Nancy Lusignan Schultz

Charlotte Forten Grimké

CHARLOTTE IGBO GRIMKÉ MGBE

1837 (August 17): Charlotte Forten mụrụ na Philadelphia, Pennsylvania site n'aka Robert Bridges Forten na Mary Virginia Wood Forten.

1840 (August): Nne Charlotte nwụrụ site na ụkwara nta.

1850: Ndị omeiwu nke United States tinyere Iwu Iwu Fugitive Slave, nke chọrọ ijide na ịlaghachi nke ndị ohu gbapụrụ agbapụ site na steeti ndị nwere ohu; a kagburu ya na 1864.

1853 (November): Charlotte Forten si na Philadelphia kwaga Salem, Massachusetts n'ụlọ nke ezinụlọ Charles Lenox Remond.

1855 (March): Charlotte Forten gụsịrị akwụkwọ na Higginson Grammar School wee debanye aha na Salem Normal School (nke bụ Salem State University).

1855 (Septemba): Forten sonyeere Salem Female Anti-Sla Sla Society.

1856 (June / July): Forten gụsịrị akwụkwọ na Salem Normal School wee were ọnọdụ nkuzi na Eppes Grammar School na Salem.

1857 (March 6): Courtlọikpe Kasị Elu nke United States nyefere mkpebi Dred Scott, nke kwuru na ndị Africa America abụghị na ha enweghị ike ịbụ ụmụ amaala US.

1857 (Oge Ezumike): Forten gara Philadelphia iji gbakee site na ọrịa, wee laghachi Salem iji gaa n'ihu na-akụzi ihe.

1858 (March): Forten gbara arụkwaghịm n'ụlọ akwụkwọ ya na Eppes Grammar School n'ihi ọrịa na-arịa ọrịa wee laghachi Philadelphia.

1859 (Septemba): Forten laghachiri na Salem iji kuzie ihe na Higginson Grammar School.

1860 (October): Forten gbara arụkwaghịm na Salem n'ihi enweghị ahụike.

1861 (Eprel 12): Agha Obodo US malitere.

1861 (Fall): Forten kụziri na Philadelphia's Lombard Street School, nke nwanne nne ya bụ Margaretta Forten na-agba ọsọ.

1862 (October): Forten hapụrụ maka South Carolina iji kụzie ihe n'okpuru nlekọta Port Royal Relief Association.

1862 (Disemba): Edere akụkọ Forten dere banyere ahụmịhe ya na South Carolina na akwụkwọ mkpochapụ mba Onye Nwepu Onwe ya.

1863 (July): Ndị agha merụrụ ahụ iri anọ merụrụ ahụ nke 54th Massachusetts regiment mgbe e merisịrị ha na Fort Wagner, South Carolina.

1864 (Eprel 25): Nna Forten nwụrụ site na ịba ahụ ọkụ na Philadelphia.

1864 (May / June): Ederede edemede abụọ nke Forten na “Life on the Sea Islands” na Atlantic Monthly.

1865 (May 9): Agha Obodo US kwụsịrị.

1865 (October): Forten nakweere ọnọdụ dị ka odeakwụkwọ nke Kọmitii Ndị Nkụzi nke Alaka New England nke Freedman's Union Commission na Boston, Massachusetts.

1871: Ejiri Forten dị ka onye nkuzi na Shaw Memorial School na Charleston, South Carolina.

1872–1873: mmadụ iri anọ kụziri na Dunbar High School, ụlọ akwụkwọ nkwadobe ojii na Washington, DC

1873-1878: Forten weere ọkwa dịka onye odeakwụkwọ klasị nke anọ na Office nke Auditor nke Anọ nke Ngalaba Akụ US.

1878 (Disemba 19): mmadụ iri anọ lụrụ Reverend Francis Grimké, onye ozi nke Churchka Fifteenth Street Presbyterian Church na Washington, DC

1880 (Jenụwarị 1): A mụrụ ada Forten Grimké, Theodora Cornelia Grimké.

1880 (June 10): Theodora Cornelia Grimké nwụrụ.

1885–1889: Charlotte Grimké na di ya kwagara Jacksonville, Florida ebe Francis Grimké bụ onye ozi nke Church Laura Street Presbyterian.

1888 rue mbubreyo 1890s: Charlotte Forten Grimké gara n'ihu na-ede ma na-ebipụta uri na edemede.

1896: Forten Grimké ghọrọ onye otu ntọala nke National Association of Colored Women.

1914 (July 22): Charlotte Forten Grimké nwụrụ na Washington, DC

BIOGRAPHY

Charlotte Louise Bridges Forten a mụrụ na August 17, 1837 na 92 ​​Lombard Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, ụlọ nke nne na nna ya ochie, bụ onye isi ezinụlọ Black na-akwụghị ụgwọ n'obodo ahụ na-arụsi ọrụ ike na mkpochapụ abochitionist (Winch 2002: Ogbe 280) Ọ bụ nwa nwa nke James na Charlotte Forten, na nwa nwoke nwa ha nwoke bụ Robert Bridges Forten na nwunye mbụ ya, Mary Virginia Wood Forten, bụ onye ụkwara nta nwụrụ mgbe Charlotte dị afọ atọ. Akpọrọ aha nne nne ya, Charlotte bụ ọgbọ nke anọ nke nnwere onwe nwa nwanyị Black n'akụkụ nna ya (Stevenson 1988: 3). Nna nna ya bụ onye a ma ama bụ James Forten, onye na-eme mgbanwe na onye na-emegide antislavery nke nwere azụmahịa na-aga nke ọma na Philadelphia, n'otu oge na-enweta akụ karịa $ 100,000, nnukwu ego maka oge ahụ. Charlotte Forten tolitere na nchekwa akụ na ụba, enwere nkuzi na nzuzo, na-eme njem n'ọtụtụ ebe, ma nwee ọmalitere ọtụtụ mmekọrịta mmadụ na ọdịbendị (Duran 2011: 90). Ezigbo ezinụlọ ya gbalịsiri ike ịkwụsị ịgba ohu na ịlụ ọgụ maka ịkpa ókè agbụrụ. James Forten rụrụ ọrụ dị mkpa na American Anti-Sla Sla Society ma bụrụ enyi na onye na-akwado mkpochapụ William Lloyd Garrison (1805-1879). Womenmụ nwanyị iri anọ nyere aka chọta Philadelphia Female Anti-Sla Sla Society. Nwanne nna ya, Sarah, Margaretta, na Harriet Forten, jiri onyinye ọgụgụ isi ha mee ihe iji kwalite usoro mgbochi (Stevenson 1988: 8).

Ndị Fortens bụ akụkụ nke nnukwu netwọkụ nke ndị bara ọgaranya, ndị gụrụ ezigbo akwụkwọ, na ndị na-elekọta mmadụ nọ n'Africa America na New York, Boston, na Salem, Massachusetts, ha niile tinyere aka na mkpochapụ. Mana ka ọ na-erule mbido 1840s, ụlọ ọrụ James Forten & Sons kwupụtara enweghị ego na ego anaghị agbaba n'ezinụlọ (Winch 2002: 344). E zigara Charlotte na Salem na 1853 ka ya na Remond biri afọ ole na ole mgbe nne nne ya, bụ Edy Wood, nwụsịrị, onye na-azụ Charlotte mgbe nne ya nwụsịrị. Mmadụ iri anọ na-eru uju maka ọnwụ nne ya na nne nne ya na njedebe nke nna ya, onye kwagara na nwunye ya nke abụọ, nke mbụ gaa Canada, wee gazie England. Charles Remond nke Salem, nwa nke onye na-azụ ahịa nke ọma, lụrụ Amy Williams, onye bụbu agbata obi nke Fortens na Philadelphia, ha wee bụrụ ezinụlọ nnabata na Charlotte Forten. Charles na Amy Remond bụ ndị egwuregwu dị mkpa na mkpochapụ mkpochapụ ma na-eleta ha n'ụlọ ha mgbe niile dị ka Garrison, William Wells Brown, Lydia Marie Child, na John Greenleaf Whittier (Salenius, 2016: 43). Salem kewapụrụ ụlọ akwụkwọ ya na 1843, obodo mbụ na Massachusetts ime nke a (Noel 2004: 144). Nna Forten zigara ya na Salem ka ọ gaa ụlọ akwụkwọ kewapụrụ onwe ya, ọ debanyere aha na Higginson Grammar School for Girls n'okpuru onye nlekọta nke Mary L. Shepard onye Forten kpọrọ aha ya dị ka enyi ya na "ezigbo onye nkụzi, obiọma" (Grimké 1988: Septemba) 30, 1854: 102).

Site na njem ya na Massachusetts na 1854, Forten bụ onye ama ama n'oge a maka mmetụta ọjọọ nke Iwu Fugitive Slave Law (1850), nke chọrọ ijide na ịlaghachi nke ndị ohu gbapụrụ agbapụ nke gbapụrụ na steeti ndị nwe ha. Na Wenezdee, Mee 24, 1854, e nyere ikike ka a nwụchie na Boston maka ohu gbapụrụ agbapụ, Anthony Burns. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ikpe ya kpaliri obodo mkpochapụ, gụnyere Forten. Thelọ ikpe ahụ kwadoro onye nwe Burns, Massachusetts dịkwa njikere ịlaghachi ya n'ịbụ ohu na Virginia. Akwụkwọ akụkọ Forten gosipụtara iwe ya na ikpe na-ezighị ezi a, dịka o dere:

Anyị kasị njọ egwu na-ghọtara; mkpebi a megidere ogbenye Burns, ewe zighachi ya na ịgba ohu dị njọ, otu puku ugboro ka njọ karịa ọnwụ. . . . Taata Massachusetts ka ihere mekwara ọzọ; O gosiputala nrube isi ya n’ike ndi oru ohu. . . . Olee ụdị nlelị a ga-ewere na gọọmentị ga-eji ụjọ tụkọta ọtụtụ puku ndị agha iji mejuo ihe ndị ohu chọrọ; ịnapụ nnwere onwe ya nwoke, nke e kere n'oyiyi nke Chineke, nke naanị ihe mejọrọ ya bụ agba akpụkpọ ahụ ya! (Grimké 1988: June 2, 1854: 65-66)

Akwụkwọ akụkọ mbụ ya, nke edere mgbe ọ bi na Salem, gosipụtara echiche na-adịgide adịgide nke erughị eru. Na June 1858, o dere, sị:

Na-enyocha onwe gị nke ọma. Ihe si na ya pụta bụ mmetụta agwakọtara nke iru uju, ihere na nlelị onwe onye. Achọpụtala nke ọma na ilu karịa na ndụ m amaghị ama na nzuzu m. Ọbụghị naanị na enweghị m onyinye nke Nature, ama, ịma mma na talent; na-enweghị mmezu nke ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ afọ ndụ m nile, onye m maara, nwere; ma anọghị m nwere ọgụgụ isi Na n'ihi a ọ dighi onyinyo nke ihe ngọpụ (Grimké 1988: June 15, 1858: 315–16).

Ka Forten na-etolite, echiche ndị a na-akatọ onwe ha dị ka ọ dị ntakịrị, ọ sụrụ ụzọ ọtụtụ rụzuru dịka Nwanyị Ojii. Ọ bụ nwa akwụkwọ ojii ojii mbụ nabatara ụlọ akwụkwọ Salem Normal, yana onye nkuzi ụlọ akwụkwọ ọha ojii mbụ na Salem. Ọ ghọrọ onye edemede a na-ebipụta nke ọma wee gaa South n'oge Agha Obodo iji kụziere ndị ohu ọhụrụ a tọhapụrụ. A na-akwanyere ya ùgwù nke ukwuu na ngalaba mkpochapu oke ma sonye na ntọala nke otu mgbanwe.

Nna Forten chọrọ ka ọ gaa Salem Normal School (nke bụ Salem State University) iji kwadebe maka ọrụ nkuzi. Charlotte n'onwe ya egosighi mmasị n'ụzọ a; nna ya ahụwo ya dị ka ụzọ Charlotte si akwado onwe ya. Ọ chọrọ ime ihe na-amasị nna ya ma kpebisie ike ịchọta ụzọ iji bulie agbụrụ ya. Agaghị m agbasi mbọ ike ka m mewe ihe ọ chọrọ. . . onye nkuzi, na ibi ndu maka ihe ọma m nwere ike imere ndị ọzọ ibe m na-emegbu emegbu ma na-ata ahụhụ ”(Grimké 1988: October 23, 1854: 105). Forten lere ohere ya itinye aka n'ọmụmụ ihe dị elu ngọzi nke na-atụ aro na Chineke ahọrọla ya maka ọrụ dị mkpa: iji ikike ya mee ka ndụ ndị Black America. Site na ntinye uche n'echiche a, ọ na-agọnahụ onwe ya oge ụfọdụ na obi ụtọ.

Na March 13, 1855, Charlotte Forten dị afọ iri na asaa gafere ule nbanye ya wee debanye aha na klas nke abụọ nke Salem Normal School. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Otu n'ime ụmụ akwụkwọ iri anọ, nna ya enweghị enyemaka ego; onye nkuzi ya bụ Mary Shepard nyere ya ụgwọ ma ọ bụ gbazite ego Forten maka agụmakwụkwọ ya. Mmadụ iri anọ nwere ọgụgụ isi na ụlọ akwụkwọ. Akpanikwu ịkpa ókè agbụrụ nke obodo o bi na ya mere ka ọ dịkwuo ùgwù onwe ya. N'ezie, Salem, Massachusetts nke 1850s na 1860s nwere ọganihu nke na ọ nwere ike ịga ụlọ akwụkwọ ọzụzụ ndị nkuzi mara mma ma were ya ụgwọ dị ka onye nkuzi n'ụlọ akwụkwọ ọha na eze. Ma ederede ya na-ede ọtụtụ nhụsianya o nwetara n'ihi ajọ mbunobi nke ụmụ klas ya, na ihe mgbu nke a mere ka o siere Forten ike ịnọgide na-enwe ihe ọ lere anya dị ka onye Kraịst:

Achọrọ m ịdị mma, inwe ike ịnwụ n'udo, na n'atụghị egwu, sie ike n'okwukwe na ịdị nsọ. Mana nke a m matara nwere ike ịbụ nanị site n’aka onye ahụ nwụrụ n’ihi anyị, site na ịdị-ọcha zuru oke nke Ya, onye bụ ịdị nsọ na ịhụnanya niile. Ma olee otu m ga-esi nwee olile anya tozuru oke ịhụnanya ya ebe m ka nwere mmetụta nke mmetụta nye ndị iro m, mmụọ nke enweghị mgbaghara. . . ịkpọasị nke mmegbu dị m ka agwakọtara m na ịkpọasị nke onye mmegbu enweghị m ike ikewapụ ha (Grimké 1988: August 10, 1854: 95).

N'afọ sochirinụ, Forten dere, sị:

M na-eche na ọ bụla acha onye abụghị misanthrope. N'ezie, anyị nwere ihe niile iji mee ka anyị kpọọ mmadụ asị. Ezutewo m ụmụ agbọghọ n’ụlọ akwụkwọ — ha ji obiọma meso m omume ọma ma na-asọpụrụ m — ma eleghị anya n’echi ya ha zutere ha n’okporo ámá — ha tụrụ ụjọ ịmata m; ndị a ka m nwere ike ịlele ugbu a na nlelị na nlelị, otu oge masịrị m, na-ekwenye na ha enweghị ike nke usoro ndị a (Grimké 1988: Septemba 12, 1855: 140)

Otú ọ dị, Forten nọgidere, na-ekwenye na ọganihu ọ gụrụ n'ụlọ akwụkwọ "ga-enyere m aka itinye onwe m maka ịrụ ọrụ dị nsọ, iji nyere m aka ime ọtụtụ ihe ịgbanwe ọnọdụ nke ndị m na-emegbu emegbu na ndị na-ata ahụhụ" (Grimké 1988: June 4, 1854: 67). Mgbe e mesịrị, ọ ga-agbasawanye na ọhụụ a:

Anyị bụ ndị ogbenye, ndị a na-emegbu emegbu, nwere ọtụtụ ọnwụnwa, na ezigbo ndị enyi. Ihe gara aga, ugbu a, ọdịnihu dị ka ọchịchịrị na egwu maka anyị. Amaara m na o zighi ezi ka m chee otú a. Ma m ike nyere ya aka mgbe niile; ọ bụ ezie na obi m na-agwa m na enwere ọtụtụ ihe m ga-ebi. Na ka anyị na-ata ahụhụ miri emi, onye ka ebube na ịdị nsọ bụ ọrụ nke ndụ dị n'ihu anyị! Oh! maka ike; ike iji taa ahụhụ, iji obi ike rụọ ọrụ ahụ, n'echeghị echiche! (Grimké 1988: Septemba 1, 1856: 163-64).

O kwenyesiri ike na nkwenkwe Ndị Kraịst ya n'oge ndị a siri ike, ọ mikpuru onwe ya kpamkpam n'ọrụ agụmakwụkwọ ya.

Forten mere nke ọma na nyocha ikpeazụ nke Normal School ma họpụta ya ka ọ dee ukwe klaasị maka klasị gụsịrị akwụkwọ na 1856. Ọ malitere ịkụzi ihe n'ụlọ akwụkwọ Epps Grammar na Salem ụbọchị na-agụcha akwụkwọ ya, ọnọdụ nke onye isi ụlọ akwụkwọ ahụ chebere ya Salem Nkịtị, Richard Edwards. Salarygwọ ọnwa ya bụ $ 200 kwa afọ. Ọnwụ nke enyi ya ọ hụrụ n'anya bụ Amy Remond na ahụike ya na-aga n'ihu na-emekpa Forten n'oge a, ọ gbara arụkwaghịm na Machị 1858, na-alaghachi Philadelphia iji nwetaghachi. Mgbe ọ hapụsịrị ọrụ nkuzi ya na Salem na 1858, Forten toro ya Salem Debanye aha maka onyinye ya. Dabere na edemede ahụ, Forten nwere ihe ịga nke ọma na agụmakwụkwọ ya, ma "jiri obi ọma nabata ya na ndị nne na nna nke mpaghara ahụ," n'agbanyeghị na ọ bụ "nwa agbọghọ na-acha ọcha, nke a maara na agbụrụ ahụ asị nke ndị anyị na-emejọ bụ ihe nkọcha dị ndụ. nye anyị dịka mba ekwuru na ọ bụ mba Kraist ”(nke e hotara na Billington 1953: 19)). Isiokwu ahụ tụrụ aro maka otuto maka "nnwale" a rụghachiri na obodo Salem nke kelere onwe ya na ọganihu ya (Noel 2004: 154).

Forten laghachiri na Salem na 1859 iji kuziere Mary Shepard na Higginson School wee debanye aha na Salem Normal School's Advanced Program. Onye ọkwọ ụgbọ mmiri Salem a ma ama, Nathaniel Ingersoll Bowditch, bụ onye na-enyere ya aka (Rosemond na Maloney 1988: 6). O dechara okwu abụọ tupu ntiwapụ nke Agha Obodo. Mgbe ahụ, na 1862, Forten zara oku iji nyere aka na agụmakwụkwọ nke ndị ọhụrụ a tọhapụrụ na obodo Gullah na Oke Osimiri na South Carolina.

Mmasị a dugara mkpebi ya ịhapụ usoro nkuzi ya iji kwadebe maka ịkwaga South iji nyere ndị nwoke na ndị nwanyị a tọhapụrụ ọhụrụ aka. Ndị isi ndị agha nkewa ekewaala ala, ihe onwunwe, na ndị ohu niile na St Helena Island dị na Beaufort County, South Carolina dị ka "mbubata agha," mana ọ bịara ngwa ngwa na atumatu ọ dị mkpa ka e mepụtara iji lebara isi mgbanwe mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya anya nke a sitere na nnwere onwe ha. Mgbe ọtụtụ afọ nke nnọgidesi ike na-arụ ọrụ maka ebumnuche ya nke ọrụ mgbanwe, bara uru, ma na-enye afọ ojuju, ọ chọtara ya na Port Royal Relief Association, nke isi ya na Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Forten rụrụ ọrụ dị ka onye nkuzi na Beaufort County, South Carolina ruo ihe karịrị otu afọ, na-egosipụta ihe ọ na-ekwupụta mgbe niile na akwụkwọ akụkọ ya: na enwere ike ịkụziri ndị ojii ime nke ọma na agụmakwụkwọ. Forten chọpụtara na ịkụziri ndị kacha nwee nsogbu n'ọsọ ya bụ ihe na-akwụghachi ụgwọ ma na-atọ ụtọ. Forten sooro ndị nkuzi ndị ọzọ nke Northern ma soro onwe ya na akụkọ na egwu nke ndị agwaetiti Gullah na-asụ Creole bi na ya.

Thomas Wentworth Higginson, onye ọchịagha nke ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo mbụ nke South Carolina gbara ohu, nwere obi ekele na ọ kuziri ọtụtụ n'ime ụmụ nwoke ya ịgụ, na ọ bụ ezigbo enyi. Forten dekwara mmetụta ịhụnanya nke nzukọ ya na Col. Robert Gould Shaw, [Foto dị n'aka nri] ọchịagha nke 54th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment nke mejupụtara ndị agha Africa America (Grimké 1988: July 2, 1863: 490). N'oge ọkọchị nke 1863, ndị agha ndị agha wee merie ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri nke Charleston. Col. Shaw duru ndị agha ya nke 54 na mbibi mbibi na Fort Wagner, bụ nke gburu ọtụtụ ụmụ nwoke, gụnyere Shaw. Mmadụ iri anọ chere ka ha nụ ihe ga-esi n'agha a pụta maka izu abụọ site na St. Helena Island zoro ezo, wee kwaa arịrị maka mbibi ahụ na akwụkwọ akụkọ ya: “N'abalị na-abịa akụkọ oh, ọ dị oke mwute, ma na-agbawa obi. Odi egwu di egwu, dikwa egwu ide. Anyị nwere ike na-atụ anya na ọ nwere ike ọ bụghị ihe niile na-abụ eziokwu. Na onyeisi ala anyị, mara mma Colonel [Shaw] na-egbu, na regt. gbutuo. . . . O juru m anya, ọrịa na-arịa m. . . Enwere m ike ịde ihe. . . . ” (Grimké 1988: Mọnde, Julaị 20, 1863: 494). Shaw dị naanị otu ọnwa karịa Forten mgbe ọ nwụrụ mgbe ọ dị afọ iri abụọ na ise. N’echi ya, Forten wepụtara onwe ya dịka nọọsụ maka ndị agha. Ka oge na-aga, Forten dere banyere ahụmahụ ya, na 1864 kwa, e bipụtara edemede ya nwere akụkụ abụọ, “Ndụ n’Oké Osimiri,” ná mbipụta May na June Nke Atlantic Monthly.

N'ọnwa Ọktoba 1865 na-esote, Forten laghachiri na Boston, Massachusetts, na-anakwere ọnọdụ dị ka odeakwụkwọ nke Kọmitii Ndị Nkụzi nke Alaka New England nke Freedman's Union Commission. O biri na Massachusetts ruo afọ isii tupu ya emee ndokwa ịlaghachi na South. N'oge a, o bipụtara nsụgharị ya Madame Thérèse (1869) ma bipụta ya na Ndebanye aha Ndị Kraịst, na Obodo Boston, na Akwụkwọ akụkọ New England (Billington 1953: 29). Na ngwụcha 1871, Forten bidoro otu afọ nkuzi na Shaw Memorial School dị na Charleston, South Carolina, aha ya bụ enyi ya, mbubreyo Robert Gould Shaw. Ọ gara n'ihu na-akụzi n'afọ na-eso ya na ụlọ akwụkwọ ịkwadebe maka ụmụ okorobịa ojii ojii na Washington, DC, nke mechara kpọọ Dunbar High School. Mgbe afọ nke abụọ nke nkuzi ahụ gasịrị, e nyere Forten ọkwá ya dị ka onye ode akwụkwọ nke klasị nke anọ na Office nke Auditor nke US. Ọ rụrụ ọrụ afọ ise n'ọrụ a, site na 1873-1878.

Na 1878, mgbe ọ dị afọ iri anọ na otu, Forten lụrụ Reverend Francis Grimké, [Foto dị n'aka nri] onye ozi dị afọ iri abụọ na asatọ nke Fifteenth Street Presbyterian Church na Washington, DC Afọ iri na atọ ka ọ dị obere, ọ bụ onye ekwuru Nwa nwa ojii nke White abolitionists Angelina na Sarah Grimké sitere na Charleston bara ọgaranya, ezinụlọ South Carolina nwere ohu. Francis Grimké nwere ọgụgụ isi, nwee mmetụta ọsọ ọsọ, ma jiri obi ya niile raara onwe ya nye ọrụ ya na ọganihu nke agbụrụ ya. Di na nwunye ahụ nwere otu nwa nwanyị nwụrụ mgbe ọ bụ nwa ọhụrụ, nke a na-emetụta ọnwụ ya nke ukwuu. Charlotte Forten Grimké nwụrụ na July 22, 1914.

TEACHINGS / DOCTRINES

Forten bụ onye kwere ekwe n'okwukwe nke Ndị Kraịst. Site n'oge ọ bụ nwata, o fee nne ya nwụrụ anwụ ofufe dị ka mmụọ ozi, ọ ga-anụkwa akụkọ banyere nsọpụrụ mmụọ nne na nna ya. Mary Virginia Wood Forten si ozu na Acha American hotara ya ka ọ na-ekwu na ọ na-anwụ anwụ, “are nwere omume ọma ma dị mma mana ịchọrọ okpukpe, ịchọrọ amara nke Chineke. Chọọ ya! ” (nke e hotara na Glasgow 2019: 38). Forten chere oke ọnwụ nke nne ya na ndụ ya niile, agbanyeghị na ụmụ nwanyị ndị ọzọ nwere ndụmọdụ batara iji nyere aka mejupụta ọrụ ahụ.

 

N'akwụkwọ akụkọ mbụ ya, Forten gosipụtara mmasị na mmegharị nke Spiritualism, nke bụ mgbe ahụ okwu niile, ọkachasị n'etiti ndị na-ekpochapụ mmụọ. Echiche a masịrị ọtụtụ ndị ọkà mmụta na ndị edemede a ma ama, gụnyere Garrison, bụ́ onye kwenyere na ọ ga-ekwe omume iso ndị nwụrụ anwụ kwurịta okwu site na ndị na-ajụ ase. William Cooper Nell (1816–1874) bụ onye a ma ama na-ekpochapụ Black abolitionist na onye kwere ekwe na Spiritualism, na ezigbo enyi nke Forten. Na August 1854, Forten mere ntinye ole na ole na akwụkwọ akụkọ ya metụtara Mmụọ Nsọ. Na Tuesday, 8 August, 1854, Forten dere banyere ịgagharị ebe a na-eli ozu Harmon Grove na Salem na onye nkuzi ọ hụrụ n'anya, Mary Shepard:

Ọ dịtụbeghị mgbe ọ mara mma dịka n'ụtụtụ a kachasị mma n'oge ụtụtụ, obi dị ụtọ, udo dị otu onye fọrọ nke nta ka ọ dị ka izu ike n'ebe ahụ dị jụụ, n'okpuru ahịhịa dị nro, akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ. Onye nkuzi mụ na ya kwurịtara okwu banyere otu nwanne m nwanyị m hụrụ n’anya onye na-ehi ụra ebe a. Ka ọ na-ekwu, ọ dị m ka ọ bụ na m ma ya; otu n'ime ndị mmụọ nsọ, ndị dị nwayọọ, ndị nwere obi mmụọ, dị ọcha ma bụrụkwa nke eluigwe maka ụwa a (Grimké 1988: August 8, 1854: 94).

Fewbọchị ole na ole ka ije a gasịrị, Forten malitere ịgụ akụkọ omimi nke mmegwara nke Nathaniel Hawthorne, Oflọ nke asaa Gables, o metụtakwara ya nke ukwuu. O dere

Ihe omimi a di egwu, nke jogburu onwe ya, nke di kwa na mgbe nile n'etiti anyi, ike nke napuru anyi otutu ndi anyi huru n'anya ma kwanyere ugwu. . . . Echere m na ọ dịghị mmerụ ọzọ ọ bụla siri ike nnagide, na-esikwa ike ịgbaghara, dị ka nke mmegbu na ajọ mbunobi kpatara. Kedu nwere ike Abụ m Onye Kraịst mgbe ọtụtụ mụ na onwe m nwekọrọ ọnụ, maka enweghị mpụ na-ata ahụhụ n'ụzọ na-ezighi ezi, n'ụzọ na-ezighi ezi? Ọ dị ka ihe efu ịnwale, ọbụlagodi inwe olileanya. Ma ka m na-atụ anya ịdị ka Ya nke dị ezigbo mma ma baa uru na ndụ (Grimké 1988: August 10, 1854: 95)

Emechara akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ n’ime mkpụrụ ụbọchị ole na ole, Forten dekọtara mkparịta ụka ya na Nell mere n’ụbọchị tupu ụbọchị ncheta ọmụmụ ya nke iri na asaa “maka ihe gbasara mmụọ.”

O kwenyesiri ike na mmalite nke "mmụọ" ha. O kwuru banyere ụzọ dị iche iche “mmụọ” dị iche iche si gosipụta ọnụnọ ha, ụfọdụ n’ime ha bụ imetụ ndị na-ajụ ndị mmụọ ase aka, ndị ọzọ nke ọma maa jijiji ha, wdg. Agwara m ya na echere m na m chọrọ "ịma jijiji" iji mee m onye kwere ekwe. Ma agaghị m ekwu na m ga-ekwenye kpamkpam na ihe ndị maara ihe na-enweghị ike ịghọta (Grimké 1988: August 16, 1854: 96)

Ihe ime mmụọ na-eche ya ọzọ na November 1855, ka ọ na-agagharị na Harmony Grove wee hụ ili nke enyi nke nwụrụ anwụ. Forten dere, sị, “O siri ike ịghọta n’okpuru ozu onye nke anyị na ya bi ọnwa ole na ole gara aga! Nkwenye nke ndị mmụọ nsọ mara mma, ọ ga-abụrịrị onye nwere obi ụtọ. Ọ bụ na ụwa ọdịnihu dị n’otu atụmatụ dịka nke a, mana ọ mara mma karịa na enweghị mmehie ”(Grimké 1988: November 26, 1855: 145).

Na August 5, 1857, Forten dere banyere ịnụ okwu onye ọkà mmụta okpukpe na Chọọchị kwuru, sị, “Ọtụtụ n'ime ya magburu onwe ya; mana onwere otu akụkụ - ike gwuru megide Ime mmụọ, nke a masịrị m nke ukwuu; o yiri m ka ọ bụ ihe ekwesighi ekwesi na enweghị ọrụ ebere "(Grimké 1988: 244). Mana n’afọ 1858, Forten gosipụtara obi abụọ ọzọ banyere ya, “N’ehihie a, otu nwatakịrị nwanyị na-ekwu na ya bụ onye mgbaasị batara. Ana m enwekwu obi abụọ banyere Spiritualism ”(Grimké 1988: Jenụwarị 16; 1858: 278).

Na otu afọ ahụ, Forten dere otu uri a kpọrọ “Ọbịbịa Mmụọ Ozi” (Sherman 1992: 213–15). N'ezie, ụfọdụ ahịrị sitere na uri a dị ka ihe kwekọrọ na nkwenye na Spiritualism:

“N’abalị dị ka nke a,” ka a kwuru,
Formsdị mmụọ ozi dị nso;
Na ịma mma nke a na-ekpughereghị anyị
Ha na-efegharị n’elu.
O nne, hụrụ n'anya na furu efu, "Ebere m ákwá,
“Methinks ị nọ m nso ugbu a;
Methinks achorom gi emetu gi aka
N'elu ọkụ m.

“Biko, duzie nwa gị na-enwe mwute;
Ma ọ bụrụ na 'ọ bụghị uche Ya
Na ị ga-akpọrọ m laa n'ụlọ gị,
Chebem, gọziem kwa;
N'ihi na ochichiri na nrọ bụụrụ ndụ m
Na-enweghị obi ọmịiko gị,
Na-enweghị nlekọta ịhụnanya nke nne,
Onye ọ bụla iru uju ga-arafu. ”

Mgbe nsogbu ime mmụọ a gasịrị, uri ahụ gara n'ihu,

Akwụsịrị m: mgbe ahụ uche m zuru ohi
Nkpuru obi di nrọ,
Ma jiri nwayọ nụ na ntị m
Egwuru m n'anya nke ọma;
A mberede iju mmiri nke Rosy ìhè
Jupụta osisi niile dusky,
Na, yi uwe na-enwu gbaa nke na-acha ọcha,
My mmụọ ozi nne ada.

O ji nwayọ dọta m n'akụkụ ya,
Ọ na-agbanye egbugbere ọnụ ya na nke m,
Ma nwayọ wee sị, “Nwa m, akwala ákwá;
Lovehụnanya nke nne bụ nke gị.
Amaara m ajọ omume na-azọpịa
Ndi na eto eto ma nwee obi amamihe;
Ma tụfue; jisie ike,
Ma sụọ ngọzi gị.

“Thee ga-abụrụ gị ụbọchị na-enwu nke ọma;
Na mkpụrụ obi ọ bụla
Na-aga n'ihu, na nzube dị elu,
Ga - enweta ihe mgbaru ọsọ ịchọrọ.
Ma gi onwe-gi, ndi m'huru n'anya, ike agwula n'okpuru
Ike gwụrụ nlekọta;
Kwa ụbọchị, n'ihu ocheeze Nna anyị
M na-eku ume maka gị a ekpere.

“Ekpere m n'echiche dị ọcha ma dị nsọ
Mee ka ụzọ gị gọzie ma chebe ya;
Ndụ mara mma na nke achọghị ọdịmma onwe onye nanị
Maka gị, nwatakịrị m, ana m ekpe ekpere. ”
Ọ kwụsịtụrụ ma jiri obi ụtọ hulata m
Otu anya ịhụnanya,
O kwuru nwayọ nwayọ wee sị,
“Dapụnụ! anyị ga-ahụ n'elu. ”

Ọ bụ ezie na uri a kwubiri na ọkà okwu ghọtara na ọ bụ nrọ nke o si "teta," echiche nke iso ndị nwụrụ anwụ kwurịta okwu bụ isi nke Mmụọ Nsọ na-abụ nkasi obi nye onye na-ekwu okwu na-achọpụta na obi nkoropụ ya dara, yana mmekọrịta chiri anya na Chineke.

Ikpe na-ezighị ezi nke obodo ya metụtara Forten. Ọ bụ ezie na akwụkwọ edemede ya gosiri na ọ dara mbà n'obi, nkwenye siri ike ya na Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst gbochiri ya iche echiche nke imerụ onwe ya ahụ, ebe ọ kwenyere na ọ bụ naanị Chineke nwere ike ịkpụzi ndụ mmadụ (Stevenson 1988: 28). Dika onye toro eto na onye toro eto, Forten na-akatọ onwe ya ma katọọ onwe ya dị ka onye na-achọ ọdịmma onwe ya maka ịghara ịgbalịsi ike imezu ebumnuche Ndị Kraịst dị elu. Nke a bụ isiokwu nke ukwe ngụsị akwụkwọ ya, nke izizi bipụtara na Salem Debanye aha, July 16, 1855. E mesịa, e bipụtara dị ka uri a kpọrọ, “Ndozi nke Ndị Acha,” na Onye Nwepu Onwe ya, akwụkwọ akụkọ mba nke mkpochapụ mkpochapụ, August 24, 1856, amaokwu mmalite gosiri echiche nke ibu ọrụ Ndị Kraịst:

N'okporo ụzọ ọrụ ike,
Na ezi obi na obi,
Anyị, na ndụ bara uru na-achọ,
Nzukọ kwa ụbọchị iji rụọ ọrụ ebe a (Stevenson 1988: 25).

Forten dere ukwe ọzọ, bipụtara na Salem Debanye aha, February 14, 1856, nke a gụrụ n’oge mmemme ule Salem Normal School:

Mgbe Uwe eze, uwe mwụda na-acha ọcha
Site n'ugwu na ndagwurugwu,
Na olu olu nke oge opupu ihe ubi
N'elu ikuku ka eburu,
Ndị enyi, ndị anyị zutere n'oge gara aga,
N'ime mgbidi ndị a agaghị ezute ọzọ.

Ha na-aga ọrụ dị mma:
Biko, ka obi ha dị ọcha,
Na ịnụ ọkụ n'obi na ume olileanya ha
Na-arụ ọrụ ma tachie obi,
Nke ha ji okwukwe siri ike gosi
Site n'okwu nke eziokwu na omume ịhụnanya.

Ka ndị, bụ ọrụ dị nsọ ha
Iduzi ndị ntorobịa,
Ada ada ke ọsọn̄urua ke ukpọn̄ mmọ
Revesọpụrụ eziokwu;
Maka ozizi nke egbugbere ọnụ
Ga-enwerịrị isi mmalite ha n'ime obi.

Ka ndị niile tara ahụhụ keta ịhụnanya ha.
Ogbenye na ndị a na-emegbu emegbu;
Otú a ka ngọzi Chineke anyị
N'elu ọrụ ha, ha zuru ike.
Ka anyị zute ọzọ ebe anyị niile
Na-blest na ẹkeyakde ọ bụla thrall.

Ukwe a na-atụgharị uche n’ọrụ dị mkpa nke onye nkuzi, nke ka nke n’ime ka ndị e wedara n’ala bulie ha elu. Ihe e kwuru banyere ịbụ onye “enwere onwe ya n’ụdị ọ bụla” na-ekwu okwu n’isiokwu mkpochapụ. Forten gosipụtara olile anya na ndị nkuzi ga-ebili nsogbu nke oge a.

Ọ dị ka ọ dịkarịrị mfe itinye okwukwe ya na ndị nkuzi karịa ndị otu a họpụtara ije ozi. Dị ka ọtụtụ ndị na-ewepụ nkagbu, Forten nwere nchegbu na ụlọ ọrụ nke ịgba ohu merụrụ Iso Americanzọ Kraịst America. Na mkparịta ụka mbụ ya na onye nkụzi ya bụ Mary Shepard, Charlotte dere na Shepard, ọ bụ ezie na ọ na-emegide ịgba ohu, "ekwenyeghị m na m na-eche na ụka na ndị ozi n'ozuzu ha na-akwado usoro aha ọjọọ ahụ; Ekwenyere m na ya kpamkpam (Grimké 1988: May 26, 1854: 60-61). Forten kesara nkwenkwe nke ndị mkpochapụ Garrisonian na-egosi na ịgba ohu emetụtala "Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst America" ​​ma kọwaa ndị ozi ọ zutere site na usoro a. Mgbe Anthony Burns chịchara ọchịchị, Forten nọ na-eche n'akwụkwọ akụkọ ya "mmadụ ole ga-ekwu na Kraịst ga-ekwute okwu taa, ma ọ bụ ndị soro ya taa ahụhụ? Mmadu ole ga-ekwu okwu si ebe a na-ekwu okwu uka banyere obi ojoo ojoo banyere mmadu nke emere ka o mebe ya, ma obu otutu, karie ndi ojoo, nke a na eme n'ime obodo a kwa ubochi? (Grimké 1988: June 4, 1854: 66) N’ịza azịza nke ajụjụ o ji aka ya kwuo, Forten zara, “Anyị maara nke ọma na ọnụọgụ ole na ole dị, ma ole na ole ndị a kwesịrị ka a kpọọ ha ndị ozi Kraist, ndị nkuzi ha bụ 'Bregbaji yok ọ bụla, ma hapụ ndị a na-emegbu emegbu ka ha nwere onwe ha' ”(Grimké 1988: 66). Mgbe Forttown, onye ozi Massachusetts, Forten mechara gaa okwu nkuzi megide ịgba ohu, Forten toro ya dị ka "otu n'ime ndị ozi ole na ole na-anwa ikwu okwu ma mee ka ndị nweere onwe ha, na-erubere Iwu Elu isi, ma na-asọ oyi iwu niile dị ala nke na-emegide ikpe ziri ezi na mmadụ." (Grimké 1988: November 26, 1854: 113).

N'agbanyeghị na Grimké nọgidere na-enwe obi abụọ banyere ịdị ọcha nke ụka dị iche iche nke America, ọ nọgidere bụrụ ezigbo Onye Kraịst n'oge ndụ ya niile. Mgbe ọ nwụsịrị, nwa nwanne ya nwanyị, Angelina Weld Grimké (2017), toro ya n'otu uri na-emetụ n'ahụ, "Iji Mee Ncheta nke Charlotte Forten Grimké." Ugboro anọ a na-ejedebe na nchikota nke ime mmụọ ya:

Ebee ka ọ gara? Na onye bụ onye nọ na-ekwu?
Ma nke a anyị maara: mmụọ dị nro ya na-akpali
Ọ bụkwa ebe mma na-adịghị ada ada,
Egwu site na iyi ndị ọzọ, 'n'etiti osisi ndị ọzọ dị iche;
Ma anyị ebe a, ah! ọ na-anọgide
Ncheta mara mma
Ruo mgbe ebighị ebi;
Ọ bịara, ọ hụrụ n'anya, wee pụọ.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Na mgbakwunye na isonye n'ememe nke ndụ Ndị Kraịst, omume ntụgharị uche bụ isi nke Charlotte Forten bụ ịnọgide na-enwe akwụkwọ akụkọ. Ọ malitere ide akwụkwọ ya na May 24, 1854 mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na ise, ọ kwagara Salem, Massachusetts iji gaa ụlọ akwụkwọ ọha na eze ọhụrụ dị na obodo ahụ. N'ịnabata ụdị a, ọ nọ n'ụdị ederede nke gosipụtara ịdị nwayọ nke nwanyị. Na mmeghe nke akwụkwọ akụkọ ya, Forten kwupụtara na otu ebumnuche nke akwụkwọ edetu ya bụ "ikpe ikpe ziri ezi banyere uto na mmelite nke uche m site n'afọ ruo n'afọ" (Stevenson 1988: 58). Akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ gbara afọ iri atọ na asatọ, gụnyere oge antebellum, Agha Obodo, na nsonaazụ ya. E nwere akwụkwọ akụkọ ise dị iche:

Akwụkwọ akụkọ 1, Salem (Massachusetts), Mee 24, 1854 ruo Disemba 31, 1856;
Akwụkwọ akụkọ 2, Salem, Jenụwarị 1, 1857 ruo Jenụwarị 27, 1858;
Akwụkwọ akụkọ 3, Salem, Jenụwarị 28, 1858; St. Helena Island (South Carolina), Abụọ 14, 1863;
Akwụkwọ akụkọ 4, St. Helena Island, February 15, 1863 ruo May 15, 1864;
Akwụkwọ akụkọ 5, Jacksonville (Florida), Nọvemba 1885, Lee (Massachusetts), Julaị 1892.

Ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme bụ Ray Allen Billington dere na Forten “debere akwụkwọ akụkọ ya na akwụkwọ ndetu ndị nkịtị kpuchiri, na-ede ihe na ink na aka ejiri aka ya zụlite ma debekwa ya” (Billington 1953: 31). A na-edezi akwụkwọ akụkọ Grimké na Moorland-Spingarn Research Center na Mahadum Howard.

N’agbata Ọktoba 28, 1862 na May 15, 1864, Forten dere akụkọ ndụ ya n’etiti “Southrabba” nke South Carolina Sea Island, ndị ohu gbara ọsọ iji nyere ndị agha Union aka n’oge Agha Obodo. Ọ bụ n'oge a ka ọ malitere ịgwa ya akwụkwọ akụkọ dịka “Ami,” French maka “enyi.” Ọ kọwapụtara ihe ndị zutere ya na 54th Massachusetts Infantry, 1st na 2nd South Carolina Volunteer Infantry Regiment nke gụnyere ndị bụbu ndị ohu, yana ọdịbendị nke ndị Gullah ndị bi n'ubi a napụrụ ubi nke agwaetiti ahụ. Site na anya onye nyocha ihe banyere ndi mmadu, Forten dere banyere mmekorita nke ndi Gullah / Geechee ndi bi na mpaghara South Carolina na Georgia na Oke Osimiri. Kesa mpaghara ahụ na ihe ọkụkụ dịka Colonel Robert Gould Shaw na Thomas Wentworth Higginson, yana nzukọ na Harriet Tubman bụ onye dugara 2nd South Carolina Volunteer Infantry Regiment na Raid na Combahee Ferry, Forten bụ n'ezie onye ji anya ya hụ oge dị mkpa na Agha Obodo. . Ọnọdụ ya dị ka onye ojii Black abolitionist na ọgụgụ isi na-eme ka akwụkwọ akụkọ ya dị mkpa n'akụkọ ihe mere eme.

Charlotte Forten na-agagharị na mbata nke awa nke nnwere onwe na Tọzdee, Yearbọchị Afọ Ọhụrụ, 1863, mgbe a gụpụtara Nkwupụta Mgbasa ozi maka ìgwè ndị ohu e debere n'okpuru nchebe nke Union Army. O dere, sị:

O yiri ka ọ dị ka nrọ dị egwu. . . . Ka m nọdụrụ n’elu oche ahụ na-elegharị anya n’ìgwè dị iche iche, echere m na ahụtụbeghị m ụdị anya m mara mma. Enwere ndị agha ojii, na uwe elu ha na-acha anụnụ anụnụ na uwe na-acha uhie uhie, ndị isi nke a na ndị ọzọ na uwe ndị mara mma, na igwe mmadụ nke lookerson, ndị nwoke, ụmụ nwanyị na ụmụaka. . . . Ozugbo ngwụsị ahụ gasịrị, ụfọdụ ndị tụrụ àgwà — jiri aka ha bụrụ, “Abụ m Obodo Gị.” Ọ bụ ihe na-emetụ n'ahụ ma mara mma (Grimké 1988: Yearbọchị Afọ Ọhụrụ, Jenụwarị 1, 1863: 429-30).

N’akwụkwọ akụkọ ya na n’akwụkwọ ozi ya edepụtara na Onye Nwepu Onwe ya, Forten jiri nlezianya kọwaa ndị mmadụ na ọdịbendị nke Oke Osimiri. O gosipụtara ha dị ka ndị na-atụ egwu Chineke, ndị nwere nsọpụrụ, ndị na-arụsi ọrụ ike bụ ndị nwere ekele maka Union Army maka ịtọhapụ ha n'ịbụ ohu, wedata ndị ọ na-achị ala ma jiri ọmịiko gosi ha. Na November 20, 1862, akwụkwọ ozi na-esote Forten bipụtara na Onye Nwepu Onwe ya:

N’ebe m nwere ike ileru anya — na-agbanyeghị na anọghị m ebe a ogologo oge, ahụla m ma soro ọtụtụ ndị mmadụ kwurịtara okwu — ndị Negro nọ n’ebe a dị ka, n’akụkụ ka ukwuu, ndị nwere obi eziokwu, ndị na-arụsi ọrụ ike, ma nwee ezi uche . Ọ na-anụ ha ọkụ n'obi ịmụ ihe; ha na-a rejoiceụrị ọ inụ na nnwere onwe ha achọtara ọhụrụ. Ọ dị mma ịhụ etu ha si a jụrị ọ overụ n'ihi ọdịda nke ndị nna ha "secesh", dịka ha kpọrọ ha. Ekwetaghị m na e nwere nwoke, nwanyị, ma ọ bụ nwatakịrị etoruola inwe ezi uche, nke ga-edo onwe ya n'okpuru ịbụ ohu ọzọ. O doro anya na ha nwere mkpebi siri ike n'ime mkpụrụ obi ha nke na-agaghị adị ma ọlị. Obi ha jupụtara na ekele nye Gọọmentị na "Yankees."

N’imesi ike oganihu nke umu akwukwo ya riri nne, Forten dere n’edemede ya “Life on the Sea Islands,” nke e biputara na Atlantic Monthly, 1864:

Achọrọ m ka ụfọdụ n'ime ndị ahụ nọ na North, ndị na-ekwu na agbụrụ ahụ jọgburu onwe ya ma dị ala karịa, nwere ike ịhụ ịdị njikere nke ụmụaka ndị a, bụ ndị a na-emegbu ma napụkwa ha ohere ọ bụla, mụta ma ghọta.

Forten kwusiri ike na ozugbo a tọhapụrụ ha na ihe egwu nke ịgba ohu ma nye ha ohere agụmakwụkwọ, ndị a bụbu ndị ohu ga-abụ ezigbo ụmụ amaala. Otu ọkà mmụta na-akọwa akwụkwọ akụkọ ndị a: "Akwụkwọ akụkọ nke Charlotte Forten bụ ngwakọ ngwakọ nke ederede ederede, akụkọ ọdịnala kwesịrị ekwesị, na akụkọ agbụrụ" (Cobb-Moore 1996: 140). Dịka ihe ndekọ ọdịbendị buru ibu, akwụkwọ akụkọ Forten na-enyocha ọnọdụ ya jọgburu onwe ya dị ka nwanyị ojii kachasị elu na ụwa ọcha ma chọpụta n'ụzọ doro anya agụmakwụkwọ ya na mmepe ya dịka onye na-eme mgbanwe mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya. Akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ na-enyocha nchọpụta nke narị afọ nke iri na itoolu nke nwanyị ma kwado mmepe nke nghọta Forten na nke nka. Ọkaibe okwu Forten na akwụkwọ akụkọ ya [Foto dị n'aka nri] wuru na ya banyere ha dị ka akwụkwọ ọha na eze n'ọdịnihu nke ezubere maka ụmụ na-esote nke ga-eme ka akwụkwọ ọgụgụ gụrụ akwụkwọ nke ọmịiko na nkatọ na-akpali akpali nke ikpe na-ezighị ezi agbụrụ na United States. Ọkammụta Ọstrelia bụ Silvia Xavier ekwuola na Forten kwesịrị ka a mata ya maka etu o si na-ekwu okwu iji bulie ihe kpatara ịgba ohu (2005: 438). "Ọrụ Forten na-agba akaebe dị n'etiti nkwupụta okwu na eziokwu nke na-agbagha ọdịbendị 'democratizing' nke oge a, na-ekpughe njedebe nke ọdịbendị na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya na nkuzi nke ịkọwa okwu na enweghị ike ikwu okwu banyere agbụrụ" (Xavier 2005: 438) . Xavier na-ekwu na Forten nakweere omume nkwupụta nke narị afọ nke iri na itoolu nke na-aga nke ọma n'etiti onye na-ekwu okwu na onye nyocha maka iji gosi ọmịiko, ịkwaga agụụ, na ịkpali ime ihe (Xavier 2005: 438), usoro a maara nke ọma maka akwụkwọ abolitionist. Na ndụ oge, Forten Grimké dere ole na ole ntinye; Ndenye ntinye ya bụ ụbọchị July 1892 site na Lee, Massachusetts, ebe ọ na-anọkarị izu ụka ole na ole na Berkshires iji gbalịa ime ka ahụike ya ka mma (Maillard 2017: 150-51).

NDỤ

Site na nzụlite ya izizi, Forten tinyere aka na mkpochapu ọrụ. Ọhụrụ bịarutere Salem, Forten nyeere ndị Remonds aka ịkwado maka ịtọhapụ onye ọkụ ọkụ jidere Anthony Burns. Mgbe Forten na-agụ akwụkwọ na Salem, ọ dinara uwe na isiokwu ndị ọzọ iji bulie ego na mmemme maka mkpochapụ ọrụ, dị ka New England Anti-Slavery Christmas Bazaar na Boston. Forten nyere onyinye dị mkpa na edemede nke narị afọ nke iri na itoolu site n'aka ndị Africa America, na-ebipụta akụkọ banyere ahụmịhe ya na South Carolina na ugwu Ọnwa Atlantic. Ka Agha Obodo biri, ọ kwagara na Boston na Ọktọba 1865, ebe ọ ghọrọ odeakwụkwọ nke Kọmitii Ndị Nkụzi nke Alaka New England nke Freedmen's Union Commission, na-ewe ma na-azụ ndị nkuzi nke ndị ohu nwere onwe ha ruo 1871 (Sterling, 1997: 285) . Ọ gara n'ihu n'ọrụ ya dị ka onye isi na onye mmụta asụsụ Black. Na 1869, ntụgharị ya nke Emile Erckman na Alexandre Chartrain akwụkwọ French, Madame Thérèse; ma ọ bụ ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo nke '92 bipụtara, ọ bụ ezie na aha ya adịghị na mbipụta ahụ. Billington hotara ihe o dere site n'aka onye nkwusa, ikekwe site n'otu mbipụta ahụ, nke na-ekwu, "Miss Charlotte L. Forten arụla ọrụ nsụgharị ahụ n'ụzọ ziri ezi na mmụọ nke ga-abụ, obi abụọ adịghị ya na ndị niile maara ihe mbụ ahụ nwere ekele maka ya" (Billington 1953: 210). N'afọ sochirinụ, mgbe ya na nne nne ya bi na Filadelfia na-akụzi ihe n'ụlọ akwụkwọ nwanne nne ya, ọnụ ọgụgụ ahụ dekọtara ọrụ ya dị ka "Onye Ntuzi" (Winch 2002: 348).

Forten nọgidere na-arụsi ọrụ ike na mgba maka ndị ya ọbụlagodi n'oge ọdịda ọrụ nkuzi ya. Ọ nọgidere na-agbasi mbọ ike na ndụ ọ ga-eje ozi. Forten laghachiri South maka otu afọ iji kụziere ndị nwere onwe ha na Charleston n'ụlọ akwụkwọ aha ha maka nsọpụrụ Robert Gould Shaw; N'afọ 1871, ọ kuziri ihe na ụlọ akwụkwọ nkwadobe nke ojii dị na Washington, DC Ruo afọ ise, site n'afọ 1873 ruo 1878, ọ rụrụ ọrụ dịka onye ọnụ ọgụgụ na Office nke Auditor nke Anọ nke Ngalaba Akụ US. Na Oge Ọhụrụ kọrọ, "Ọ bụ otito na agbụrụ na Miss Forten kwesịrị ịbụ otu n'ime iri na ise a họpụtara n'ime narị mmadụ ise na-achọ akwụkwọ" (nke e hotara na Sterling, 1997: 285). Ọ bụ n’ebe a na-edebe ego ka ọ hụrụ di ya n’ọdịnihu.

Mgbe alụm di na nwunye ya na Francis Grimké na 1878, Forten Grimké siri na ndụ ọha pụọ, n'agbanyeghị na ọ gara n'ihu na-ede uri na edemede maka mbipụta. Glọ Grimké dị na 1608 R Street NW na Washington DC [Foto dị n'aka nri] jere ozi dị ka ebe mmekọrịta mmadụ na ọdịbendị maka ndị isi ojii. Nchọpụta nke Mary Maillard kpughere nkọwa nke ime ya nke ọma na nke na-atọ ụtọ: arịa ụlọ na-egbu maramara, ihe osise na-akpali akpali, na tebụl ndị eji china French mara mma na ọla na-acha ọla ọcha na-acha ọcha (Maillard, 2017: 7-9). Na 1887, ndị Grimkés bidoro ịnabata salons kwa izu ebe ndị ọbịa na-atụle ọtụtụ isiokwu, site na nka ruo na ikike obodo (Roberts, 2018: 69). O nyekwara aka ịhazi otu a maara dị ka "Booklovers," klọb maka ụmụ nwanyị ojii a ma ama iji kwurịta okwu gbasara ọdịbendị na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya (Roberts, 2018: 70). Na 1896, n'agbanyeghị na ahụ esighị ike, Forten bụ otu n'ime ndị guzobere otu National Association of Colored Women. Emebere ụlọ brik Dupont Circle ya dị ka National Historic Landmark na 1976.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Ndụ Forten na Salem, Massachusetts n'etiti etiti 1850, ma e jiri ya tụnyere nke ndị nwere agba n'oge a, dịtụ mma. Ọ gụrụ ọtụtụ ndị edemede dịka Shakespeare, Chaucer, Milton, Phyllis Wheatley, Lord Byron, na Elizabeth Barrett Browning, na ndị ọzọ. Ọ gara nkwupụta okwu na Salem na Boston, ma nwee ọ learningụ karịsịa n'ịmụ banyere mba ndị dị ka Great Britain, ebe a kwụsịla ịgba ohu. Ihe Forten nwere mmasị na ihe ngosi akụkọ ihe mere eme na nke sayensị dịka nke a pụrụ ịhụ na Salem's East India Marine Society na Essex Institute. N'otu oge ahụ, ọ tara ahụhụ nke ukwuu ịkpọasị agbụrụ nke gbanyere mkpọrọgwụ na ọdịnala United States.

N'agbanyeghị na ha nwere ihe ùgwù karịa ọtụtụ, Forten na-ata ahụhụ oge niile site na ụkọ akụ na ụba. Ozugbo ụlọ ọrụ Philadelphia Forten dara ada, nna ya enweghị ike inye ya nnukwu nkwado ego. Nsogbu akụ na ụba ndị a nwere ike ịbụ nke nna nna ya ọcha, James Cathcart Johnston (1792-1865), nwa onye gọvanọ North Carolina na onye omeiwu, mere ka ọ dịkwuo mma, nke nọgidere ndụ ruo mgbe ọ gbara afọ iri abụọ na asatọ. Nne nne Forten, bụ nwanyị nwanyị a na-edekọ aha ya bụ Edith Wood, bụ nne nwanyị nke ọgaranya na-acha ọcha ọcha n'ebe ndịda tupu ya anwụọ na 1846 (Maillard 2013: 267). Ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme bụ́ Mary Maillard kọwara ókè akụ̀ ya bara: “Johnston nwere ala buru ibu; A kọwara ya mgbe ọ nwụrụ na 1865 dị ka 'otu n'ime ndị kasị baa ọgaranya na ndịda.' Ihe onwunwe ya, nke metụtara mpaghara anọ, bara uru na ọtụtụ nde dollar na 'nnukwu ihe onwunwe ya na osimiri Roanoke gụnyere [d] ala ndị kasị baa ọgaranya na mba ahụ "" (Maillard 2013: 267). Forten enwetaghị akụkụ ọ bụla nke nnukwu ala a, ebe Johnston hapụrụ akụ ya niile, gụnyere ubi atọ, nye ndị enyi atọ. Enweghị nkọwa banyere onye hụrụ nne ya ochie n'anya ma ọ bụ kpọtụrụ Johnston pụtara na akwụkwọ akụkọ ya ma ọ bụ leta ya, mana ọ dị ka ọ ga-abụ na ọ maara usoro ọmụmụ n'akụkụ nne ya, ebe ọ bụ na a zụlitere ya dịka nwanne nwanne Johnston nke ọdụdụ, nwanne nne ya, Annie J. Webb, onye gbara akwụkwọ maka ala Johnston maka ihe nketa ya. Ọbụnadị na ngwụcha ndụ nke Forten Grimke, yana n’oge ọlụlụ di na nwunye gara nke ọma, enweghị ntụkwasị obi gbasara akụ na ụba (Maillard 2017: 150–51).

Uzo ikpeazu nke Charlotte Forten '' Valedictory Poem, '' [Foto dị n'aka nri] edere maka Mmega Ahụ Maka Ọgwụgwụ nke Klaasị nke Abụọ nke Salem Normal School, ma bipụtara ya na Salem Debanye aha July 28, 1856, chịkọtara nrara ọ raara onwe ya nye n'ọgụ iji kwụsị ịgba ohu na mmelite nke ọha mmadụ site na mgbanwe. Ọ na-egosipụtakwa okwukwe ya nke Ndị Kraịst na-adịghị ada ada:

Ma anyị ekwewo onwe anyị n'ịrụsi ọrụ ike;
N'ihi na ndị ọzọ 'mma na-akọ ugbo, na-eme ka ala;
Ruo mgbe owuwe ihe ubi bara ụba ga-amị mkpụrụ,
Anyị ga-abụrịrị ndị na-arụ ọrụ n'ubi.
Ma, ọ bụrụ na e debere nkwa ahụ, ọ bụrụ na ezi okwukwe anyị
Nọgide na-emebi emebi rue mgbe anyị ga-ehi ụra ọnwụ, -
Anyị ga-ezute ọzọ, mejupụta n'ala ahụ na-egbuke egbuke
Ebe a na-amaghi akụkụ ya — ìgwè na-enwe ọ joụ.

Ruo afọ iri anọ n'onwe ya, na afọ iri atọ na isii ya na di ya rụkọrịtara, Forten Grimké gbalịsiri ike ịkwalite ịkpa oke agbụrụ. Di na nwunye di na Washington, DC bu ebe edoziri anya maka salons na nzuko nke oma iji nyere ha aka na ihe ndi ha kwadoro, dika ikpa oke na nwoke na nwanyi. Ọ bụ ezie na Forten tara ahụhụ dị ukwuu dị ka onye na-enweghị isi n'oge afọ iri na atọ nke ndụ ya, ụlọ Grimké ahụ bụ ebe na-elekọta mmadụ na ọdịbendị maka ọrụ iji meziwanye ndụ ndị Black America (Sherman 1992: 211). Charlotte Forten Grimké si amaokwu iri na ise a maara, gụnyere paaring, "Red, White and Blue," nke na-atụgharị anya satirical ya na ihu abụọ nke mmemme "ụbọchị nnwere onwe" na United States, yana ọtụtụ edemede na-apụta na-eduga oge si 1855– Emere 1890s ka mmụọ siri ike ya na nghọta miri emi nke Ndị Kraịst. Ihe Charlotte Forten Grimké rụzuru dị ka onye nkuzi, onye edemede, na onye ndozigharị, yana ọrụ ya siri ike dị ka onye ọlụlụ di na nwunye nke onye ụkọchukwu Presbyterian, mere ka ọnọdụ ya bụrụ onye dị mkpa na mpaghara okpukpe na nke ime mmụọ.

Foto

Image # 1: Charlotte Forten dị ka nwata akwụkwọ.
Image # 2: Akụkọ nke Anthony Burns, Akwụkwọ nke Library nke Congress.
Foto # 3: lemlọ Akwụkwọ Nkịtị Salem, Salem, Massachusetts.
Foto # 4: Colonel Robert Gould Shaw, ọchịagha nke 54th Massachusetts Infant Regiment.
Foto # 5: Rev. Francis James Grimké, di Charlotte Forten.
Foto # 6: Charlotte Forten, ihe dịka 1870.
Foto # 7: lotlọ Charlotte Forten Grimké, Washington, DC, National Register of Historic Places.
Image # 8: Charlotte Forten’s “Valedictory Poem” bipụtara na Salem Debanye aha, 1856.

References

Billington, Ray Allen. 1953. “Okwu mmeghe.” Pp. 1-32 na Akwụkwọ akụkọ Charlotte Forten: Negro efu na Oge Ohu, nke Ray Allen Billington dere. New York: Dryden Press.

Cobb-Moore, Geneva. 1996. “Mgbe Nkọwa Pụtara: Akwụkwọ akụkọ nke Charlotte Forten Grimké.” Pp. 139-55 na Cribdebanye aha kwa ụbọchị: Akwụkwọ edemede dị mkpa na Diaries Women, nke Suzanne L. Bunkers na Cynthia A. Huff dere. Amherst: Mahadum nke Massachusetts Press.

Duran, Jane. 2011. "Charlotte Forten Grimké na Nrụpụta nke Blackness." Ihe omumu ihe omumu Afrikaana, 13: 89–98.

Nkeji, Charlotte. 1953. Akwụkwọ akụkọ nke Charlotte Forten: Negro efu na Oge Ohu, nke Ray Allen Billington dere. New York: Dryden Press.

Nkeji, Charlotte. 1862. "Akwụkwọ ozi si St. Helena's Island, Beaufort, SC" Onye Nwepu Onwe ya, Disemba.

Nkeji, Charlotte. 1858. “Parody on‘ The Red, White, and Blue. ’” Ọrụ Salem State University nke Samantha Searles rụrụ. Nweta site na www.salemstate.edu/charlotte-forten na 20 June 2021. Ihe odide mbụ na American Antiquarian Society, Worcester, Massachusetts.

Nkeji, Charlotte. 1856. “Akwụkwọ Validictory.” Salem Debanye aha, Julaị 28. Salem State University Archives, Salem, MA.

Nkeji, Charlotte. 1855. “Ukwe, n’otu oge, site n’otu n’ime ụmụ akwụkwọ, Miss Charlotte Forten.” Salem Debanye aha, Julaị 16. Salem State University Archives, Salem, MA.

Glasgow, Kristen Hillaire. 2019. “Charlotte Forten: Ọbịbịa nke afọ dịka onye na-ewepu afọ iri n’afọ iri na ụma, 1854–1856.”Ph.D. akwukwo, Mahadum California, Los Angeles. Nweta site na https://escholarship.org/content/qt9ss7c7pk/qt9ss7c7pk_noSplash_041462aa2440500cfe2d36f1e412dd0f.pdf na 20 June 2021

Grimké, Angelina Weld. 2017. "Iji Nọgide Na-echeta nke Charlotte Forten Grimke." Akwụkwọ edemede maka Grimke Book 2. Dijital Howard. https://dh.howard.edu/ajc_grimke_manuscripts/2

Grimké, Charlotte Forten. 1988. Akwụkwọ akụkọ nke Charlotte Forten Grimké, nke Brenda E. Stevenson dere, New York: Oxford University Press.

Maillard, Mary. 2013. “‘ E Kwesịrị Ntụkwasị Obi Site na Ndụ Dị Ndụ: ‘Autobiographical Elements in Frank J. Webb’s Ndị Garies na Enyi Ha." Akwụkwọ akụkọ Pennsylvania na akụkọ ihe mere eme 137: 261-300.

Maillard, Mary, ed. 2017. Ndị na-agba ume nke obi ọjọọ: Mmekorita nke Louisa Jacobs na Circle ya, 1879–1911. Madison, WI: Mahadum nke Wisconsin Press.

Noel, Rebecca R. 2004. "Salem dị ka ụlọ akwụkwọ mba ahụ." Pp. 129-62 na Salem: Ebe, Mygha na ebe nchekwa. Onye Dane Morrison na Nancy Lusignan Schultz dere. Boston: Mahadum Northeast University.

Roberts, Kim. 2018. A Literary Guide to Washington, DC: Ije ije na Nzọụkwụ nke ndị edemede America si Francis Scott Key ruo Zora Neale Hurston. Charlottesville: Mahadum nke Virginia Press.

Rosemond, Gwendolyn, na Joan M. Maloney. 1988. “Iji kuziere Obi.” Sextant: Akwụkwọ akụkọ nke Mahadum Salem State 3: 2-7.

Salenius, Sirpa. 2016. Onye Abolitionist Na Mba Ọzọ: Sarah Parker Chetara na Cosmopolitan Europe. Boston: Mahadum nke Massachusetts Press.

Sherman, Joan R. 1992. Akwukwo nke Afrika-nke America nke Narị Afọ Iri na Narị Afọ: Anthology. Champaign, IL: Mahadum nke Illinois Press.

Sterling, Dorothy, ed. 1997. Anyị bụ ụmụnne gị: Blackmụ nwanyị ojii na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu. New York: WW Norton & Companylọ ọrụ.

Stevenson, Brenda. 1988. "Okwu Mmalite." Pp. 3-55 n'ime Akwụkwọ akụkọ nke Charlotte Forten Grimké, nke Brenda Stevenson dere. New York: Mahadum Oxford University.

Winch, Julie. 2002. Otu nwoke nke agba: Ndụ nke James Forten. New York: Oxford University Press.

Xavier, Silvia. 2005. "agingbanye George Campbell's ọmịiko na Rhetoric nke Charlotte Forten na Ann Plato, African-American Women nke Antebellum North." Nyochaa echiche 24: 438-56.

AJỤRỤ AKWỤKWỌ NDỊ

Braxton, Joanne. 1988. "Charlotte Forten Grimke na Nchọta maka Ọha Ọha." Pp. 254-71 na Onwe Onwe Onye: Usoro na Omume nke Akwụkwọ Ndị Nwanyi, nke Shar Benstock deziri. Ugwu Chapel: Mahadum nke North Carolina Pịa.

Long, Lisa A. 1999. "Charlotte Forten's Civil War Journals and the Quest for 'Genius, Mma, na Aha na-enweghị Ọnwụ.'” Hapụrụ 16: 37-48.

Stevenson, Brenda E. 2019. "idtụle Agha si Home na N'ihu: Akwụkwọ ndekọ aha agha nke Charlotte Forten." Pp. 171-00 n'ime Edemede Agha Obodo: Echiche Ọhụụ na Ederede Iconic, nke Gary W. Gallagher na Stephen Cushman dere. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

Webb, Frank J. 1857. Ndị Garies na Enyi Ha. London: Routledge.

Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
21 June 2021

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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