Joseph Laycock

Oom Onye Pụrụ Ime Ihe Niile


OOM IHE OMNYERE

1876 ​​(October 31): Pierre Bernard mụrụ dị ka Perry Arnold Baker na Leon, Iowa.
1889: Bernard zutere onye nkuzi yoga ya, Sylvais Hamati.
1893: Bernard na Hamati gara California.
1898: Bernard gbara ọsọ na San Francisco College maka Suggestive Sciences. Ọ rụrụ "Kali Mudra" stunt iji kpọsaa ike yoga.
1902: E jidere Bernard maka ịme ọgwụ na iwu akwadoghị.
1906: Bernard bipụtara Vira Sadhana: The International Journal of the Tantrik Order nke America
1906: Bernard hapụrụ San Francisco, na-aga Seattle na New York City.
1910: E jidere Bernard na New York City maka ebubo mpụ. E mechara wepụ ebubo ndị ahụ.
1918: Bernard na Blanche DeVries lụrụ.
1919: Bernard kere Braeburn Country Club na Nyack, New York, site n'aka ego nke Anne Vanderbilt nyere.
1919: Ndị uwe ojii obodo wakporo Braeburn Country Club
1924: Bernard gbasaa Braeburn Country Club ka ọ bụrụ Clarkstown Country Club.
1933: Bernard kere Clarkstown Country Club Sports Center, yana diamond bekee na bọọlụ.
1939: Boxer Lou Nova zụrụ n'okpuru Bernard maka ọgụ ya megide Max Baer.
1941: DeVries gbara arụkwaghịm na Clarkstown Country Club, na-edepụta nkewapụ ya na Bernard.
1955: Bernard nwụrụ.
1956: DeVries rere Clarkstown Country Club na Traininglọ Ọrụ Ọzụzụ Ndị Ozi Ala ọzọ.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Pierre Bernard, mgbe ụfọdụ a na-akpọ ya "Oom the Omnipotent," bụ onye na-akwado mmalite yoga na America. O kere ọtụtụ òtù dị mkpụmkpụ iji kwalite yoga, Sanskri, na nkuzi nkuzi, gụnyere San Francisco College maka Suggestive Therapeutics, Tantrik Order of America, na New York Sanskrit College. O mechara nwee ihe ịga nke ọma na Clarkstown Country Club, bụ ebe ọ na-ewu ewu yoga site na ịzụ ndị ọgaranya, ndị egwuregwu, na ndị a ma ama.

Bernard gosipụtara ụfọdụ ezigbo ihe ọmụma banyere hatha yoga, nkà ihe ọmụma Vedic, na ọbụna omume iwe. Agbanyeghị, ọ chọrọ ọfụma nke ọzụzụ a site na ezigbo ịda mmụọ, ọkachasị na akụkụ mbụ nke ọrụ ya. Mgbe Bernard zutere nwunye ya, Blanche DeVries, Bernard nwere ike ịme postural yoga ndị America nabatara site na ịmegharị ya dị ka "ọdịbendị anụ ahụ" na usoro maka ị nweta ahụike, mma, na egwuregwu. Tupu nke a, ọtụtụ ndị America jikọtara yoga na okpukpe Hindu na ịkwa iko, mbido, na ịgba ohu ọcha. N'ụlọ ọgbakọ ha na Nyack New York, ha zụrụ ndị nne na nna nwanyị, ndị na-eme egwuregwu, na ndị a ma ama, bụ́ ndị mere ka yoga gbasaa. Maka nke ọma ma ọ bụ nke ka njọ, Bernard sụrụ ụzọ otu ndị America nke kewapụrụ yoga na mgbọrọgwụ Hindu, wee gbanwee ya n'ụdị mmega ahụ.

Ihe ndekọ akụkọ ndụ Pierre Bernard [Foto dị n'aka nri] bụ ihe ịma aka n'ihi na o jiri ọtụtụ aha ma nye nkọwa ụgha banyere mmalite ya. Akwụkwọ kachasị nwee ikike na-ede na amụrụ ya na 1876 dị ka Perry Arnold Baker na Leon, Iowa (2010hụnanya 9: 1889). Bernard na-ekwukarị na ọ gara India, ọ bụ ezie na nke a yiri ka ọ gaghị ekwe omume. Otú ọ dị, ọ zutere otu nwoke aha ya bụ Sylvais Hamati na 1893 na Lincoln, Nebraska, onye kụziiri ya hatha yoga na nkà ihe ọmụma Vedic. Nzụlite Hamati dịkwa egwu. O si Calcutta bịa America ma nwee ike ịrụ ọrụ dị ka onye na-eme ihe ngosi tupu ya ezute Bernard. Bernard malitere ịmụ ihe n'okpuru Hamati ruo awa atọ kwa ụbọchị, na 2010, ha gara California (12hụnanya 13: 2013-104). Na San Francisco, Bernard nwere ike izute ụfọdụ ndị nnọchi anya mbụ nke okpukpe Hindu na America, gụnyere Swami Vivekananda na Swami Ram Tirath (Laycock XNUMX: XNUMX).

Site n'enyemaka nwanne nna ya, Dr. Clarence Baker, Bernard guzobere azụmahịa site na iji ọzụzụ yogic ya dịka ụdị ọgwụgwọ zuru oke. Ka ọ na-erule afọ 1898, Bernard guzobere azụmahịa a na-akpọ San Francisco College maka Suggestive Therapeutics. Afọ ahụ, ọ rụrụ stunt a na-akpọ "Kali Mudra" [Foto dị n'aka nri] dị ka ngosipụta ihu ọha nke ike yoga: Bernard banyere ọnwụ yiri ọnwụ ma kpọọ ndị dọkịta ka ha nyochaa ma ọ bụ bepụ ya na mbọ iji nweta nzaghachi. Na 1902, e jidere Bernard maka ịgwọ ọrịa na-akwadoghị. Nke a bụ nke mbụ n'ime ọtụtụ ihe mgbochi dịka Bernard chọrọ ụzọ iji nweta ọzụzụ obibi ndị America na yoga (Laycock 2013: 104).

Bernard na Hamati nọkwa na-anwale otu ndị esoteric akpọrọ Tantrik Order of America. Otu a dọtara ndị bohemians, ndị na-eme ihe nkiri, na ndị na-ese ihe, ma nye ọzụzụ na nkà ihe ọmụma Vedic, yoga, na tantra. Bernard nwere atụmatụ ịmepụta netwọk nke ebe obibi Tantrik n'obodo dị iche iche; agbanyeghị, ọ ka edoghị anya ma ọ bụrụ na otu dị iche iche hibere na mpụga San Francisco. Na 1906, Bernard bipụtara mpịakọta nke mbụ na nke Vira Sadhana: The International Journal of the Tantrik Order nke America. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Bernard mekwara otu ọgbakọ a maara dị ka "The Bacchante Club," ebe ụmụ nwoke yi uwe mwụda Oriental, na-ese hookahs, ma na-ele ụmụ nwanyị na-agba egwu Oriental. Ndị uwe ojii San Francisco lebara anya na Bacchante Club, na-ezipụ ndị uwe ojii n'okpuru (2010hụnanya 40: XNUMX). Ndị uwe ojii nwere ike ịbụ ihe mkpali gbara ọkpụrụkpụ sitere na akụkọ mgbasa ozi banyere mmụba ndị Hindu na-eme ụmụ nwanyị ọcha ọcha.

Bernard hapụrụ San Francisco na 1906, ikekwe na-atụ anya izere nyocha ndị uwe ojii. Ya na ụmụazụ ole na ole gara Seattle tupu ha abanye na New Yo rk City. Site na 1910, Bernard mepụtara ụlọ obibi Tantrik ọhụrụ na 74th Street na Manhattan. Ọzọkwa, ọrụ Bernard gosipụtara ma esoteric na exoteric face: Thelọ obibi ahụ nyere klas yoga iji kwalite ahụike na ike yana ịmalite n'ime ihe nzuzo nke Tantrik Order (Laycock 2013: 105).

Ọtụtụ n'ime ụmụ akwụkwọ Bernard bụ ụmụ agbọghọ ndị nweela mmasị na yoga mgbe ha kirisịrị vudeville nke egwu Oriental. Bernard na ụmụ akwụkwọ nwanyị nwanyị nwere mmekọrịta ịhụnanya. Otu n'ime ụmụ akwụkwọ ahụ bụ Gertrude Leo, onye zutere Bernard ma soro ya gaa New York. Bernard nwekwara mmekọrịta ya na Zelia Hopp. Hopp nwere nsogbu ahụike na Bernard gakwuuru ya n'okpuru aha "Dr. Warren ”ma kwuo na ya ga-enyere ya aka. Na Mee 2, 1910, Hopp, ya na nwanne nwanyị nke Leo, Jennie Miller, duuru ndị nchọpụta gaa ụlọ akwụkwọ Bernard ebe e jidere Bernard maka mwepu (Laycock 2013: 105-06).

1910 bụ otu afọ ahụ e nyefere Iwu Iwu Mann, nke a makwaara dị ka White-Slave Traffic Act. Akụkọ Hopp na Leo yiri ka ọ kwadoro ọtụtụ ụjọ kacha atụ ndị America gbasara ịzụ ụmụ nwanyị, ikpe Bernard wee bụrụ mgbasa ozi mgbasa ozi. E kpuchitere ya ọ bụghị naanị na akwụkwọ akụkọ iri anọ New York City kwa ụbọchị, kamakwa na Seattle na San Francisco. Leo na Hopp kọrọ na Bernard na-akpọ onwe ya mgbe ụfọdụ "Onye Ukwu Om," ka ọ na-erule n'ehihie mgbe e jidere ya, akwụkwọ akụkọ na-akpọ ya "Oom the Omnipotent." Ha kwukwara na Bernard ejiri ha na egwu na ike mkpuchi. Bernard nọrọ ihe karịrị ọnwa atọ na-echere ikpe n'ụlọ mkpọrọ aha ọjọọ nke Manhattan a maara dị ka "Tombs." Ikpe a dara mgbe onye ọka iwu Bernard nwetachara Leo ka ọ ghara ịbụ onye akaebe, Hopp kwụsịrị ebubo niile wee gbapụ New York City. Na enweghị ndị akaebe, a hapụrụ Bernard (Laycock 2013: 107).

Bernard yiri ka ọ mụtara site na nke a na echiche efu nke Orientalist banyere yoga bụ mma agha ihu abụọ: Ha nwere ike ịdọta ndị ahịa n'ịchọ njem, mana ha gwakwara ụjọ banyere omume banyere iji echiche uche ọjọọ na-eri ụmụ nwanyị. N'oge ikpe ahụ, Bernard siri ọnwụ na yoga bụ naanị "ọdịbendị anụ ahụ," isi okwu ọ ga-aga n'ihu na-ebulite n'agbanyeghị nkatọ.

Mgbe a tọhapụsịrị ya na Tombs, Bernard kwagara Leonia, New Jersey. Mgbe ọ laghachiri New York, o guzobere ụlọ akwụkwọ ọhụrụ, mana n'oge a, ọ kpọrọ nkuzi ya ka ọ bụrụ agụmakwụkwọ, kama ịbụ nke esoteric. Ọ kpọrọ azụmahịa ọhụrụ ya New York Sanskrit College wee weghara aha ụlọ ọrụ Homer Stansbury Leeds. Ọ goro ngalaba si India iji kụzie ihe ọmụmụ na Sanskrit, nkà ihe ọmụma Vedic, ọgwụgwọ Ayurvedic, na egwu ndị India. O di nwute, na New York Sanskrit College bu ihe asusu ndi agbata obi ya na ndi mgbasa ozi na acho akuko ozugbo. Ndị Boardtù Na-ahụ Maka Agụmakwụkwọ na-ezigara ndị uwe ojii ka ha jide ya maka ịme "kọleji" na-enweghị ikikere ọ bụla ma ọ bụ akwụkwọ agụmakwụkwọ. Oge a, Bernard gbaghaara njedebe njide laghachi Leonia (Laycock 2013: 107-08).

Na Leonia, Bernard malitere ọhụụ ọhụrụ na nwanyị ga-agbanwe akụ ya: Dace Shannon Charlot. Charlot bịara New York mgbe ọ hapụsịrị di ya na-eme ihe ike. Onye ọka iwu ịgba alụkwaghịm na-anọchi anya Bernard. Charlot ịgba alụkwaghịm dọtara ụfọdụ mgbasa ozi, nke ọ na-atụ anya iji malite ọrụ na vaudeville. Ọ gbanwere aha ya Blanche DeVries ma mụọ ịgba egwu na kọleji New York Sanskrit. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Bernard na DeVries lụrụ na 1918, n'akwụkwọ ozi ha abụọ na-akpọkwa onwe ha "Shiva" na "Shakti," n'otu n'otu. DeVries ghọtara otu esi achọta ezigbo ahịa maka nkuzi Bernard. Bernard kwụsịrị ịgbapụ ndị uwe ojii, na-enwe nzukọ "Bacchante Club", ma ọ bụ jiri aha ndị ọzọ. Site na nduzi nke DeVries, Bernard mepere ọtụtụ ụlọ ọrụ yoga gburugburu New York nke metụtara ụmụ nwanyị (Laycock 2013: 108).

Otu n'ime ụmụ akwụkwọ ọhụrụ Bernard bụ Margaret Rutherford, ada Anne Vanderbilt. Na 1919, Oriakụ Vanderbilt kwadoro Braeburn Country Club na Nyack, New York (Laycock 2013: 108). Ndị klọb ahụ dọtara ndị ọgaranya bara ọgaranya bụ ndị chọrọ imeziwanye ahụike ha ma belata nkụda mmụọ site n'ịmụ yoga. Obodo ahụ buru ụzọ iro Bernard na mbụ. A na-anụ kepu kepu na Bernard gbara “otu ịhụnanya” na ọ na-ete ime. N'ime afọ mbụ ya, ndị uwe ojii steeti gbagoro n'ụlọ ọrụ ahụ (Randall 1995: 83). Ma n'oge na-adịghị anya Bernard ghọrọ onye ụtụ isi dị mkpa na ọbụna ogidi nke obodo. Na 1922, ndị New York Times dere banyere ya, “'' Omnipotent Oom '. . . A maara ya ebe a dịka Maazị Bernard, otu n'ime ndị obodo na-anụ ọkụ n'obi ma na-ahụ mba n'anya nke Nyack. ”

Na 1924, Bernard ji $ 200,000 zụta ma mepụta acres iri asaa na isii maka ala ya, na-akpọ ya Clarkstown Country Club (Laycock 2013: 108). Nke a na-esote ihe okike nke nnukwu Clarkstown Country Club Sports Center na 1933, nke gosipụtara diamondball baseball, football football, na ọkụ eletrik dị egwu (Lovehụnanya 2010: 250). N'oge ọrụ ya, Bernard nwere $ 12,000,000 na ala na ụlọ. Ọ bụ onye isi ala nke mpaghara mpaghara, nwere ụlọ ọrụ mgbazinye ego, ụlọ ọrụ na-emezigharị, yana nnukwu ụlọ ọrụ na-ahụ maka ụlọ ahịa, ọ bụkwa onye na-echekwa ụlọ ahịa azụmahịa nke Rockland County (Clarkstown Country Club 1935: 124).

Agbanyeghị, Bernard ahapụghị ụdị ejiji ya kpamkpam, nke dọtara ọtụtụ ndị na-elekọta ụlọ ya. Ọ zụrụ otu ìgwè enyí tinyere ọtụtụ enwe na ụmụ anụmanụ ndị ọzọ mara mma. Ejiri enyí ndị ahụ mee ihe nkiri na-eme kwa afọ nke ụmụ akwụkwọ na-eme dị ka acrobats. Bernard mepụtakwara egwuregwu nke "bọọlụ ịnyịnya ibu," ụdị nke baseball na ndị egwuregwu niile (chekwaa onye na-ejide ya na ọkwa ya) n’elu ịnyịnya ibu (Lovehụnanya 2010: 274).

Thelọ ọrụ ahụ ghọrọ ebe dịịrị ndị America na-etinye okpukpe ndị Eshia na ọdịnala America. Nwa nwanne Bernard, Theos Bernard, gara Tibet tupu ya anata doctorate ya na Mahadum Columbia wee bipụta ederede oge gboo hatha yoga. Nwanne nwanyị nke Bernard lụrụ Hazra Inayat Khan, onye guzobere Sufi Order International (Ward 1991: 40). Onye na-ahụ maka mmiri ọgwụ bụ Ida Rolf gụrụ akwụkwọ n'okpuru Bernard, yana usoro ọgwụgwọ anụ ahụ ya maka ijikọta usoro ma ọ bụ "ịkpụgharị" nwere myirịta dị na usoro mmụta sayensị maka yoga nke Bernard kwadoro (Stirling na Snyder 2006: 8). N'oge ntorobịa ya, Ruth Fuller Sasaki nọrọ oge na Clarkstown Country Club dị ka ọgwụgwọ maka ụkwara ume ọkụ ya (Stirling and Snynder 2006: 6). Ọ gara n'ihu na-enye aka na mbubata Zen Buddhist na America, na-asụgharị ọtụtụ ederede dị mkpa na Bekee.

Na 1939, Lou Nova onye ọkpọ ọkpọ buru oke ibu rutere na klọb nke mba ahụ ịmụ yoga. A tụụrụ ọzụzụ ahụ dị ka stunt iji kwalite ọgụ ya na Max Baer na-abịa. Nova mụtara isi oche, ntụgharị uche, na otu n'ime enyí Bernard, bụ onye a zụrụ azụ iyi otu glove buru ibu na akpati ya. Akwụkwọ akụkọ na-akọ na Nova amatalarị "ihu igwe nke ọma" n'okpuru ọzụzụ Bernard. Mgbe e mesịrị, Nova patented ngwaọrụ a na-akpọ "yogi nova" iji nyere aka na-eme na isi (Laycock 2013: 125). Ihe osise dika Nova nyeere aka ikwuputa echiche a nye ndi America na yoga nwere ike inye ndi egwuregwu onu.

Ka ọ na-erule ngwụsị nke afọ 1930, Clarkstown Country Club amalitela nwayọ nwayọ. Bernard ghọrọ onye kewapụrụ onwe ya na DeVries, na 1941 ọ gbara arụkwaghịm na klọb ahụ, na-akọwa nkewapụ ya na Bernard ((hụnanya 2010: 304). Bernard nwụrụ na 1955. N’afọ sochirinụ, Traininglọ Ọrụ Ọzụzụ Ndị Ozi Ala ọzọ dị nso zụrụ ala ahụ. Taa, Nyack College guzo na saịtị mbụ nke Clarkstown Country Club. Akụkọ ọdịnala nke ụlọ akwụkwọ ahụ na-agụnye akụkọ banyere ihe ịtụnanya paranormal hapụrụ site na ememe ndị a na-atụghị anya ya nke Pierre Bernard kwuru (Swope 2008).

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

 Clarlọ Ọrụ Clarkstown Country nwere nnukwu ọbá akwụkwọ na Bernard na-ekwu okwu n'ọtụtụ isiokwu. Agbanyeghị, amachaghị banyere ihe ọ kwenyere n'ezie gbasara yoga na tantra. Nsogbu a siri ike karị site n'eziokwu ahụ bụ na ọ kụziri ndị na-ege ya ntị nkuzi ya, na-egosi onwe ya dị ka nna ukwu esoteric n'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ, onye na-agwọ ọrịa zuru oke na ndị ọzọ, yana onye nkuzi egwuregwu na ndị ọzọ. Enweghị ndekọ ọ bụla nke Bernard na-ekwurịta banyere ozizi ndị Hindu dị ka karma, ịlọ ụwa, ma ọ bụ moksha (nnwere onwe pụọ na ọnwụ na nlọghachi). Ikekwe Bernard bụ onye eziokwu kachasị na nyocha 1939 maka Kwa izu nke American mgbe ọ kwuru, “Yoga m ahụhụ m, na niile. Dị ka onye ọzọ ga-abanye maka ịkọ ugbo ma ọ bụ ịnakọta stampụ ”(2010hụnanya 296: XNUMX).

Enwere ụfọdụ ihe akaebe na mgbe ọ na-agba ọsọ The Tantrik Order Bernard ghọtara onwe ya dị ka onye na-eme ihe ike na-atụ anya ya na ọ na-atụ anya na ndị ọ na-amalite ịlele ya dị ka ndị nwere ọnọdụ Chineke. Nke a nwere ike ịbụ otú Bernard si were onye nkụzi ya, Sylvais Hamati. N'ụzọ na-akpali mmasị, mbipụta Bernard Vira Sadhana nwere ihe osise nke chi Greek Bacchus na-ejide mkpara ma kwuo na ọ si India (Tantrik Order of America 1906: 49). N'ezie, enwere akụkọ mgbe ochie na-ekekọta ibe Bacchus onye Gris, Dionysus na Eshia. A kpọrọ ụlọ ọrụ Bacardnte Bernard aha Bacchus na Bernard nwere ike ikwere na ụlọ akwụkwọ ihe omimi Greek bụ, n'ezie, ụdị nke tantra si na India.

 

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Amaghi ihe banyere Tantrik Order nke America. [Foto dị n'aka nri] O doro anya na o nwere ogo asaa nke mbido, nke ọ bụla chọrọ iyi ọbara. E kwere ka ụmụ nwanyị sonye, ​​dịka ekpughere site na akaebe n'oge ikpe Bernard na 1910 maka mgbatị. Iwu ahụ yiri ka ọ bụ nke emelitere na Freemasonry, a kpọkwara isi ya "ọbịa."

Na New York City, anyị nwere nkọwa ụfọdụ gbasara klaasị yoga nke Bernard, nke yiri ka ọ nwere ihe mgbakwunye nke osisi. Otu onye uwe ojii na-agba akaebe na ikpe Bernard kọwara ụmụ akwụkwọ na-ada na ute na "ihe onyonyo ndị ọzọ" na ya ebe Bernard guzoro n'akụkụ bọọlụ kristal (Laycock 2013: 106). Ihe ndị a dị iche na-adabere n'oge Bernard na-agba ọgbakọ klọb. Bernard yiri ka ọ bụ ọsụ ụzọ akụkụ dị mkpa nke yoga yoga, dị ka ịnwe akwa pụrụ iche ma mee ka ụmụ akwụkwọ na-eyi uwe ọgụ mgbe ha na-azụ ọzụzụ.

Clarlọ ọrụ Clarkstown Country ahụ kwusiri ike na ọdịbendị anụ ahụ na agụmakwụkwọ ndị toro eto na-eji egwu dị egwu egwu. Otu ihe eji agba okwute n’onu uzo ahu kwuru, “HERE NNA PHILOSOPHER MAY DAND NA FOOL NKE EBU EGO EGO” (Boswell 1965). Na mgbakwunye na klaasị yoga, Bernard ga-ekwu okwu n'ọtụtụ isiokwu ma nwee nnukwu ọbá akwụkwọ. Klọb ahụ machibidoro inwe mmekọahụ, ị ​​,ụ ihe ọquụorụ na ise anwụrụ, ma ọ dịkarịa ala, n'ihu ọha. Bernard ka na-a cigaụ sịga, a kọkwara na ọ dị obere ka ọ bụrụ ọrụ na-ewu ewu.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Bernard weere Sylvais Hamati dị ka guru ya. N’oge ya na New York enwere asịrị na Bernard gbara ụmụ akwụkwọ ya ume ka ha were ya dịka chi. Ọ bụ ezie na omume a nyere ndị America nsogbu, ọ bụ ihe ezi uche dị na ya na ọnọdụ nke tantra ebe a ghọtara ndị Gurus dị ka ọnọdụ dị nsọ. A nụkwara Bernard na mgbe ụfọdụ ọ ga-ama ụma na-etinye ụmụ akwụkwọ ọhụụ, na-eme ihe dịka ịse ụtaba na ịgbasa n'akụkụ ụkwụ ha, iji nwalee ma ha tozuru oke ịmụ ya n'okpuru (Watts 2007: 120).

DeVries dị ka ihe dị mkpa iji nyere Bernard aka ịhazigharị onwe ya. Agbanyeghị, ọ dị ka ọ bụ onye otu onye na-akuzi nkuzi yoga ma ọ bụ na-emefu ego nke Clarkstown Country Club. N’agbanyeghi nhapụ ha dara, ọ hapụrụ dịka onye nketa na Bernard naanị mgbe ọ nwụrụ.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Nsogbu Bernard nwere na ndụ ya bụ ime ka ndị America kwụsị echiche ọjọọ ha banyere yoga, nke sitere na nnukwu ụjọ nke okpukpe Hindu, omume ịkpa ókè agbụrụ n'ebe ndị Eshia nọ, omume ndị Victorian banyere ahụ na mmekọahụ, na ụjọ nke omume gbasara ịgba ohu ọcha. N'ezie, ọtụtụ ndị America nwere mmasị na yoga n'ihi echiche efu nke Orientalist banyere ụmụ nwanyị mara mma ịgba egwu ụmụ nwanyị na egwuregwu, ụmụ nwoke obi tara mmiri. Bernard esighị ike n'echiche ndị a, nke mere ka ọtụtụ mmadụ were ya dị ka onye aghụghọ. O mechara nwee ike ime ka yoga nwee mmasị na ndị na-achọ ịma mma na egwuregwu n'emeghị ka ọ bụrụ ihe nzuzu.

Kemgbe Bernard, ọtụtụ ndị America anaghị esonyere yoga ugbu a na mysticism kama na ngwongwo posh yoga na ndị efu na-akpụzi ahụ ha. Otu dị iche iche dịka Hindu American Foundation gosipụtara obi nkoropụ na ndị America gbara yoga gbara site na mgbọrọgwụ ya na Hindu wee mee ya ka ọ bụrụ ụdị mmega ahụ (Vitello 2010). Bernard nwere mmasị na nkà ihe ọmụma Vedanta, ọ ga-abụkwa na ọ kụziri ụdị yoga, ọ bụrụ naanị ndị America dị njikere maka nke a n'ime iri afọ mbụ nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ.

Foto
Image # 1: Pierre Bernard.
Image # 2: Bernard na-eme Kali Mudra.

Foto #3: Vira Sadhana: The International Journal of the Tantrik Order nke America.
Image # 4: Blan.che DeVries.
Foto # 5: Clarkstown Country Club.
Foto # 6: Akwụkwọ iwu Tantric nke America.

References

Boswell, Charles. 1965. "Nnukwu Fuss na Fume Na-achịkwa Oom." Eziokwu: Nwoke ahụ Magazine, Jenụwarị. Nweta site na http://people.vanderbilt.edu/~richard.s.stringer-hye/fuss.htm na 22 November 2008.

Clarkstown Mba ahụ. N'afọ 1935. Ndụ na Clarkstown Country Club. Nyack, NY: Clublọ ọgbakọ.

Laycock, Joseph. 2013. "Yoga maka Nwanyị Ọhụrụ na Nwoke Ọhụrụ Ahụ Ọrụ nke Pierre Bernard na Blanche DeVries na Creation nke Yoga Postural Yoga." Okpukpe na American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation 23: 101-36.

Hụnanya, Robert. 2010. Nnukwu Oom: Ọmụmụ Ọmụmụ Yoga na-agbanwe agbanwe na America. New York: Viking.

Randall, Monica. 1995. Phantoms nke Hudson Valley: Ala ndị magburu onwe ha nke oge efu. New York: Lelee Press.

Na-akpali akpali, Isabel na Gary Snyder. 2006. Ruth Fuller Sasaki: Zen Ọsụ .zọ. New York: Onye na-emepụta akpụkpọ ụkwụ na ndị nkwusa Hoard.

Swope, Robin S. 2008. “Spectre nke Oom” Paranormal pastọ, July 1. Nweta site na http://theparanormalpastor.blogspot.com/2008/07/specters-of-oom.html on 3 March 2021.

Tantrik Order nke America. 1906. Vira Sadhana: Iwu Tantrik International vol 1: mbipụta 1. New York: Tantrik Press.

Ward, Gary L. 1991. “Bernard, Pierre Arnold.” Pp. 39-40 na Ndị isi okpukpe America, nke J. Gordon Melton dere. New York: Gale.

Watts, Alan. 2007. Na Ownzọ nke M: Otu Autobiography 1915-1965. New York: Ọbá akwụkwọ Ọhụrụ nke .wa.

Vitello, Paul. 2010. “Otu Hindu Kwesịrị Nrụrịta ụka banyere Mkpụrụ Obi Yoga” New York Times, November 27. Nweta site na https://www.nytimes.com/2010/11/28/nyregion/28yoga.html na 3 March 2021.

Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
9 April 2021

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