzọpụta zuru ụwa ọnụ ma ọ bụ. Fada John-Julian kwuru na Julian jiri ahịrịokwu ahụ “mmadụ niile a ga-azọpụta” ugboro iri atọ na anọ n’akwụkwọ ya ma rụọ ụka na nke a bụ “ihe ngosipụta doro anya na ọ B NOTGH NOT onye zuru ụwa ọnụ, mana kwenyere na enwere ndị na-agaghị adị n’eluigwe ”(ihe odide ala ala peeji nke 2, John-Julian 2009: 92). N'aka nke ọzọ, mgbe ọ tụlesịrị ọrụ nke ndị ọkà mmụta okpukpe ndị ọzọ, ma ndị ochie ma ndị nke oge a, n'okwu a banyere nzọpụta zuru ụwa ọnụ, Richard Harries na-atụ aro na Julian enweghị ike ikwenye maka ụwa niile n'ihi na ọ nakweere nkuzi nke Churchka, mana agbanyeghị "ihe niile dị na ederede ya na ntụziaka ahụ ”(Harries 2020: 7). Mgbe ahụ, o depụtara nkwenye ndị gbara ọkpụrụkpụ asatọ pụtara na ọrụ ya nke "na-egosi n'ụzọ enweghị atụ maka nzọpụta nke mmadụ niile," wee gaa n'ihu na-ekwu, "cannot gaghị enwe ike iche na mgbe ọ na-ekwusi ike na Chọọchị na-akụzi ịdị adị nke hel, ọ bụ ihe nchebe megide ebubo nwere ike ịbụ na nkà mmụta okpukpe [ya] bụ nke zuru ụwa ọnụ, nke ọ bụ "(Harries 2020: 8). Na njedebe, nke kachasị nwere ike ikwu bụ na Julian họọrọ ibi ndụ na amaghị ama n'okwu a, na-atụkwasị obi naanị n'eziokwu na Chineke kụnyere n'ime ya ihe ọmụma na n'ụzọ ụfọdụ, n'ụzọ ụfọdụ, otu ụbọchị, a ga-eme nke ọma. Ikekwe ọ “na-ama jijiji na njedebe nke ụwa niile” mana ọ họrọghị ịgafe n 'ụzọ ọ bụla. O kpebisiri ike ịhapụ mkpebi ahụ n'aka Chineke (Harries 2020: 7).

Ibu aka na akwukwo nke ndi nwanyi n'IZI

E nwere ọtụtụ ihe na-eme ka ọrụ Julian nke Norwich nwee nnukwu ihe ọmụmụ gbasara ụmụ nwanyị n'okpukpe. Nke mbu bu na o guzoro dika ihe nlere anya nke nwanyi obughi nani na o nwere ike ikwu na nkpughe sitere n'aka Chineke kamakwa onye nwere ike igbanwe ndi ozo n'oge a na-ahughi ndi nwanyi dika ndi n'eziokwu. Ọzọkwa, site na ịmaliteghachi ọrụ ya na narị afọ nke iri abụọ, ọ gara n'ihu na-eguzo dị ka ihe atụ agbamume siri ike ma dị oke mkpa maka ụmụ nwanyị. Dị ka ọkà mmụta okpukpe Wendy Farley si kwuo, ọtụtụ "ụka na seminarị na-anọgide na-anakwere ya dị ka ihe okike na ahụ nke nwanyị nke Kraịst, n'ụzọ ihe atụ na n'ụzọ nkịtị, egbupụla ire ya" (Farley 2015: 7). Ma ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ eziokwu na ụmụ nwanyị enweela ọganihu dị ukwuu n'ọtụtụ ọgbakọ Ndị Kraịst, a na-aga n'ihu na ụka dị iche iche "anaghị ahọpụta ụmụ nwanyị" ma nabataghị ụmụ nwanyị dịka "ndị ntụgharị okwu nke echiche Ndị Kraịst" (Farley 2015: 6). Julian na-eje ozi dị ka ìhè nke olile anya na ịgbachi nkịtị nke ụmụ nwanyị na theka ga-abịa na njedebe otu ụbọchị.

Ọ dị oke mkpa na ọmụmụ ụmụ nwanyị na Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst na nkà mmụta okpukpe Julian metụtara nkọwa nwanyị, tumadi akara nke nne nye Chineke, ma ọbụghị na Onye nke abuo nke Chukwu mana kama Atọ n’Ime Otu. Nye Julian, akụkụ nke nne bụ ihe kachasị mkpa nke Chineke ma na-arụ ọrụ mgbe niile. N’akwụkwọ ya na-enyocha ojiji Julian ji akara akara nne, ọkà mmụta okpukpe aha ya bụ Patricia Donohue-White kọwara “usoro ọrụ atọ metụtara ọrụ nne” n'ihe odide Julian:

Nke mbụ, e nwere ọrụ Atọ n’Ime Otu nke imepụta ihe — ihe m kpọrọ Atọ n’Ime Otu “Arụ ọrụ” - nke ahụ na-arụ n'ime mmụọ. Nke abuo, enwere oru nke mgbaputa nke na-amalite site na nmekorita na mmechi na oru ike nke omumu nke Jisos / nwua n'obe. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Nke atọ na nke ikpeazụ bụ ọrụ nke ido nsọ nke gụnyere usoro dị ogologo nke ịzụlite, ịzụ na ịkụziri nwatakịrị ma mezue ya eschatologically na nne na-eduru nwa ahụ laghachi ebe o sitere, ya bụ, azụ gaa n'afọ Atọ n'Ime Otu (Donohue-White 2005: 27).

Nye Julian mgbe ahụ, ịbụ nne bụ ihe mbụ na ihe kachasị mkpa na Chineke. Ọ bụ “chi nke mgbe ochie” wee si otú a, ọ bụ ezie na ọ na-ejikarị ihe oyiyi nna akọwa ihe maka Chineke, ojiji o ji ihe oyiyi ndị a eme ihe n'ụzọ ziri ezi. "Dika Chineke bụ Nna anyị, otu ahụ ka Chineke bụ nne anyị" (Nkpughe isi 59, John-Julian 2009: 283). Nke a dị oke egwu, n'ihi na n'ịghọta ma nne na Nna akụkụ nke isi igwe, Julian kwusiri ike na a pụghị ịghọta Chineke nke ọma dị ka nwoke; ọbụnadị, ma eleghị anya ọbụnadị nke kachasị, n’ime anụ arụ nke Kraist bụ “Nne” anyị.

N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, n'ihi na ojiji Julian bụ nke nwanyị esighị n'ụmụ nwanyị tinye n'ọrụ ndị ọzọ na-abụghị nke nne, a na-ewelite ajụjụ ụfọdụ oge ụfọdụ ma ọ na-eme ihe kwekọrọ na mgbakọ nke oge ya, ebe ọrụ nne bụ nke a nabatara ma nke ọzọ ọrụ maka ụmụ nwanyị abụghị. Enwere ike ịghọta ọrụ ya dị ka mgbagha n'ezie? Ma ọ bụ, ọ na-adị ka ọ na-ajụ nkwenkwe ụgha na-adịghị mma ọbụlagodi na ọ na-ekwekọ na nkwenkwe nke ụbọchị ya? Onye nwuru anwu Catherine Innes-Parker, onye oka mmuta nke oma na onye oka mmuta nke akwukwo ochie, gbara ajuju ajuju site na inyocha mmepe Julian dika onye ode akwukwo dika o na esi na Short Short ya gaa na akwukwo ikpeazu ya, Long Text. O kwubiri na Julian na-enyocha onwe ya, na-elekwa Chineke anya site n'ịgbaso "atụmatụ nke imebi emebi site na nkwekọ." Nke ahụ bụ ịsị, "ọ na-emepụta ohere ịkọwapụta okwu maka ịkọgharị ụdị echiche ndị metụtara ụbọchị ya, na-ajụghị ha kpamkpam" (Innes-Parker 1997: 17 na 11).

Zọ Julian si ekwurịta okwu banyere ala a dị nro n'etiti ntụgharị uche na nkwekọ pụrụ ịhụ karịsịa na nkọwa ya banyere Jizọs dịka nne, nke

abughi ihe nwughari nke ihe oyiyi nke umuaka nwanyi, ma nwughari nke ihe oyiyi nwoke, ihe nlereanya nwoke kachasi elu nke ejiri kee mmadu nile, n'ime nwanyi, nne nke anyi nile anyi huru, nwoke na nwanyi, "ala nke idi ayi" (Innes-Parker 1997: 18).

Ya mere, ọ bụ ezie na Julian jiri isiokwu na onyonyo juru ebe niile n'oge ya, "ọ na-arụ ọrụ nke isiokwu ndị ahụ na ihe onyonyo na-egosi na atụmatụ ya zoro ezo nwere ike bụrụ nke na-emebi emebi karịa ka ọdịdị ya dị na-atụ aro" (Innes-Parker 1997: 22). N'ezie,

[b] y n’etinye ihe onyonyo nke ịbụ nne nye Kraịst ahụ bịara n’afọ, Julian na-eme ka ụkpụrụ nwanyị bụrụ maka Okwu mere anụ arụ, wee si otu ahụ mee anụ ahụ niile. Site na ịkọwapụta n'ụzọ bụ isi, n'usoro, onye Chineke bụ, Julian si otú a kọwagharịa ihe ọ pụtara ịbụ onye e kere n'onyinyo Chineke. Ebumnuche mmadụ, ghọrọ nwanyị (Innes-Parker 1997: 22).

N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, ọ bụghị naanị nwanyị. Site n'ọhụụ Julian, otu onye na-achọpụta na ikike mmadụ nwere maka ịkọ ọtụtụ ohere mmadụ nwere maka na "Julian na-agbanwe 'nkà mmụta nwanyị' ka ọ bụrụ nkuzi mmadụ niile." Ọ bụ nkà mmụta okpukpe nke akọwaghị site na iche, mmekọahụ ma ọ bụ ihe ọzọ; kama nke ahụ, nkà mmụta okpukpe nke ịhụnanya kọwara, ma n'ụwa a na nke ọzọ (Innes-Parker 1997: 22). Dika odi otua, nkpughe ndi a nyere onwe ya “ihe e kere eke di nfe nke mutara akwukwo ozi” bu ihe di oke nkpa obughi nani umu nwanyi ma ndi uka Kraist dum. N'ezie, ha dị oke mkpa nye mmadụ niile ndị na-achọ mmekọrịta nke chi nke ịhụnanya ya miri emi ma na-adịgide adịgide; chi nke ebere ya nwere ike iburu ha ọ bụghị nanị n'oge ihe dị mma kamakwa site na ọgba aghara na ọgba aghara nke ọnwụ, ọdachi, ụjọ, na ikpe na-ezighị ezi (Nkpughe isi 2, John-Julian 2009: 67).

Saint Julian tụkwasịrị Chineke obi dị otú ahụ obi ma dabere na Chineke nke ịhụnanya site n'ọrịa onwe onye, ​​idei mmiri, ihe otiti, agha, na esemokwu nke papal, na-atụkwasị obi na ọnwụ, ma ọ bụ ndụ, ndị mmụọ ozi, ndị ọchịchị, ma ọ bụ ihe dị ugbu a, ma ọ bụ ihe ibia nwere ike ikewapu ya na ihunanya Chineke n’ime Kraist Jisos (Ndi Rom 8: 38–39). N’ime ihe ndị a niile, ọ kwenyesiri ike na Chineke ga-eme ka ihe niile dị mma n’ụzọ ụfọdụ. Ọ bụghị okwu ọnụ ma ọ bụ ọchịchọ efu. Maka ya, ọ bụ olile anya doro anya na nke ekpughere nye Chineke, na nke ọ chọrọ inyefe ndị ọzọ. N'agbanyeghị ọnọdụ mmadụ, nke onwe ya ma ọ bụ nke anyị na ibe anyị, “ihe nile ga-adị mma, ma ihe niile ga-adị mma, na ụdị ihe niile ga-adị mma” (Nkpughe isi 27, John-Julian 2009: 147).

Foto 

Image # 1: Ihe akpụrụ akpụ nke Julian nke Norwich na Katidral Norwich, England, nke David Holgate dere, 2014. Wikimedia.
Foto # 2: Ihe ngosi nke onye omenka Geoffrey P. Moran mepụtara na ngosipụta na Nave nke St Aidan's Church, Machias na Machias, Maine. https://staidansmachias.org/about/our-icons/icons/
Foto # 3: Peeji mbụ nke akwụkwọ Senenus de Cressy nke 1670 nke Ogologo ederede nke Julian Ngosipụta nke Divhụnanya Chineke, nke amaghi n'aka c. 1675 ma detuo ya site na ihe odide.
Foto # 4: Bauchon Chapel Window, 1964. Nke Maria Forsyth mere. Nke Dennis King nke G King & Son mere. E nyere na ebe nchekwa nke Harriet Mabel Campbell (1874-1953). http://www.norwich-heritage.co.uk/cathedrals/Anglican_Cathedral/bauchon_window_general.html
Image # 5: Julka St. Julian, ya na sel nke Julian na ala aka nri, https://www.britainexpress.com/counties/norfolk/norwich/st-julian.htm
Foto # 6: Oge a na-egosi Saint Julian nke Norwich na pusi jidere akwụkwọ ya na-egosi nkwupụta, "Ihe niile ga-adị mma."
Foto # 7: Nwanna Robert Lentz, OFM, “Dame Julian si Hazelnut. Maka ire na Atọ n'Ime Otu. https://www.trinitystores.com/artwork/dame-julians-hazelnut. Enwetara June 18, 2021.
Foto # 8: Akara nke Julian nke Norwich nke Christinel Paslaru sere. Onye Fada Christopher Wood nyere ọrụ, onye rector nke Julka Anglican nke St Julian. https://anglicanfocus.org.au/2020/05/01/julian-of-norwich-all-shall-be-well/.
Foto # 9: Emily Bowyer. 2012. Foto si n'ime ụlọ ahụ a rụgharịrị na St Julian's Church, Norwich, England, na-egosi ebe ịchụàjà na ụlọ ụka ọhụrụ ahụ. https://www.researchgate.net/figure/A-photograph-from-inside-the-reconstructed-cell-St-Julians-Church-Norwich-showing-the_fig1_303523791.
Foto # 10: Igwe windo nwere uko na Katidral Norwich na-egosi Julian nke Norwich n'ekpere.
Image # 11: Farid de la Ossa Arrieta, Chineke, Nne ahụ, 2002. https://www.paulvasile.com/blog/2015/10/28/mothering-christ.

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Magister, Sandro. 2011. “Vatican Diary / A New Doctor nke uka. Na iri na asaa ndị ọzọ na-ejide. ” chiesa.expressonline, August 21. Nweta site na http://chiesa.espresso.repubblica.it/articolo/1349083bdc4.html na 25 June 2021. 

Watson, Nicholas, na Jacqueline Jenkins, ụmụ nwoke. 2006. Ihe Odide nke Julian nke Norwich: Ọhụụ E Gosiri Nwanyị Na-enwe Obi .tọ na Mkpughe nke .hụnanya. Mahadum University, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Yuen, Wai Nwoke. 2003. Okpukpe na Nkọwapụta: Ncheta dị ka tozọ nke Ihe Ọmụma nke Chineke na Julian nke Norwich's Showings. New York: Peter Lang.

AJỤRỤ AKWỤKWỌ NDỊ

Adams, Marilyn McCord. 2004. “Site n'ikike, Human and Divine.” Sewanee Theology Review 47: 145-63.

Onye na-eme ihe nkiri, Denise Nowakowski. 2004. Ihe ngosi nke Julian nke Norwich. New York: WW Norton.

Onye na-eme ihe nkiri, Denise Nowakowski. 1993. “Julian nke Norwich na Akwụkwọ Anchoritic.” Ihe omimi ihe omimi 19: 148-60.

Brockett, Lorna, RSCJ "Omenala nke Nduzi Ime Mmụọ: Uru Julian Maka Taa." Wayzọ 28:272-79.

Denny, Christopher. 2011. "'Ihe Niile Ga-adị Mma:' Julian nke Norwich's Counter-Apocalyptic Revelations." horizons 38: 193-210.

Heffernan, Carol F. 2013. "Chiri anya na Chineke: Julian nke Norwich." Magistra 19: 40-57.

Holt, Bradley. 2013. "Ekpere na theologian nke obe: Julian nke Norwich na Martin Luther." Dialog: A Journal of nkà mmụta okpukpe 52: 321-31.

Jantzen, Grace. 2000. Julian nke Norwich: Mystic na Theologian. Majwah, NJ: Akwụkwọ akụkọ Paulist.

Kieckhefer, Richard. 1984. Mkpụrụ obi na-enweghị nchekasị: Ndị nsọ nke narị afọ nke iri na anọ na ebe okpukpe ha nọ. Chicago: University nke Chicago Pịa.

Koenig, Elisabeth KJ 1993. “Julian nke Norwich, Mary Magdalene, na Drama nke Ekpere.” horizons 20: 23-43.

Skinner, John, trans. ma ed. 1998. Akwụkwọ Mmekọahụ Kempe. New York: ugboro abụọ.

Tolkien, JRR, ed. 1963. Ederede Bekee nke Ancrene Riwle: Ancrene Wisse (Usoro 249 mbụ). London: Akwụkwọ mbu nke Bekee.

Walker, Oonagh. 2012. "A Dialogue na gafee Oge: Julian nke Norwich na Ignatius Loyola." Ụzọ ahụ 51: 121-34.

Walsh, James, ntụgharị. 1961. Nkpughe nke Lovehụnanya Chukwu nke Julian nke Norwich. London: Burns na Oates.

Walsh, Maureen L. 2012. "Na -echeghachi Mgbapụta: Nzọpụta zuru ụwa ọnụ na Theology nke Julian nke Norwich." horizons 39: 189-207.

Williman, Daniel, ed. 1982. Ọnwụ Ojii: Mmetụta nke Ihe Otiti nke narị afọ nke iri na anọ. Binghamton, NY: Center nke Medieval na Early Renaissance Studies.

Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
28 June 2021

 

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