Amy Whitehead

Glastonbury Okpukpe Chineke

GLASTONBURY GODDESS OGE Okpukpe

1983: Glastonbury Goddess ndị guzobere sonyere na ngagharị iwe nuklia na Greenham Common Peace Camp, Berkshire, England.

1996: E mere Glastonbury Goddess Conference nke mbụ, nke Kathy Jones na Tyna Redpath haziri. Oge izizi.

2000: Ejiri lastlọ Nsọ Chineke Glastonbury n'ụdị Templelọ Nsọ "gbapụta" n'ọtụtụ ebe gburugburu Glastonbury. Ekwuru na ọ bụ ụlọ nsọ mbụ a raara nye Chi nwanyị dị na British Islands n'ime ihe karịrị afọ 1,500.

2002 (Febụwarị 1- 2): Emepere Templelọ Nsọ na Imbolc.

2003: lastlọ Nsọ Chineke nke Glastonbury ghọrọ firstlọ Nsọ Chineke mbụ edebanyere aha ya na England ma nakweere dị ka ebe ofufe.

2008: Templelọ Nsọ gbanwere site na Njikọ ka ọ bụrụ "Ngalaba Na-enweghị Uru" Social Enterprise, na-enyere ndị otu aka ịzụta Halllọ Nzukọ Chineke.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Dị ka nzukọ mpaghara, akụkọ okpukpe Glastonbury Goddess dị mgbagwoju anya ma dịgasị iche iche, ọ nwere ike ịnọ n'ime mmegharị nwanyị ime mmụọ sara mbara nke bidoro na mbubreyo 1960 na mbido 1970, wee nweta ewu ewu na United States, Europe na Australasia. Ndị na-emetụta mmegharị ndị a bụ edemede nke ndị edemede dị ka Monica Sjöö, Maria Gambutas, Lynn White, Starhawk, na ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ, ha niile na-eduga n'ọtụtụ nkatọ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na nke mmụọ nke ọha na eze Western yana ụdị echiche ya) nke gosipụtara mmebi obibi, mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, na mmebi onwe onye nke nna ochie a ma ama maka neoliberalism, ikekete na ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe nke oge a. Na obi nke ọtụtụ, ma ọ bụghị ha niile, nke nkatọ ndị a na-adabere na edemede nke oge gara aga tupu oge Ndị Kraịst ebe nwoke nwoke na-atụ egwu Chineke nọchiri, site n'ike na ịchịisi, Chi nwanyị ndị nwanyị na saịtị dị iche iche na Europe na gafere.

Okpukpo nke ime mmụọ nke ndi nwanyi di iche-iche nke Glastonbury Goddess na-anọdụ di nkpa iji ghota mkpali nke ndi guzobere na ntọala nke okpukpe Glastonbury Goddess maka isi ihe abuo: Nke mbu, mmalite nke Glastonbury Goddess ije nwere ike ibido na mgbochi nuklia na-eme na saịtị a na-akpọ Greenham Common na Berkshire, England, na mbido ngagharị iwe 1980 na itinye aka na Kathy Jones na ngagharị iwe ahụ. Dị ka Christina Welch si kwuo: “Na Greenham nkịtị, e nwere n’etiti ndị ahụ na-eme ngagharị iwe‘ enweghị arụmụka nke okpukpe nna ochie bụ, ma ka ghọtara, dị ka ihe dị mkpa na iweghachi ala ahụ, na ike ụmụ nwanyị, yana Chi nwanyị (Mama ụwa) dị ka ihe ngosi maka mkpa nke ha abụọ '”(Welch 2010: 240-41). "Alinggwọ" ala na ọnya mmetụta uche nke ndị nna nna ochie na-achị na-akpata kpatara bụkwa akụkụ dị mkpa nke mmegharị a na-emekwa ka ọtụtụ ihe kpatara ntọala ya.

Nke abuo, n'ikwekọ n'omume eco-feminist na Europe, Amerika, na Antipodes, mmeghari okpukpere chi Glastonbury bu ihe ndi "naghachi". Nkwughachi a na-elekwasị anya na ala n'ime na gburugburu Glastonbury, ahụ ụmụ nwanyị, na akụkọ ihe mere eme (ma ọ bụ yaoke mmiri) na akụkọ ifo nke gbara Glastonbury gburugburu. Desstù Glastonbury Chineke na-agbasi mbọ ike ka akparamàgwà neoliberal metụtara akụ sitere n'okike nke ụwa. Nke a emeela ka mmepe nke ime mmụọ ha kwekọrịtara, nke metụtara gburugburu ebe obibi nke na-amata Chi nwanyị Glastonbury dịka ala n'onwe ya gburugburu Glastonbury, na nne nne chi nke na-ewere ọnọdụ nke Chineke dị nsọ.

Ọ bụ ezie na e nwere ọtụtụ ọnụ ọgụgụ na ihe omume dị mkpa na okike, ihe ịga nke ọma, na ịga n’ihu nke mmegharị ahụ, mmalite mmalite nke okpukperechi dịka ọ na-egosipụta n’oge dị na Glastonbury nwere ike ịchọta isi ihe atọ: otu onye, ​​Kathy Jones; otu ihe omume na-aga nke ọma, nzukọ Chineke nke mbụ emere na Glastonbury na 1996; na nguzobe nke Templelọ Nsọ Chineke edozi na 2002.

Kathy Jones nwere nnukwu ọhụụ na mmegharị ahụ. Marion Bowman na-agwa anyị na "Kathy Jones enweela mmetụta dị ukwuu n'ịkwalite ọhụụ nke Glastonbury dị ka saịtị dị mkpa tupu oge Ndị Kraịst nke nsọpụrụ Chineke, ma nwee nnukwu mmasị iji nyere ndị ọzọ aka 'ịchọpụta' ma kwalite Chi nwanyị ahụ n'ọnọdụ ha" (2009) Nke a Jones edeela ọtụtụ ọrụ dabere na Glastonbury Goddess. O dekwaala akwụkwọ dịka Nwanyị Britain oge ochie (2001) ebe o kwetara ihe ole na ole sitere n’ike mmụọ nsọ ya. Ndị a gụnyere Robert Graves ' The White Goddess, Marija Gimbutas ' Asụsụ nke Chi nwanyị na Okpukpe nke Chukwu, Caitlin na John Matthews ' Iesmụ nwanyị nke Ọdọ, na 'Michael Dames maka chi nwanyị ya sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ nke echiche nke ọdịdị ala Okirikiri Avebury na Akụ Silbury'(2001: ii).

Ọ bụ Jones na Tyna Redpath, onye nwe otu ụlọ ahịa High Street nke Glastonbury, bụ "Goddess and the Greenman", haziri ma hiwe Nzukọ Ọchịchị Chineke nke mbụ. Nke izizi emere na 1996, Nzukọ Chukwu bụ ihe emume kwa afọ na Glastonbury nke na-eme ka ndị mmadụ si n'akụkụ ụwa niile nweta ọtụtụ ihe omume gụnyere agụmakwụkwọ dịgasị iche iche metụtara ime emume, imepụta ọdịnala okpukpe nke Chukwu, mmemme ịgwọ ọrịa, na ozuzu ndi nchụ aja. Ihe omume ndị a na-ejedebe na agba na ihe omume dị egwu nke ihe akpụrụ akpụ nke Glastonbury Goddess nke a na-arụ site na Glastonbury's High Street, gburugburu saịtị dị iche iche dị mkpa, wee ruo Glastonbury Tor. Dabere na Marion Bowman, Nzukọ Chineke:

ọ bụghị naanị na ọ dị mkpa na nkwado na ememme nke mmụọ nsọ Chukwu n'ụdị n'obodo ahụ n'onwe ya, ọ bụrụla ihe dị mkpa na Europe, USA, Antipodes na ebe ndị ọzọ. Ndị na-ekwu okwu, ndị edemede na ọnụ ọgụgụ na-akpali mmụọ maka mba na mba ụwa, dị ka Starhawk, bịara Glastonbury maka ogbako ahụ. Nzukọ a emeela ọtụtụ 'ọdịnala', ma gosipụtawo nnukwu ebe maka okike n'ihe metụtara egwu Chineke, ihe nkiri na ọdịbendị ihe onwunwe, yana emume na akụkọ ifo, nke ndị bịara ya kesara (Bowman 2009: 165) ).

Nzukọ nke Chineke bụ ihe dị oke mkpa maka ntọala otu na ihe ịga nke ọma ugbu a. Dị ka Bowman na-atụ aro, nke a bụ saịtị ebe ndị mmadụ, ndị si n'akụkụ dị iche iche nke ụwa a, nwere ike ịnwale ma wepụ ụdị ofufe Chineke akọwapụtara na nkọwa doro anya banyere otu esi ewu ụlọ nsọ ma weghachite Chi nke ndị bịara. ala nke aka ya, si otú a na-akpali akpali imeghari n'akụkụ ndị ọzọ nke ụwa.

Site na oge nke Nzukọ Chukwu nke mbu na 1996, enwere ike ịchọta ụlọ arụsị ole na ole "gbapụta" n'oge Glastonbury. Nke a mechara duga oghere nke Templelọ Nsọ Chineke Glastonbury na ebe dịpụrụ adịpụ na Glastonbury's High Street na 2002 wee rụọ ọrụ iji gbanye ụlọ nsọ na Glastonbury n'onwe ya. [Foto dị n'aka nri] lastlọ Nzukọ Chineke nke Glastonbury bụ ugbu a bụ "ọbịbịa niile" na-arụ ọrụ n'ime ebe ị ga-aga mmemme na nnọkọ otu, na-enye onyinye n'ebe ịchụàjà, chọọ ọrụ ọgwụgwọ, ma tụgharịa uche.

Ya mere, ọ bụ nchikota nke atumatu nke otu ndị isi ntọala, mbọ Kathy Jones na ọhụụ ya, yana mmeghe nke Glastonbury Goddess Temple nke mere ka otu a bụrụ ihe ọ bụ taa. Ọ bụ usoro okpukpe ọhụrụ na-aga nke ọma, nke a na-ahụ anya nke dị n'ọnọdụ ya ebe ọ bụ ike dị egwu maka uto nke mbupute nke mmegharị ndị yiri ya, ndị ha niile na-akọwapụta njikọ oge ochie na oge gara aga ma na-agbanyesi onwe ha ike dị ka ndị sonyere ha nwere mpaghara.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Okpukpe Templelọ Nsọ Glastonbury Goddess bụ ọgaranya, mara mma, ma sie ike, ọdịnala na-abụghị ozizi, usoro okpukpe ọhụrụ. Ọ na-azọrọ na oge ochie nke Britain onye nkwenkwe ya, akụkọ ya na omume ya na-agbadoro anya na njirimara ala / ọdịdị ala, akụkọ ihe mere eme, akụkọ ifo na akụkọ ọhụụ ọhụrụ. Nkọwa ụfọdụ nke Glastonbury banyere emume Pagan dị ugbu a "whe nke afọ" pụtara na a na-ahazi emume na mmemme gburugburu equinoxes, solstices, Imboc, Beltane, Lammas, na Samhain. Grisonbury Goddess ije abụghị, agbanyeghị, mmegharị 'okwukwe ala' ebe ọ bụ na achọghị agbụrụ agbụrụ na Glastonbury ma ọ bụ Somerset. N'ezie, ndị na-efe ha n'onwe ha anaghị ekwu na ha bụ ụmụ amaala mana ha na-elekwasị anya na anya Chi nwanyị onye a na-azọrọ na ọ bụ nwa amaala Glastonbury, ndị na-efe ofufe na-akọkwa echiche ma ọ bụ mmetụta nke "ịlaghachi n'ụlọ" Glastonbury.

Na mkpokọta, otu Glastonbury Goddess na-eche ịhapụ Wicca ma na-eme ụdị nke ime mmụọ nke a na-ahụkarị n'ime "ebe niile" (Heelas na Woodhead 2005: 1, 31). Isi ihe mesiri ike na-agwọ ọrịa, yana ahụike na mmepe onwe onye, ​​naanị ebe a na-elekwasị anya na ịgwọ ọrịa site na mmebi nna ochie na ọnya "nwoke". Cynthia Eller kwuru,

N'uche echiche nke nwanyị, enyere ya na ụmụ nwanyị niile chọrọ ọgwụgwọ: ọ bụrụ na ọ bụghị site n'ọrịa ụfọdụ ma ọ bụ nkwarụ, mgbe ahụ site na ihe mgbu tara ahụhụ n'ihi ụmụ nwanyị tolitere n'ime ụwa nna ochie. Ndị inyom na-ahụ maka mmụọ na-achọ ịgwọ onwe ha na ụmụnne ha nwanyị site n'ọtụtụ dịgasị iche iche na usoro ọgwụgwọ ọdịnala, gụnyere homeopathy, chakra balancing, massage, Bach flower remedies, acupressure, na na (Eller 1995: 1096).

Desstù Glastonbury Goddess na-eji usoro ndị a eme ihe, mana kwenyere na mmebi ahụ bụ nke onwe, yana mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya na ọdịbendị, ọ bụkwa nsonaazụ nke mmetụta, mmebi nke Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst. Ndị otu a na-arụ ọrụ ọdịbendị nke na-eme ka ọdịnala ọhụụ ọhụrụ nke Chineke mepụta ma na-echekwa ya. Akụkụ dị mkpa nke ọrụ ahụ dabeere na ntọala nke Glastonbury Goddess Temple, nke kwuru na ọ bụ Templelọ Nsọ mbụ raara nye chi nwanyị amaala na Britain, n'ezie na Europe, n'ime ihe karịrị afọ 1,500. Na obi nke obodo a bụ nkwenye / nghọta na ụmụ nwanyị na chi nwanyị nke ala ahụ abụrụla mmegide na mmegbu site na mmalite nke Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst, ọ bụkwa ozi ha iji weghachite Ya, ọ bụghị naanị Glastonbury, kamakwa n'akụkụ niile nke ụwa.

Otú ọ dị, na mpaghara, Glastonbury n'onwe ya bụ obere obodo dị na South West nke England na ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị bi na 9,000 mmadụ, mana nwere ọtụtụ aha: "Isle Apples," "Isle of Glass," "Isle of the Dead, ”Na nke kachasị ewu ewu,“ Isle nke Avalon ”(akụkọ akụkọ Glastonbury). Ndị otu Glastonbury Goddess na-ekwusi ike na enwere ụfọdụ ebe dị nsọ n'ụwa ebe a na-enwe mmetụta siri ike nke ike Chukwu. Otu n'ime ebe ndị a bụ Glastonbury, nke bụ ọnụ ụzọ ámá nke akụkọ ifo nke Avalon (Glastonbury Goddess Temple 2019). A na-eji okwu a bụ "agwaetiti" mee ihe n'ihi nnukwu ugwu Glastonbury Tor nke, yana Chalice Hill, Wearyall Hill, Windmill Hill na Stone Down, pụtara n'etiti ọkwa dị larịị ndị ọzọ mmiri kpuchiri.

The Glastonbury Tor bụ akara ngosi kachasị na Glastonbury; ọ na-anọdụ ala n'elu nnukwu ahịhịa nwere ụzọ dị larịị dị larịị nke na-eduga na ya. Tor n'onwe ya bụ ụlọ elu ụlọ elu Katọlik gbara ọkụ n'oge Eze Henry nke Asatọ tọgbọrọ n'efu nke ebe obibi ndị mọnk. Na-achịkwa ọkwa Somerset, enwere ike ịhụ ya site na South Wales na ụbọchị doro anya, wee rụọ ọrụ dị ka akara ngosi ala maka ndị na-eme njem okpukpe na Glastonbury ruo ọtụtụ narị afọ. Tor bụ ma ama ndị ọbịa ama ama, ma na-elekwasị anya n'ọtụtụ ọrụ okpukpe Glastonbury ọzọ, gụnyere nke Glastonbury Goddess okpukpe. Kaosinadị, dị ka Bowman si kwuo, maka okpukpe chi nke God mound bụ akụkụ nke nnukwu ahụ Chineke nke ndị na-efe ofufe na-aghọta n'ala ahụ (Bowman 2004: 273). Yabụ, ọ bụrụ na ọ ga-enwe nkuzi ọ bụla, a ga-akpụzi nkuzi ahụ na mbara igwe ebe a na-ahụ ozu Chi Chukwu n'ụdị ya. Mgbe ajụrụ ya na mkparịta ụka ya na BBC: "Kedu ka Chi nwanyị si emetụta Glastonbury ọkachasị?" Kathy Jones kọrọ na achọtara Chineke

site na udidi ugwu na ndagwurugwu. Glastonbury bu obodo di na obere ugwu, nwere Glastonbury Tor, Chalice Hill, Wearyall Hill, Windmill Hill, na Stone Down. Ugwu ndị a na-eto site na ala dị larịị gbara Glastonbury gburugburu, ma mgbe ị lere anya n'ụdị ha, ị ga-ahụ atụmatụ dị iche iche site na akara ugwu. Otu n'ime ụdị nke anyị na-ahụ bụ ọdịdị nke oke nwanyị dina n'elu ala ya. Ọ bụ nne Chukwu dị na mbara igwe (mkparịta ụka na Kathy Jones, BBC 2005).

Ihe ngosi ozo gosiputara site n'aka onye ụkọchukwu nke Avalon nke kwuru, sị: 'Nwanyị anyị nke Avalon, onye na-edebe ihe omimi, na Nwanyị nke Mist nke Avalon na-elekọta ala ebe a na-ahụ Tor anya na anya' (Anonymous 2010) .

Banyere akụkọ ifo ndị na-akpali nkwenkwe nke ndị na-efe Chineke, njikọ ndị dị na "Celtic Christianity" na akụkọ ndị metụtara St Bride na-arụ nnukwu ọrụ na usoro ọrụ a ugbu a (Bowman 2007). Ya mere, anyị nwere ike ịmalite ịmụ banyere nkwenkwe nke otu a na akụkọ nke St Bridget. Bowman dere, sị: “A na-ekwu na St Bridget gara Glastonbury na 488 wee nọrọ oge na Beckery ma ọ bụ Moide nke Mound, mpaghara dị na nsọtụ Glastonbury ebe ọ dị ka enwere ụlọ ụka raara nye St Mary Magdalene” (2007: 24). Na, "Na ngwụsị narị afọ nke iri na itoolu John Arthur Goodchild kwuru na ọ dịla na Glastonbury na-adị ndụ nke otu okpukpe oge ochie nke Irish na-asọpụrụ akụkụ nwanyị nke chi nke jikọtara ọnụ na St Bride (Benham 1993; Bowman 2007: 25) . Kathy Jones, otu n'ime ndị guzobere otu a, ya na otu ndị isi ndị ọzọ, dị ka Tyna Redpath, nakweere echiche a nke "òtù nzuzo" dị ndụ nke raara nye nwanyị nwanyị dị ka ntọala nke ekike nke chi nwanyị dị ugbu a na Glastonbury . Jones na-ekwu, dịka ọmụmaatụ, na "Ebe anyị hụrụ St Bridget anyị maara na chi nwanyị Bridie na-asọpụrụ" (Bowman 2004: 281, na-ekwu banyere Jones 2000: 16). Nke a bụ ụdị nkwupụta ozi Glastonbury Goddess nke na-akwado usoro nke mweghachi na mweghachi nke chi nwanyị ahụ na ala, yana mmegharị nke akụkọ dị na akụkọ Glastonbury, akụkọ mgbe ochie na akụkọ ifo na ịnwale igosipụta "Herstory. ” Kathy Jones dere,

Nwanyị nke agwaetiti ndị a furu ụzọ n'oge akụkọ ihe mere eme na-achọpụtakwa ma weghachite ya n'ehihie, na-eyi uwe ọhụrụ, na-enwu gbaa ọhụrụ. Ọ na-etinyere anyị ntị, na-egosi n'ọhụ anyị, na-akpọ anyị n'ofe oge icheta Ya ma anyị na-aza. Na Britain dum ọtụtụ puku ụmụ nwanyị na ụmụ nwoke na-emezi chi nwanyị nke ala a n'ụzọ nke nwere ike ọ gaghị eme kemgbe otu puku afọ ma ọ bụ karịa (2001: i).

Ngosipụta nke okwu "atụmatụ" dị n'elu bụ kpachaara anya. Ekwuru m okwu na ebe ọzọ (Whitehead 2019) na okpukpe Glastonbury Goddess na-eji usoro nke ebumnuche iji weghachi chi nwanyị ahụ, na iji zie ozi banyere "nloghachi" ya na uru ọgwụgwọ ya maka mama ụwa, obodo, na ụmụ nwanyị na ndị mmadụ n'ozuzu. Dịka edepụtara n'elu, enwere ndị na-eme ihe ike na otu a nke na-abụghị naanị na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na nke ọha na eze mana na-arụsi ọrụ ike na mbọ ya n'ịgbasa okpukpe n'ụwa niile. Yabụ, omume dị ka ntọala nke desslọ Nsọ Chineke, Nzukọ Chukwu A na-eme kwa afọ, usoro chi nwanyị, [Foto dị n'aka nri] nka nke ọdịbendị ya na emume ya, ọzụzụ nke ndị ụkọchukwu n'otu ụdị ejiji, mmemme, usoro ọgwụgwọ, na ndị ọzọ ka e kere n'ụzọ dị ka iji setịpụ ihe atụ nye ndị sitere n'akụkụ dị iche iche nke ụwa . Ha gosipụtara otu esi etinye ntọala okpukpe (malite n'ụlọ arụsị) ma gbanye mgbọrọgwụ ma too n'ihe metụtara ala nke aka ha na chi nwanyị ndị nwanyị nwere ike ịbụ ndị e gbochiri ma ọ bụ echefuru echefu.

Omume mpaghara ndị a nke akpachapụrụ anya na nsonaazụ zuru ụwa ọnụ nwere ike ịghọta site n'ihe Gilles Deleuze na Pierre-Felix Guattari (1972) na-akpọ "reterritorialisation." Kellie Jones na-ewukwasị na nke a, na-ekwu, sị: "Reterritorialisation na-agụnye iweghachi akụkọ ihe mere eme nke mmadụ (jikọtara ọnụ na nke dịgasị iche iche), ọtụtụ n'ime ha ka a gbasasịrị dị ka obere mkpịsị ụkwụ ala na-enweghị isi na ọdịbendị kachasị ama" (Kellie Jones 2007). N'ihe banyere okpukpe Glastonbury Goddess, "reterritorialization" bụ akụkụ nke ụzọ iji "nwetaghachi" ala ahụ site n'aka ndị nna ochie, ya bụ, nwoke na-achịkwa Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst na mmegbu ebe a chọpụtara na Chineke kpachapụrụ anya ma bibie ya. Nye ndị na-efe Glastonbury Goddess, reterritorialisation na-ewerekwa ụdị "re-esonye" ihe nketa nna nna ha, na "ịlaghachi" na "nnabata ịhụnanya" nke Chineke (Glastonbury Goddess Temple 2019).

Reterritorialisation na-ewere ọnọdụ site na nkwenye na nkwupụta na izi ezi, ya bụ, Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst bụ mbubịọ ikpeazụ nke Glastonbury, na Chi nwanyị nọ "n'ebe ahụ na mbụ". “Maka okpukpere chi Chi, e mepụtara njikọ gara aga nke na-egosi ezi okwu, eziokwu na Glastonbury ebe enwere ike ịkwado nwanyị nke Avalon ma weghachite ya. Ntughari ohuru nke nwanyi choro mkpa ime ememe nke elefuru anya, echefuru na / ma obu megbuo ”(Whitehead 2013: 71).

Nkpirisi nke atụmatụ nke imeghari na Glastonbury Goddess ije bụ nke "ụmụ amaala." N'iwukwasị nkwupụta okwu Paul C. Johnson na "ịmụrụ mmadụ" bụ ụdị nke metụtara (Johnson 2002), edere m: "A na-eji Indigeneity eme ihe dị ka njirimara nke isi na-egosipụta mmekọrịta doro anya na Glastonbury dị ka ebe dị oke ala, gosipụta ya, ma mezie ya obodo "eche" ma wuo ya, a na-emekwa omenala ọdịbendị okpukpe "(Whitehead 2019: 215-16). Nkwenye na otu a bụ ụmụ amaala, na-edegharị aha, na-echepụta ma weghachite chi nwanyị ahụ n'ala ahụ gosipụtara n'ụzọ nkịtị site na ịzụta ọtụtụ ihe na obodo (Lee, usoro iheomume), mmasị maka iji ihe amaala iji mee ihe akpụrụ akpụ thelọ Nsọ na ọhụụ nke ngosipụta mara mma nke ejiri gosipụta okpukpe. Jones na-ekwu, "Anyị ọnụ na-ewetara chi nwanyị ahụ ndụ ọzọ site na ofufe anyị na-efe Ya, site na omume mmụọ, mmemme, omume, okwu okike, ọmụmụ ihe, edemede, nka, egwu, ịgba egwu na ndụ anyị kwa ụbọchị '(Jones 2001: i , na Whitehead 2013: 70).

Maka ọtụtụ ndị chi nwanyị Glastonbury, Chi nwanyị bụ “ebe niile na ihe niile.” Yabụ, n'ihe gbasara edemede nyocha, ịchọta Chineke bụ ọrụ dị mgbagwoju anya. Ihe ndekọ sitere n'aka ndị otu gosipụtara na chi nwanyị nwere ike ịkọwapụta dị ka otu mmụọ, duo-theistic, polytheistic, and animist, na ọ nwere ike ịbụ ihe ndị a niile n'otu oge, ma ọ bụ enweghị nke ọ bụla. A makwaara ya site n'ọtụtụ aha na site na ngosipụta dị iche iche dị iche iche, na mpaghara, na ebe dị iche iche n'ụwa niile. A na-anọchi ya n'ụlọ nsọ ya site na chi nwanyị dị iche iche nke nwere mkpakọrịta nwere akụkụ ụfọdụ nke ala Glastonbury gbara gburugburu (isi iyi, olulu mmiri, olulu, ugwu, na Tor mound). Ndị a niile bụ “akụkụ” nke “otu” ahụ. Enwere ike ịtụ aro na mgbe mmadụ na-ezo aka na "Chi nwanyị ahụ" na Glastonbury, ma ọ bụ na onye ọ bụla na-ezo aka na ha niile dịka otu, otu ihu "nke Chi nwanyị ahụ" na-ewe iwe "na onye na-efe ya, ma ọ bụ chi nwanyị a na-enwe eme ememe na ebe ahụ na wiil nke afọ.

Agbanyeghị, isi mmalite maka "onye Chukwu bụ" n'ime okpukpe Chukwu na Glastonbury sitere na onye guzobere, Kathy Jones. Dabere na edemede sitere na BBC nke akpọrọ "Goddess Spirituality in Glastonbury" (BBC 2008), Jones na-ekwu na ndị isi chi nwanyị a na-efe ofufe bụ Lady of Avalon (onye bụ Morgen la Fey), Nine Morgens, Brigit or Bridie of the Sacred. Ire ọkụ, Modron bụ Nnukwu nne nke agbụrụ Avallach, Nwanyị anyị Mary nke Glastonbury, Crone nke Avalon, Tor Goddess, Nwanyị nke Hollow Hills, Nwanyị Ọdọ Mmiri na Nwanyị nke Holy Springs na Wells. Ọrụ nke Nine Morgens nwere ike ịkọwapụta nke ọma dị ka Chi nwanyị na-agwọ ọrịa ndị jikọtara n'akụkụ dị iche iche nke gburugburu obodo ahụ dị ka isi iyi, mounds, na groves. Kathy Jones na-ekwu na Nine Morgens bụ Smụnna nwanyị iteghete “na-achị Isle nke Avalon nke Ọdọ Mmiri Mysts gbara gburugburu” (2001: 213). Aha ndị ahụ e dere site na Geoffrey nke Monmouth na Vita Merlini na narị afọ nke iri na abụọ ka Moronoe, Mazoe, Gliton ea, Gliten, Cliton, Tyrone, Thitis, Thetis na Morgen La Fey '. Enwekwara ụmụ nwanyị iteghete na-asọ asọ nke ọdọ mmiri ahụ John na Caitlin Matthews kpọrọ 'Igraine, Guinevere, Morgan, Argant, Nimue ma ọ bụ Vivienne, Enit, Kundry, Dindraine na Ragness, bụ ndị na-enweta ike ha site n'aka ndị ọzọ (Jones 2001: 213) . Ndị Morgens itoolu na-arụ ọrụ dị mkpa na ndụ ụlọ nsọ (Lee, Rituals / Practices).

"MotherWorld" bụ ọhụụ nke otu Glastonbury Goddess na-achịkọta nke na-achịkọta ndị otu ya n'ime ọrụ mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya ma chịkọta nkwenkwe na mkpali nke otu. Dabere na weebụsaịtị Glastonbury Goddess Temple, ụkpụrụ ndị bụ isi maka ọhụụ MotherWorld bụ:

Sọpụrụ Nne aswa dịka ihe dị ndụ. Na-elekọta ụwa ya. Forhụ ibe ha n'anya, obiọma, nkwado, nsọpụrụ, nlekọta na ọmịiko. Oosọpụrụ ụdị nne niile, ịsọpụrụ ndị nna, yana emume na ịzụlite ụmụaka na ndị na-eto eto. Ikpuchido na ilekọta ụwa, mmiri, ọkụ, ikuku na oghere n'ime ụwa ya '(Glastonbury Goddess Temple 2019).

Na mgbakwunye na ụkpụrụ ndị achọtara na atụmatụ MotherWorld, ngagharị nke Glastonbury Goddess 'dị n'ime oke mmekọrịta ụmụ nwanyị na gburugburu nwanyị na North America, Europe na Australasia nwere ike ịnakọta site na nkwupụta a:

MotherWorld bụ ọha mmadụ ebe usoro nna ochie na ụkpụrụ nke ịkpa ike, njikwa ike na mmanye, anyaukwu, oke uru, asọmpi mbibi, ime ihe ike, ndina n'ike, agha, ịgba ohu, ịta ahụhụ, agụụ, ịda ogbenye na mmetọ nke Motherwa Ala na ikuku ya , bụ ndị a ghọtara dị ka ngosipụta nke onyinyo nke ihe a kpọrọ mmadụ, nke ọ dị mkpa ka a maa aka, mebie, gbanwee ma gwọọ ya. Na omume ọgwụgwọ nneWorld maka ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu, obodo na maka Hwa n'onwe ya na-agba ume ma mee ka ọ dịrị ndị niile aka (Glastonbury Goddess Temple 2019).

Nkwupụta a gosipụtara echiche ebumnuche mgbochi nuklia nke ndị iwe iwe Greenham Common mbụ na Berkshire, England na 1980, onye otu n'ime ha bụ Kathy Jones, na-egosi na ọ ga n'ihu na-enwe ụdị echiche a na nkwenkwe, omume, ozi, na mkpali nke njem ahụ ọdịdị ya ugbu a.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Ihe okike di iche iche no na obi nke omume emume nke Glastonbury Goddess, ma omume a na-etinye na nkwenye, ya na usoro nke nyochaghachi na ndi mmadu nke edeputara na ngalaba gara aga. Dika mgbanwe, ntughari ohuru, ihe ohuru na ntinye obi na agba ume, otutu uzo di iche iche, okwu ntuli aka, ememe ad hoc na-aga n'ihu. Edere ebe a bụ nhọrọ nke "mpaghara emume" abụọ dị otu a ebe emume dị iche iche na-eme: ngagharị chi nwanyị a na-eme kwa afọ nke a na-eme n'oge Nzukọ Chineke na ịsọpụrụ ọnụ ọgụgụ Chukwu (na Nine Morgens, lee n'okpuru).

Iji nweta ala na ịbụ onye a ma ama, okpukpe Glastonbury Goddess ewepụtala onwe ya dị ka ike na-ahụ anya na-arụ ọrụ na Glastonbury. A na-ahụ nke a n'ụzọ doro anya na usoro chi nwanyị nke na-eme otu ugboro n'afọ, gburugburu Lammas (August 1), na n'oge nke nzukọ kwa afọ nke Chineke, nke mbụ nke setịpụrụ ma Chi nwanyị ahụ na mmegharị na Glastonbury na 1996 Usoro a bụ ihe dị mkpa n'ihi na ọ na-egosipụta ókè ala ma na-agbachitere nkwupụta na ala nke bụ Glastonbury, na-egosi n'ihu ọha na Glastonbury Goddess ije agbaghaala na-agba ọsọ.

Ruo taa, usoro a na-aga n'ihu na-abụ ihe mara mma, na-ada ụda, ma na-enye ọ ,ụ, gụnyere iji ọkọlọtọ, ọkọlọtọ, kandụl, ejiji, ịgba ụda, ịbụ abụ, na iti mkpu iji gosipụta ofufe. A na-edozi Chi nwanyị ahụ High Street nke Glastonbury ruo Chalice Well, site na Victorian Well House nke nwere White Spring, wee gbagoo na Glastonbury Tor, wee laghachikwa ọzọ. Bowman na-atụ aro na usoro ahụ gosipụtara enyo Ndị njem ala nsọ nke Ndị Kraịst na-amalite site na Tor wee gaa Abbey (2004: 283). Otu ndoro-ndoro-chi nke Chineke, di nma, di oke nma karie nke ndi Anglican na ndi Katoliki. O doro anya na ọdịbendị nke chi nwanyị na arụmọrụ na-enwu gbaa, na-adọrọ adọrọ, ma na-adọrọ anya n'ihi nke a. Dị ka Bowman (2004) si kwuo, ka a na-ekekwu ihe onwunwe na arụmọrụ omenala n'ihe metụtara mmegharị nke Chineke, ka a na-ahụkwu okpukpe chi na Glastonbury.

Glọ nsọ Chineke nke Glastonbury dị nso na Glastonbury High Street wee jee ozi dị ka ebe a na-eme ihe omume dị elu, yana omume ofufe kwa ụbọchị. Mgbe m gara n’ụlọ-nsọ, Achọpụtara m na ọ na-enwu enwu ma kandụl na ihe nsure ọkụ na-esi ísì ụtọ na-eme ka obi dị jụụ ma dị jụụ. Na-atọ ụtọ, ofufe "egwu Chineke" na-akpọkarị nwayọ na ndabere. Achọpụtala m otú ihe ndị ahụ si dị na ngbanwe na mgbanwe nke oge (na-agbaso ụdị ọdịdị nke okpukpe a), na otu esi eji ihe ịchọ mma na ụlọ ọrụ ụlọ nsọ achọ mma ma na-esikwa n'ala ahụ abịa, ma ọ bụ n'ụlọ ndị na-efe ofufe.

N’etiti Templelọ Nsọ ahụ ka enwere nnukwu ebe ịchụ-aja, nke n’elu ya ka m dekọbara ọkpụkpụ nile, osisi acorn, ifuru, nku, akwụkwọ, na okwute. Onyinye a na-enye kwa ụbọchị bụ isi mmalite nke ihe ndị a ma na-egosi ihe bụ “ihe a nabatara” na Chi nwanyị maka ego nke mmụọ. A na-ahụkarị obere ụrọ na ọla nwanyị ndị e ji ọla kọpa mee, dị ka Venus nke Willendorf. Plastics na ihe eji eme ihe, ka osila dị, n'ụlọ nsọ ahụ, agbanyeghị nghọta na "ihe ụmụ amaala" na ala Glastonbury ka amasị (ma bụrụkwa ezigbo enyi na gburugburu ebe obibi). Ọzọkwa, chi nwanyị ahụ na-ewere ụdị arụsị willowwork dị iche iche nke willow ndị a na-asọpụrụ, na-ekwu okwu, na-arịọ arịrịọ, na-arịọ arịrịọ, ma na-aghọta "egosipụta" ya.

Ọnụ ọgụgụ nke Nine Morgens [Foto dị n'aka nri] bụ ndị na-adịgide adịgide n'ụlọ nsọ Chineke. Ndi Morgens iteghete na-etolite ihe nchebe n’obere oghere di n’ime Templelọ Nsọ, dika mkparịta ụka ya na otu n’ime temple Melissas (Lee, Nzukọ / Onye-isi), raara nye ndị chọrọ ma ọbụ chọrọ ọgwụgwọ. A na-agwọ ọgwụgwọ kwa ụbọchị na Templelọ Nsọ. Naanị ihe mmadụ kwesịrị ime bụ ịbanye n’ thelọ Nsọ ahụ ma rịọ ya, a ga-emeghekwa gburugburu ya iji kwe ka ọ banye. Ozugbo onye ahụ na-arịọ ka a gwọọ ya bata n’ime ya, a na-emechi ihe a kpụrụ akpụ ka ha nwee ike ịmalite ịrụ ọrụ ha n’ebe onye nọ na mkpa nọ.

Nhazi / ndu

Nzukọ na onye ndu Templelọ Nsọ, ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ ọhụụ nke Kathy Jones mere ya, gosipụtara onwe ya dị ka otu ndị otu jikọrọ ndị isi oche. Dabere na ebe nrụọrụ weebụ Glastonbury Goddess Temple, Glastonbury Goddess Temple “bụ ọrụ mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, ọ bụghị maka ụlọ ọrụ uru na-ejedebe na nkwa. Enweela uru niile n’ọrụ temple. Onweghi uru ndị mmadụ napụrụ n'ụlọ nsọ ahụ '' (Glastonbury Goddess Temple 2019c). Ihe owuwu a dị mgbagwoju anya, mana ndị otu ahụ ahaziwo onwe ha n'ime "okpukpu atọ a na-ekpuchi" nke ha abụọ na-elekọta ọrụ Templelọ Nsọ, ma na-arụ ọrụ dị mkpa na ndụ ụlọ nsọ: Nke mbụ, e nwere ndị isi ụlọ nsọ na-ahụ na iguzosi ike n'ezi ihe nke ọhụụ nke Templelọ Nsọ a na-elekọta ya na onye na-ahụ maka mkpebi dị mkpa, ọkachasị gbasara ego. Nke abụọ, enwere ndi Tinglers nke temple "ndi ndi-nkuzi and ha maka ịhe nile ha na eme na Templelọ Nzukọ-nsọ ​​kwa ụbọchị." Nke atọ, e nwere ndị na-achọ Templelọ-nsọ ​​na formlọ Nzukọ-nsọ ​​ndị ahụ bụ ndị mejupụtara “usoro sara mbara nke ndị nduzi nile nke temple, ndị ọrụ na ndị ọrụ afọ-ofufo ndị na-ejere ndị obodo Templelọ Nsọ ozi.” Otu a na-ahazi emume temple na mmemme ịntanetị (Glastonbury Goddess Temple 2019c).

Otu atọ ọzọ na-akwado ọrụ dị n'ime ụlọ nsọ. Ndị a bụ Temple Melissas ndị "na-eje ozi oge niile na Glastonbury Goddess Temple" ma na-ejide "oghere ọhaneze kwa ụbọchị" (Glastonbury Goddess Temple 2019c). Ejiri Melissas "a workerụ ndị ọrụ" na-arụ ọrụ maka "eze nwanyị" (ya bụ, Chineke nke Glastonbury). Iji bụrụ Melissa, mmadụ ga-agabiga oge ọzụzụ, gụnyere otu esi emeghe ma mechie Templelọ Nsọ kwa ụbọchị. Ndị Melissas na-ahụ maka ijide n'aka na ndị ọbịa natara ozi, ha na-akwadokwa Nine Morgens iji gwọọ ha ma ha rịọ ha. Melissas ga-asachapụ ma mee ka ndị na-aga Templelọ Nsọ dị ọcha site na nsị, ọ bụrụ na a jụọ ha.

Ìgwè mmadụ nke abụọ a maara dị ka Temple Madrons. A na-akpachara anya jiri okwu ahụ "madron" mee ihe iji gosi ndị na-enye onyinye mgbe niile n'ụlọ nsọ. Otu nke atọ gụnyere ndị ụkọchukwu a zụrụ azụ na ndị ụkọchukwu nke Avalon, tinyere ụmụ akwụkwọ Templelọ Nsọ ndị ọzọ na ndị gụsịrị akwụkwọ. Ndị otu a na-etolite "ndị mmadụ jikọrọ ọnụ na - eweta chi nwanyị dị ndụ n'ọtụtụ ụzọ n'ụwa ya niile "(Glastonbury Goddess Temple 2019c).

Enwere ike iwere lastlọ Nsọ Chukwu Glastonbury dị ka “ụlọ nne na nna nye ndị mmekọ dị na England (Kent, Norfolk, Sheffield, Nottingham), Austria, Italy, US (California, Oregon, Utah), na Australia (New South Wales, Victoria) ebe Glastonbury Goddess Temple 'zụrụ' ọtụtụ n'ime ndị otu ntọala ụlọ arụsị ndị a (Glastonbury Goddess Temple 2019d). Ọzụzụ ndị nchụaja na ndị ụkọchukwu na Avalon na-enyere aka hụ na e nyela mmụọ nsọ kwesịrị ekwesị nke ga-aga n'ihu ịkpụzi ihe onwunwe, okwu okwu, ụkpụrụ, na ememe nke mmegharị ahụ ka ọ na-agafe karịa Somerset, England.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Okpukpe Glastonbury Goddess na-eche ọtụtụ nsogbu na nsogbu aka, gụnyere ebubo nke ịhụ ihe onwunwe n'anya, "ịcha ọcha" nke ndị otu ahụ, na "klaasị." Dabere na Bowman:

… Okwu metụtara agburu, klaasị na elitism, n'ihi ọkachasị ọcha, etiti klas na-abịa ogbako ahụ, na-egosipụta ụgwọ a na-egosi na mmụọ ime mmụọ nke Chukwu bụ nke kachasị ọcha, nke etiti, onye toro eto, European / North America, abughi onye nnochite anya ma obu soro ndi nwanyi nwere ikike kariri nke uwa (Bowman, 2005: 176).

N'otu aka ahụ, ndị ọkà mmụta ndị ọzọ dịka Kavita Maya ahụwo, onye kwuru nke ahụ

Ọsọ dị kemgbe esemokwu na-aga n'ihu: dị ka onye ọkà mmụta okpukpe nwanyị Britain bụ Melissa Raphael kwuru, 'enweghị nghọta nke agbụrụ agbụrụ na nwanyị nwanyị bụ ihe esemokwu' (Raphael 1999: 25-26 na Maya, 2019: 53 ).

"Nchacha," etiti afọ, na etiti nke ndị otu a bụ nke ihe ịtụkọtara ọnụ n'etiti otu ụzọ iche echiche, ikwere, na omume na North America na Australasia. Dika ihe Eller huru na nchoputa ya nke ndi nwanyi na ndi nwanyi na North America, onu ogugu ndi ozo nke ndi ocha, ndi n’agba-etiti, ndi n’edeputa ndi Glastonbury bu ndi mejuputara anya nke MotherWorld (nke edeputara na Doctrine / Nkwenkwe ngalaba) nke na-eme ka mmegharị ahụ zuru ụwa ọnụ (na nke akụ na ụba) gụnyere. Tụkwasị na nke a, ebe ọ bụ na ogbako Chineke na-akpọ ndị na-ekwu okwu na ndị bịara si n'akụkụ ụwa niile, ọtụtụ ụmụ nwanyị na-ekwu na njem ụgbọ elu na ụdị ndị ọzọ nke njem ime mmụọ (Bowman 2005: 177) na-eleda okpukpe anya na nkwado gburugburu ebe obibi.

Site na nkatọ nke "ọcha" kachasị na-ahụ na mmegharị ahụ, nkatọ ndị ọzọ gụnyere ebubo ndị otu ahụ na-ekwu na ọ bụ enweghị isi. O doro anya, iji okwu a bụ "ụmụ amaala" na-egosi nlezianya ma ọ bụ enweghị mmata banyere ụzọ e si etinye ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, ike ike, na mgba nke ọtụtụ ụmụ amaala (dịka ọmụmaatụ, na Latin America, Native North America, Australia , na ọbụna Northern Europe, n'etiti ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ) na-aga n'ihu. Dị ka ọtụtụ akụkụ nke ọnọdụ ime mmụọ nke chi nwanyị bụ akụkụ nke akụkụ zuru oke ebe itinye ọdịbendị dị iche iche bụ akụkụ nke nkatọ ziri ezi, enwere ike ịrụ ụka na ndị na-etolite mmegharị okpukpe ọhụrụ na Western Europe nwere ike ịkọwa nsogbu ka esi ewu ma ọ bụ chee adịghị mma. Agbanyeghị, enwere ike ịhụ mmegharị dịka ndị a n'echiche dị mma nke okike na okpukpere chi, ọkachasị ebe ọ bụ na ebumnuche kachasị bụ imezi ọdịbendị na-ezighi ezi nke ọdịbendị na ịkpa oke nke okike na nwanyị. Kathryn Rountree na-ede (na-ekwu banyere Barnard) 'ebe ndị ọkà mmụta banyere mmadụ na-arụrịta ụka "ụmụ amaala" ahụ dị ka echiche nke mmadụ, echiche a "kọwara nke ọma site n'aka ndị mmadụ - ndị amaala na ndị na-abụghị ndị amaala - gburugburu ụwa, ọ nwere ihe ọ pụtara" (Barnard in Mpaghara 2015: 8).

Rountree kọwakwuru ihe ịma aka nke mmegharị nwanyị nwanyị ime mmụọ dị ka Glastonbury Goddess Temple ihu, nke na-akwado nyocha na ofufe Chukwu bụ ihe jikọrọ ya na ihe ọzọ maka ofufe nke nwoke nwoke nwere nsọpụrụ Chineke (Rountree 1999: 138). Nkwado nke obodo megide mmegharị na Glastonbury n'onwe ya gụnyere oghere nke ụlọ ahịa a raara nye phalluses, nwughari nke "Hern the Hunter" site na nwoke (na ụfọdụ ụmụ nwanyị) ndị ọgọ mmụọ nke oge a, na ememme Beltane (May 1 / May Day) nke gosipụtara nke ọma akara akara iji gbochie ihe ụfọdụ mmadụ chere na ọ bụ nha anya nke nwanyị na Glastonbury.

Foto

Foto 1: lastlọ Chineke Glastonbury.
Foto 2: Glastonbury Tor na chi nwanyị n'oge Nzuko Nzukọ Chineke, 2010.
Foto 3: Morgens itoolu na Glastonbury Goddess Temple.

References

Bowman, Marion 2009. "Learningmụta site na ahụmịhe: Uru nke nyochaa Avalon." Religion 39: 161-68.

Bowman, Marion. 2007. "Arthur na Bridget na Avalon: Celtic Myth, Vernacular Religion na Contemporary Spirituality na Glastonbury" Akụkọ ifo 48: 16-32.

Bowman, Marion. 2005. "Avalon oge ochie, Jerusalem Ọhụrụ, Obi Chakra nke Earth Planet: Mpaghara na Global na Glastonbury." Ọnụ ọgụgụ. 52: 157-90.

Bowman, Marion. 2004. "Nhazi na ihe onwunwe na Glastonbury: ịga n'ihu, mgbanwe na nchịkwa nke ọdịnala." Ndi mmadu 115: 273-85.

Deleuze, Giles na Guattari, Felix. 2004. Anti-Œdipus. Onye sụgharịrị Robert Hurley, Mark Seem na Helen R. Lane. London na New York: Na-aga n'ihu.

Eller, Cynthia. 1995. Ibi na Aka nke Chi nwanyị: Themụ nwanyị Na-ahụ Anya Ime Mmụọ na America. Boston: Beacon Press.

Heelas, Paul na Linda Woodhead. 2005. Mgbanwe Ime Mmụọ: Ihe Mere Okpukpe Ji Nye tozọ Ime Mmụọ. Oxford: Blackwell.

Glastonbury Chukwu Chukwu. 2019a. Nkwenkwe, Ememe na Omume, Glastonbury Goddess Temple. Nweta site na https://goddesstemple.co.uk/beliefs-and-practices/ na 12 January 2021.

Glastonbury Chukwu Chukwu. 2019b. Worldwa Nne. Nweta site na  https://goddesstemple.co.uk/beliefs-and-practices/ na 15 February 2021.

Glastonbury Chukwu Chukwu. 2019c. Nhazi usoro. Nweta site na https://goddesstemple.co.uk/our-structure/ na 27 February 2021.

Glastonbury Chukwu Chukwu. 2019d. Temlọ arụsị Chineke gburugburu ụwa. Nweta site na https://goddesstemple.co.uk/goddess-temples-around-the-world/ na 15 February 2021.

Johnson, Paul C. 2002. “Ahụ Ndị Na-akwaga Mbugharị, Ihe Ndị Na-egosi culagbagharị: Candomblé nke Brazil, Garifuna nke Caribbean, na ofdị Okpukpe Ndị Amaala.” Akụkọ banyere okpukpe 41: 301-27.

Jones, Kathy. 2005. "Chineke na Glastonbury." Ajụjụ ọnụ nke Helen Otter. Ebe m bi, Somerset, okwukwe, BBC, Emelitere ikpeazụ: Disemba 11, 2008. Nweta site na http://www.bbc.co.uk/somerset/content/articles/2005/09/13/goddess_in_glastonbury_feature.shtml na 15 February 2021.

Jones, Kathy. 2001, Nwanyị Britain oge ochie: Akụkọ ifo nke chi, akụkọ ifo, saịtị dị nsọ na Mkpughe dị ugbu a. Glastonbury: Akwụkwọ Ariadne.

Jones, Kellie. 2007. Ikike Omenala: Netwọk Nkwado Mba Nile. “N'ebe Dị Okpokoro Isi.” Nweta site na http://culturerights.co.uk/content/view/18/45/ na 29 March 2009.

Maya, Kavita. 2019. "Voice nke Arachne: agbụrụ, okike, na chi nwanyị." Okpukpe ndi nwanyi 28: 52-65.

Rountree, Kathryn, ed. 2015. Mgbanwe nke oge a na okwukwe ụmụ amaala na Europe: Mmetụta Ndị Ọchịchị na nke Mba. New York na Oxford: Berghahn.

Ntughari, Kathryn. 1999. "Ọchịchị nke Chi nwanyị: Ebumnuche nke Nwanyi na Mkparịta ụka Dị Mkpa." Nyocha gbasara mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya 43: 138-65.

Welch, Christina. 2010. "Ọnọdụ ime mmụọ nke, na, Greenham Common Peace Camp." Okpukpe ndi nwanyi 18: 230-48.

Whitehead, Amy 2019. "Indigenizing the Goddess: claghaghachi Territory, Echiche andgha na Nsọpụrụ na Glastonbury." Akwụkwọ bụ International for Studying New Religions 9: 215-34.

Whitehead, Amy. 2013. Ihe oyiyi okpukpe na mmadụ: ịnwale ọrụ nke ihe. London: Bloomsbury.

Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
26 March 2021

 

 

 

 

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