Valérie Aubourg 

Mmeghari ohuru nke ndi Katolik

 

AKWELKWỌ AKW RKWỌ AKWHKWỌ CATHOLIC

1967: E guzobere Catholic Charismatic Renewal (CCR).

1967–1980 (mbido): mgbasawanye na mgbasa ozi ndị Protestant mere.

1975 (May 18-19): Nzukọ ụwa mbụ emere mwakpo mmeghari ohuru mere na ọnụnọ Pope Paul VI na St Peter Square, Rome.

1978: E guzobere International Catholic Charismatic Renewal Services (ICCRS).

1980s-1990s: Ntughari ohuru nke Katọlik jikọtara n'ime matrik Katọlik.

1981: E hiwere Catholiclọ Ọrụ Ọhụrụ Na-ahụ Maka Ọzụzụ Ndị Katọlik (ICCRO).

1998 (Mee 27-29): Ndị guzobere na ndị isi nke mmegharị ọgbakọ na iri ise na asaa na obodo ọhụrụ zutere Pope John Paul II na St Peter Square, Rome.

1990s (mbubreyo) -2020:  Enwere mmekọrịta dị n'etiti ndị neo-Pentikọst.

2000s: E webatara Evangelical na Pentikọstal n'ime Katọlik sara mbara, na-agabiga mmeghari ohuru nke uche nke okwu a.

2017 (June 3): Nzukọ CCR mere emume ncheta afọ iri ise ya na ọnụnọ Pope Francis na Circus Maximus, Rome.

2018: E guzobere Catholic Charismatic Renewal International Service (CHARIS).

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

A mụrụ Charismatic Renewal na Jenụwarị 1967 mgbe ndị nkuzi anọ sitere na Mahadum Duquesne dị na Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, nwere baptism na Mmụọ Nsọ n'otu ndị Epistcopalian Pentikọst. Ahụmahụ ha gbasara ngwa ngwa na mpụga nke ụmụ akwụkwọ na United States, na-akpata ọtụtụ nzukọ ndị Katọlik gbakọtara maka ikpe “ụzọ Pentikọstal.” N'ihe na-erughị afọ iri, usoro ahụ malitere na kọntinenti niile: na 1969 mba iri na atọ kwadoro otu ekpere dị iche iche, na site na 1975, mba iri itoolu na atọ. N'Africa ọ bụ ihe ịga nke ọma na onye ọkà mmụta ihe banyere mmadụ na onye Jesuit Meinrad Hebga kwuru banyere "ebili mmiri" (Hebga 1995: 67).

Ugbu a Charismatic Renewal gụnyere 19,000,000, na-anọchite anya ihe ruru pesenti iri nke ndị Katọlik niile (Barrett na Johnson 2006). Ndị otu a nwere otu ekpere dị 148,000 na mba 238. Nha otu dị iche iche dị iche iche site na mmadụ abụọ ruo otu puku. Ndị otu a na-achịkọta mmadụ 13,400,000 kwa izu. Ndị ụkọchukwu 10,600 na bishọp 450 gburugburu ụwa na-adọrọ adọrọ. Mana mmeghari ohuru nke Charismatic bu ihe ndi ozo. Mgbe mbido ọhụụ na-abawanye (ihe karịrị pasent iri abụọ kwa afọ ruo 1980s), ọganihu nke ọrụ mmụọ na-adọrọ adọrọ nke Katọlik belatara nke ukwuu. Ma ọ ka na-aga n'ihu na ọnụego nke 2.7 pasent kwa afọ kemgbe mmalite nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ na otu (Barrett na Johnson 2006). Ọ dị na South ka uto dị ugbu a na nke kachasị elu, ebe ọrụ mmụọ na-emetụta ọdịnala ọdịnala (Aubourg 2014a; Bouchard 2010; Massé 2014; Hoenes del Pinal 2017) ka ha na-agba ume ịrị elu nke ndị isi dịka Congo Congo Mama Régine ( Fabian 2015), onye Cameroon Meinrad Hebga (Lado 2017), onye Benin Jean Jean Pliya, Indian James Manjackal, wdg.

Enwere ike ịkọwapụta akụkụ anọ na mmepe nke mmegharị ọhụụ. Nke mbụ kwekọrọ na afọ ọ pụtara (1972-1982) n'oge nke ahụmịhe Pentikọstal banyere na Katọlik. Akụkụ abụọ nke Atlantic ahụ hụrụ ihe ndị Canada Pauline Côté na Jacques Zylberberg (1990) kpọrọ “mgbasawanye na ntozu Protestant.” E hibere otu otu ekpere niile n’ụwa, ụfọdụ n’ime ha butere obodo akpọrọ “ọhụụ” (Landron 2004). Ndị a gụnyere Okwu Chineke na United States (1969); Sodalitium Vita Christianae na Peru (1969); Canção Nova (1978) na Shalom (1982) na Brazil; Emmanuel (1972), Théophanie (1972), Chemin Neuf (1973), Rocher (1975), Pain de vie (1976), na Puits de Jacob (1977) na France; wdg Ndi otu ekpere na obodo nile na-ahazi nzuko ndi mmadu na-emekorita ha. Okwesiri igosi na e guzobere njikọ obughi nani n’etiti ndi Katolik nke ndi Katolik na ndi Pentikost, kamakwa ndi Lutheran na ndi ndozighariri ndi ejidere na “amara” (Veldhuizen 1995: 40).

Mbido mbụ nke meghere Pentikọstal sochiri oge nkwụsịtụ nke oge mmeghari ohuru na-echegharị na njirimara Katọlik (1982-1997). Institutionlọ ọrụ ndị Rom lebara anya iji chịkwaa ya site na iwusi njikọ ya na mpaghara ụka dum ike. Ọ chọrọ ịnwe nrụpụta ya site na ịhazi usoro ya na omume ya. Ntughari ohuru gbanyere mkpọrọgwụ n'ime matrik Katọlik site n'ọchịchọ siri ike n'akụkụ mmegharị ahụ n'onwe ya. Ebe o bu ụzọ gosipụta “ngagharị iwe pụtara ìhè” (Seguy 1979) megide ụlọ ọrụ ndị Rom, o mere ọtụtụ nkwa: iji akara ngosi (ndị nsọ, ndị mmụọ, ndị popu), weghachite akụkọ ihe mere eme nke ọdịnala ụka, na ịtụte omume ndị na-enweghị ogologo oge (ofufe nke Sacrament Ngozi, nkwupụta onye ọ bụla, njem nsọ, ntinye Marian, wdg). Dika Michel de Certeau kwuputara, na mmeghari uche ndi Katoliki "charisma aburula akuku ulo oru okwadoro ma kechie onwe ya" (De Certeau 1976: 12). N'ime ụfọdụ dayọsis ahụ, Ọhụrụ ahụ chọtara onwe ya n'okpuru ndị isi nyere iwu na akọ na ịchekwa maka nkwupụta mmụọ. Nke a dugara na mmeghari iwu nke ndi nkuzi nke mere ka o nweghi ume. Okwu mmetụta uche bịara bụrụ nke na-enweghị atụ. Echiche nke ntụgharị nke ejikọtara ya na baptism na Mmụọ Nsọ ka emegharịrị. Otu dị ka obodo Emmanuel jiri okwu a “mwụpụ nke Mmụọ Nsọ” wee dochie anya ha site na ahụmịhe ha biri na ngalaba ndị Protestant ma belata mkpa ọ dị n'ihe metụtara sacrament nke baptism. E nwere ọgwụgwọ ole na ole, na-adịchaghị mma. A na-eme nzukọ nzukọ ekpere n'ụzọ na-emewanye ugboro ugboro, na-aghọrọ nzukọ mgbakọ zuru oke. Regulationkpụrụ nke mmeghari ohuru ahụ mechara duga na ihe onye ọka mmụta mmekọrịta ọha na eze bụ Max Weber kọwara dị ka “nhazi oge nke charisma” na “njikọta Katọlik nke mmetụta uche” (Cohen 2001), nke e tinyere mbelata nke mma ya n’etiti ndị na-eto eto na ọkachasị na mba ọdịda anyanwụ . 

Oge nke atọ bụ nke ịbịaru nso na ndị neo-Pentikọst na mbọ iji nwetaghachi mmeghari ohuru (ebe 1997). Dika ndi otu ekpere na-acho uzu oku, emechara ihe iji nweghachi obi uto. Ha weere usoro ọzụzụ, nzukọ ekpere, ụbọchị izisa ozi ọma, sel ndị mmadụ nabatara, na nnọkọ buru ibu. Ebumnuche ndị a niile mere ka ihe dị iche iche nke Pentikọstal nke atọ bụ nke a na-eji agbamume nke ngosipụta dị iche iche nke Chineke n'okpuru mmetụta nke "Mgbasa Ozi Ọma." Ihe omume a gbasara site na ndị nkwusa pụrụ iche na-arụ ọrụ n'etiti ngwakọta ofufe na netwọ mba ụwa wee mee ka ọ pụta ìhè n'okpukpe ọhụụ nke ụlọ ụka ahụ gbalịsiri ike ịchịkwa.

Oge nke anọ a na-akpọ "post-charismatic" malitere na mmalite 2000s. O kwekọrọ na iwebata ihe ndị ezisa ozi ọma na nke Pentikọstal na Katọlik, na-agabiga mmeghari ohuru nke Charismatic na echiche siri ike nke okwu a (Aubourg 2020). Okwu mmeghe a nwere ike ime "nwayọ," n'ụdị nwere isi, na-enweghị ndị kwere ekwe na-amataghị ya, jiri egwu (dịka abụ ọma pop nke Australian megachurch Hillsong), akwụkwọ (eg Ebumnuche Ebumnuche Chọọchị nke onye pastọ Californian bụ Rick Warren), omume mkparịta ụka (dịka ịgba akaebe n’ezie), usoro mmadụ (dịka ekpere ụmụnna), ihe (dịka ebe a na-eme ndị okenye baptizim), were gabazie. E mekwara otu otu ekpere nke jikọrọ ya na mmeghari ohuru ma ha ahughi onwe ha dika ndi nke ya, ndi otu ha si na onodu di iche iche karia ndi Katoliki. Nke a bụ ihe gbasara otu ndị otu ekpere nke nne nwanyị Bekee nke aha ya bụ Veronica Williams hibere nke dị ugbu a na mba iri itoolu na ise. Ndị parish a na-akpọ “ndị ozi ala ọzọ” natakwara nkwanye ugwu ha site na chọọchị ndị megachị na-akụzi ozi ọma nke ọma ma na-esonyeghị na Charismatic Renewal. N’ime nke a, Katọlik binyere ngwa ọrụ dị ike site na ụlọ ụka ụka dị iche iche iji mee ka omume Katọlik dịghachi ọhụrụ ma belata usoro mbibi nke okpukpe. N'ime usoro ịgbaziri ego a site na ụwa ụka na Pentikọstal ọ bara uru ịkọba mkpa ọ dị otu ụzọ: usoro ọmụmụ Alfa (Rigou Chemin 2011; Labarbe, 2007; Stout and Dein 2013). Ngwaọrụ izisa ozi ọma a, nke ejiri ntụkwasị obi ọ na-anwa ịkwalite na usoro nhazi ya dị mma, yiri nke Pentikọstal n'ihi na ọ na-elekwasị anya n'ozi ya na ịme mmekọrịta onwe onye na Kraịst, ịgụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ, na "inweta" Mmụọ. Ebe o bidoro na London Anglican parish nke Holy Trinity Brampton (HTB) n’afọ 1977, ọganiihu ya agbasaala ụwa niile na n’obodo Ndị Kraịst dị iche iche. Ọ rụọla ọrụ dị mkpa na ọkwa atọ: ịgbasa omume na ngwa ọrụ mgbasa ozi na ụwa Katọlik, iwulite njikọ nke ngwakọta ofufe mba ụwa nke ndị isi, yana itinye usoro nzukọ ọgbakọ parish ọhụrụ.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

"Nwa nke Pentikọstalism" n'okwu Christine Pina (2001: 26), ihe na-adọrọ adọrọ nwere njikọ chiri anya na ngalaba a nke Protestantism ebe ọ bụ na ọ lebara anya na omume nke charisms: glossolalia (Aubourg 2014b), amụma (McGuire 1977), ọgwụgwọ (Csordas 1983; Charuty 1990; Ugeux 2002). O kwusiri ike na etiti ederede Akwụkwọ Nsọ, ntụgharị (ma ọ bụ nlọghachị), na mkpọsa doro anya nke kerygma (ozi nke gbadoro ụkwụ na "Jizọs Kraịst nwụrụ n'obe maka nzọpụta nke mmadụ"). Ọzọkwa, na Pentikọstalism, òtù na-adọrọ adọrọ mere ka ekwupụta na ịdị adị nke Setan na ngosipụta nke mmụọ ọjọọ ya. O mere ihe banyere arịrịọ maka ịpụ apụ ma gosipụta onwe ya dị ka ụzọ isi lụso ọgụ megide iyi amoosu (Sagne 1994).

Otú ọ dị, site ná mmalite njikọ metụtara Pentikọstal welitere ajụjụ, ndị Katọlik enweghị afọ ojuju nanị i copyomi ụzọ ya. Institutionlọ chọọchị ahụ lebara anya na ịtọ ha site na iwepụta ụfọdụ ihe, dị ka isi ọnwụ na okwu apocalyptic, na-akwado ndị ọzọ dị ka ịkwanyere ndị isi na ndị isi.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Ihe mmeghari obi nke Charismatic gunyere otutu ndi di iche iche site na uwa dum ndi n’acho oge di iche iche di iche iche: nzuko ekpere, nzuko, mgbako, mgbagha ime mmuo, ulo akwukwo ikwusa ozi oma, ulo akwukwo, obodo ohuru, wdg. A na-ahazi ala mara mma gburugburu ụdị okpukpe abụọ: obodo na otu ekpere (Vetö 2012). [Foto dị n'aka nri]

Otu ekpere di iche iche anaghi achosi ike n’aka ndi otu ha ma hapu isi na ndu ndi uka. Agbanyeghị na ndị na-ege ha ntị na-emegharị emegharị ma na-agagharị agagharị, otu ekpere dị iche iche gbalịsiri ike ịhazi onwe ha site na ịtọlite ​​ngalaba na-achịkọta mba. Otu onye ọzụzụ atụrụ nke isi gbara ya gburugburu na-edu otu ekpere dị iche iche. N'ọtụtụ ikpe, ndị a bụ ndị nkịtị ndị otu ndị ọzọ họpụtara. Dị ka nzukọ Pentikọstal, otu ekpere ndị Katọlik bidoro na-agba ume ka ha nwee mmekọrịta ịhụnanya. Ekpere na-adọrọ adọrọ na-etinye uche dị ukwuu na mmetụta uche nke okpukpe, ihe akaebe dị adị n'ezie, na nkwupụta okwukwe n'efu. Ahụ mmadụ na-arụ ọrụ dị mkpa site n’abụ ndị na-ada ụda, ịgba egwú, na ọtụtụ mmegharị na ọnọdụ ndị dị ka ịkụ aka ma ọ bụ ibuli aka elu.

Ọ bụ ezie na enweghị uche bụ ihe dị mkpa nke ekpere na-adọrọ adọrọ, nke ikpeazụ na-agbaso usoro a na-eme kwa izu ọ bụla: nnọkọ ahụ na-amalite site na ekpere otuto na-esote otu ma ọ bụ karịa ọgụgụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ. Ọ na-agwụ site n’ekpere ọnụ nke ịrịọchitere arịrịọ na ibikwasị aka n’isi ndị ahụ chọrọ ya. Ukwe na ihe ngosi mara mma na-emetụta nzukọ (Parasie 2005).

Obodo di iche-iche putara ihe ma hazie nke oma karia otu ekpere. Ha na-ekwu kpọmkwem atụmatụ ha akọwapụtara na ibe ha. Mmekọrịta asọmpi na-etolite n'etiti ha kamakwa n'ihe metụtara otu ekpere ndị kwụ ọtọ. Fọdụ na-enye ndụ mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya (dịka Okwu Chineke na United States, Béatitudes na Pain de Vie na France) ebe ndị ọzọ (dị ka Emmanuel) na-enye ụzọ ndụ anaghị egbochi mmadụ. Usoro abụọ na-arụ ọrụ na otu okpukperechi ndị a, nke Thomas Csordas kọwara na "ritualization na radicalization nke charisma" (Csordas 2012: 100-30). Site n'echiche nchịkwa ha edugawo na nnweta nke ụkpụrụ iwu (ụlọ akwụkwọ okpukpe; mkpakọrịta onwe ma ọ bụ mkpakọrịta ọha na eze nke ndị na-efe ofufe nke iwu diocesan ma ọ bụ iwu ndị isi na-achị). Obodo ndị a na-enye ụzọ ọhụụ nke ibikọ ọnụ ebe ụfọdụ jikọtara ọnụ (ndị nwoke na ndị nwanyị / ndị ụkọchukwu na ndị nkịtị / ndị Katọlik na ndị Protestant) ebe ndị ọzọ nabatara di na nwunye na ụmụ ha. Imirikiti n'ime ha na-agba ndị otu ha ume ka ha yi uwe dị iche ma ọ bụ akara ngosi: otu ụdị na agba nke uwe, obe a na-ewu ewu n'olu, akpụkpọ ụkwụ, wdg. , na ibu ọrụ nke anụ ahụ (Dolbeau 2019).

Ewezuga omume na nkwenkwe Pentikọstal, ọtụtụ obodo ndị na-esite na Charismatic Renewal ejiriwo usoro iwu siri ike, bụ nke e ji mara ozi ọma. Ndị a gụnyere katọrọ omume e weere dị ka omume rụrụ arụ, dị ka ịkwa iko; amachibidoro iji ụtaba eme ihe; enweghị ntụkwasị obi nke egwu, na ọkachasị egwu rock; machibido ịgba chaa chaa; na nkatọ nke yoga, ịgụ kpakpando nke mmụọ, ma ọ bụ nke ime mmụọ (Otú ọ dị, e nwere gradation n'etiti obodo ndị na-akatọ omume ndị dị otú ahụ na ndị na-adịghị akatọ ha). N'elu oke okpukperechi nke okpukperechi, mgbanwe nke ihe omuma nke ime baptism na Mo Nso bu ihe emetuta ndu nile nke ndi Katolik a gbanwee, site na mmekorita nke ndi mmadu na omume ha na ndu nke ubochi. Ethkpụrụ omume a na-emetụtakwa mmekọrịta nwoke na nwanyị.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Mgbe ebula ụzọ kpọọ onwe ya "Pentikọstal Katọlik," "neo-Pentikọstalism," ma ọ bụ "ngagharị Pentikọstal na Catholicka Katọlik" (O'Connor 1975: 18), a kpọrọ òtù ndị na-adọrọ adọrọ dị ka "mmeghari ohuru nke Charismatic." A na-akpọkarị ya “mmeghari ohuru.” Aha ya ma e wezụga, enwere arụmụka na-aga n'ihu n'etiti ndị ọkà mmụta, dị ka Thomas Csordas, bụ ndị kwenyere na enwere ike ịkọwapụta mmeghari ohuru nke Katọlik dị ka mmegharị (n'echiche nke mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya), na ndị isi nke otu okpukperechi a, ndị na-ajụ jikọtara ya na ụdị edemede a (Csordas 2012: 43).

Na mbu, ulo uka Roman Katoliki lere “mmeghari ohuru” a anya nke oma n’enwekwu obi abua, obuna ihe ojo. Echere na enweghi ike ịchịkwa ya na ihe ọhụụ ọhụụ pụtara na ọ nwere ike imebi usoro ụlọ ọrụ. E mekwara ngagharị a n'ihi enweghị mmasị ya n'okpukpe nke mmụọ mmetụta mmụọ nke yiri ka ọ na-ewetu aka na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya yana nke mmụọ mpako nke ndị ọhụụ ọhụrụ a gosipụtara onwe ha dịka "ọdịnihu nke Churchka." Na Mee 18 na 19, 1975, na mmemme Pentikọst, mmadụ iri na abụọ sitere na mba iri isii sonyere na nzukọ nke International Congress of the Catholic Charismatic Renewal nke emere na Rome. [Ihe osise dị n'aka nri] Pope Paul nke Isii jụrụ ha ajụjụ a, nke ga-agbada n'ahọ mmeghari ohuru ahụ: "Olee ka mmegharị ọhụụ a ghara ịbụ ohere nye Churchka na ụwa? Oleekwa otú, na nke a, mmadụ agaghị enwe ike iwere usoro niile dị mkpa iji hụ na ọ ka dị? ” Site n'ịkpọ mmeghari ohuru ahụ “ohere,” ọ bụghị naanị na Pope nyere ọmarịcha ngagharị ahụ ọ tụrụ anya na ọ tụrụ anya ya, ọ gbakwara ume ka e mepụta "oge opupu ihe ubi ọhụrụ nke Churchka." Ka o sina dị, nkwado a maka Charismatic Renewal nwere, ebe ọ bụ na 12,000, na-esonyere ya site na nchịkwa nke njikọ chiri anya na usoro dị egwu nke Nmeghari ohuru. E mepụtara ọtụtụ akwụkwọ na ebumnuche nke ịhazi omume ịtọ ụtọ, dị ka nke Léon-Joseph Suenens, Kadịnal nke Mechelen-Brussels dere. Ndị popu na-aga n'ihu anọgide na-akwado Charismatic Renewal ebe ha na-enye ya iwu mgbe niile iji chebe njirimara Katọlik ya. [Foto dị n'aka nri]

Na ọkwa mba ụwa, ebe ị na-ajụ ịtọlite ​​usoro ọchịchị mba ụwa, Charismatic Renewal nwetara ọfịs na-ahazi ụwa, nke bụ 1981 mara dịka ICCRO (International Catholic Charismatic Renewal Offices). Site na Ann Arbor ebe Ralph Martin nọ na-ahụ maka onye na-ahụ maka mmekọrịta na akwụkwọ ozi, na 1975, e zigara ọfịs ahụ na bishọp nke Mechelen-Brussels, na 1982 gaa Rome, na ụlọ nke nwere Pontifical Council for the Laity ( ka dicastery dochie ya na 2016). Ndị nke ikpeazụ ghọtara ya na 1983 (dịka mkpakọrịta nke ndị na-efe ofufe nke nwere ikike iwu). E degharịrị nzukọ ahụ ICCRS (International Catholic Charismatic Renewal Services), ebumnuche ya bụ ịkwalite mmekọrịta dị n'etiti ụlọ ọrụ Katọlik na-adọrọ adọrọ yana mmekọrịta na Holy See. Na 2018, CHARIS (Catholic Charismatic Renewal International Service) dochiri ICCRS. Ọ na-egosi onwe ya dị ka "nzukọ udo ọ bụghị otu na-achị isi, ”na-ekwughachi usoro ọchịchị ya. [Foto dị n'aka nri]

N’ime obodo, ndị bishọp na-ahọpụta “ndị nnọchi dayọsis” na diọcese ha: ndị ụkọchukwu, ndị deacon, ma ọ bụ ndị nkịtị nke ọrụ ha bụ iso ndị otu Charismatic Renewal.

Banyere obodo ndị ka ukwuu, mmekọrịta nke ikike n'etiti ha emeela ka arụmụka na nyocha (Plet 1990).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

N'ikpeazụ, nsogbu abụọ yiri ka ha na-eche CCR ihu na inwe mmetụta na mmepe ya, ma ọ bụrụ na ọ bụghị nlanarị. Ihe ịma aka nke mbụ metụtara ọnọdụ ya n'okpukpe. Site na mmalite ya ruo ugbu a, CCR na-agagharị n'etiti mmiri Protestant n'otu akụkụ na mmiri Katọlik n'akụkụ nke ọzọ. O site na mgbe mbu (Pentikostalism) gbazinye ihe ndi n’enye ya ihe odide ya ma hu na ya di ike, n’otu oge ahu o doworo onodu ya n’ime ndi Katoliki, si otua huu na ogadigide ya. Esemokwu a dị n'etiti ụwa abụọ n'okpukpe abụọ (Protestantism na Katọlik) jikọtara nke ọma na esemokwu dị n'etiti ikike na ụlọ ọrụ nke emeela ka ọ pụta ìhè na mmekọrịta ọha na eze nke okpukpe.

Ihe ịma aka nke abụọ metụtara mmekọrịta ọha na eze ya. Na Europe, klaasị na nke elu ahapụla otu ekpere diọcese, nke ọzọ, na-anabata ndị otu sitere na ndị si mba ọzọ na ndị ọbịa. Banyere obodo ọhụrụ, ha na-adọta klas ndị ahụ dị elu na nghọta "ọdịnala" siri ike. N'ikwu okwu n'ozuzu, mmasị ndị ọdịda anyanwụ na CCR na-ebelata. Ntughari a kwekọrọ na isi ihe na Katọlik nke oge a nke hụworo na uto ya na mba ndị na-eto eto na-agbakọta ngwa ngwa, ebe enwere ike ịda mbà na West.

Enwere ike ịchọta ọtụtụ ihe dị mkpa gbasara profaịlụ sociocultural nke ndị otu Katọlik na-adọrọ adọrọ:

Dị ka Jacques Zylberberg na Pauline Côté si kwuo, omume na-adọrọ adọrọ na Quebec dọtara ọtụtụ ụmụ nwanyị, ndị toro eto, ndị na-alụbeghị di na mbụ. Ha kwusiri ike na ọrụ dị mkpa nke ndị mọnk na ndị nọn na-arụ n'ime njem ahụ, yana ịba ụba nke ndị klas na isi nke echiche ọdịbendị gbasara akụ na ụba (Côté na Zylberberg 1990: 82). Na United States, Ntughari ohuru nke ndi isi ocha (McGuire 1982). Ekwesiri ikwusi ike na, dika Bernard Ugeux si kwuo, a mụrụ mmeghari ohuru ahụ na North America n'otu oge na n'otu ọnọdụ mmekọrịta mmekọrịta ọha na eze dịka ọtụtụ mmegharị okpukpe ọhụrụ nke emesịrị mata na New Age. Na France, na mbụ Charismatic Renewal rutere ndị mmadụ sitere na nzụlite mmekọrịta dịgasị iche iche na ọkachasị ndị otu abụọ na-abụghị: etiti na elu, na ndị a na-emekpa ahụ (ndị na-enweghị ebe obibi, ndị ọrịa psychiatric, ndị na-eme njem azụ azụ, ndị ọgwụ ọjọọ riri ahụ, ndị jụrụ akọ na uche) Otutu ndi ndu ndi ohuru, sitere na ndi elu na etiti.

Ka oge na-aga, ụdị ndị bi na Renewal agbanweela. N'oge a, ndị si na Latin America na Haiti na-etinye aka na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na Quebec (Boucher 2021) na United States (Pérez 2015: 196). Na Fransị, ndị si mba Creole na Afrịka na mba ndị ọzọ kwagara mba dị iche iche na-esokarị n'òtù ekpere. Ọhụrụ nwere ọ fọrọ nke nta ka ọ pụọ n'anya n'ime ime obodo na mpaghara elu dị elu na-achịkwa obodo ndị mara mma (Emmanuel na Chemin Neuf). Akụkọ banyere Charismatic Renewal na Mascarene Islands (Mauritius, Réunion) [Foto dị n'aka nri] na-egosi ụdị mgbanwe yiri ya: ndị otu "ọcha" n'etiti ndị malitere ọrụ mmụọ na-adọrọ adọrọ ugbu a na-anọghị na Renewal dị iche iche, yana ndị nke ikpeazụ ihe ka ọtụtụ n'ime ndị òtù ha sitere na Africa na Malagasy Creoles ndị si na nzụlite mmekọrịta ọha na eze siri ike karị (Aubourg 2014a). N'Africa na Latin America, mmeghari ohuru nke Charismatic di n'otu uzo ndi mmadu dika Pentikọstalism; ọ na-agụnye ndị dị n'etiti ma karịa ndị nkịtị niile dị mfe.

Ndị otu Charismatic Renewal na-anọchite anya ọdịnala ọdịnala na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ugbu a n'ime Chọọchị? Na United States azịza nye ajụjụ a bụ ee ee. Thetù na-adọrọ adọrọ hụrụ ka ọnụ ọgụgụ ya na-eto, dịka ọmụmaatụ, ọbịbịa nke ndị gbara ọsọ ndụ Nicaraguan, bụ ndị na-emegide ọchịchị Sandinista, na ndị Lebanọn, bụ ndị nwere echiche ọdịnala banyere alụmdi na nwunye na omume mmekọahụ. Banyere ndi hiwere otu okwu Chineke, o nweghi isi na ndi hippie. Na France, azịza nke ajụjụ a dịkarịsịrị karịa na enwere nnukwu agbụrụ (Onye mmeri na Cohen 1993; Pina 2001: 30). Imirikiti ndị guzobere obodo kwenyere n'echiche nke May 1968 (na-achọ ijide onwe ya, ime ihe ike, ịkatọ ọha mmadụ na-azụ ahịa) na nhọrọ ndị Vatican II mere (na-akwanye ndị nkịtị, ecumenism, nzukọ na-abụghị nke hierarchical). N'aka nke ọzọ, obodo mepere emepe nke na-agbachitere ọkwá ọdịnala Katọlik n'ihe metụtara mmekọahụ na omume ezinụlọ, na-agbatịpụ onwe ha na Protestantism, bụ ndị ịtụ vootu ndọrọ ndọrọ nke ndị otu ha dabere n'aka nri. Obodo Emmanuel bụ ihe atụ nke a (Itzhak 2014). Banyere otu ekpere kwurula, ihe e ji mara ha bụ enweghị ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. Dị ka Pentikọst ndị mbụ na-efegharị efegharị, ndị Katọlik a na-adọrọ adọrọ na-akwado ikpe ekpere banyere “ụwa”

Foto

Image # 1: France, otu ekpere, 2019.
Foto # 2: Rome, nke mbụ nzukọ mba ụwa na-adọrọ adọrọ, 1975,
Foto #3: Paul VI na Ralph Martin, Steve Clark na Ndị ndu ọhụụ, 1973.
Image # 4: CHARIS, 2020.

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Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
3 March 2021

 

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