Jonathan Ugochukwu

Shirdi Sai Baba


SHIRDI SAI BABA TIMELINE

1838: Dị ka Shri Sai Satcharita 10: 43, Shirdi Sai Baba amụrụ ya n'ihe dịka afọ 1838 (yabụ, 1760 na oge Shaka).

1886: Shirdi Sai Baba nwere ọrịa ụkwara ume ọkụ wee kwupụta na ya ga-abanye n'ọnọdụ itinye uche miri emi, ma ọ bụ samadhi. O biliri n’ụdị ọnwụ ya dịka ụbọchị atọ ka emechara.

1892: Shirdi Sai Baba ji ọkụ rụọ oriọna na ụlọ alakụba ya na mmiri kama mmanụ. Rịba ama na BV Narasimhaswami's Ndụ nke Sai Baba na-ekwusi ike na ihe omume a mere na 1892, ebe Shri Sai Satcharita na-akọwa ihe omume a na-enweghị ịkọwa ụbọchị.

1903: GD Sahasrabuddhe, onye a na-akpọ Das Ganu Maharaj, dere Shri Santakathamrita, ihe odide hagiographical Marathi na isi iri isii na otu na ndị nsọ dị iche iche nke Hindu. Isi nke iri ise na asaa nke ọrụ a bụ ihe mbụ edepụtara banyere Shirdi Sai Baba.

1906: GD Sahasrabuddhe (Das Ganu Maharaj) dere Shri Bhaktililamrita, ihe odide hagiographical Marathi na isi iri anọ na ise na ndị nsọ Hindu dị iche iche. Isi nke iri atọ na otu, iri atọ na abụọ, na iri atọ na atọ nke ọrụ a lekwasịrị anya na Shirdi Sai Baba.

1916: GR Dabholkar, onye amara aha ya bụ Hemadpant, lara ezumike nká n'ọkwa ya dị ka onye ọka ikpe nke klaasị mbụ, emesịa ọ malitere ide Shri Sai Satcharita, ederede Marathi hagiographic nke a na-ahụkarị ka ọ bụ isi kachasị ikike na ndụ Shirdi Sai Baba.

1918 (October 15): Shirdi Sai Baba nwụrụ (ma ọ bụ kama nke ahụ, ọ nwetara zuru ezu na nke ikpeazụ n'ime Chineke (mahasamadhi)) na Shirdi na Vijayadashami (ya bụ, Dussehra). Ekwenyere na ọ dị ihe dị ka afọ iri asatọ.

1918: Obere oge mgbe Shirdi Sai Baba nwụsịrị, GD Sahasrabuddhe (Das Ganu Maharaj) dere abụ nke amaokwu 163 a maara dị ka Shri Sainatha Stavanamanjari.

1925: GD Sahasrabuddhe (onye a na-akpọ Das Ganu Maharaj) dere Shri Bhaktisaramrita, ihe odide hagiographical Marathi na isi iri isii na isi dị iche iche nke ndị nsọ Hindu. Isi nke iri ise na abụọ na iri ise na atọ nke ọrụ a lekwasịrị anya na Shirdi Sai Baba, ebe Isi nke iri abụọ na isii kọọrọ akụkọ banyere Venkusha, ọnụ ọgụgụ enigmatic ụfọdụ na-akọwa dị ka guru nke Sai Baba.

1922: Na iwu nke Districtlọikpe Mpaghara Ahmednagar, e hiwere Shri Saibaba Sansthan na Trust iji lekọta ọrụ omume na ego nke ili Sai Baba na Samadhi Mandir na Shirdi.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

N'ime narị afọ gara aga, Shirdi Sai Baba (afọ 1918) abụrụla otu n'ime ndị ama ama na mpaghara okpukpe Eshia South. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ọ dịrị ndụ n'etiti ngwụsị narị afọ nke iri na itoolu na mmalite narị afọ nke iri abụọ na ụlọ alakụba jọgburu onwe ya na obere obodo Shirdi na ókèala nke Ahmednagar District na Bombay Presidency nke British India. Karịsịa n'ime iri afọ abụọ gara aga nke ndụ ya, Shirdi Sai Baba nwetara ugwu niile na mpaghara ahụ maka inye ngọzi n'ụzọ ọrụ ebube nke nwere ike ịkọwa ụdị nsogbu ọ bụla. Akụkụ ọzọ nke ọkwá ya na-ewu ewu bụ aha ya dị ka onye senti, na omume ndị jikọtara ọdịnala Hindu na nke Alakụba na ozizi ndị na-emesi ịdị elu nke Chineke ike.

A bịara mara onye bi na ụlọ alakụba na-adịghị mma nke Shirdi “Sai Baba,” aha jikọtara echiche nke ịdị nsọ (aha, sai) yana mmetụta nna nke ịhụnanya na nlekọta maka ndị ọzọ (okwu adabaghị na ya, baba). Ndị ọkà mmụta ekwuola na Sai bụ ihe ewepụtara sa'ih, okwu Persia maka onye Alakụba "na-awagharị" (Rigopulous 1993: 3; Warren 2004: 35-36). Hafọdụ ndị na-ede akwụkwọ akụkọ na-atụ aro na Sai nwere njikọ na okwu Sanskrit swami, nke pụtara "nna ukwu" (Chaturvedi na Rahula 2000: 38), ma ọ bụ gloss sai dị ka nkwekọrịta nke sakshat ishwar, nke pụtara "Chineke mere ka ọ pụta ìhè" (Sharma 2012: 1). Akwụkwọ Hagiographic na-akpọkwa Sai Baba n'ụzọ ntụgharị dị ka avatar, guru na fakir, nke ikpeazụ bụ okwu maka onye nrụgide Muslim nke Sai Baba ji kọwaa onwe ya oge ụfọdụ. Akwụkwọ akụkọ Hagiographic na agụmakwụkwọ na-akpọ Sai Baba dị ka onye senti iji kọwaa ọnọdụ ya dị ka onye okpukpe nwere mmụọ na-adọrọ adọrọ.

A maghị ọmụmụ Shirdi Sai Baba na afọ ndị mbụ ya, ma ọ bụ karịa, nke a bụ ọnọdụ nke ọrụ ọrụ abụ mara mma nke GR Dabholkar Shri Sai Satcharita (1930). Dabholkar na-ekwu na Satcharita 4: 113, 115: “Ebe nna, usoro ọmụmụ ya, na njirimara nke nne na nna ya - ọ nweghị onye maara ihe ọ bụla gbasara ihe ndị a… …hapụ nne na nna ya, ndị ọ hụrụ n'anya, yana mmekọrịta niile ya na ndị ọzọ n'ụwa, o gosipụtara Shirdi maka ọdịmma nke mmadụ. ” Ederede ahụ, na-eme atụmatụ na Sai Baba ga-abụrịrị ihe dị ka afọ iri asatọ mgbe ọ nwụrụ na 1918, si otú a tinye ọmụmụ ya n'ihe dịka afọ 1838 (Lee, Satcharita 10:43). Ọrụ hagiographic mbụ, Das Ganu Maharaja's Bhaktililamrita (1906), na-akọ na Sai Baba kwuru otu oge na-enweghị isi banyere mmalite ya, na-ekwu na ụwa bụ obodo ya nakwa na Brahma na maya bụ nna ya na nne ya (Lee, Bhaktililamrita 31: 20).

Otutu ihe omuma ndi ozo banyere omumu onye nso na mmalite nke mbu sitere n'aka hagiographer BV Narasimhaswami (1874-1956), onye edemede nke ederede olu abuo n'asusu Bekee, Ndụ nke Sai Baba (1955-1969). Ederede a, nke na-achọ iwebata isiokwu ya nye ndị na-ege ntị gafee India, nwere ọtụtụ ọdịnaya ahụ ewepụtara na ọrụ hagiographic mbụ, mana ọ na-esitekwa na nyocha nke onye edemede nke ya na ajụjụ ọnụ ya na ndị na-efe ya maara Sai Baba mgbe onye nsọ dị ndụ. Otu ihe omuma banyere ozi ohuru a bu ihe akaebe nke Mhalsapati, otu n'ime ndi mbu nke Sai Baba, onye nuru ka anuru Sai Baba ka o na-akpọ onwe ya Brahmin si Pathri, obere obodo di ihe dika 250 kilomita na owuwa anyanwu nke Shirdi. Kedu ihe na-akpata Narasimhaswami's Ndụ nke Sai Baba bu ihe ohuru banyere nchikota nke onye nso: omumu ya na nne na nna Brahmin; obere oge ya na nlekọta onye na-amaghị Muslim fakir (ikekwe Sufi, Narasimhaswami tụrụ aro); ya na onye nkuzi Brahmin aha ya bụ Venkusha. Nke a n'egosi mgbanwe mgbanwe hagiographic na nkọwapụta nke Shirdi Sai Baba: site na “ma onye Hindu ma onye Alakụba” na Satcharita na Marathi ndị ọzọ na-arụ ọrụ na nke dị na ya Ndụ nke Sai Baba onye ghọrọ "ma onye Hindu ma onye Alakụba," bụ ezigbo atụmanya nke olileanya Narasimhaswami maka ọdịnihu nke ọdịnala nke okpukperechi na India ọhụrụ (Loar 2018). A zụlitere nzụlite a site na Sathya Sai Baba nke Puttaparthi (1926-2011), nkwuputa ekwuputara onwe ya nke Shirdi's mendicant. Site na mkpughe e nyere ndị na-efe ya, Sathya Sai Baba na-agbakwunye akụkọ ọdịnala na mmalite nke onye bu ya ụzọ, gụnyere echiche nke chi Hindu Shiva kwere nkwa ịmụ nwa dịka nwa nke di na nwunye Brahmin na-amụtaghị nwa aha ha bụ Ganga Bhavadiya na Devagiriamma (lee nkọwa zuru ezu na Rigopoulos 1993 Nke a Ọ bụ ezie na nkọwa nke Narasimhaswami na Sathya Sai Baba nke Shirdi Sai Baba mgbe ụfọdụ na-apụta na ederede na ihe nkiri oge a, ekwesiri iburu n'uche na ọtụtụ ndị na-efe ofufe na-anọgide na-ejide Dabholkar Satcharita na nkowa ya banyere nne na nna amaghi aka nke nne na nna dika akuko kachasi ike na oge a nke ndu ya. Shri Saibaba Sansthan na Trust, nke na-elekọta ili nsọ ahụ na Shirdi, na-ebute ozi sitere n'aka Dabholkar Satcharita, Kwa.

Ihe ndekọ dị iche iche nke ọmụmụ Shirdi Sai Baba na afọ ndị mbụ n'agbanyeghị na, enwere nkwekọ n'etiti isi mmalite hagiographic banyere isi ihe mere na ndụ ya mgbe ọ bịarutere Shirdi n'ihe dị ka afọ 1858. Nke a bụ ụbọchị e kenyere na ya zutere nwoke Alakụba. akpọrọ Chand Patil, onye ọrụ obodo si Dhupkheda n'ihe dị ka 100 kilomita ọdịda anyanwụ ọdịda anyanwụ Shirdi. N’oge ahụ, Patil na-achọ ịnyịnya ya n’ime ime obodo. Ọ hụrụ otu nwa okorobịa yi uwe ndị Alakụba fakir, ya bụ, okpu (topi) na uwe ogologo (kafni), nọ ọdụ n'okpuru osisi mango ma na-ese anwụrụ ụtaba na chillum. N'ime mkparịta ụka, fakir gwara Patil ebe ọ ga - achọta ịnyịnya ahụ na-efu efu na rivulet dị nso. Ihe ọzọ na-eju anya bụ Patil bụ fakir na-ewepụsị nkụ na-enwu ọkụ n'ala wee jiri osisi na-akụ ala na-adọpụta mmiri. Ihe omume abuo ndia nile g’enyere onye nso aka smoking smokinguri oria ya. Ná ngwụsị nke nzukọ ha, Patil kpọrọ nwa okorobịa ahụ ka ọ bịakwute obodo ya Dhupkheda wee kpọọ ya na Shirdi, ebe ndị ikwu Patil na-eme njem maka agbamakwụkwọ. Mgbe m rutere Shirdi, onye na-elekọta ụlọ nsọ obodo Khandoba, Mhalsapati hụrụ nwatakịrị ahụ bụ onye kpọrọ oku sị, “Sai, biko bịa” (ya sai). Site taa, Sai Baba nke Shirdi biri na obodo ndi aha ya.

Sai Baba nọrọ na afọ iri isii ya nọrọ na Shirdi dị ka onye nlezianya. Ọtụtụ n'ime oge ya nọrọ n'ụlọ alakụba ya nke a maara dị ka Dwarkamai, na-anọdụ ala na ntụgharị uche n'ihu ọkụ ya dị nsọ (dhuni) ma na-agagharị n'obodo nta mgbe ụfọdụ. Ndị bi na Shirdi buru ụzọ nọrọ ebe dị anya site na ndị nsọ ahụ ruo mgbe ngosipụta abụọ nke ike ọrụ ebube mere ka ọ dị elu n'ihu ọha. Isi ọrụ ebube nke mbụ mere n'afọ 1886 mgbe onye nsọ ahụ tara ahụhụ nke ụkwara ume ọkụ ma kwupụta na ya ga-eji aka ya banye wee laghachi n'ọnọdụ ntụgharị uche yiri ọnwụ nke samadhi n'ime awa iri asaa na abụọ. Fọdụ kwenyesiri ike na Shirdi Sai Baba nwụrụ n'ezie ma kwaga lie ya, mana onye nsọ ahụ laghachiri na ndụ ụbọchị atọ ka e mesịrị, dịka o kwere ná nkwa. Isi ọrụ ebube nke abụọ, nke mere na 1892, bụ ọrụ ebube nke itinye oriọna n'ụlọ alakụba ya na mmiri kama mmanụ. Mgbe ndị na-ere ahịa Shirdi ghagha ụgha banyere inweta mmanụ ha na-enye mgbe niile dị ka onyinye, Sai Baba laghachiri n'ụlọ alakụba ya wee gwakọta mmiri na obere mmanụ fọdụrụnụ, drankụọ ngwakọta dị ka onyinye okpukpe (Lee, Satcharita 5: 109), ma rụọ ọrụ ebube ọkụ ụlọ alakụba oriọna. Dabere na Das Ganu Maharaj, ihe omume a bụ ihe butere echiche ọha mmadụ banyere onye nsọ site na "onye ara" na "Chineke n'elu ụwa" (Lee, Bhaktalilamrita 31: 35, 46).

Ọrụ ebube abụọ a dabara na iwebata mmadụ abụọ dị mkpa n'ime obodo ofufe: NG Chandorkar na GD Sahasrabuddhe. Chandorkar, onye nchikota ndi ochichi nke zutere onye nso a na 1892, kwalitere ndi oru ebube di otutu n'etiti otutu ndi enyi ya na ndi ozo (dika ndi ode akwukwo, ndi nlekota ndi uwe ojii, ndi oka iwu, ndi ikpe). Mmetụta ya dị ukwuu nke na akpọrọ ya "onye mbụ na ndịozi Baba niile" na "Paul's St. Paul" (Narasimhaswami 2004: 249). Chandorkar kwenyesiri ike na Sahasrabuddhe, onye uwe ojii nwere ikike dị ukwuu maka ide abụ uri dị iche iche, ileta Shirdi n'ihe dị ka afọ 1894. Usoro oku dị nso gosipụtara Sahasrabuddhe na Shirdi Sai Baba na-echebe ya pụọ ​​na ụfọdụ nsogbu. N'ịhapụ onye uwe ojii, Sahasrabuddhe chere na senti ahụ na-akwaga ya na ọkpụkpọ dị elu, ya bụ, idekọ ndụ ndị nsọ. Ọ nakweere aha njirimara Das Ganu Maharaj wee dee ya Santakathamrita (1903), nke nwere isi nke ghọrọ akụkọ izizi ederede banyere nkuzi Sai Baba. Ọrụ hagiographic ọzọ gbasoro, ọkachasị Bhaktililamrita (1906) na Bhaktisaramrita (1926), tinyere ọtụtụ ọrụ a rụrụ ọnụ na ọrụ ya dị ka kirtankar nwere ọgụgụ isi.

Onye ọzọ dị mkpa na onye na-ede akwụkwọ akụkọ bụ Abdul, onye bịarutere Shirdi na 1889 na-aga Chandorkar na Sahasrabuddhe. Abdul bụ ezigbo onye na-efe senti ma na-elekọta ili ya obere oge tupu e guzobe Shri Saibaba Sansthan na ntụkwasị obi na 1922. Akwụkwọ ederede Abdul ji aka ya dee nke nwere nkuzi ndị mmụọ nsọ nke Sufi pụtara nke ọma na ntụgharị asụsụ Marianne Warren Na-ekpughe Enigma: Shirdi Sai Baba na Ìhè nke Sufism, nke izizi bipụtara na 1999 na emesịa dị ka mbipute edegharịrị na 2004. Akwụkwọ ndetu bụ isi ihe na-egosi na arụmụka Warren na Sai Baba bụ n'ezie nwoke dị nsọ nke Sufi nakwa na ihe nketa ya sitere n'aka Hindu site n'aka ndị Hindu-dere hagiography na-eso ya ọnwụ.

N'ime afọ iri abụọ gara aga nke ndụ Sai Baba, ọtụtụ ndị mmadụ malitere ịbịakwa Shirdi, gụnyere otu n'ime ndị na-achịkọta ndị isi na ndị nchịkwa na mpaghara Ahmednagar HV Sathe (1904); onye ọka iwu SB Dhumal si Nashik (1907); onye-ikpe-ikpe Tatyasaheb Noolkar si Pandharpur (1908); onye ọka iwu Bombay a ma ama HS Dixit (1909); onye ọka iwu Amravati na onye ndọrọndọrọ ọchịchị GS Khaparde (1910); na nke mbụ na klas ikpe na Satcharita onye edemede GR Dabholkar si Bandra (1910). Na 1930, ndị a gbara ajụjụ ọnụ site na Narasimhaswami, onye bipụtara mgbe ahụ Ahụmahụ ndị na-efe ofufe nke Sri Sai Baba (1940) dika mkpokọta nke akaebe mmadụ iri asaa na iteghete gbasara ọrụ ebube na nkuzi ndị senti. Ọrụ a na-enye ihe ngosi dị mkpa nke Sai Baba dị ka ndị na-efe ofufe maara mmụọ nsọ mgbe ọ dị ndụ, mana ekwesịrị ịkọwa ya ọzọ site na eziokwu ahụ bụ na ọtụtụ olu bụ ụmụ akwụkwọ gụrụ akwụkwọ, ndị nwere nnukwu okpuru Hindu sitere na klaasị ndị ọchịchị. .

Ọchịchị Shirdi Sai Baba na-ewu ewu na mpaghara na-adaba na mmụba nke akụkọ banyere ọrụ ebube ya, ọtụtụ n'ime ha gụnyere ngọzi iji gwọọ ọrịa ma ọ bụ chebe ndị mmadụ pụọ na mmerụ ahụ. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, isi nke iri na atọ nke Dabholkar Satcharita na-akọ akụkọ ebe Sai Baba nyere iwu ka ụzọ a na-akwadoghị wee gwọọ ọrịa dị iche iche: ịnọdụ ala n'akụkụ onye nsọ nọ n'ụlọ alakụba ya maka oriri akpa ume; inye nkịta ojii ojii n’akụkụ ụlọ nsọ Laskhmi maka ahụ ọkụ ịba; na iri nri agwakọtara akụ na mmiri ara ehi maka afọ ọsịsa. Otu isi akwukwo a gunyere nkpuru okwu ato di nkenke na nkpuru okwu yiri ya: oria nti bu “Chineke ga eme ka ihe di nma” (allah accha karega); emegharia mmeghari site na ahuekere a byara n'ulo nke ndi nso gọziri; na okwu ogologo oge nke colic gwọrọ site na ngọzi nke onye nsọ (ashirvad) gwọrọ. Narasimhaswami's Ahụmahụ Ndị Na-enye Aka na-agụnye ọtụtụ ọnụọgụ akụkọ ndị ọzọ karịrị nke a kpuchie na oke Satcharita. Onye ọka iwu SB Dhumal na-akọghachi otu esi azọpụta ya site na ịgbaso ndụmọdụ Sai Baba, n'agbanyeghị na o megidere echiche nke "ọgụgụ isi," "echiche ahụike," na "iwu nke akọ" (Narasimhawami 2008: 31). Ọtụtụ ọrụ ebube dị otu a, ọkachasị ndị metụtara ọgwụgwọ, nwere isiokwu ugboro ugboro, dị ka mgbanwe nke ekweghị ekwe nke ndị na-efe ofufe n’okwukwe na Sai Baba na ngosipụta nke ike onye senti dịka onye ka ọrụ “ọgwụike” maọbụ nke “ọdịda anyanwụ” (Hardiman 2015; Armụaka 2016).

Ihe dị ka otu ọnwa tupu Shirdi Sai Baba anwụọ, ndị na-efe ya gbajiri brik ahụ ọ tụkwasịrị n'isi ya na mberede. Onye nso a kowara ihe omume a dika imebi karma ya na onwu ya gafere. Ọ nwụrụ mgbe ọnya na-adịte aka n'ehihie nke October 15, 1918. Nke a bụ Vijayadashami, nke a makwaara dị ka Dussehra, ụbọchị ikpeazụ nke ememme ndị Hindu nke Navaratri. Mgbe ọ nwụsịrị, arụmụka bilitere ngwa ngwa n'etiti ndị Hindu na ndị Alakụba na Shirdi n'ihe banyere olili. Ndị Alakụba chọrọ ili onye nsọ ahụ na mbara ala, omenaala nke na-ewu dargah maka onye ụka Alakụba. Otú ọ dị, ndị Hindu kwusiri ike na Sai Baba chọrọ ka e lie ya n'otu nnukwu ụlọ ọ na-ewu site na Bapusaheb Buti, onye na-efe ofufe bara ọgaranya si Nagpur (Lee, Satcharita 43: 158). Onye isi ego na-ahụ maka ego nke Kopergaon dị nso mere ndokwa maka ntuli aka n'etiti ndị otu abụọ ahụ, ihe ka n'ọnụ ọgụgụ kwadoro ihu ọma ya na ụlọ Buti, nke a bịara mara dị ka Shirdi Sai Baba's Samadhi Mandir (Rigopoulos 1993: 241) Onye nsọ nsọ nke Muslim ahụ bụ Abdul ghọrọ onye na-elekọta ili ọhụrụ ahụ ruo mgbe e guzobere Shri Saibaba Sansthan na Trust na 1922.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Otu n'ime nkwenkwe bụ isi banyere Shirdi Sai Baba bụ na ọ nọchiri anya ịdị n'otu okpukpe, karịsịa n'etiti ọdịnala Hindu na ọdịnala Islam. Na Satcharita kwuru n'ọtụtụ amaokwu, karịsịa 5:24, 7:13, na 10: 119, na ọ “abụghị onye Hindu ma ọ bụ onye Alakụba.” N'ihe banyere njikọta nke Sai Baba na otu ọdịnala bụ okwu ya banyere nha anya nke echiche Hindu na nke Islam, nke otu ihe atụ bụ enweghị ọdịiche dị n'etiti Ram na Rahim gosipụtara Satcharita 10:50. Isi nke atọ nke Satcharita na-egosipụtakwa Sai Baba na-ekwupụta ịha nhatanha nke Brahmins na Pathans, ya bụ, ndị Hindu na ndị Alakụba, onye ọ bụla n'ime ha na-egosipụta otu mmụọ ofufe ofufe n'ụzọ dị iche iche. Ọ dịkwa mkpa iburu n'uche na okwu ndị a nke ịdị n'otu okpukpe na ọnọdụ nke Sai Baba hagiography sitere n'aka ndị ọkachamara na Hindu. Tụlee Satcharita 23: 4, nke onye Hindu bu ihe omuma banyere Dabholkar ji mee ka nkowa nke Hindu dozie okwu nke Sai Baba nke ji okwu ndi Islam: “Anyi nwere ike ile [Sai Baba] anya dika avatar n'ihi na o nwere ihe omuma ndia nile. Banyere onwe ya, ọ na - ekwukarị, "Abụ m ohu na ijere Chineke (Allah)."

Dabere na ọtụtụ ederede ederede, Shirdi Sai Baba abụghị onye na-ekwu ogologo okwu na nkà ihe ọmụma na nkuzi, ọ bụ ezie na ihe dịpụrụ adịpụ bụ Das Ganu. Santakathamrita (1903) nke gosipụtara ogologo mkparịta ụka onye nsọ ahụ na NG Chandorkar na brahmajnana, caitanya, na isiokwu ndị ọzọ dị na Vedanta. Kama nke ahụ, Sai Baba nyere ndị ngọzi dị mfe dị ka “Chineke ga-eme ka ọ dị mma” na “Chineke bụ nna ukwu” (allah malik). Taa, okwu Hindi nwere njikọ chiri anya na Shirdi Sai Baba bụ “nna ukwu nke ihe niile bụ otu,” ma ọ bụ sab ka malik ek hai. Ihe odide ochie Marathi abughi nke a na-ekwu ma obu na o n’enweghi ezi okwu gosi ndi nkuzi ya. Nyere okwu a aburula ebe nile na posters, kalenda, na ndi ozo ebiputara n'ile onyonyo ya, mmadu puru ighota na okwu ndia sitere na ihe onyogho nke ndi nso. A hụwo ụdị ịdị n'otu okpukpe gosipụtara na ahịrịokwu sab ka malik ek hai ka ọ na-arịọ ndị Hindu na ndị na-abụghị ndị Hindu dị ka ikike na-eme ka ịdị n'otu na-eme ka mmadụ nwee echiche dị iche na nke ndị iche iche na ndị nativist nke ụwa, dịka mba Hindu (McLain 2011, 2012).

Ndị na-efe Shirdi Sai Baba kwenyesiri ike na aha ya dị ka onye ọrụ ebube na-arụ ọrụ nke onye ọ bụla nwere ike ịgakwuru n'ụzọ dị mfe. Ihe ederede Hagiographic juputara na akaebe banyere ike ghara idi nke Sai Baba iji nyere ndi mmadu aka nsogbu di iche iche, site na oria na onodu egwu ndu rue nchegbu nke ihe, dika oru na ego. Dị ka ọtụtụ ndị dị nsọ na ọdịnala okpukpe ndịda South Asia, Shirdi Sai Baba na-erute nso mgbe ọnwụ. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, Narasimhaswami, nwere nnukwu ahụmịhe mgbanwe na ili nsọ ahụ na Shirdi na 1936, mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, ọ malitere ọrụ nke sai prachar, ma ọ bụ ebumnuche nke ime ka Sai Baba mara India dum (McLain 2016b; Loar 2018). Akwụkwọ hagiographic nke oge a na-aga n'ihu na-akọ ọrụ ebube ọhụụ enyere Shirdi Sai Baba na-enyere ndị nọ na mkpa aka ma na-agwọ ọrịa dị iche iche ma site na ọnụnọ ya ma ọ bụ iji ememe ash (udi) enwetara site na ọkụ dị nsọ (dhuni) na ụlọ alakụba Sai Baba na Shirdi (Chopra 2016). Ihe omume ebube na-enweta mgbasa ozi oge ụfọdụ, dịka ọdịdị nke Shirdi Sai Baba na ihu na mgbidi nke ụlọ nsọ dị na Mississauga, Canada (Loar 2014).

Dribanye nkwenye a na ọrụ ebube bụ mmesi obi ike iri na otu nke Shirdi Sai Baba kwuru na ọ nwụrụ tupu ọ nwụọ na 1918. Nkwenye ndị a anaghị adị n'ụdị etinyere na mbụ Marathi hagiographies, mana ha yiri ka ha enwetara site na ndenye aha ma ọ bụ nke yiri nke ahụ na Narasimhaswami's Charters na Okwu (1939), nchikota nke ihe kariri 600 aphorisms na ilu ndi enyere onye nso. Ndị na-esonụ bụ nsụgharị Bekee nke mmesi obi ike iri na otu (Rigopoulos 1993: 376):

Onye ọ bụla tụkwasịrị ụkwụ ha na ala Shirdi, ahụhụ ya ga-abịa na njedebe.

Ndi nwute ma nwute ga ebili n’ọ willụ na obi uto ozigbo ha rịrị steepụ nke ụlọ alakụba m.

M ga na-arụsi ọrụ ike ma dị ike ọbụna mgbe m hapụsịrị ahụ dị n'ụwa.

Ili m ga-agọzi ma kwuo maka mkpa nke ndị na-efe m.

Aga m arụsi ọrụ ike ma sie ike ọbụna site n'ili.

Ozu m nke si n’ili ga-ekwu okwu.

Anọ m na ndụ na-enyere ma na-eduzi ndị niile na-abịakwute m, ndị nyefere m, na ndị na-achọ ebe mgbaba m.

Ọ bụrụ na ị na-ele m anya, m na-ele gị anya.

Ọ bụrụ na ị tụkwasị m ibu gị, m ga-eburu ya.

Ọ bụrụ n’ịchọrọ ndụmọdụ na enyemaka m, a ga-enye gị ya ozigbo.

Agaghị enwe ụkọ n’ụlọ onye na-efe m.

Versionsdị nsụgharị dị iche iche nke mmesi obi ike ndị a, ma na Bekee ma ọ bụ asụsụ South Asia, na-ekesakwa na nsọpụrụ Shirdi Sai Baba. (Foto dị n'aka nri] Dịka ọmụmaatụ, nọmba mmesi obi ike asaa gụrụ ụzọ dị iche iche vis-à-vis nsụgharị dị n'elu: bhajega jo mujh ko jis bhav mein paunga us ko main us bhav mein. Nsụgharị Bekee a na-atụkarị anya nke mmesi obi ike a, nke kachasị pụta ìhè na oghere ịntanetị, bụ: "N'okwukwe ọ bụla ụmụ mmadụ na-efe m, ọbụnadị m na-enye ha ha." N'ime mmesi obi ike niile n'ụdị na asụsụ ọ bụla, isi okwu a na-ekwu na Shirdi Sai Baba bụ ụzọ dị mfe nke mmụọ. Ọ na-eje ozi dị ka onye na-emeghe ụzọ ime mmụọ nke chọrọ ịgwọ nsogbu ndị mmadụ ma kọwaa ọrụ ya n'ụzọ ziri ezi na Narasimhaswami's Charters na Okwu, # 55: “Ihe m na-eme bụ inye ngọzi.”

The Satcharita akụkọ Shirdi Sai Baba buru amụma ịlaghachi n'etiti ndị na-efe ya dị ka nwatakịrị dị afọ asatọ, mana ụfọdụ ndị na-efe ofufe anaghị anabata Sathya Sai Baba nke Puttaparthi dị ka nlọghachi nke Shirdi's mendicant. Sathya Sai Baba gara n'ihu ịghọta onye bu ya ụzọ dị ka akụkụ nke atọ avatar: Shirdi Sai dị ka ụdị Shiva, Sathya Sai dị ka ụdị Shiva na Shakti, na Prema Sai, ọhụụ na-abịanụ nke ga-abụ Shakti naanị (Srinivas 2008) . Otu ụzọ ụfọdụ ndị na-efe Shirdi Sai Baba si amata ọdịiche dị na Sai Babas abụọ bụ ọdịiche dị n'etiti "ezigbo" (asli) na Shirdi na "adịgboroja" (nakli) na Puttaparthi (Loar 2016). Agbanyeghị, nyocha ọzọ n'okwu a dị mkpa iji nye nghọta ka ukwuu banyere nghọta anyị banyere ebe nke Sai Baba ọ bụla nọ n'ọnọdụ ofufe nke ọzọ.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Dabere na hagiography, ibi ndụ ndu na omume okpukpe nke Shirdi Sai Baba gosipụtara ụzọ dị iche iche ya na ọdịnala Hindu na ọdịnala Islam si dị. Dị ka isi nke asaa nke Satcharita, o nwere ahuru ube, ma bie ya úgwù, ihe jikọrọ ihe ndị pụtara ìhè nke ndị Hindu na ndị Alakụba. Uwe ya na-acha ọcha na uwe isi ya yiri uwe nwoke nke onye Alakụba, ma ọ bụ fakir, na mpaghara Deccan, ọ bikwa na ụlọ alakụba jọgburu onwe ya nke obodo ahụ. Mana o zoro aka na ụlọ alakụba dị ka Dwarka ma ọ bụ Dwarkamai banyere obodo nsọ ahụ metụtara chi Hindu bụ Krishna. N'ime ụlọ alakụba, onye nsọ ahụ debere ọkụ ya dị nsọ mgbe niile nke ọ nyere ntụ ya (udi) ka ọ bụrụ ihe na-agwọ ọrịa. Ọ gụrụ ma ọ bụ nwee onye ọzọ gụrụ amaokwu site na ọrụ ma gosipụta ihe ọmụma ya banyere asụsụ Sanskrit site na ịkọwa Bhagavad Gita maka onye ofufe Hindu. Mgbe ụfọdụ, ọ na-ekwu maka echiche ndị Hindu nke metaphysical dị ka brahmajnana na maya, ebe aha Chineke nke dị n'egbugbere ọnụ ya oge niile, kwa Satcharita 7: 30, bụ Allah malik ("Chineke bụ nna ukwu"). Okpukpe a nke na-eguzogide ma na-akatọ omume mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya abụghị ihe a na-ahụtụbeghị na South Asia, ebe ndị ọkà mmụta nyochaworo Shirdi Sai Baba n'ihi ụdị ndị ochie ahụ, dịka obodo Nath nke ndị na-atụ ụjọ, chi Dattatreya, onye na-ede uri nsọ-Kabir na ndị nsọ ndị ọzọ nke Maharashtrian dị ka Gajanan Maharaj na Swami Samarth Maharaj (White 1972; Rigopoulous 1993; Warren 2004).

Redị omume ọzọ metụtara Shirdi Sai Baba bụ ọrụ ebube. Akwụkwọ asụsụ bekee na-ejikarị okwu ahụ bụ “ọrụ ebube” akọwa ọrụ nna na mmụọ nke Sai Baba, ma ndị mere n’oge ndụ ya ma ndị na-aga n’ihu ugbu a. Ọrụ ndị a na-asụ n'asụsụ ndịda South Asia, dị ka Hindi na Marathi, na-akọwa ọrụ ebube ndị a dị ka camatkar (ihe ọzọ "nke ahụ ga-eju anya") na lila, okwu okpukpe okpukpe Hindu nke pụtara "igwu egwu," dị ka ọ dị, iji ọnụ ọgụgụ mmadụ mee ihe n'ụzọ chi. eziokwu. Onye nso a adighi aru ebube di ebube n’ebe oha na eze n’oge ndu ya, ewepu ewepu ubochi ato nke onwu ya na nwughari ya, ya na inye ya oriọna nke oma n’ime ulo ala ala ya na mmiri karie mmanu. Ọtụtụ ihe a na-ahụkarị na akwụkwọ niile nke Shirdi Sai Baba bụ akaebe nke onwe onye sitere na ndị na-ekwupụta ahụmịhe nke onwe ha maka ọgwụgwọ ọrụ ebube, nchekwa nchekwa ndụ, ma ọ bụ nsonaazụ ihe (dịka, ọrụ ọhụrụ, nnabata na kọleji, ịga nke ọma na azụmaahịa ọhụrụ).

N'agbanyeghị ụdị agwa Sai Baba na ọdịdị nke nkụzi ya, ọtụtụ emume nke Sai Baba ofufe dabara n'okpuru ncheta nke omume Hindu, dị ka puja, arati, na darshan. Ememme ndị bụ isi a na-eme na ụlọ arụsị Shirdi na Sai Baba gburugburu ụwa bụ ememme ndị Hindu: Ram Navami, Guru Purnima na Vijayadashami, nke na-echetakwa Sai Baba mahasamadhi. A nnukwu oge na mmepe nke Sai Baba ofufe wdị ka nguzobe na 1954 nke ihe oyiyi marble (murti nke edoro nsọ na Hindu) n'elu ili nsọ ahụ na Samadhi Mandir. [Foto dị n'aka nri] A na-ahụ ihe oyiyi ndị edoro nsọ dị n'ụfọdụ ụlọ arụsị ndị Hindu, a ga-ahụkwa obere murtis na akwụkwọ mmado ofufe ma ọ bụ mbipụta ederede n'ụlọ ndị mmadụ na azụmaahịa n'akụkụ ihe ọ bụla ọzọ dị nsọ. Omume Hindu nke ofufe Sai Baba na-egosipụta ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị Hindu kachasị ukwuu nke ndị na-efe ya ofufe, gụnyere hagiographers, n'oge gara aga na ugbu a. Onu ogugu enweghi ike ichoputa, mana otu ihe omumu banyere Shirdi dika ebe ndi njem okpukpe bu na ndi nleta bu ndi Hindu (pasent iri itoolu na abuo), ndi Alakụba, ndi Kristian, Parsis, na ndi Sikh nile no na onu ogugu ndi ozo 2011: 271).

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Na 1922, Courtlọikpe District nke Ahmednagar nyere iwu ka e guzobe Shri Saibaba Sansthan na Trust, otu nzukọ ga-ahụ maka ọrụ na ego nke ili ahụ. N'oge na-adịghị anya e guzobere ya, ndị na-elekọta ndị Hindu niile kpụrụ Abdul dị ka onye na-elekọta ụlọ (Warren 2004: 347). Taa, Sansthan na ntụkwasị obi gara n'ihu na-ejikwa Samadhi Mandir na Shirdi, bụ obodo agbanweela nnukwu mgbanwe na narị afọ gara aga. E meela atụmatụ na ndị na-efe 25,000 na-eleta Shirdi kwa ụbọchị na gburugburu 80,000 na ngwụsị izu, yana ọtụtụ ihe n'oge nnukwu ememme (Shinde na Pinkney 2013: 563).

Akụkụ pụtara ìhè nke Sansthan na ntụkwasị obi bụ na ọ na-anọkarị n'etiti ndị otu okpukpe kachasị baa ọgaranya na India, n'akụkụ saịtị ndị Hindu dị ka Venkateshwara Mandir na Tirupati na Vaishno Devi Mandir na Jammu. A na-akọ akụkọ onyinye buru ibu na Sansthan na Trust mgbe ụfọdụ na mgbasa ozi, ọkachasị n'oge ezumike na ememme. Ọ bụ ezie na ọnụ ọgụgụ siri ike na-esiri ike ịghọta, edemede Marathi nke Vijay Chavan na Manohar Sonawane na-enye ụfọdụ nghọta banyere mmụba nke ego Sansthan na Trust n'oge ọkara ikpeazụ nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ. Na 1952, mgbe e debara aha nzukọ ahụ n'akwụkwọ na gọọmentị India, ọ na-akọ akụkọ ego kwa afọ nke 214,000 Rupees. Ka ọ na-erule 1973, ego a arịgoro Rupees 1,800,000, na njedebe nke 1980s, ego ha na-enweta kwa afọ ruru ihe ruru 60,000,000 Rupees. Oge mgbanwe na ego Sansthan na ntụkwasị obi, dị ka Chavan na Sonawane si kwuo, bụ ntọhapụ nke onye nkiri Ashok Bhushan nke ihe nkiri 1977 Hindi Shirdi ke Sai Baba, nke mere ka ndi senti ahu mata otutu ndi n’ile ihe nkiri Hindi. Ndị edemede ahụ kwupụtara akụkọ sitere na kọmitii na-ahụ maka nzukọ nke depụtara ego ya dịka 2004 Rupees na nkwụnye ego bara uru karịa 870,000,000 Rupees (Chavan na Sonawane 2,000,000,000: 2012-37).

Mgbe Sansthan na ntụkwasị obi na-ejikwa Samadhi Mandir na Shirdi, enwere ọtụtụ ụlọ ọrụ Sai Baba na ụlọ arụsị ndị ọzọ na India na gburugburu ụwa. Iji maa atụ, BV Narasimhaswami guzobere All India Sai Samaj na Madras na 1940 na ebumnuche nke ịgbasa mmụọ nsọ maka Sai Baba gafere ebe ngagharị ahụ na Shirdi. Nzukọ a mechara guzobe ọtụtụ narị alaka na ọtụtụ ụlọ nsọ Shirdi Sai Baba na India n'ime iri afọ ndị sochirinụ. Otu ụlọ arụsị dị na Bengaluru nke dịpụrụ adịpụ, nke na-enye ndị nsọ ahụ dịka chi Hindu karịa ụdị nwere ihe nketa mejupụtara, ka a tụlere na 2008 nke Smriti Srinivas Na Ọnụnọ nke Sai Baba: Ahụ, Obodo, na Ncheta na Global Religious Movement. Srinivas hụrụ na ụlọ nsọ “bourgeois incarnation of Baba” bụ naanị ịrịọ arịrịọ banyere ndị Hindu na-eto eto na-achọ ibi ndụ na-aga nke ọma n’obodo mepere emepe na-aga nke ọma, na nsonaazụ nke echiche a bụ na “ihe nketa nke ndị nsọ ahụ” agafeela mpaghara nke amnesia ọdịnala. na mpaghara ndị dịpụrụ adịpụ nke ndị kwere ekwe ”(Srinivas 2008: 233, 239).

Ihe omumu omumu omumu ozo nke Karline McLain bu ihe ngosiputa nke nghota nke akuko Sai Baba dika ihe omuma nke ndi Hindu. Nnyocha nke McLain na Shri Shirdi Sai Heritage Foundation Trust na New Delhi na-egosipụta olu ndị Hindu na ndị na-abụghị ndị Hindu bụ ndị gosipụtara obere mmasị ma ọ bụ nchegbu banyere ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke njirimara okpukpe n'ihe nketa nke onye nsọ. Kama nke ahụ, ọ hụrụ ndị na-efe ofufe "dọtara na otu ọhụụ a n'ihi na ha ghọtara ndụ na nkuzi nke Shirdi Sai Baba dị ka ihe atụ nke ime mmụọ nke na-egbochi ókèala okpukpe siri ike" (McLain 2012: 192). Onye guzobere nzukọ ahụ CB Satpathy, onye bụkwa onye edemede na-ede akwụkwọ nke Sai Baba hagiographic, na-ekwughachi ọhụụ mbụ Narasimhaswami banyere onye nsọ dị ka ihe atụ nke ọnọdụ ime mmụọ, nke na-agafe nkewa ma na-eme ka ndị mmadụ dịrị n'otu. Ọrụ McLain jikọtara echiche nke Sai Baba na njikọta na omume nke seva, ma ọ bụ ọrụ enyemaka ndị mmadụ na-enye onye guru ofufe, nke onye ọ bụla okpukpe ọ bụla nwere ike ime.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Ihe omumu omumu nke Shirdi Sai Baba lebara anya na imeghari ndu ya site na uzo ozo di iche iche ma gbalie ichota “ezigbo” Sai Baba, onye otutu kwurula na ya bu Sufi fakir (Shepherd 1986; Rigopoulos 1993; Warren 2004). Ọzụzụ mmụta ọhụụ na-adịbeghị anya abịakwutela isiokwu ndị ọzọ na akụkọ ntolite nke akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Shirdi Sai Baba ma gosipụta ọfụma ọrụ nke Das Ganu Maharaj, olu a na-enyo enyo na ndị na-efe ofufe n'oge mbụ (Loar 2016; McLain 2016a). Ndị ọkà mmụta anabatala echiche ọhụrụ ma na-amịpụta mkpụrụ, dị ka ọtụtụ ụlọ arụsị ya na ebe ọha na eze dị na Mumbai (Elison 2014), ọhụụ asọmpi nke ọtụtụ okpukpe dị n'etiti obodo na ụwa (McLain 2016a), njikọta ọrụ ebube ya na mba India nke oge a (Hardiman 2015), na ụzọ ndị mmadụ na obodo si enweta mmụọ na ozi ya nke udo na ịdị n'otu n'etiti ndị ụka dị iche iche (McLain 2011; 2012).

Ikekwe okwu kachasị mkpa nke a ga-enyocha n'ụzọ zuru ezu bụ njikọta nke ịdị nsọ nke Shirdi Sai Baba gụnyere n'ime ime obodo Marathi na-asụ na ngwụcha colonial India na akụkọ mpaghara nke oke ọkọchị, ụnwụ nri, ọrịa na-agbanwe na mgbanwe akụ na ụba na ọbịbịa nke teknụzụ ọhụụ (wdg., okporo ụzọ) na ngbanwe nke ọrụ ugbo (dịka, ịkọ okpete). Maka nke a, Smriti Srinivas ekwuola isi ihe atọ dị mkpa: na "ofufe ọgbakọ" na Shirdi "yiri ka mgbanwe akụ na ụba nke mpaghara Godavari nke Shirdi dị;" na “ụdị omume polyvalent” nke senti ahụ nyeere ya aka inweta ndị na-efe ya, ọkachasị site n’etiti ndị otu na-eto eto site na mpaghara dị iche iche; nakwa na nkà ya maka ọrụ ebube "megidere ma ọ bụ jụọ ajụjụ banyere bourgeois nke nwere ikike na-abawanye ikike na klaasị ndị a" (Srinivas 2008: 37-38). Otu n'ime isi ihe ndị a kwesịrị nlebara anya nke ndị ọkà mmụta iji kọwapụta akụkọ banyere Shirdi Sai Baba na colonial na postcolonial India. Ọ bụ ezie na nke a anaghị eme ka njikọ nke onye nsọ ghara ịdaba na usoro okpukpe nke mbụ (dịka, ntụgharị aka na hagiography na Sai Baba dị ka nlọghachi nke Kabir), n'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, ọ na-ekwu n'echiche na Shirdi Sai Baba bụ ngwaahịa na kwa onye nsọ. maka ụwa "oge a" na-agbanwe ngwa ngwa.

Okwu nke na-eme ka ọtụtụ n'ime akwụkwọ mmụta a na-adịbeghị anya bụ nnwale ịkọwa etu fakir a dị mfe site na mpaghara colonial si bụrụ nke ewu ewu, ngwa ngwa na India postcolonial. Karline McLain, onye oka akwukwo nke edeputala ugbua na Shirdi Sai Baba, kwuputara ihe ato nke Marianne Warren (2004) kwuputara iji kowaputa onu nso nke onye nso a: nkwa nke ihe eji enweta site n’ekpere; mmụba nke akwụkwọ hagiographic na ihe nkiri na ya; na nkwuputa onwe Sathya Sai Baba na ọ bụ nlọghachi ya. McLain kwukwara ihe nke anọ: Shirdi Sai Baba bụ ụdị nke “ọdịnala mejupụtara” nke India. Na-agbakwunye nuance na edemede ndị mbụ banyere Shirdi Sai Baba nke Hindu, McLain chọtara, ma ederede na ethnographically, na e nwere ọtụtụ nghọta nke onye nsọ dịka mbido nke Dattatreya, ọnụ ọgụgụ na-echeta ihe atụ nke onye amụma ahụ, na onye gosipụtara ụzọ ahụ. nye Chineke n'ụzọ ndị kwekọrọ na nkuzi Sikh. Otu ngosipụta nke ihe a bụ akwụkwọ mmado nke kpaliri edemede nke McLain, "Bụrụ United, Bụrụ Onye Ọma," nke gosipụtara Shirdi Sai Baba na-eyiri agba nke ọkọlọtọ India ma jiri ụlọ alakụba, ụlọ nsọ, gurdwara, na chọọchị rụọ (McLain 2011) .

Ọrụ m gara aga na ọdịbendị Shirdi Sai Baba emezigharịla "ọdịbendị mejupụtara" dị ka ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke njikọta, bụ nke nwere ọtụtụ ndị Hindu na ndị Alakụba nọ n'okpuru ihe nketa Sai Baba. Otu igurube nke usoro a bụ NV Gunaji's Ndụ magburu onwe ya na nkuzi nke Shri Sai Baba, sitere na Original Marathi Book Shri Sai Satcharita nke Govindrao Raghunath Dabholkar aha 'Hemadpant' (1944). Dị ka mmegharị ma ọ bụghị nsụgharị zuru ezu, ederede Gunaji kwuru na a ga-enyocha ya nke ọma. (Ntughari zuru ezu nke Satcharita dị site n'akwụkwọ Indira Kher nke 1999). Enwere nkọwa zuru ezu banyere akụkọ ndụ ndị mmadụ na-egosi na mgbanwe Gunaji nke Satcharita na otu esi ahapụ ya, na-egbochi ya, ma na-enwu gbaa n'ọtụtụ njikọ dị n'etiti Sai Baba na Islam na ederede mbụ (Warren 2004; Loar 2016). Iji maa atụ, Gunaji tinye ihe odide ala ala peeji nke ntụgharị okwu ya Satcharita na-ekwu maka ibi ugwu Sai Baba; Ihe odide ala ala peeji na-eme ka o doo anya na onye okpukpe Hindu nyochara onye nsọ ahụ nke ọma wee kwado na e bighị ya úgwù. Ihe omuma atu bu Gunaji Satcharita 11: 62-63, nke Sai Baba kọwara onwe ya dị ka onye Alakụba site na amụrụ onye na-anabata ofufe nwoke nwoke Brahmin aha ya bụ Dr. Pandit na-enye ya. Na mmegharị ya, Gunaji hapụrụ nkọwa nke Sai Baba banyere onye Alakụba ya, si otu a gbanwee ụda akụkọ a: site na nkuzi na ntinye obi mmadụ na onye guru ya karịa akụkụ okpukpe ka ọ bụrụ ihe atụ dị mfe nke onye nsọ ịnabata ofufe site na Brahmin (argha 2016). N'ịgbaso mbọ Gunaji ime ka onye Hindu ọzọ na onye Alakụba na-erughị ala, agbasoro m ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị a nke njikọta na onye na-esote onye isi na nhazi nke onye nsọ, BV Narasimhaswami, onye edemede nke ederede Bekee Ndụ nke Sai Baba. Narasimhaswami na-elekwasị anya na mmalite nke ihe omimi ahụ ma na-eme ka ndị ọzọ na-etinye akaebe nke aka ha iji mepụta nkwupụta nke ọzụzụ Baba Baba: Nlekọta nne na nna Brahmin, Muslim (Sufi) na Brahmin tutelage n'okpuru Venkusha. N'ebe a, ọ ka zie ezi ike ịkọwapụta Hinduization na Sai Baba hagiography dị ka ụdị nke Brahminization, omume nke ikenye ndị mmadụ n'otu ọnụ ọgụgụ akọwapụtara na mbụ inwe enweghị nne na nna. Mana nzụlite a jikọtara ọnụ dị ezigbo mkpa na Narasimhaswami. Ọ na-ede na nke atọ olu nke Ndụ nke Sai Baba: “Site na nne na nna Hindu Baba [Baba] nyefere n'aka ndị Alakụba na site na nlekọta ndị Alakụba gaa na nlekọta onye nsọ Hindu. Njikọ nke Hindu na Muslim ga-ebu ụzọ zuo oke n'onwe ya tupu ya enwee ike ịmetụta njikọta ọ bụla nke ndị Hindu-Muslim na ọha mmadụ "(Narasimhaswami 2004: 595). Asụsụ a nke syncretism, nke pụtara ihe niile Ndụ nke Sai Baba, ihe akaebe nke ndi Narasimhaswami weghachitere onye ozo maka ndi na-ege nti na ndi ozo na okwu ndi ozo, ya bu, okwu banyere mmekorita mba na India nke onwe ha. N'ime ime nke a, anyị na-ahụ ịdị elu nke Sai Baba site na mpaghara mpaghara gaa na mba na-arịwanye elu nke ịdị n'otu okpukpe (Loar 2018).

Ọ bụghị mmadụ niile bụ onye na-akwado Shirdi Sai Baba. Karịsịa, e nwere ụfọdụ olu na-achọ ịma aka na izi ezi nke echiche onye nsọ banyere ịdị n'otu Hindu-Muslim. Ihe omumu m banyere nkwuputa okwu imegide Sai Baba na otutu akwukwo Facebook choputara na ihe ndi Alakụba nke ndu onye senti aburula okwu nkatọ. Polemical memes na-abawanye na ibe ndị dị otú ahụ, na-atụ aro na Shirdi Sai Baba bụ akụkụ nke "bhakti jihad," onye bụ isi onye Alakụba onye duhiere ndị Hindu ife ya ofufe na imebi okpukpe ha (Loar 2016). Ibe akwukwo a na-akwado nkwado nke okwu imegide Sai Baba: Swami Swaroopananda, onye isi ala nke Dwarka Pitham na Gujarat. N'oge ọkọchị nke 2014, Swami Swaroopananda kwalitere ọtụtụ nkatọ banyere ofufe Sai Baba nke anakọtara na mgbasa ozi akụkọ India. Na June 23, Oge Maharashtra kwuru na nkwupụta swami na Shirdi Sai Bab abụghị onye dị nsọ nke Chineke wee bụrụ nke na-erughị eru ife ofufe. Na June 30, na Deccan Chronicle kpuchiri mgbalị ya ịkpasu ndị Hindu ịjụ okpukpe ha na-efe “Muslim fakir” anya. N'ọnwa Ọgọstụ, ọ dakọtara nzukọ nke ndị ndu Hindu 400 n'oge ọgbakọ okpukpe, ma ọ bụ dharma sansad, nke mere mkpebi na ekwekọghị na Shirdi Sai Baba na Hindu, ma ọ bụ sanatan dharma. Sansthan na ntụkwasị obi na Shirdi katọrọ Swami Swaroopananda ngwa ngwa, ebe ndị na-efe ofufe n'ọtụtụ steeti gbara akwụkwọ ikpe megide swami site na ịkọwa akụkụ nke koodu ntaramahụhụ India nke na-emebi mpụ okwu na-ewe iwe ma na-emerụ echiche okpukpe nke ndị ọzọ. Na Septemba 2015, Swami Swaroopananda gosipụtara mgbaghara maka okwu nkatọ ya n'ihu beforelọikpe Kasị Elu nke Madhya Pradesh, n'agbanyeghị na ọ gara n'ihu na-ekwu okwu mkparị oge ụfọdụ, dịka ịkatọ ụnwụ nke Maharashtra na 2016 na ofufe na-aga n'ihu nke Sai Baba n'akụkụ chi ndị Hindu. Ọ bụ ezie na mgbasa ozi swami megide Sai Baba enweghị isi, ọ ghọrọ ihe atụ ọzọ nke ọtụtụ ndị okpukpere okpukpe okpukpe India n'oge a na-azọrọ ikike ịkọwa ihe na-abụghị "Hindu" mana ndị Hindu niile anaghị anabata ya dị ka ndị nwere ike ime nke a (Loar 2016).

Foto

Foto # 1: Foto e sere na 1916 nke na-egosi Shirdi Sai Baba yi isi (topi) na uwe mwụda (kafni) ka ọ na-adabere na ụlọ alakụba ya na Shirdi na ọtụtụ ụmụ nwoke na-efe ya. Isi mmalite: Wikipedia commons.
Foto # 2: Ihe osise Hindi si Shirdi: "Shri Sadguru Sai Baba nke Assurances 11." Isi mmalite: Jonathan Loar.
Image # 3: Murti na Shri Shirdi Sai Baba Mandir na Kukas dị nso na Jaipur na Rajasthan. Isi mmalite: Jonathan Loar.

References

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Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
20 November 2020

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