Constance Elsberg

Ahụike, Obi ,tọ, Nsọ (3HO)


AHUIKE, OBI ,TỌ, NSỌP HOLRY NSỌ (3HO)

1929 (August 26): A mụrụ Harbhajan Singh Puri (Yogi Bhajan).

1968 (Septemba): Yogi Bhajan si India bịa Canada.

1969-1970: Bhajan biri na Los Angeles ma kuziere yoga na nkenke oge na YMCA na East West Cultural Center. Ya na ụmụ akwụkwọ hiwere Healthy Happy Holy Organisation mgbe ahụ. Bhajan kwuru okwu ma kuzie yoga na mmemme solstice na emume egwu.

1971: Bhajan na ụmụ akwụkwọ iri asatọ na anọ gara India. Ha biri na mbụ Virsa Singh, onye Bhajan kwuru na ọ bụ onye nkuzi yoga ya, mana hapụzie etiti ya wee malite ịga na saịtị Sikh, gụnyere Golden Temple na Akal Takht, ebe ndị ọchịchị nabatara Bhajan.

1972-1973: studentsmụ akwụkwọ Bhajan na-anakwere Sikhism, na-etinyekwa ekpere Sikh na yoga ụtụtụ na omume ntụgharị uche. Ejikọtara òtù Sikh Dharma Brotherhood na Guru Ram Das gurdwara na Los Angeles.

1972-1974: Studentsmụ akwụkwọ guzobere ashrams / ebe izi ihe karịrị Los Angeles, ọtụtụ pere mpe. Ihe dị ka ashrams iri itoolu na anọ.

1974: E guzobere Council Council nke Khalsa dị ka ngalaba nhazi maka Sikh Dharma. Offọdụ ụmụ akwụkwọ Bhajan sonyere na European Yoga Festival.

1976: Templelọ-edo edo edo nke Oregon Inc., bụ ebe a na-eme achịcha na nkesa, ka emebere, na - ejikọ obere azụmaahịa ndị dị na mbụ.

1977: 3HO mere ememme Summer Solstice mbụ ya, bido ọdịnala na-adịgide adịgide nke ihe omume solstice.

1980: Akal Security ka emere. Ọ malitere site n'inye nchekwa maka azụmaahịa mpaghara wee mesịa ghọọ nnukwu azụmahịa nchekwa mba.

1980s: Ashrams gbakọrọ dị ka ọtụtụ ndị na-akwado ya guzobere ezinụlọ ma kwaga na ala ịta ahịhịa si obodo ndị mepere emepe. Bhajan edoziwo ọtụtụ n'ime di na nwunye.

1983-1984: E guzobere ụlọ ọrụ Tea Yogi. Ọ tolitere wee bụrụ ụlọ ọrụ mba na-aga nke ọma.

1984: Ọtụtụ ndị isi na Espanola ashram hapụrụ nzukọ ahụ na-eme mkpesa banyere ịdọ aka ná ntị siri ike na usoro dị ukwuu.

1985: E jidere isi nke Washington ashram ma gosipụta na ebubo ahia ọgwụ ọjọọ. Ọtụtụ ndị mmadụ hapụrụ ashram.

1986: womenmụ nwanyị abụọ bụbu ndị otu wetara uwe megide Bhajan, 3HO Foundation, Sikh Dharma Brotherhood na Siri Singh Sahib nke Sikh Dharma (ụlọ ọrụ na-ejide azụmahịa) n'ọtụtụ ọnụ ọgụgụ.

1994: E hiwere International Kundalini Yoga Teachers Association ka 3HO malitere ilekwasị anya na ọzụzụ ndị nkuzi yoga.

1996: Sikhnet, ihe dijitalụ maka ndị Sikh n'ụwa nile.

1997: E guzobere Miri Piri Academy na Amritsar, India, nke kachasị ọhụrụ nke ọtụtụ ụlọ akwụkwọ ndị ọbịa na India nke ọtụtụ ndị otu zigara ụmụ ha.

2003: Ka ahụike ya na-akawanye njọ, Bhajan chịkọtara njikwa na uru na-enweghị uru.

2004: Yogi Bhajan nwụrụ site na nkụda obi.

2007: Nchịkwa rere ahịa azụmaahịa.

2010: Ebube Kundalini Yoga na Ememme Music mere na ọdịda. E degharịrị aha ya na 2011 dị ka Sat Nam Fest wee bụrụ ihe omume oge niile.

2011: Ndị otu Sikh Dharma International mere mgbanwe maka azụmaahịa ahụ site na iweta uwe na Sardarni Guru Amrit Kaur Khalsa, et al v Kartar Singh Khalsa et al na Ala nke Oregon v Siri Singh Sahib Corporation et al.

2012: Ekpebiri ụlọ ikpe ikpeazụ, na ndị otu metụtara Bhajan bidoro ịhazigharị ma mee atụmatụ maka ọdịnihu.

2019: Onye bụbu onye otu, na onye bụ isi n'etiti afọ mbụ nke 3HO na Sikh Dharma, Pamela Saharah Dyson (onye aha ya bụ Yogi Bhajan kpọrọ Premka), bipụtara ihe ncheta ya.

2020: Na nzaghachi nke ncheta Premka, ndị otu na ndị otu bụbu gosipụtara mkparị nke mmetọ. E goro otu nzukọ ka ha nyochaa ebubo ndị e boro ha.

2020-2021 Nnyocha ahụ chọtara ihe mere ị ga-eji kwenye na Bhajan tinyere aka n'ụzọ mmekọahụ na iyi egwu. Ndị ndu goro ndị ndụmọdụ ka ha nye ndụmọdụ maka usoro “ime udo dị n’etiti ndị nwere ọmịiko.” Nchedo Akal kwụsịrị ịrụ ọrụ.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Dị ka ọ dị maka ọtụtụ okpukpe ndị ọzọ sitere na 1960s na 1970s na United States, Healthy Happy Holy Organisation (3HO) toro gburugburu onye na-adọrọ adọrọ. A mụrụ Harbhajan Singh Puri na August 26, 1929 na Pakistan nke oge a. Mama ya bụ onye Hindu, nna ya bụ Sikh, ụlọ akwụkwọ ọ na-agakwa bụ Katọlik. Na 1947, nkewa nke India mere ka ezinụlọ ahụ ghọọ ndị gbara ọsọ ndụ ma gbaga New Delhi. Na 1954, ọ lụrụ Inderjit Kaur Uppal, di na nwunye mechara nwee ụmụ atọ. Na New Delhi ọ gara kọleji, akụkọ 3HO na-akọ na ọ nwetara nzere na Economics na Mahadum Punjab wee were ya n'ọrụ dịka onye kọstọm na onye ọrụ nchekwa na ọdụ ụgbọ elu Delhi. Ọ gbasikwara ike inwe mmasị na yoga. Ihe ndekọ banyere ndụ nwata ya na ọnọdụ ndị ọ bịara North America dịgasị iche, mana ọtụtụ kwenyere na ọ bịarutere Toronto na 1968, na-atụ anya iburu ọnọdụ na-akụzi yoga. Otu weebụsaịtị weputara na 3HO kwuru na Harbhajan kuziri James George, onye isi obodo Canada na India n'oge ahụ nkuzi yoga, na kọmishọna gbara ya ume ịtụle ịkụzi yoga na Mahadum Toronto. Mgbe Harbhajan rutere Canada, ọnọdụ nkụzi ahụ emezughị. Ndị enyi na ndị ikwu nyeere onye ahụ chọrọ ịbụ yogi aka ma mesịa kpọọ ya na Los Angeles. N'ebe ahụ ọ malitere ịkụzi yoga na YMCA na East-West Cultural Center (Khalsa, Hari Singh Bird na Khalsa, Hari Kaur Bird nd).

Ọbịbịa ya dabara na oke mmasị na okpukpe ọwụwa anyanwụ dị ka onye ntorobịa bụ onye nọ na-arụsi ọrụ ike na mmegide ọdịbendị na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke oge ahụ nabatara nchụso mmụọ. Ya mere, ebe ọtụtụ n'ime ụmụ akwụkwọ mbụ ya na East-West Centre bụ ndị fọdụrụ, ndị okenye, ụmụ akwụkwọ yoga, ụmụ akwụkwọ hip na-eto eto sonyeere klaasị Bhajan. Fọdụ n'ime ụmụ akwụkwọ ya nke mbụ bụ ndị otu obodo: ndị Juke (ma ọ bụ Jook) Savage, ndị Hog Farm commune, na Kọmitii, otu ihe ọchị, ihe niile dị mkpa na akụkọ ntolite.

Ọnụnọ Harbhajan na East-West Cultural Center dị nkenke, mana otu n'ime ụmụ akwụkwọ ya, Jules Buccieri, na ọtụtụ ọnụọgụ na egwu Los Angeles na ụwa na-akwadoghị, nyere nkwado na ebe izi ihe. Ha kpọrọ ya "Yogi Bhajan" aha ya ji mara ya nke ọma. Alọ a maara dị ka "Castle" jere ozi dị ka ebe nzukọ maka ndị òtù dị iche iche, ụfọdụ n'ime ha kụrụ yoga na Bhajan (Iwu 2000: 93). Ọzọkwa, n’oge ahụ, ememme egwu rock na-aghọ ihe ịtụnanya ọdịbendị dị ịrịba ama, na ndị mmụọ ime mmụọ dị iche iche na-aga ememme ndị a na mmemme ndị metụtara ya dịka ememme Solstice na mmemme akpọrọ “The Holy Man Jam” na June 1970 na Boulder Colorado. Ndị nkuzi mmụọ ga-ekwu ma ọ bụ nye klaasị yoga. Ndị otu 3HO chọta Bhajan n'ọtụtụ ememme ndị a (lee Khalsa, HSB na Khalsa, KB enweghị ụbọchị; Iwu 2000; Mankin 2012; Barrett 2007). [Foto dị n'aka nri] offọdụ n'ime ndị bịaranụ ghọrọ ụmụ akwụkwọ ya. Otu, dịka ọmụmaatụ, aha ya bụ Dawson, zutere Bhajan n'ememe Solstice. O doro anya na Dawson chọrọ ịnwale ndụ obodo ma zụta ala maka nzube ahụ. Dị ka soo [n ka ọ zutere Bhajan, o nyere ala iri na abụọ ya dị ka ebe ashram (Gardner 1978: 123-28).

Ya mere, Bhajan chịkọtara ọtụtụ ụmụ akwụkwọ mbụ ya n'ụzọ jọgburu onwe ya, na mmemme ndị a ma ọ bụ site na kọntaktị ya na ụmụ akwụkwọ yoga ya, mana obere usoro na nhazi mechara. Ya na ụmụ akwụkwọ ahụ nwere ike ịmepụta obodo, ha mekwara ngwa ngwa ebe ha kpọrọ ashrams. Na mbu, ebe etiti ha yitara obodo ndi ahu bu ihe eji mara ndu ndi mmadu, obu ezie na ihe ndi obodo bi n’etiti ha siri ike ma tunyere ndu nke otutu obodo a chiputara n’oge ahu. Bhajan kwadoro yoga n'ụtụtụ, ntụgharị uche, na nri ndị anaghị eri anụ. Ọ zụrụ ụmụ akwụkwọ dị ka ndị nkuzi yoga wee zipụ ha ka ha guzobe ebe nkuzi, na-egosi na ha bu n'obi ịmepụta netram ashrams, dịka ndị nkuzi ime mmụọ ndị ọzọ na-eme. Ọ hiwere 3HO dị ka nzukọ nche anwụ.

Bhajan duuru mmadụ iri asatọ nke ụmụ akwụkwọ ya gaa India na 1970. Ebumnuche mbụ nke nleta ahụ bụ ịga leta Maharaj Virsa Singh, onye Bhajan kpọrọ onye nkuzi ya ma ọ bụ nna ya ukwu. Ma o yiri ka esemokwu dị n'etiti abụọ ahụ mgbe Bhajan na ụmụ akwụkwọ ya rutere, ìgwè ahụ hapụrụ ụlọ Virsa Singh, Gobind Sadan, ma gaa kama ịga leta ọtụtụ ndị Sikh gurdwaras (Lee, Deslippe 2012: 369-87) . Ha mechara gaa Amritsar na Templelọ Nsọ ọla edo ebe amata Bhajan na ụmụ akwụkwọ ya na nnabata ndị isi, ụfọdụ ụmụ akwụkwọ were Amrit (mbido n'ime Khalsa, obodo nke Guru nke iri, Gobind Singh). Mgbe nleta ahụ gasịrị Bhajan na ụmụ akwụkwọ ya kwuru na akpọrọ Bhajan dị ka Siri Singh Sahib, nke ha mere dị ka Chief Sikh Religious Authority maka Western Hemisphere. Actualdị ọdịdị nke mmata ahụ bụ, Otú ọ dị, ọ bụ isi mmalite nke esemokwu mgbe ụfọdụ (Lee, Okwu / Ihe ịma aka).

Mgbe ị gara India, ndị 3HO ashram bi na ndị nwere mmasị na okpukpe Bhajan gbara ume ka ha mụta banyere ya na ọbụna bụrụ ndị Sikh. Nwayọọ nwayọọ ma jiri nwayọọ nwayọọ na ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị nakweere njirimara Sikh, ma ọ bụ opekata mpe na-agbaso omume ha na echiche ha na India, mụbara. Studentsmụ akwụkwọ malitere iwere uwe ndị India, n'oge na-adịghịkwa anya, ha “kegide ákwà mgbochi.” Nzukọ ahụ adọtawo ọtụtụ ndị maara nka egwu, ụfọdụ n'ime ha bidokwara ịmụ ịkụ egwu na ịbụ abụ Sikh kirtan. Na 1972, ha mepere gurdwara mbụ ha (ụlọ Sikh) na Guru Ram Das Ashram, na Los Angeles, na 1973 ha mepụtara nzukọ ọhụrụ, Sikh Dharma Brotherhood (nke mechara kpọọ Sikh Dharma International). A gbara ndị bi na Ashram ume ka ha gbanwee Sikhism. 3HO na Sikh Dharma nọgidere bụrụ ndị ụlọ ọrụ iwu kwadoro, na 3HO a raara nye yoga na Sikh Dharma na okwukwe okpukpe, mana na ndụ kwa ụbọchị, a na-etinyekarị ndị otu, nkwenkwe na omume ha.

Bhajan gara mba ahụ na-ezi ihe na ebe dị iche iche. O jekwara ozi dịka onye ndụmọdụ na onye ndu ime mmụọ wee malite ịhazi, ma ọ bụ kwado, alụmdi na nwunye maka ndị ashram bi. Ọ gbara ha ume ka ha biri ma bụrụ "ndị nwe ụlọ," na-ekwu na ezigbo ndị Sikh ekwesịghị ịhapụ ụwa, kama kama na-ebi ndụ n'ụzọ ziri ezi n'ime ya. Ndị na-eso ụzọ ya lebara anya n'otú ha si ebi ndụ ọhụrụ, ịzụ ụmụ, na ịchọta ụzọ ha ga-esi na-akpata ego. Ka afọ ndị 1970 gwụsịrị, ndapụ akụ na ụba mere ka nke a sie ike karị, na usoro ndị dị mkpa were bụrụ nnukwu. Ejikọtara Ashrams dị ka ụmụ akwụkwọ hapụrụ obodo ndị dị n'etiti, na-achọ ebe ka mma iji zụlite ụmụaka.

Ọ bụ ezie na oge a bụ oge ịmebe ndụ na ịhazi nzukọ ahụ n'ihu ọha, yana n'anya ndị Punjabi Sikhs, 1980s bụkwa oge nrụgide dị mkpa. Nzukọ ahụ gosipụtara ihe ịrịba ama nke nkewa. Ọtụtụ n'ime ndị isi nke Espanola ashram hapụrụ n'etiti 1980s, na-eme mkpesa banyere "ịdọ aka ná ntị siri ike" (Lewis 1998: 113). 3HO na Sikh Dharma tinyere onwe ha n'ọtụtụ okwu ikpe. Maka Bhajan, ọgba aghara na Punjab mere ka nsogbu ahụ ka njọ.

Ka o sina dị, azụmaahịa na-eto nwayọ nwayọ nwayọ site na 1980s wee too na 1990s. Yogi Tea, taa bu otu n’ime ulo oru tii nke kachasi na mba, sitere na echiche nke ndi oru ahia ka ha weputa akwukwo nke Bhajan nke India. N'otu aka ahụ, obere ebe a na-eme bred, Golden Temple Bakery, toro nwayọ site na 1980s wee malite ịgbasa yana ahịa na-eto eto maka nri ahụike na US A ụlọ ọrụ nchekwa, Akal Security, malitere dị ka azụmahịa mpaghara na New Mexico, wee too na mmalite nke mwakpo nke Septemba 11 wee bụrụ nnukwu ụlọ ọrụ nchekwa US tupu emechie na February 2021. Site na uto nke ụlọ ọrụ ndị na-aga nke ọma na agụụ na-arịwanye elu na yoga na North America na Europe, 3HO na òtù ndị metụtara ya ji nwayọọ nwayọọ gbanwee.

Site na 1990s, enwere ngbanwe ọdịbendị. Enweghi ulo oru ndi mmadu fọduru, ma na-ebili n'isi nke mbu na ibu onye Sikh ka ewere karia ihe kariri ntuziaka. Oge a hụkwara mmasị na yoga n'ụwa niile. Iji jeere oge na-agbanwe agbanwe, Yogi Bhajan mepụtara Ktù Ndị Nkụzi International Kundalini Yoga, raara onwe ya nye ịtọ ụkpụrụ maka ndị nkuzi na mgbasa nke nkuzi ”(Sikhi Wiki nd).

Ọtụtụ ebe ọrụ amalitela gburugburu Bhajan. Mana ahụike Bhajan dara ada, ọ nwụrụ n'ihi nkụda obi na nsogbu ndị metụtara ya na 2004. Tupu ọnwụ ya, o mere atụmatụ maka ọdịnihu, na-edobe ọdịdị nke usoro ndu ga-abịa n'ọdịnihu. Kama ịkpọ onye ga-anọchi ya o kewara ọrụ ibu ọrụ n'ọtụtụ ọrụ. O mekwara ka azụmaahịa na-aba uru dị n'okpuru ụlọ ọrụ na-ejide ihe. Site n'ọtụtụ ọrụ nduzi na ebe ọrụ, ọ nwere ike ọ bụghị ihe mgbagwoju anya na esemokwu malitere, ọkachasị mgbe njikwa nke otu azụmaahịa, Golden Temple Inc., rere ụlọ ọrụ ahụ na-enweghị ịkpọtụrụ ndị otu na ndị isi ndị ọzọ metụtara ya. Nke a dugara ikpe na 2011 nke mere ka akụkụ dị iche iche nke 3HO / Sikh Dharma nke òtù dị iche iche na-emegide ibe ha dị ka Sikh Dharma International (nke steeti Oregon sonyeere) kpọọrọ ndị ọrụ ahụ n'ụlọ ikpe wee merie. (Lee, Okwu / Nsogbu)

Ndị otu oge katọrọ ọdịbendị North America n'ụzọ siri ike, na-egosipụta ya n'ụzọ dị oke ala, mana, n'agbanyeghị nkatọ na mgbọrọgwụ ha na counterculture, ọ na-egbu etu 3HO na Sikh Dharma siri gbasoro usoro ọdịbendị sara mbara. Ndi otu a toro site na counterculture, ememme egwu, mmekorita, na nnwale nke 1960 na mmalite 1970. Mgbe ahụ ndị otu ahụ toro na-agbasi mbọ ike, okpukpe, ndị ezinụlọ, na azụmaahịa dịka mba ahụ na 1970s na 1980s mechara. Companieslọ ọrụ ha na-efegharị mgbe ebumnuche azụmaahịa sitere n'okike tolitere n'ụzọ dị egwu na ngwụsị 1980 na 1990s. Ha toro ma nwekwuo nkwenye, dịka ụlọ ọrụ gburugburu ụwa. Mkparịta ụka ndị na-adịbeghị anya banyere mmegbu metụtara ihe ngosi nke Me Too Movement ugbu a, na weebụsaịtị Sikh Dharma International gosipụtara "mantra… maka ọgwụgwọ na nkwado n'oge a nke COVID-19."

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Bhajan na ụmụ akwụkwọ ya nakweere ihe ha kpọrọ "teknụzụ maka ibi ndụ." Ọ gụnyere yoga, ntụgharị uche, onye anaghị eri anụ (ọkachasị Ayurvedic) "nri yogic" na usoro dị iche iche dị mma. E kere 3HO dị ka ụgbọ maka ịkekọrịta na ịkọwapụta ndụ. Dị ka weebụsaịtị na-akọwa ya:

E nwere nkà mmụta sayensị na sayensị n’ihe niile na ndụ mmadụ. Enwere ụzọ dị mkpa ị ga-esi na-ebili ụtụtụ, ihi ụra n'abalị, iri nri, iku ume, ịsacha ezé gị, ịsa ahụ, nkwukọrịta, ịzụlite ụmụaka. Akụkụ ọ bụla nke ndụ nwere ụzọ mmụta, rụọ ọrụ nke ọma na ụzọ dị irè iji mee ya. Yogi Bhajan gụrụ ma mụta ihe omuma nka na mmụọ a na India, weta onyinye a na West (Healthy Obi ụtọ na Holy website nd “The Healthy Obi ụtọ na Holy Web”.

Otu n'ime nka ndi Bhajan nwere dika onye ndu bu ike ya ime ka oghota umu akwukwo ya na nke ya na ichikota udiri, nkwenkwe na uzo di iche-iche. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, dịka ọtụtụ ndị otu oge si webata ụkpụrụ countercultural na New Age na ndụ ọhụrụ ha na 3HO, Bhajan gbaziri n'aka New Age Movement wee rụtụ aka n'oge dị ugbu a dị ka Piscean, oge akara anyaukwu, enweghị oke, ịhụ ihe onwunwe n'anya na enweghị nchebe. Ọ gwara ụmụ akwụkwọ ya na ya ga-akwadebe ha maka afọ ọhụụ, ndị Aquarian. Nke a ga-abụ oge ka mma, mana mgbanwe ahụ ga-abụ ihe siri ike ma yabụ na ha ga-ewusi onwe ha ike ma mee onwe ha ka ha dị ọcha iji nagide ụzọ ahụ site na ịgbaso ụzọ ndụ o nyere n'iwu.

Ueskpụrụ ụmụ akwụkwọ ya si na counterculture gaa 3HO gụnyere ụzọ zuru oke maka ndụ, ọchịchọ maka obodo, ntụkwasị obi nke ụlọ ọrụ buru ibu na ọrụ gọọmentị na ịhụ ihe onwunwe n'anya, itinye aka na mgbanwe mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, njikere ịnwale ụdị ndụ na nghọta mmadụ, na agụụ maka ihe ọ pụtara, Ha chọkwara inye nkwado n'agbanyeghị ọdịbendị ha hụrụ ma ọ dịkarịa ala enweghị afọ ojuju, ma ọ bụ, nke kachasị njọ, mmegbu na mbibi. (Elsberg 2003: 55-72; Miller 1991; Tipton 1982) Ọtụtụ n'ime ozizi Bhajan lebara anya n'ụkpụrụ na nchegbu ndị a.

Bhajan kụziri klaasị ọ kpọrọ kundalini yoga klas, na ndị ọzọ ọ kpọrọ "White Tantric." Yoga kwuru, sị, Kundalini kwesịrị ekwesị maka omume kwa ụbọchị, mana White Tantric chọrọ ọnụnọ ya. Ọ bụ ezie na Bhajan kwuru banyere ụdị yoga abụọ ahụ dị ka a ga - asị na ha bụ ụlọ ọrụ dị iche iche, n'eziokwu, Tantra ọdịnala bụ okwu sara mbara nke metụtara kundalini yoga. Bhajan kụziri na yoga ya ga-emesị mee ka mmadụ nweta nghọta na ahụmahụ nke ịdị n'otu na nghọta zuru ụwa ọnụ. Ọ kụziri na ike Kundalini, kwuru na ọ ga-edina na ala nke spain, bilitere site na "anụ ahụ aghụghọ" a na-adịghị ahụ anya na ọwa ya na ọnụ (chakras) ruo mgbe emesiri jikọta ya na ịdị ọcha dị ọcha. Na mgbakwunye na-eduga na nghọta, na 3HO yoga kwuru ka ọ dị ọcha ma gwọọ, ọkachasị site na iwusi sistem ahụ ụjọ na imezi usoro gland. A na-ekwukwa na ọtụtụ ọnọdụ anụ ahụ na mmegharị na-arụ ọrụ dị iche iche dị irè dị ka ime ka nrụgide belata, ime ka ike gwụ, na imezi mgbaze. Omume ndị a lebara mmasị ụmụ akwụkwọ ya anya na nghọta na mgbanwe, ọchịchọ ha ịmepụta mmekọrịta na mpaghara niile nke ndụ gụnyere uche na ahụ, yana mkpa ha maka ikike onwe onye.

Ọganihu nke 3HO dabara na mmegharị ụmụ nwanyị na-arịwanye elu, yabụ ọrụ nwoke na nwanyị dị oke mkpa na ọbụna karịa mkpa Tantra dị na ndụ 3HO. Na Tantra, a na-ekwu na Chineke nwere ma nwoke ma nwanyị, na mgbe ụfọdụ, a na-akpọ ike nwanyị dị ka chi nwanyị ma ọ bụ Shakti. Bhajan nwetara nkwenkwe Tantric dị otú ahụ, mgbe ụfọdụ na-ezo aka na ụmụ nwanyị dị ka shaktis na "amara Chineke." Ọ kwadoro ọrụ nwoke na nwanyị ọdịnala, ọ dị ka ọ na-akwado ha n'akụkụ ụfọdụ site na ịkọgharị Tantra. O mere mkpesa na ụmụ nwanyị nọ na North America aghọọla “ụmụ nwoke na-eitationomi.” Nwanyị, o kwuru, kwesịrị ịbụ "obi iru ala, udo, nkwekọ, amara na ọkaibe" (Bhajan 1986: 30) Otu nwanyị nwere ike "gbanwee ihe ọjọọ niile gbara ya gburugburu ka ọ dị mma" (Bhajan 1979: 211) .

Otú ọ dị, ụmụ nwanyị ga-eji ike ha mee ihe n'ụzọ amamihe. Ọ bụrụ na ha emeghị, ha nwere ike ịme ọtụtụ nsogbu. N'ezie, ọ na-akatọ ụmụ nwanyị ụmụ akwụkwọ mgbe niile, na ụmụ nwanyị n'ozuzu ha. O kwuru na ụfọdụ n'ime ihe ọ hụrụ dị ka omume ọjọọ na nrigbu na enweghị ntụkwasị obi nke obodo ọdịda anyanwụ kere, na ụfọdụ maka enweghị ike ịdabere na ụmụ nwoke ma bụrụ naanị ndị obi ụtọ ma bụrụ nwanyị (Bhajan 1986: 30, "inmụ nwanyị na Ọzụzụ Ọzụzụ").

Na ngosipụta mbụ ya, 3HO bụ isi nke ọdịnala yogic na nke Hindu. Mana n'oge na-adịghị anya Bhajan gbakwunyere nkwenkwe na omume ndị Sikh ọzọ ma jikọta ndị nwere nkuzi ndị mbụ. Fọdụ ndị na-akwado ya kwere nkwa nkwekọrịta nke nzukọ ha nke jikọtara akụkụ nke "teknụzụ" Bhajan na nkwenkwe Sikh. Fọdụ kwere nkwa ndị Sikh n'ezie (amrit). Ha guzobere Sikh gurdwaras (ebe ofufe) ọtụtụ malitere iyi akara Sikh nke njirimara. N'ezie, enwere ọtụtụ ihe iji mee ka a mata ọdịbendị na ịchọ mkpa ụzọ ibi ndụ bara uru n'ụwa. Ọ bụghị naanị na ụmụ akwụkwọ ahụ nwetara ya Sikhism agbakwunyere nkwenkwe na omume ndị nwere ike ịhazi ndụ ha ma nye nkọwa, ha mụtakwara ịme egwu mara mma (kirtan), wee banye na kọntinent ọzọ na ọdịbendị ọzọ na ọdịnala na akụkọ ya, na njirimara ọhụrụ n'eziokwu. A gwara ha na yoga ga-akpọte ume ime mmụọ ha, ma nye ha ike dị ka ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu, nkuzi na omume Sikh ga-emekwa ka ike ndị a na-ewepụta pụta. Kpụrụ Sikh ga-azụlite "nghọta otu" na nsọpụrụ Chineke (Kundalini Research Institute. 1978: 18). Bhajan nwekwara uru n'ụzọ doro anya, na-enwewanye ogo na ikike n'ihi na ọ ghọrọ ọ bụghị naanị onye nkuzi yoga kama ọ bụ onye nnọchianya nke nnukwu okpukpe.

N'agbanyeghị arịrịọ nke ọtụtụ ụkpụrụ na omume Sikh, enwere nsogbu dị na ntinye ụzọ ọhụrụ na okpukpe. Ugbo ala abughi enyi nke okpukpe a haziri ahazi, jiri nlezianya gosiputa onwe ya na ime ka ndi mmadu too. N'ezie, ọtụtụ ndị otu hapụrụ mgbe ebubatara Sikhism. Bhajan kwesịrị ilezi anya ka ọ gaa n'ihu Sikhism n'ụzọ ọ bụla na ndị fọdụrụnụ nwere ike ịnakwere ya ma dozie ya na pasts ha na nkuzi yoga ya.

Otu ụzọ Bhajan si mee nke a bụ inye ọhụụ nke ya na ha mepụtara ọdịda anyanwụ Khalsa (The Khalsa sụgharịrị dị ka "ndị dị ọcha" ma na-ezo aka na ndị Sikh niile bidoro. A na-akpọ ya mgbe ụfọdụ dịka nwanne). N'ihi ya, ha ka ga-abụ akụkụ nke mmegharị, dịka ha nọ na counterculture na New Age, ma nwee ike iweta mgbanwe mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, mana ọ ga-esonye n'okpukpe Sikh: "Anyị ga-enwe ụlọ ọrụ nke aka anyị, azụmahịa nke aka anyị , na anyị ga-eweta ọrụ anyị na ọdịbendị nke anyị. Anyị ga-etolite ịbụ mba nke ndị Sikh 960,000,000 na mmezu nke amụma nke Guru Gobind Singh "(Khalsa 1972: 343).

Bhajan kwadoro na yoga na Sikhism bụ nke akụkọ ihe mere eme jikọrọ (akụkọ nke ọtụtụ ndị Sikh ga-ekwenyeghi), o jikọtara Sikh na ọdịnala yogic na nrụgide ya na "ụda mmiri dị mma." Site na mbido, Bhajan gụnyere ahịrịokwu sitere na ekpere Sikh na akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ ụfọdụ n'ime usoro yoga ndị ọ kụziri. Studentsmụ akwụkwọ na-abụ abụ ndị a n'agbanyeghị na ha amaghị mgbe ahụ na Bhajan na-etinye Sikh Shabd Guru (abụ na okwu nke Guru). O mesiri ụda na ụda nke ekpere ike dị ka okwu ndị achọrọ. Ihe ozo bu echiche bu na Shabad Guru bu “teknuzu” ozo na enyere ndi oru aka igbanwe mgbanwe ngwangwa nke gunyere ime mgbanwe na oge Aquarian.

Dabere na amụma Bhajan, November 11, 2011 kara akara mmalite nke mgbanwe na New Age, na mmegharị n'oge mgbanwe ahụ ka bụ isi echiche. [Foto dị n'aka nri] N'ime afọ ndị ikpeazụ ya, Bhajan na-ekwukarị okwu banyere mgbanwe mgbanwe na-abịanụ na mmetụta ya na "usoro ihe ọmụma." O buru amụma na ndị mmadụ "ga-enwe mmụọ mgbagwoju anya, na-enweghị ike ịnagide oke, na-enweghị oke ndidi, na-arụ ụka" (Bhajan nd 3HO website), ma ugbu a ndị nkuzi yoga 3HO na-ekwu maka ijikwa na gburugburu ebe obibi ọhụrụ ma "malite ịmalite sistemụ sensory nke na-enye ha ohere ibi ndụ dị ka kensinammuo, ọtụtụ akụkụ "(Healthy Happy Holy Organization web nd" The Sensory Human ").

N'iburu uto nke mmasị ọha mmadụ na yoga, kundalini amụbaala iru ya, na enwere ọtụtụ ndị nkuzi na nkuzi nkuzi ndị nkuzi. A kụziiri ihe ọmụmụ ndị a na-achọ ka ndị nkuzi niile gbasoo ntuziaka Bhajan nke ọma. Na nso nso a, ebubo ebubo megide Bhajan na ụfọdụ ndị nkuzi apụtawo, ma enwere ndị nkuzi yoga ndị na-anaghịzi eche na ha kwesịrị ịgbaso nzọụkwụ Bhajan. Enwere otutu ajụjụ na nkewa, na usoro ọdịnihu nke usoro nkwenye siri ike ịghọta (Lee, Okwu / Nsogbu).

RITUALS / PRACTICES

3HO na Sikh Dharma na-enye ndu di iche iche. Omume na omume ndị dị mkpa gụnyere ịme kundalini na yoga dị ọcha, Aquarian Sadhana, na ịga ememme Solstice. Omume ndị Indian ma ọ bụ Sikh pụrụ iche gụnyere iyi uwe ndị India na akara Sikh nke njirimara, gụnyere okpu, ịnabata alụmdi na nwunye, ịbụ abụ nke kirtan, emume nke ezumike Sikh na usoro nke njem, na ịga na Templelọ Nsọ ọla edo na India.

Bhajan gwara ụmụ akwụkwọ mbụ ya na ọ na-akụziri ha Kundalini yoga n'ihi na ọ bụ ụdị yoga kachasị ike, omume ga-aza mkpa ndị ntorobịa ka ha chere mgbanwe mgbanwe mmekọrịta ọha na eze ihu. Kundalini yoga, dị ka Bhajan kụziiri ya, dị ike n'ụzọ anụ ahụ, na-ejikọ iku ume miri emi na-achịkwa ọtụtụ yoga postures na mantra recitations, ụfọdụ n'ime ha nwere ike ịchekwa ogologo oge.

Ọ bụrụ na Bhajan kụziri na Kundalini yoga ga-enyere ndị mmadụ aka ịnyagharịa afọ ọhụrụ Aquarian, ọ kụzikwaara na yoga ga-enye onye ọ bụla na-arụ ọrụ ike ka ọ ghara inwe obi ebere na mkpa nke onwe na mmetụta uche ma nwee ike ịkpụzi ụwa, kama karịa nanị ịzaghachi ya. Studentsmụ akwụkwọ ya ga-enwe ike ọ bụghị naanị ihu igwe mgbanwe nke mgbanwe site na oge Aquarian na-eduzi kamakwa ndị ọzọ hụrụ mgbanwe ahụ siri ike.

E kwuru na uru ndị a niile metụtara yoga na-acha ọcha, yana uru ndị ọzọ. Echiche Tantric na-ewere otu ịdị n'otu kachasị nke nwere akụkụ abụọ: okwu na mmụọ, enweghị uche na ụwa nkịtị. Achọpụtara mmụọ na ụkpụrụ nwoke na ihe gbasara nwanyị, ya na nwanyị na-enye ụdị nsụhọ na-enweghị ngwụcha (Pintchman 1994: 110). "White Tantric" yiri ka ọ na-adabere na echiche ndị a, mana yana mgbakwunye pụrụ iche nke Bhajan. Klaasị gụnyere ọtụtụ otu mmegharị na abụ a na-eji eme ihe kundalini yoga. Otú ọ dị, otu ọdịiche bụ na a na-eme tantric ọcha na ahịrị, ụmụ nwoke na-eche ụmụ nwanyị ihu, nke ọ bụla nwere onye ibe. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ọzọkwa, mmetụta ndị a na-atụ anya dị iche. A na - ekwu na Tantra “na - edozi” ike nwoke na nwanyị ma “sachaa” onye ahụ. E kwuru na ahụmịhe onye ọbụla dị iche, mana onye ọbụla “na-enweta ihe dị ya mkpa n’oge ahụ na njem ha n’ụzọ. Ọ bụ usoro nhicha miri emi miri emi na mgbanwe… ”(Khalsa 1996: 180). E kwuru na Bhajan na-anara kama nke ndị sonyere ya na ị na-eduga nnọkọ bụ usoro siri ike ma na-egbu mgbu nye ya. Bhajan kwuru na ya ketara aha "Mahan Tantric," nke o kwuru, mere ka ọ bụrụ naanị onye nwere ike ịkụziri White Tantric eze. Na mbu, ekwuru na ọnụnọ ya dị mkpa ka o wee nwee ike nyochaa ma belata ihe mgbu na mgbagwoju anya nke ndị mmadụ na-esonye (Elsberg 2003: 44-53) Ka oge na-aga, ọ gosipụtara klas ya na vidio, a na-ekwukwa na vidiyo ahụ nwere otu mmetụta ahụ dị ka ọnụnọ nkịtị nke Bhajan. Egwu wee bụrụ akụkụ dị mkpa nke omume ahụ ma Bhajan gwara ndị na-egwu egwu ka ha dekọọ abụ na mantras. (Sikh Dharma na ebe nrụọrụ weebụ "Afọ 50 nke Egwu")

Yoga na Sikhism na-ezukọta na omume nke Aquarian Sadhana, nke gụnyere ekpere, ntụgharị uche, yoga na ofufe Sikh. O doro anya na Bhajan na-agbanwe usoro dị iche iche kwa afọ ma mesịa biri na ụdị nke a na-aga n'ihu taa (Khalsa, Nirvair Singh nd Sikh Dharma website). Dị ka a kọwara na eze, "Morning Sadhana bụ omume a na-eme kwa ụbọchị na-eteta na amrit vela (awa abụọ na ọkara tupu anyanwụ adaa) ịtụgharị uche na ịkpọku Aha Chineke…." (Sikh Dharma .org mkpokọta). Ọ na-amalite na Japji, ekpere ụtụtụ Sikh nke Guru Nanak dere. Nke a na-esote ekpere Sikh, Kundalini yoga setịpụrụ, yana "Ntugharị nke Aquarian." Ntụgharị uche ndị a bụ obere abụ otuto nke a na-eme maka oge ewepụtara. A na-ekwu ka ha mezuo ebumnuche akọwapụtara dịka "nchekwa megide ike niile na-adịghị mma, n'ime na mpụga, nke na-egbochi anyị n'ụzọ anyị n'ezie" (weebụsaịtị Aquarian Sadhana 3HO) Enwere ike ime Sadhana n’otu n’otu ma ọ bụ n’otu ma ọ nwere ike ịdịru aka elekere abụọ na ọkara (Lee, Har Nal Kaur nd). Nkwado ibili n'isi ma tụgharịa uche n'oge "amrit vela" bụ ndị Sikh zuru ụwa ọnụ. Aquarian Sadhana bụ nsụgharị 3HO na Sikh Dharma pụrụ iche (Lee, Elsberg 2003: xiii-xvi, 174-77).

Kirtan na-ezo aka n'ịkpọ abụ na abụ, ọ bụrụwokwa akụkụ dị mkpa nke omume Sikh na ihe dị mkpa na 3HO na Sikh Dharma. E nwekwara usoro ime mmụọ sara mbara nke na-amasị ndị na-arụ ọrụ site n'ọtụtụ ọdịnala okpukpe, gụnyere Sikh Dharma. Enwere ike ịtọ egwu na mantras na New Age ma ọ bụ ụdị blulu, ma ọ bụ nwee ike igosi ụdị egwu ndị ọzọ ma nwee ike ijikọta ịgba egwu. Saịtị gunyere ulo akwukwo yoga na ememme yoga, egwu, na gurdwara. Da olu ahụ pụrụ ịbụ nke ofufe, ma ọ bụ ọ pụrụ ịbụ nke e chere ihu na ntụrụndụ. Azụmahịa metụtara 3HO a na-akpọ Spirit Voyage na-ere ndekọ nke kirtan ma na-ahazi ụfọdụ ihe omume, 3HO na-ejidekwa "Sat Nam Fests" n'akụkụ dị iche iche nke mba ahụ (Khalsa, NK 2012: 438).

Ndị Sikh Dharma na-esonye na mmemme Sikh ndị ọzọ. Ha nwere ike ịhọrọ mbido n'ime Khalsa (amrit sanskar). Ha na-aga ememme ndị Sikh, dị ka gurpurbs (ememe ndị na-egosi ihe ndị mere eme dị ka ọmụmụ nke gurus) ma na-ejide agbamakwụkwọ Sikh [Foto dị n'aka nri] na ememe ndị ọzọ. Ha nwere ike isonye na handzọ Akhand, na-aga n'ihu n'ihu na-agụ nke Guru Granth Sahib site ná mmalite ruo n'ọgwụgwụ, iji gosi akara aka, agbamakwụkwọ, ọmụmụ, ọnwụ, ma ọ bụ ịkwaga ebe obibi ọhụrụ.

Sikh Dharma na-enyekwa aka ịhazi ememme Baisakhi Day na Los Angeles. Ememme a bụ akara ọmụmụ nke Khalsa (na ọ bụ mmemme owuwe ihe ubi yana Punjab). Na Guru Granth Sahib (Akwụkwọ Nsọ Sikh) na-eduga na Los Angeles Convention Center ebe a na-eme kirtan site na ndị isi egwu, ndị ọkà okwu, langar (nri n'efu), na usoro site na obodo Los Angeles.

3HO bụ mmalite mmekọrịta, na-agwakọta ọtụtụ ọdịnala. Ọ chọrọ ụfọdụ mmetụta uche na ọgụgụ isi iji gbanwee n'etiti echiche dị iche iche, ma chọọ nnagide dị ukwuu iji soro ịdọ aka ná ntị achọrọ. Ndị na-eso ụzọ n'oge na-ebili n'isi ụtụtụ, na-aga sadhana, na-arụ ọrụ ụbọchị zuru ezu, ma gbalịa ịnọgide na-enwe mmekọrịta dị mma na ashram. Ha nakweere uwe ndị India na aha ndị Sikh na okpu agha ma na-akwa emo mgbe ụfọdụ maka uwe ha. Ọtụtụ mere ka alụmdi na nwunye ha site na Yogi Bhajan. Ebumnuche ha iji nweta nghọta na ịmara mgbe niile banyere ihe dị elu karị, mana ibi ndụ ụbọchị niile ma kwado ezinụlọ na nzukọ. Sadhana, kirtan, uwe pụrụ iche, na akara Sikh abụwo ihe enyemaka na mbọ ha iji jikọọ ọnọdụ ndị ka elu na nke ụbọchị niile na ịme ndụ ime mmụọ bara uru. Maka ndị na-ekekọta bụ ndị nkụzi yoga na ụmụ akwụkwọ (ọ bụghị dị ka Sikhs), enwere ike ọ dị obere ka ị gwakọta ọdịnala, mana ọhụụ nke ahụ dị ka usoro nke ike na chakras, nke onwe ha na-agbanwe na ọkwa dị elu. site na nri, yoga, kirtan na ịdọ aka ná ntị, na nke otu a raara nye ọrụ nke ịduzi ndị mmadụ oge mgbanwe ka na-emetụta. Ihe nnọchianya, ihe osise na omume ndị metụtara ndụ ememme ha na-enye ụzọ iji kee onwe na nzukọ, oge gara aga na ugbu a, echiche na ndụ bara uru.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Kemgbe ọtụtụ afọ, ntọala mbụ nke 3HO sonyeere ọtụtụ ndị otu metụtara ya dịka ndị otu gbanwere na Sikhism, ụlọ ọrụ guzobere, ma gbasaa ọnụ ọgụgụ ashrams n'ime na gafere North America. N'ezie, ndị otu 3HO kwenyere na ha nwere ikike ịmepụta otu. Bhajan gbara ụmụ akwụkwọ mbụ ya ume ka ha bụrụ ndị nkuzi ma guzobe ashrams, nke ha mere, nke mere na site na 1972 enwere ashrams iri itoolu na anọ, (n'agbanyeghị na ha pere ezigbo mpe), yana ọtụtụ ebe nkuzi. Enwere ebe obibi 200 3HO Kundalini Yoga na mba iri abụọ na asatọ site na 1995 (Stoeber 2012: 351-68). Ka ha malitere ịmalite Sikhism, ụmụ akwụkwọ ahụ meghere gurdwaras wee kee Sikh Dharma Nwanna (mgbe e mesịrị Sikh Dharma na mgbe ahụ Sikh Dharma International) iji lekọta ma na-elekọta ha. Bhajan na ụfọdụ ụmụ akwụkwọ guzobere Kundalini Research Institute (KRI) na 1972 iji nyochaa mmetụta yoga, iji bipụta akwụkwọ ntuziaka yoga, na, emesịa, ilekọta ọzụzụ na asambodo nke ndị nkuzi yoga. Taa, weebụsaịtị KRI na-ekwu na ebumnuche ya bụ "ịkwado ma chekwaa izi ezi, iguzosi ike n'ezi ihe, na izi ezi nke nkuzi nke Yogi Bhajan site na nkuzi, nyocha, mbipụta na akụrụngwa" (Kundalini Research Institute mkpokọta. 2020 “Banyere”). Lọ Akwụkwọ Ọzụzụ Ndị Ọzụzụ Aquarian depụtara ndị nkụzi / ndị nkuzi 530 yoga na mmemme ọzụzụ ndị nkuzi 414 gburugburu ụwa. (Kundalini Research Institute Trainer and Program Directory 2020) Enwekwara IKYTA, International Kundalini Yoga Teachers Association nke e kere na mbụ "iji lelee ụkpụrụ nkuzi na ịgbasa omume ahụ," ma ugbu a na-ejekwa ozi iji nye akụrụngwa na nkwado maka ndị nkuzi KRI kwadoro (Lee IKYTA mkpokọta 2020 “Ihe;” Stoeber 2012: 351-68). Dika umu nwanyi na-agbasa na US na Canada na 1970s, umuaka 3HO guzobere Ogige Ulo Okpukpe International, nke a makwaara dị ka Ogige Ọzụzụ Women'smụ nwanyị Khalsa, nke gara n'ihu. Ka ezinụlọ ha na-etolite, ha hazikwara ụmụaka maka ụmụntakịrị, n'oge na-adịghịkwa anya ndị mụrụ ha malitere iziga ha n'ụlọ akwụkwọ bi na India. Oge kachasị anya bụ Miri Piri Academy na Amritsar.

Bhajan gbara ụmụ akwụkwọ ya ume ka ha bido azụmaahịa, n'ọtụtụ ọnọdụ ndị ọchụnta ego a mepụtara ọhụụ goro ụmụ akwụkwọ ibe yoga ma ọ bụ nye onyinye ụfọdụ ha nwetara na ashrams mpaghara ma ọ bụ na 3HO Foundation ma ọ bụ na Sikh Dharma. Ndị a maara dị ka "azụmahịa ezinụlọ."

A hụrụ ndị otu 3HO Foundation na mba niile n'ọtụtụ ngalaba ọrụ aka na teknụzụ. Fọdụ ebidola n'ichepụta azụmahịa dị ka ngwaahịa nri ahụike, arịa ụlọ, na ngwa ịhịa aka n'ahụ; ndị ọzọ enweela ezigbo ihe ịga nke ọma n’ahịa na nkesa nke ngwaahịa dịka mkpuchi, nri ahụike, akpụkpọ ụkwụ, na ngwa akwụkwọ; na ụlọ oriri na ọ restaurantsụ 3ụ 1986HO Foundation pụrụ ịchọta n'ọtụtụ obodo na mba…. ” (Khalsa, Kirpal Singh 236: 2012). Businesseslọ ọrụ ndị ọzọ enyela ọrụ dịka ndụmọdụ na ọgwụgwọ na ọgwụgwọ maka ị addictionụ ọgwụ ọjọọ na-adabere na yoga. (Lee, Mooney 427: XNUMX)

Nke kachasị n'ime azụmaahịa bụ Bakery Golden Temple, Yogi Tea (nke jikọrọ ya na East-West Tea Company), na, ruo n'oge na-adịbeghị anya, Akal Security. Ebe a na-eme bred n'otu oge na-enye ngwaahịa maka Trader Joes na Pepperidge Farm, yana ire ụdị nke ya. Ndị ọrụ ya, rere nkewa ọka ha na Hearthside Foods Solutions maka $ 71,000,000 na 2010, nkwekọrịta nke esemokwu esemokwu nke iwu na-esote (Lee, Okwu / Ihe ịma aka). Yogi Tea agwakọtara ma tinye ya na Oregon yana esenidụt Italy na Germany. Companylọ ọrụ ahụ na-akọwa teas dị ka ayurvedic, na ọtụtụ ebumnuche iji mezuo ebumnuche ọgwụgwọ kpọmkwem (enyemaka mgbatị, nkwado nri nri, wdg). A na-ere teas ndi a site na Whole Foods, Giant, Trader Joes na CVS, n’etiti ndi ozo. Akal nyere nchebe na nyocha ọdụ ụgbọ elu, nchebe ụlọ ọrụ, na nchekwa maka Ọrụ Nchedo Federal DHS (Lee, Okwu / Chama Aka). Site na enyemaka, Coastal International Security, ọ rụkwara ọrụ na mba ofesi, na-enye nchekwa maka ndị ọrụ nchekwa nọ na-ewu, nyocha ọrụ nchekwa, yana ọrụ mmeghachi omume mberede. (lee Akal Global; Elsberg 2019: 89-111; Khalsa International Industries and Trade; Siri Singh Sahib Corporation; Yogi Tea Official Site.)

Ka ọnụ ọgụgụ nke ụlọ ọrụ na-eto, Bhajan guzobere òtù dị iche iche iji zụọ ma kwado ndị njikwa ma lekọta azụmaahịa ahụ. O kere otu ụlọ ọrụ akpọrọ Core Management Team nke gụnyere ndị nwere azụmaahịa na ahụmịhe azụmaahịa. Ọrụ ha bụ ịchọpụta ikike, nye nduzi na ndụmọdụ, wepu ndị njikwa na-adịghị arụ ọrụ, ma kọọrọ Bhajan.

Enwekwara ndi oru ebere nke ndi mmadu 3HO / Sikh Dharma guzobere, nke ndi oru nyere. N'oge Bhajan nwụrụ, enwere otu akpọrọ Kọmitii Na-ahụ Maka Onyinye Enyemaka nyere aka ikpebi otu esi ekenye ego ndị azụmaahịa na-abaghị uru na-enweghị uru, gụnyere 3HO.

Ka ahụike ya dara, o kere ụlọ ọrụ na-ejide ụlọ ọrụ niile ma hapụ ntuziaka dị mgbagwoju anya maka ọchịchị nke 3HO na ndị metụtara ya mgbe ọ nwụsịrị. Nchịkwa nchịkwa gara otu n'ime mbadamba ndị o kere, Unto Infinity LLC. Ogwe ndị isi na ndị isi nke ụlọ ọrụ ga-aga n'ihu n'ọnọdụ ha. Nwunye Bhajan enweelarị aha “Bhai Sahiba maka Sikh Dharma nke Western Hemisphere.” Mgbe di ya nwụrụ, e nyere ya ọrụ nke ịnye ndụmọdụ na Infinity na Khalsa Council (otu ndụmọdụ ndụmọdụ nke ndị ozi Sikh) n'okwu ndị metụtara okpukpe ma mee ka "ọ bụ maka ịkwado na ịhazi ụkpụrụ nke usoro nke Sikh Dharma dị ka a kụziri nke Siri Singh Sahib dere. ”

Ndi Siri Singh Sahib Corporation (SSSC) ka ndi nile di iche iche gha elebere anya, nke gha aru oru mgbe Bhajan nwuru. N'ihi ikpe ahụ, ọ naghị arụ ọrụ n'ezie ruo 2012. A kọwara ya dị ka "ikike ọchịchị kachasị elu maka ezinụlọ Sikh Dharma-3HO nke òtù ndị mejupụtara ya." Ejiri ya na ijikọta okwu nke uru na abaghị uru, ijikwa akụ, na ijikwa ọrụ nlekọta.

Ndokwa ndị a dị ka itinye ike dị ukwuu n'aka ndị ọrụ Sikh Dharma, ikekwe n'ihi na ọ bụ ndị otu Khalsa Council na Sikh Dharma International bụ ndị meriri ikpe ahụ. Council of Khalsa, nke emebere na 1970s na nke mbụ nzukọ nke ndị ozi Bhajan họpụtara, yiri ka ya na ndị SSSC iburu ibu ọrụ ọhụrụ ma saa mbara. Khalsa Council ezuteghị n'oge ikpe 2011 na ihe ọ rụpụtara. Kemgbe ahụ ọ na-anwa ịkọwa ọrụ ọhụrụ maka onwe ya na idozi nkewa n'etiti ndị otu, ọgbọ, na ndị ofesi na ndị otu US. Na 2017, Gurujodha Singh, dị ka onye isi nke Siri Singh Sahib Corporation, kọọrọ ndị kansụl Khalsa wee kwuo maka "Ọchịchị Aquarian na ịmara otu." Ihe Agenda na-ekpughe ọtụtụ nchegbu n'oge ahụ: ọchịchọ ijikọ Kundalini Yoga na Sikh Dharma, iji melite omume nhazi, iji dokwuo anya ụkpụrụ omume, iji melite nlekọta nke bọọdụ, iji tinyekwuo na inye ndị otu puku afọ ike, ịza nye ọchịchọ ndị na-eto eto maka iji nkà na ụzụ arụ ọrụ nke ọma, na ịchọta ụzọ isi rụọ ọrụ nke ọma na ndị na-ahụ maka esenidụt (Khalsa Council 2017). Na nzuko ndi 2015 kwuru ndi n’eto n’iru kwuru na ha gha acho “ihe nketa nke obula na otutu puku afo ka ogga n’ihu nke oma na ebum n’uche,” na “meputa ihe ngosi intaneti nke mmemme na oru di iche-iche nke Sangat zuru uwa n’enye.”

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Thosemụ akwụkwọ Bhajan ndị nakweere okpukpe Sikh chọpụtara na a chọrọ ka ha debe onwe ha n'ime ụwa dum Sikhism. Syndị mmekọrịta nke ndụ 3HO nwere ike ịbụ na ọ na-amasị ọtụtụ ndị ọrụ ya, mana ọ kpasukwara ụfọdụ ndị Sikh agbụrụ ndị chere na nkuzi Bhajan mebiri orthodoxy na ụkpụrụ ndị bụ isi. Nkatọ siri ike mgbe mbụ 3HO na Sikh Dharma malitere. Ndị Sikhs nke agbụrụ Punjabi bi na United States katọrọ Bhajan maka ịkụzi yoga, maka inye ọtụtụ aha ndị na-adịghị na obodo ndị Sikh ndị ọzọ, na ịgba ume nraranye nye onwe ya dị ka a ga - asị na ọ bụ onye guru (naanị Sikh guru bụ nsọ. akwụkwọ, ndị Guru Granth Sahib), n'etiti nkatọ ndị ọzọ. Ndị Sikh Dharma, n'aka nke ya, katọrọ ndị Sikhs agbụrụ n'ihi ezughi oke na-anaghị agbasochi uwe na omume nke Khalsa anya. Ha apụtaghị na ha ghọtara, ma ọ bụ nabata, ngbanwe dịgasị iche nke nraranye na nraranye dị n'etiti agbụrụ Sikh ma ọ bụ ókè nke gbanyere mkpọrọgwụ ọ bụghị naanị na okpukpe Sikh kamakwa na ọdịbendị Punjabi. Bhajan na ndị òtù ya kwuru na a họpụtara Bhajan ka ọ bụrụ "Onye Isi Okpukpe na Nchịkwa nke Sikh Dharma nke Western Hemisphere," wee lee aha a anya dị ka ịhọpụta ya dị ka onye ndú nke ndị Sikh niile dị n'Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ, ebe ndị Sikh agbụrụ agbụrụ hụrụ aha dị ka naanị mkpa maka òtù Bhajan. A na-ada nkatọ dị otú ahụ ugbu a ka 3HO / Sikh Dharma guzobere ruo oge ụfọdụ ma were ọnọdụ ya n'etiti ọtụtụ ìgwè ndị Sikh ndị na-abụghị ọdịnala kpamkpam. Otú ọ dị, ọchịchọ Bhajan ịdọrọ n'ọtụtụ isi mgbe ọ dabara na nzube ya bụ okwu maka ndị ọkà mmụta na ọtụtụ ndị bụbu (Dusenbery 2012: 335-48; Dusenbery 2008: 15-45; Nesbitt 2005; Dusenbery 1990: 117-35; Dusenbery 1989: 90-119; Dusenbery 1988: 13-24). N'ezie, Philip Deslippe hụrụ na n'ime akụkọ ime mmụọ nke Bhajan "enwere ọganihu nke ndị nkuzi echefuru echefu ma gbahapụ, ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị echepụtara ma webata, yana usoro ịkọ akụkọ na akụkọ ifo ndị amụrụ site na ọdịbendị ọdịbendị, ihe omume oge, na mkpa dị oke mkpa" (Deslippe 2012: 370).

Na mbu, Bhajan kwuru okwu banyere onye nkuzi ya, Maharaj Virsa Singh, wee kwuo na ya abụrụla onye mmụta dị ka nwa akwụkwọ Virsa Singh. Mana o yiri ka Bhajan ya na onye ndụmọdụ a gbajiri n’oge ọ gara nleta na India n’afọ 1971. Bhajan mechara kwuo na ya na onye nkuzi ọzọ, Sant Hazara Singh gụrụ akwụkwọ. O kwuru na Hazara Singh tere ya mmanụ dị ka "Mahan Tantric," naanị otu onye nwere nnabata ụwa ịkụziri Tantric yoga. Nke a bụ nsụgharị yoga Bhajan nke enwere ike ịchọta taa na weebụsaịtị 3HO, mana akpọrọ ya n'ime ajụjụ.

Okwu nwere ike ịdị ezigbo njọ bụ nke nchekwa. Ndị Sikhs nke agbụrụ Punjabi bi na United States wakporo ndị ọcha mba na ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu na-ele ha anya dị ka ndị na-eyi ọha egwu ma ọ bụ dịka ndị Alakụba na-enweghị mmasị. Ihe omume kacha mara amara bụ ọgbaghara dị egwu na Oak Creek gurdwara na Wisconsin na 2012, mana enweela ihe ike ndị ọzọ emere na ndị Sikh.

A maara ndị Sikh n'ụwa nile maka achụmnta ego ha, ndị mmadụ nọ na Sikh Dharma International nakweere ihe nketa ahụ. Nsonaazụ gụnyere ụfọdụ ihe ịga nke ọma ụlọ ọrụ (Lee, nzukọ / Onye ndu), mana enweela nsogbu. N'ime 1980s, e boro onye isi Washington na onye so ya mgbe ahụ ebubo "mbubata ọtụtụ wii wii nke ọtụtụ wii wii n'ime oge 1983-1987." (Elsberg 2003: 211; United States nke America v. Gurujot Singh Khalsa 1988) E boro ọtụtụ aghụghọ telemarketing ikpe.

N'ihe ka ukwuu bụ ihe omume ndị dugara na ikpe nke mere na 2011. Sikh Dharma International tinyere aka na ya, mana esemokwu ahụ gaghachiri na òtù dị iche iche metụtara Sikh Dharma ma tụọ esemokwu n'etiti etiti ikike dị iche iche. N'okwu a, ndị njikwa nke Templelọ Nsọ Goldenlọ Ahịa ọla edo, na-arụ ọrụ na otu n'ime ụlọ ọrụ ejidere nke Bhajan guzobere, Khalsa International Industries na Trades Company, mepụtara njikọta ọnụ, nke mere ka ha ree ebe a na-eme bred maka $ 71,000,000 ma debe nnukwu òkè nke uru. Mkpebi ikpeazụ na 2012 chọrọ ka ndị otu ụlọ ọrụ rituo, n'agbanyeghị na ha natara nhazi. Ọ bụ ikpe siri ike.

Azụmaahịa ọzọ, Akal Security, bụ ihe na-akpata nchegbu site n'oge ruo n'oge ruo ọtụtụ afọ wee kwụsị azụmaahịa na February 2021. Na 2007, Ngalaba Ikpe Ziri Ezi mara ọkwa na Akal Security "ga-akwụ United States $ 18,000,000 iji dozie ebubo ndị o mebiri usoro nke ya na nkwekọrịta iji nye ndị nche ndị nkịtị zụrụ azụ na ntọala asatọ nke ndị agha US ”(Ngalaba Ikpe Ziri Ezi: July 13, 2007). Enweela ọtụtụ ntinye akwụkwọ na-ekwu maka mmebi iwu megidere Iwu Iwu Ọrụ Ike (Shaak March 20, 2017).

Ozizi Bhajan banyere ụmụ nwanyị na-ekpughe, nke kachasị mma, ambivalence dị egwu. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ na-ezo aka na ụmụ nwanyị dịka "shaktis" nwere ikike okike dị ukwuu, ọ katọkwara ha maka iji aghụghọ, anụ ahụ, ọnụ ọnụ, mgbanwe, adịghị omimi na ọbụlagodi "ihe arụ." (Elsberg 2010: 310-13) Omume ndị a, na omume Bhajan n'ebe ụmụ nwanyị nọ, yiri ka ọ nwere nnukwu nsonaazụ ogologo oge. Na 1986, ụmụ nwanyị abụọ bụbu ndị otu boro Bhajan ebubo na mwakpo na batrị na ebubo ndị ọzọ. E kpebiri ikpe ahụ n'ụlọ ikpe (Felt, Katherine v. Harbhajan Singh Khalsa Yogiji et al; Khalsa, S. Premka Kaur v. Harbhajan Singh Khalsa Yogiji et al). N'oge na-adịbeghị anya, otu n'ime ndị gbara akwụkwọ (mgbe ahụ a na-akpọ Premka, nke a na-akpọzi Pamela Saharah Dyson) depụtara ndekọ banyere mkpakọrịta ya na Bhajan. Nkọwa ya banyere etu o si achịkwa ndụ ya na ndụ ndị ọzọ yana mmekọrịta ya na “ndị odeakwụkwọ” ya (Dyson 2019) emeela ka mwakpo ebubo na iwe. Ndị otu na ndị otu gara ebo Bhajan ebubo iyi egwu mmekọahụ na mmegbu. Ndị ndu ahụ kwadoro ọtụtụ nnọkọ ige ntị (SSSC "Ntị na-ege ntị" 2020; "Kọmitii na isslọrụ"). Nke a mere ka ndị SSSC were ụlọ ọrụ nzuzo iji nyochaa, mmadụ iri atọ na isii kọọrọ m mmejọ. Firmlọ ọrụ ahụ gbara ndị gbara ajụjụ ọnụ Bhajan ajụjụ ọnụ ma kwuo maka ihe ọma o mere. Ihe ndekọ ahụ rụpụtara na-achọpụta na, o yikarịrị ka ọ bụghị, "Yogi Bhajan tinyere batrị mmekọahụ na mmejọ ndị ọzọ, iyi egwu mmekọahụ na omume nke megidere nkwa Sikh na ụkpụrụ ụkpụrụ omume." (Alaka Olive 2020: 6) Nkwupụta ahụ chọpụtakwara ihe atụ nke Bhajan, na ụfọdụ ndị otu ya, na-eji iyi egwu, nkwutọ na ọbụna ndị nche jikere ịchịkwa omume ndị otu.

Mkpesa ndị a na-enye nsogbu emeela ka ọtụtụ ndị jụọ iguzosi ike n'ihe ha nye 3HO na òtù ndị metụtara ya. Fọdụ na-arụ ụka na omume ndị Bhajan kụziri bụ ihe bara uru ma nwee ike ikewapụ ya na omume ya, ndị ọzọ na ihe niile o metụrụ emetọ na ọ bụ ihe a na-amaghị eche na ị ga-aga n'ihu dị ka ọ dị na mbụ. Nke a bụ nchegbu ozugbo nye ndị nkuzi yoga Kundalini bụ ndị na-ekpebi ma ha ga-aga n'ihu na-akụziri ụmụ akwụkwọ ihe na omume metụtara njikọ Bhajan na ụdị yoga. Enwere ndudue, ntụkwasị obi, na iwe dị ukwuu, yana ọchịchọ ịchọta ụzọ dị n'ihu. N'ihe nyocha nke akụkọ ahụ na ọnwụ nke ego site na Akal Inc., 3HO na òtù ndị metụtara ya nwere ike iche nnukwu nsogbu na ọnwa ndị dị n'ihu. Dịka akụkọ ahụ mechiri, "Otu ajụjụ dị mkpa maka obodo ga-abụ otu esi amata, weghachite, chekwaa, na ibute ihe bara uru maka obodo niile." (Alaka Olive 2020: 71)

Foto
Foto # 1: Yogi Bhajan (Harbhajan Singh Puri).
Foto # 2: Bhajan na ememme pop na Palm Beach.
Onyonyo # 3: 3HO Solstice klaasị "Na-eburu Anyị n'ime Ogbọ Mmiri."
Foto # 4: Ememe yoga na-acha ọcha.
Foto # 5: Nkwadebe maka agbamakwụkwọ.

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Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
11 April 2021

 

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