Mark Speece

Dhammakyaya


AKWMAKWỌ AKWEMKWỌ DHAMMAKĀYA

1610: Wat Paknam Phasi Charoen (Wat Paknam) sitere na ntuziaka nke eze na mpaghara ugbu a bụ mpaghara nke Bangkok metro.

1600s-1800s: Ọtụtụ okpukpe Buddha a na-ewu ewu na mgbago ugwu na ugwu ọwụwa anyanwụ Thailand (na mpaghara ndị dị nso) bụ nsụgharị nke usoro Dhammakāya nke oge a mepụtara, gụnyere usoro ntụgharị uche pụrụ iche.

1916Phra Mongkol Thepmuni (1884-1959) "chọtara" usoro ntụgharị uche vijjā dhamakāya, ntọala nke usoro Dhammakāya nke oge a.

1916: Phra Mongkol Thepmuni ka a họpụtara abbot nke Wat Paknam ma setịpụ ya iwu ya na nnukwu ụlọ Buddha na Thailand.

1959: Phra Mongkol Thepmuni nwụrụ.

1970:   Khun Yay Ubasika Chandra Khonnokyoong (1909-2000), onye ama ama Mae chi nke Wat Paknam, guzobere ụlọ ọrụ ntụgharị uche Wat Paknam na Pathum Thani. 

1979: Ebe ntụgharị uche ghọrọ ụlọ nsọ, Wat Phra Dhammakāya. Phra Dhammachayo ghọrọ abbot mbụ ya. Onye enyemaka ya n’enweghi ike bụ Phra Dattacheevo.

1991A tọrọ ntọala Wat Luang Pho Sot Thammakayaram.

1999: Phra Dhammachayo nke Wat Phra Dhammakāya gbadara dị ka onye isi ike maka ebubo nrụrụ aka. Phra Dattacheevo ghọrọ abbot.

2006: A nabatara Phra Dhammachayo, mana ọ gbadara na 2011, ikekwe maka ahụike. Phra Dattacheevo ghọkwara abbot.

2016-2017:  Gọọmentị ndị agha Thailand gbalịrị ọtụtụ ugboro ijide Phra Dhammachayo maka ebubo nrụrụ aka ọhụrụ, mana ọ furu efu. E bokwara Phra Dattacheevo ebubo ma chụpụ ya ka ọ bụrụ abbot.

2017: Ejichiri mmetụta nke Dhammakāya na Thai sa wasgha nke ukwuu mgbe a jụrụ onye na-akwado Saṅgharaja (onye na-eme isi ugbu a), ma kpochapụ ọtụtụ ndị mọnk Dhammakāya.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Okwu a bu "nmeghari Dhammakāya" bu ihe doro anya. Ọ bụ ezie na n'otu echiche, ọ na-ezo aka n'ụdị otu okpukpe Buddha, nke a na-ejikarị usoro ntụgharị uche pụrụ iche mara ya, enwere ụzọ atọ dị mkpa. Wat Phra Dhammakāya nwere ike ịbụ onye a kacha mara amara, ọbụlagodi n'etiti ọtụtụ ndị Thai. Otú ọ dị, onye guzobere òtù ahụ, Phra Monkol Thepmuni, bụ Abbot nke Wat Paknam Bhasi Charoen, nke buru ụzọ bịa, ma bụrụ onye dị iche ugbu a. Mae Chi Chandra Khonnokyoong, onye nkuzi na-atụgharị uche bụ onye zụrụ ọtụtụ afọ na Wat Paknam, bidoro nke abụọ mgbe ọ tọrọ ntọala ebe ntụgharị uche na 1970 nke ga-emesịa bụrụ Wat Phra Dhammakāya. Otu n'ime ụmụ akwụkwọ kpakpando ya, Phra Dhammachayo, ghọrọ abbot mbụ ma wuo ya n'ime ụlọ nsọ kachasị amara ugbu a. Isi nke atọ bụ Wat Luang Pho Sot Thammakayaram, nke sitere n'otu ọdịnala ahụ. Yabụ, enwere ọtụtụ "ndị guzobere" ụlọ arụsị dị iche iche, mana ụlọ nsọ niile na-amata Phra Monkol Thepmuni dị ka nna ukwu nke bidoro oge a.

Phra Mongkol Thepmuni (aha ndị mọnk ya n'oge ọ nwụrụ) [Foto dị n'aka nri] mụrụ na mpaghara Suphanburi dị n'etiti etiti Thailand na 1885. Ezinụlọ ya na-arụ ọrụ ugbo, na ụfọdụ akụkọ banyere akụkọ ndụ na-ekwusi ike na mmalite ya dị umeala n'obi. N'ezie, ezinụlọ dara ọgaranya site n'ụkpụrụ nke ime obodo Thailand ebe ọ bụ na ha nwere ụgbọ mmiri osikapa iji zụọ ahịa, were ụfọdụ ndị ọrụ were ya. Nna ya nwụrụ mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na anọ, ọ na-agba ọsọ azụmahịa ezinụlọ ya ruo iri abụọ na abụọ, mgbe a họpụtara ya (Dhammakaya Foundation 2010a; Cholvijarn 2019; Magness nd; Newell 2008).

Dịka onye mọnk, Phra Monkol Thepmuni kpebisiri ike ịghọta Buddhist miri emi, na-enwe nkụda mmụọ n'ihi enweghị ike nke ọtụtụ ndị mọnk ime obodo na-akụzi ọtụtụ omimi. N'ihi ya, ọ malitere mgbalị siri ike iji mụta ma ntụgharị uche na agụmakwụkwọ Pāli. Ntụgharị uche a chọrọ obibi n'ọtụtụ ụlọ arụsị gbasasịrị na Thailand iji mụta ihe site n'aka nna ukwu a ma ama. Ọzụzụ Pāli tinyere oge ụfọdụ na ụlọ akwụkwọ agụmakwụkwọ na Bangkok. Nzụlite ya si otú a na-agụnye ọtụtụ ihe ọmụma banyere ọtụtụ echiche Buddha Buddha na omume ya na Thailand n'oge ahụ. Dị ka njedebe nke mgbalị ndị a, Phra Mongkol Thepmuni "achọpụtara" vijjā dhamakāya ntụgharị uche na 1916 n'oge kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ nnọkọ, ọ malitere ịkụziri usoro ahụ.

A họpụtakwara ya Abbot nke Wat Paknam [Foto dị n'aka nri] na 1916, ọ bụ ezie na nke a bụ n'ụzọ na-apụtaghị ìhè na ọfụma ntụgharị uche ya rụpụtara. Wat Paknam bụ ụlọ arụsị Royal nke dị adị kemgbe ọtụtụ narị afọ, mana ọ bụ naanị ndị mọnk ole na ole bi na ya jụrụ. Phra Monkol Thepmuni na-enwetakarị aha ọma maka ịbụ onye na-ekwupụta okwu na obere ihe na-ekwekọghị ekwekọ maka ihe ndị na-abụghị nke gọọmentị nke esoteric Theravāda, kamakwa maka ike na ike. A na - akpọkarị njirimara ọ bụla dị ka ihe kpatara ekenye ya na Wat Paknam. Nke ahụ bụ, ma ọ bụ n'ihi na ụlọ nsọ ahụ edoghi anya na ọ ga-apụ n'ụzọ ma ọ bụ n'ihi na ụlọ nsọ ahụ chọrọ ịmaliteghachi na ọ ga-arụ ọrụ ahụ nke ọma. Ihe ọ sọrọ ya bụrụ ya kpatara ya, ọ gara nke ọma na iwu ya, ọ wee bụrụ isi maka ịgbasa usoro ntụgharị uche vijjā Dhamakāya, nke o kwenyere na ọ bụ ụzọ magburu onwe ya iji mee ka ntụgharị uche nwee ike inweta ọtụtụ ndị mmadụ.

Phra Monkol Thepmuni kụzikwara dhamma, nke dịtụ iche. Ọtụtụ ndị mọnk lekwasịrị anya na ịzụlite nkà ntụgharị uche ma ọ bụ kwusaa Dhamma, mana ọ dịkarịghị ha abụọ. Wat Paknam ghọrọ ebe etiti maka ntụgharị uche na ịmụ ịmụ ihe. Ka ọ na-erule oge ọ nwụrụ na 1959, ọ ghọọla otu n'ime ụlọ nsọ kachasị na Thailand, nwere ọtụtụ narị ndị mọnk bi na ya, ọtụtụ ụlọ arụsị na ebe ntụgharị uche, ụlọ akwụkwọ ọmụmụ Pāli, na otu n'ime obodo kachasị na mae chi (nke bụ ndị nọn), bụ ndị rụrụ ọrụ dị ukwuu n'inyere aka ịgbasa nkuzi na ntụgharị uche Wat Paknam (Seeger 2006).

Khun Yay Maharatana Upasika Chandra Khonnokyoong (1909-2000), [Foto dị n'aka nri] onye guzobere nke abụọ ugbu a, amụrụ n'ime ezinụlọ ime obodo na mpaghara Nakhon Pathom na mpaghara dị ihe dị ka kilomita iri ise n'ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ nke Bangkok. Ikekwe dika ya na nke Phra Monkol Thepmuni, ezinulo ya kacha ma obu obere n'etiti uzo nke ime obodo Thailand. Otú ọ dị, ọ bụghị ihe mgbagwoju anya na ọ maghị akwụkwọ n'ihi na ọ bụ obere ụmụ nwanyị ime obodo na-enweta ọtụtụ agụmakwụkwọ n'oge ahụ. Ọ malitere ịmụ ntụgharị uche na ngwụcha 1920s, kwagara Bangkok dị nso na Wat Paknam n'etiti afọ ndị 1930, wee bido na-arụ ọrụ na Wat mgbe ọ na-arụ ọrụ dị ka odibo n'ụlọ onye ikwu. Na 1937, ọ ghọrọ onye mae chi na Wat. N'ikpeazụ, nkà ntụgharị uche ya dị elu nke na e kenyere ya ịkụzi ihe, ọ wulitere ntụkwasị obi na-esote, gụnyere ọtụtụ ụmụ akwụkwọ mahadum (Cholvijarn 2019; Dhammakaya Foundation 2010b; Newell 2008).

Wat Phra Dhammakāya na-ekwusi ike na Mae chi Chandra dị umeala n'obi, na-eji nganga rịba ama na ọ gosipụtara nnukwu ihe ọ rụpụtara sitere n'ịchịkwa vijjā Dhamakāya, karia mmezu akwukwo. Ọrụ ya bụ isi n'ịtọ ntọala na inye aka wuru Wat Phra Dhammakāya n'ime nnukwu ọgbakọ zuru ụwa ọnụ na-eme ka Mae chi Chandra "ikekwe onye nọn kacha nwee mmetụta na akụkọ Buddha Buddhist" (Scott 2010: 503).

Mae chi Chandra guzobere ebe ntụgharị uche na Pathum Thani (nke dị n'akụkụ ugwu nke Bangkok) maka Wat Paknam na 1970, nke mechara bụrụ Wat Phra Dhammakāya. [Foto dị n'aka nri] mmadụ abụọ n'ime ụmụ akwụkwọ ya ndị isi, bụ ndị so na ndị na-eso ya na Wat Paknam, nyere aka n'iwu ụlọ nsọ ahụ. Chaiyabun Suddhipol, nke amụrụ na 1944 na Singburi, etiti Thailand, gụrụ ahịa na Mahadum Kasetsart, ma chie ya echichi mgbe ọ gụsịrị akwụkwọ na 1969. O nyere aka chọta ebe ntụgharị uche, yana Phra Dhammachayo ghọrọ abbot mbụ ya. Phadet Phongsawat bụkwa nwa akwụkwọ na Kasetsart na-amụ ọrụ ugbo, nke edere na 1971, yana Phra Dattacheevo ghọrọ onye enyemaka abbot. Abụọ ndị a gbara ọsọ ọsọ Wat Phra Dhammakāya karịa ma ọ bụ obere na-aga n'ihu site na ntọala ya. Phra Dhammachayo abụrụla onye ndu na-adọrọ adọrọ, Phra Dattacheevo gosipụtara na ọ bụ ezigbo onye nchịkwa (Dhammakaya Foundation 2010b; Mackenzie 2007; Newell 2008; Scott 2009).

Satha-Anand na-ekwu na ndị na-eso ụzọ Wat Phra Dhammakāya “dị ka ọ na-anọchite anya akụkụ nke klas nke na-apụta nke na-achọsi ike inweta obi ụtọ ụwa na udo nke uche n'ụdị okpukpe" (1990: 407). Phra Dhammachayo nwere ezigbo nkà na ịmezigharị ụlọ nsọ maka echiche ndị a ama ama. "Echiche ya nke oge a banyere ndụ Buddhist metụtara omume okpukpe, n'ihi na ọ na-elekwasị anya mgbe niile na uru bara uru nke ntụgharị uche n'ime ndụ nke oge a - na-enyere aka melite akara ule, na-eme ka mmekọrịta dị n'etiti ezinụlọ, na-emeri ahụ riri ahụ, na ịchekwa ọrụ dị mma" (Scott 2009: 77).

Ihe omuma ndi ozo n’ariri ndi n’etolite etolite. Phra Monkol Thepmuni amalitela ụfọdụ ihe ọhụụ a, dịka ọmụmaatụ, site na ihicha Wat Paknam ma rụzigharị ụlọ ụfọdụ. O mekwara kichin ụlọ nsọ ka ndị mọnk wee nwee ike iwepụtakwu oge n'ịrụ nka ntụgharị uche karịa n'ememe ebere. Wat Phra Dhammakaya kwaliteziri usoro a. “Temlọ arụsị ndị Thai mgbe ochie anaghị enweta atụmanya nke ndị otu Wat Phra Dhammakaya na mpaghara dịka ịdị ọcha nke ụlọ nsọ ahụ na ntọala ya na agụmakwụkwọ nke ndị mọnk. Wat Phra Dhammakaya na-enye usoro nke oge a, nke a na-eme nke ọma, yana ndị isi dị ike ”(Mackenzie 2007: 191). Phra Dattacheevo nyere aka n'ịhụ na nlekọta ụlọ nsọ nwere ike ịnapụta ethos a (Dhammakaya Foundation 2010a; Mackenzie 2007; Newell 2008; Scott 2009).

Na 1991, Phra Thepyan Mongkhon (1929‒2018) [Foto dị n'aka nri] ghọrọ abbot mbụ nke Wat Luang Pho Sot Thammakayaram ọhụrụ, nke atọ ugbu a. A mụrụ ya na ezinụlọ na-azụ ahịa Thai-China na Buriran, ugwu ugwu Thailand, ọ gụrụ ezigbo akwụkwọ (BBA na MPA) yana ọrụ na-aga nke ọma tupu e chie ya na Wat Paknam mgbe ọ dị afọ iri ise na asaa. E guzobere ụlọ nsọ ahụ site na ebe ntụgharị uche na-aga nke ọma ọ nyere aka ịmalite maka Wat Paknam na etiti Thailand ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ afọ iri tupu mgbe ahụ. E nwere akụkọ ndị megiderịta onwe ha banyere ma ya na ụfọdụ ndị mọnk Wat Paknam ka ha na Wat Phra Dhammakāya gbasoro ihe ezi nkuzi bụ vijjā rụchaa kwesiri ibu. Ka oge na-aga, Phra Thepyan Mongkhon katọrọ nke ọma Wat Phra Dhammakāya maka ịla azụ site na nkuzi ntụgharị uche kwesịrị ekwesị, yana maka ịre ahịa gabigara ókè, ma wezuga ụlọ nsọ ya na ya (Cholvijarn 2019; Mackenzie 2007; Newell 2008).

Ọtụtụ ndị na-ekiri ihe nkiri na-ele usoro Dhammakāya nke oge a anya dị ka mmalite nke ọdịnala ndị a ma ama nke Theravāda nke dị kemgbe ọtụtụ narị afọ, ọkachasị na mgbago ugwu na ugwu ọwụwa anyanwụ Thailand na mpaghara ndị dị nso. (A na-akpọ ụdị ụfọdụ mgbe ụfọdụ yogāvacara, dịka, Crosby 2000.) orthodị "orthodox" nke oge a nke Thai Theravāda bụ nke e wuru n'ụzọ dị ukwuu site na ndozigharị emere na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu na mmalite narị afọ nke iri abụọ. Ndozigharị ndị a bụ iji kpochapụ “nkwenkwe ụgha” na iji “chee echiche” Buddha dị ka akụkụ nke mgbalị sara mbara iji mee ka ọchịchị Thai dị ugbu a ma wusie ike site na nrụgide nke Western colonialism (Keyes 1971; Tambiah 1976).

Iwu Thammayut bụ isi ihe ọrụ gọọmentị ji wee laghachi n'ozizi Buddha mbụ wee mee ka okpukpe Buddha dịrị na nkwenkwe ụgha, akụkọ ọdịnala, na ihe ndị ọzọ "na-abụghị Buddha". Otu n’ime iwu gọọmentị abụọ na Thai Theravāda taa, ọ bụ Eze Mongkut guzobere ya [Foto dị n’aka nri] n’oge ya dị ka onye mọnk (1824-1851) tupu ọ rịgoro n’ocheeze. Crosby (2014) na-ekwu na ndị France na-agbaso amụma ndị yiri ya na Cambodia iji wusie ike ọchịchị obodo ike. Otú ọ dị, n'ụzọ dị ukwuu, nsụgharị nke Theravāda ndị ọzọ na-etinye obi ha dum, ma ọ bụ na-eweda ha ala, kama iwelata ha kpamkpam (Cohen 2001; Puntarigvivat 2013). N'ihi ya, ọtụtụ omume ndị a ma ama na nsụgharị ndị a adịkwaghị kpam kpam.

Ogologo oge mmanye iwu nke iwu emeela ka otu onye Buddha guzosie ike n'oge a. "Ndị mọnk anaghị enwe ọmịiko na atumatu steeti ka a na-ewepụ site n'ọkwá ndị isi nchịkwa n'ime Sangha, dịka ndị mọnk na-akwado ọchịchị na-enweta ihe na ọrụ ọganihu n'ọkwá Sangha" (Puntarigvivat 2013, p. 11). N'oge a, ọtụtụ ndị Thai nọ n'etiti na-eche na ndị isi na sa ingha nke oge a (obodo nke ndị mọnk a họpụtara ahọpụta) enwekwaghị mmekọrịta nke ụwa nke oge a (dịka, Taylor 1999; Mackenzie 2007; Puntarigvivat 2013). “Nkwado ndị ụkọchukwu na nkwado steeti emewo ka ọ gharazie ịbụkwa nke na-enweghịzi mmetụta na mkpa ọha na eze. Nke ahụ bụ otú o si bụrụ ihe na-enweghị isi na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya ”(Ekachai 2018). Phra Payutto, onye ndu ndi oka mmuta nke “mgbanwe site-n’ime” ugbua, achikotara nsogbu a nke oma:

mgbe ndị ọgbara ọhụrụ malitere inwe nkụda mmụọ na afọ ojuju maka imeziwanye oge a [ha] tụgharịrị iji chọta nkọwa na azịza site n'ọdịnala [Buddhist]. Otú ọ dị, dị ka ndị ọdịnala adịwo anya site na ụwa nke ịgbanwe ụkpụrụ, ha enweghị ike ịnye azịza ma ọ bụ gboo mkpa nke ndị ọgbara ọhụrụ (Payutto 2007: 56).

Ọchịchị Buddhist nke oge a na-eme mgbanwe n'etiti obodo ukwu bụ ọhụụ ọha na eze dị iche iche n'ime iri afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya (achikota, dịka, na Speece 2013, 2019). “Okpukpe a dị iche iche [na-ewere ọnọdụ] yiri uto nke okpukpe Buddha nkịtị. Ndị Buddha nkịtị [na-arụ] ọrụ dị ukwuu n'okpukpe ma anyị mechara hụ ntoputa nke okpukpe Buddha ọhụrụ na ndị nkịtị dị ka ndị isi ndu karịa ndị mọnk "(Visalo 2012). Nzukọ Dhammakāya bụ otu ngosipụta nke omume. Ọ na-adabere na ọdịnala Buddhist nke dịwara ogologo oge na Thailand, mana ntụgharị uche siri ike maka ndị nọ n'etiti etiti emeela ka e nwee mgbanwe dị ukwuu na ụdị ndụ oge a.

Rawlinson (2000) kwuru nhazi nke ahụmịhe okpukpe Buddha nke na-enye aka n'ịghọta nsụgharị nke okpukpe Buddha ọhụrụ nke Thai na nke anyị na-eji ebe a. Ọ na-eji ụzọ abụọ dị mkpa. "Hot-jụụ" na-amata ọdịiche nke onwe ya na nzọpụta ndị ọzọ / nyere / nzọpụta. Nhazi a na-ahazighị ahazi na-egosi ọdịiche na ụzọ akọwapụtara nke ọma maka nzọpụta na enweghị ọdịiche dị n'etiti ụzọ na ebumnuche. Yabụ, dịka ọmụmaatụ, nzọpụta na Theravāda gọọmentị bụ ihe gbasara nghọta onwe (oyi), na-agbaso ụzọ akọwapụtara nke ọma (nke ahaziri) nke Buddha na nna ukwu dị iche iche wepụtara kemgbe ọtụtụ narị afọ. Vajrayāna na-enye ndị nna ukwu ọrụ na chi dị iche iche, buddhas, na bodhisattvas (na-ekpo ọkụ) bụ ndị ga-enyerịrị nduzi banyere otu esi agbaso ụzọ (ahaziri). Na Zen, ọ dịghị ụzọ doro anya (adịghị edozi); nzọpụta na-enweta site na (mgbe ụfọdụ na mberede) nghọta onwe (oyi). Ala dị ọcha bụ ụdị okwukwe siri ike, na-enweghị ụzọ (enweghị nhazi), ebe a na-enye nzọpụta nye amara nke Buddha ma ọ bụ bodhisattva (ọkụ).

Ndị ọrụ gọọmentị Theravāda na Thailand “ahaziri nke ọma” na ụtụ isi a (Speece 2013). N'ezie, ọdịiche ndị ahaziri ahazi adịla kemgbe ọtụtụ narị afọ, ọkachasị n'etiti ndị otu ọkachamara tozuru etozu na saṅgha, mana okwu a metụtara ngwa ngwa n'oge oge colonial na Ndịda Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Eshia. "Otu ebumnuche nke iwulite nzukọ sangha nke mba ya na etiti ya na Bangkok bụ mkpochapu mpaghara dị iche iche dị iche iche dị ka ihe dị egwu nye ọdịnala ọdịmma nke nhazi mba na ịdị n'otu" (Tambiah 1976: 239). Schlamm (2001: 26) lere ya anya dị ka “akụkụ pụrụ iche nke ọdịnala ndị a [dị jụụ] iji kewapụ onwe ha n'akụkọ ifo nke ọdịbendị ndị gbara ha gburugburu.” Ọtụtụ mba Theravāda tinyere aka na "ịtụleghachi ọdịnala ọdịnala ọdịnala ha" na "na-ewusi ntọala nke ụlọ ọrụ ndị mọnk ha" ịnagide nrụgide nke colonialism na mmezi nke oge (Cantwell na Kawanami 2002: 57).

Dị ka anyị kwurula, Otú ọ dị, nsụgharị ndị ọzọ adịkwaghị n'ezie. Ha enweghị ike ịpụ n'anya, n'ihi na ịchịkwa ndị isi ọchịchị na nkuzi gọọmentị nke State saṅgha enweghị mmetụta dị iche iche na mmekọrịta ụmụ mmadụ na ndị mmadụ. N'asụsụ ire ere, quadrants anọ nke Rawlinson (2000) na-anọchi anya usoro maka nkewa uche (Speece na Roenjun 2016), na nsụgharị nke Buddha na akụkụ ọ bụla amalitela ịrịọ arịrịọ dị iche iche. Dhamtù Dhammakāya bụ ụdị ahaziri ọkụ (Speece 2013), ọ na-egosipụta ọtụtụ njirimara yiri Vajrayāna. Agbanyeghị, nkatọ nke oge a na ọ bụ Vajrayāna, karịa Theravāda, na-eleghara ezigbo ihe akaebe na Dhammakāya bụ naanị mmegharị nke oge a nke ụdị Theravāda. N'ezie, ọ bụghị okpukpe Buddha nke ọchịchị, mana nsụgharị esoteric / tantric nke Theravāda anọwo na Ndịda Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Eshia ruo ọtụtụ narị afọ (dịka, Cholvijarn 2019; Crosby 2000; Foxeus 2013, 2016; Newell 2008).

Wat Paknam nyeere aka weghachite nsụgharị a na isi. O nwere ike ịbụ ihe ziri ezi ma ọ bụ na-erughị ala na Phra Monkol Thepmuni "chọtara" vijjā dhamakāya ntụgharị uche, nke e chere na ọ furu efu kemgbe ọtụtụ narị afọ. Mana n'ụzọ ka ukwuu, ihe ndị dị na usoro ahụ efunahụbeghị kpamkpam, ọbụlagodi ma ọ bụrụ na nkuzi nkuzi chọrọ iji mebie ụdị ntụgharị uche "ndị na-enweghị uche" O yikarịrị ka ọ maara ọtụtụ ihe ọ na-eme n'oge ọ gbalịsiri ike ịghọta Buddhist nke ọma. Nkà mmụta ntụgharị uche na ihe ọmụma banyere ozizi ọ mepụtara mechara mee ka ọ mata etu ihe niile si daba na nkwekọrịta zuru oke, ọ bụ (Choljivarn 2019; Newell 2008). O yikwara ka ọ tụrụ anya na ọ dị mkpa ka okpukpe Buddha ịmalite ịmalite ime mgbanwe maka ụwa nke oge a, obere oge tupu ịrị elu nke mgbanwe mgbanwe nke klas nke oge a mere ka nke a pụta ìhè.

Imirikiti ụdị nsụgharị Buddhist na Thailand na-arịọ ndị dị n'etiti n'ihi na ha na-eme mgbanwe maka mkpa klas nke oge a (eg, Speece 2013, 2019). Ihe atọ dị mkpa nke mmụọ bụ ụkpụrụ omume, ntụgharị uche, na ohere nke nibbāna a ga-emezu na ndụ a niile, karịa mgbe a ga-amụghachi ọzọ. "Nsogbu okpukpe dị na steeti nke oge a na Thailand na Burma bụ maka mkpa nke ụkpụrụ omume na mmekọrịta ọha na eze na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na-arịwanye elu" (Schober 1995: 317). Ntụgharị uche n'etiti ndị na-eme ihe omume sokwa rụọ ọrụ dị mkpa na nwughari nke Buddha na mba Theravāda niile dị na Asia (Swearer 2010). Buddhadāsa, bụ onye mọnk ama ama ama ama ama emeziri nke ọma, nke nwere ike ịbụ onye ama ama na-akwado nibbāna na-ugbu a (Buddhadāsa 2016), mana ọtụtụ ndị Buddha na-eme mgbanwe kwenyere na ọ ga-emezu n'oge a niile. . Dị ka Buddhadāsa, "Thammakāi na-ekwusi ike na a ga-achọ Nibbāna n'ime ụwa, ọ bụghị site na ịhapụ ụwa" (Keyes 1992: 336).

N'ikpeazụ, akụkụ ụfọdụ e leghaara anya bụ ọrụ ụmụ nwanyị; ọtụtụ n'ime ndị klas nke oge a nwere mmasị karịa nha anya ụmụ nwanyị (dịka, Buranajaroenkij et al. 2018). “N’ime afọ iri abụọ gara aga, ụmụ nwanyị anọwo na-arụ ọtụtụ ọrụ na okpukpe Buddha, ọ bụghị naanị dị ka ndị na-akwado ndị mọnk kamakwa dị ka ikike dị mkpa na Buddha Lay. Ọrụ ha na mpaghara nke agụmakwụkwọ na omume enyerela Buddhist Thai aka ịbụ ihe metụtara ụzọ ndụ ndị mmadụ n'oge a "(Visalo 2012). Ndị mmadụ na-ewe iwe na nguzogide ndị isi saṅgha maka ịgwọ ụmụ nwanyị nha anya.

Ndị ụkọchukwu na-ahụ ya dịka nsogbu ọrụ aka. Ndị ọzọ na-ahụ ya dị ka ajọ misogyny. … Ọ bụrụ na ndenye iwu nke ugbu a enweghị ike ichebe ndị mọnk nwanyị, mgbe ahụ ndị mmadụ nwere ike. N’ịbụ ndị omume rụrụ arụ zuru ebe nile nke ndị mọnk nwere nkụda mmụọ, ndị mmadụ na-achọwanye ndị nkụzi ime mmụọ n’abụghị ndị ụkọchukwu na-achịkwa ha. Ugbu a ọ dịkwaghị mkpa ka ndị nkuzi mmụọ bụrụ monastics (Ekachai 2016b).

Site na mmalite ya na Pak Paknam, Phra Monkol Thepmuni malitere ịgbanwe ndụ ụlọ nsọ ọdịnala yana mmekọrịta ya na ndị nkịtị nọ n'ụzọ ndị tụrụ anya nchegbu ndị otu etiti oge. Ọ jikọtara ịdọ aka ná ntị ndị mọnk lax (eg, Magness nd; Scott 2009), nke na-echegbu ndị mmadụ ruo ọtụtụ iri afọ. (“Nanị ụzọ ndị ụkọchukwu ga-esi weghachite okwukwe ọha na eze bụ site na ị na-eme ihe kwekọrọ na Vinaya, nke ụkpụrụ ndị mọnk nke omume. Nke ahụ, naanị ya”) Bangkok Post 2008). A gbasaa ọzụzụ maka ntụgharị uche maka ndị nkịtị, yana okwu okwu Dhamma, ma na nsonye site na mae chi dị ka ndị nkuzi (Choljivarn 2019; Magness nd). Ọtụtụ n'ime akụkụ ndị a abụghị ihe ọhụrụ dị ka mmalite nke ọdịnala ọdịnala Theravāda na-ala n'okpuru. “Ọ bụghị nanị ndị mọnk ka e nwere ikike ịhazi ọdịnala yogāvacara. Ndị mmadụ, gụnyere ụmụ nwanyị, nwere ike ịbụ ndị nkuzi, ọbụnadị bụrụ ndị nkuzi nye ndị mọnk ”(Crosby 2000: 142).

Na ọrụ ụmụ nwanyị, dị ka ọ dị n'ọtụtụ nsogbu, Wat Paknam n'ozuzu ya na-ezere nsogbu ịma aka na ọnọdụ saṅgha. Ọnọdụ Wat Paknam dị ka o siri ike na ọ nweghị nkuzi nkuzi na-egbochi ịhọpụta ụmụ nwanyị, mana na saṅgha nchịkwa nwere ikike ịtọ iwu (Wat Paknam 2016). (Nke a dị iche na nke Thai bhikkunī ije, nke na-agbagha usoro iwu ndị nna ochie nke Theravāda) (dịka, Tomalin 2006). Ka ọ dị ugbu a, ọnọdụ mae chi ebilila, na Wat Paknam mae chi na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma, mana ọ bụ n'okpuru radar n'ihi na ha anaghị ekwu na ha bụ bhikkunī. N'oge a, "mmekọrịta chiri anya [mae chi] na ndị nkịtị nwere mgbe ọ bụla yiri mmekọrịta dị n'etiti ndị mọnk na ndị nkịtị" (Seeger 2009a: 806).

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Nzuzo zuru oke nke Dhammakāya na-eketa otutu ihe nke otu nkuzi dika ndi Thai ahaziri ahaziri Thai Theravāda. (Rawlinson 2000 na-ekwu na akụkụ anọ ndị dị n'akụkụ na usoro ya nwere ike ịdaba n'ọtụtụ ihe.) Esemokwu dị iche iche na-egosi n'ụzọ doro anya na nke a abụghị Theravāda dị mma. N’ụzọ dị iche iche a haziri ahazi, “cosmos sara mbara ma bụrụ nke ndị a na-apụghị ịgụta ọnụ dị ike biri; nnwere onwe gụnyere ịchọta ụzọ mmadụ site na labyrinth yana okwuntughe kwesịrị ekwesị ”(Rawlinson 2000: 100). Onye nkụzi na ọdịnala ndị a haziri ahazi na-ekpo ọkụ nwere ike ịkọwa dịka "onye anwansi / maara ihe nzuzo" (Rawlinson 2000: 103), na "anaghị enye nkuzi niile n'otu oge, mana naanị mgbe ọ dị mkpa na mgbe ahụ naanị n'ụdị cryptic" (Rawlinson 2000) (106). Na Buddha, ụdị esoteric aA na - ejikọkarị rms na Vajrayāna, nke Rawlinson ji mee ihe atụ maka akụkụ anọ a.

Otu onye mọnk dị afọ iri na itoolu bụ Wat Phra Dhammakāya mọnk, onye nwetara ọkwa dị elu n'ọkwá dị elu tupu ọ hapụ njem ahụ, na-enye echiche dị n'ime. Akụkọ mgbe ochie Wat Watra Dhammakāya na-ekwusi ike na 'eluigwe na ala bụ agha n'etiti Dhammakāyas nke Ìhè na Ọchịchịrị '(Laohavanich 2012: 495). A na-anụ asịrị na Abbot, Phra Dhammachayo, [Foto dị n'aka nri] nwere ikike mmụọ na ikike ntụgharị uche, ọ na-eduga n'ike nke ìhè (dịka, Mackenzie 2007). Ndị na-eso ụzọ Wat Phra Dhammakāya na-esonye, ​​n'ụzọ bụ isi site na ntụgharị uche siri ike, na mmeri ikpeazụ nke ike ọchịchịrị ga-eduga na nghọta mmụta (Taylor 2008; Laohavanich 2012).

N'adịghị ka obodo ndị ọzọ Buddhist dị na Thailand ebe nkuzi nke nna ukwu ahụ ka ghere oghe maka ọha na eze, Wat Phra Dhammakāya bụ nke e wukwasịrị na mgbanaka nke nkuzi esoteric… Mgbe onye ọhụụ bịara ọhụrụ nwere okwukwe zuru oke n'ịdu ndị isi. wat, s / a ga-ewebata ya na ọkwa dị elu nke nkuzi nke Vijjā Dhammakāya ebe omuma ihe omuma nke Buddha abagh uru (Laohavanich 2012: 487-88).

N'ezie, Theravāda a ​​na-ahazi nke ọma na-ebelata akụkọ ifo ndị dị otú ahụ, ma na-ekwusi ike na ọ bụ mmejọ na-enweghị isi na-ekwu na ikike mmụọ nwere ike ịdọrọ ndị mmadụ (dịka, Seeger 2009b). Agbanyeghị, mgba a gbara ọkpụrụkpụ n’etiti ezi ihe na ihe ọjọọ abụghị ihe ọhụrụ Wat Phra Dhammakāya, mana enwere ike ịhụ ya na esoteric Theravāda ndị ọzọ. Foxeus (2012: 244), dịka ọmụmaatụ, na-akọwa "asọmpi cosmic, Manichean n'etiti ezi na ihe ọjọọ" na nsụgharị Burmese, ma na-ekwukwa ụdị cosmologies ndị dị na Sri Lanka. Akụkọ ọdịnala dị otú ahụ adịwo mgbe ụfọdụ na Theravāda millenarianism, ndị na-abụghị ndị ọchịchị Buddhist na-emeghachi omume na nrụgide sitere na colonialism na mmezi oge (eg, Foxeus 2012, 2016; Mackenzie 2008). Mmegharị Millenarian na-eguzogide mkpokọta site na steeti Siamese / saṅgha n'oge a mgbe ụfọdụ mere ka ndị nwoke dị nsọ jiri ike ha dị elu kpuchido Buddha na obodo Buddha (dịka, Cohen 2001; Scott 2009).

Official Theravāda na-ebokwa Wat Phra Dhammakāya ebubo nke echiche gbagọrọ agbagọ na nibbāna na anattā (ndị na-abụghị Onwe ha). A na-edozi onwe onye ahụ, ya bụ, ọ na-esite na mmekọrịta nke nchịkọta ise nke uche na anụ ahụ (khandha), nke ha na-echekwa na enweghị ike. N'ikwu ya n'ụzọ ọzọ, mmadụ enweghị ọdịdị ebumpụta ụwa, na ịmara nibbāna bụ maka ịhapụ ihe niile ejikọtara na ọnọdụ ahụ na-adịgide adịgide. Achọpụtaghị ọdịdị nke nibbāna ka ndị na-adịghị ahụkebe. Buddha achọghị ka enwee mkparịta ụka na-enweghị isi banyere okwu ndị a, nke ga-adọpụ uche ndị mmadụ na ọganiihu na andzọ ma bụrụ ihe mgbochi nye mmụta (dịka, Harvey 2013).

Wat Phra Dhammakāya na-akụzi na nibbāna bụ inweta “Ezi Onwe” nke ga-emegide nkuzi Theravāda na-abụghị nke Onwe ya nke ahaziri ahazi. Ozizi Wat Phra Dhammakāya abughi ihe ohuru ha choputara, kama obu, ha na ulo akwukwo nke ihe omuma nke Theravāda. Wat Paknam na Wat Luang Phor Sodh Dhammakayaram abụọ nwere nkuzi ndị yiri ya (Cholvijarn 2011, 2019), ọ bụ ezie na ha jisiri ike nọrọtụ n’okpuru radar na arụmụka nke oge a. Ndị na-akwado nkwenkwe Dhammakāya karịa ma ọ bụ obere na-ele nkuzi ndị na-abụghị Onwe ha anya dị ka ụzọ nwere ọgụgụ isi; site na ikuziri ndi mmadu ka hahapu onwe ha, nke ejikoro khandha na mmeru aru wepu aka ya, mmadu puru ichota Ezi-Onwe.

Nkọwa dị iche iche nke nibbāna na anattā / attā abụwo isi okwu dị iche iche na ọdịnala Buddha dị iche iche maka ọtụtụ puku afọ. Na Mahāyāna, ndị dnsogbuakya bụ "aru Buddha" ebighi ebi, na (na ụfọdụ Mahāyāna) tathāgata-garbha bụ ụdị okike Buddha a ka na-enweghị mmerụ (Williams 2008: 106) kpuchie. Williams (2008: 125 ff) na - egosipụta Ezi-Onwa nke Wat Phra Dhammakāya dị ka nsụgharị nke echiche tathāgata-garbha na Mahāyāna. Otú ọ dị, ọ na-ekwu na ọtụtụ ndị na-akwado Thai anaghị ewere ya Mahāyāna, kama nke ahụ, "isi na mbụ" nkọwa nke nkuzi Buddha. Cholvijarn (2019) na-ahụ mmepe yiri nke esoteric Theravāda, ọ bụghị ịgbaziri ego. Versionfọdụ ụdị echiche gbasara “ozu Buddha” adịla na Theravāda oge niile (dịka Reynolds 1977). N'ezie, akwụkwọ akụkọ ihe mere eme sitere na Ndịda Ọwụwa Anyanwụ Eshia Yogāvacara nwere nkọwa zuru oke na Pāli Canon (dịka, Cousins ​​1997; Crosby 2000), mana egosighi mmetụta Mahāyāna dị ukwuu.

Ruo oge na-adịbeghị anya, mgbe Wat Phra Dhammakāya malitere ikewapụ ọtụtụ ndị etiti na ụfọdụ ndị otu ama ama site na itinye aka na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, esemokwu ozizi ndị a apụtaghị oke. Kemgbe ụwa, orthopraxy na-adịkarị mkpa na Buddhist karịa usoro iwu siri ike. O siri ike ịkatọ onye mọnk na-eme ka a mara aha ya maka nkà ntụgharị uche dị elu ma nweta ikike omume siri ike site n'ịgbasochi vinaya ahụ. Dị ka ihe atụ, Jackson (2003) tụlere etu Buddhadāsa (nke ahaziri “mgbanwe-si n'ime”) siri nwee ike iji nke a wee webata ọtụtụ nkuzi ọhụrụ. Zehner (1990) na-eche na Phra Dhammachayo (na ịgbatị, Phra Monkol Thepmuni na mbụ) nwere ike iwepụ ajụjụ banyere okwu nkuzi site na ịpụta onwe ya dị ka onye ntụgharị uche na-eji akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ eduzi omume.

N'ezie, ọbụlagodi ma ọ bụrụ na ọ bụghị nke ukwuu, nsụgharị nke ozizi dhamakāya agbasaala ruo nwa oge n'etiti saṅgha, ọbụlagodi na ọkwa dị elu. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, Saṅgharāja (isi nke ndị isi ọchịchị saṅgha hierarchy) rụrụ ụka na 1939 na nibbāna bụ Ezi-Onwe. N'oge ahụ, Buddhadāsa duziri arụmụka na-arụ ụka banyere echiche na-abụghị nke Onwe ya (Williams 2008: 125 ff; cf. Cholvijarn 2011, 2019). Esemokwu ahụ abụghị nke metụtara, wee belata ruo oge ụfọdụ, mana ọ pụtara ọzọ ozugbo Wat Phra Dhammakāya ghọrọ onye ama ama. Phra Payutto emeela ka agbachitere nkwenkwe ọdịnala na-abụghị nke Onwe (dịka, Cholvijarn 2011; Seeger 2009b).

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Na ọdịnala esoteric, ọ dịghị mkpa ịbanye na nkọwa nke ụdị ozizi dị mgbagwoju anya dị otú a ruo mgbe ndị na-eso ụzọ ga-ezu oke ịgbaso ha. Ọ dị mma ilekwasị anya na omume nke onwe, nke ihe ọtụtụ ndị na-eso ụzọ na-achọ. Otutu adighi echegbu onwe ha banyere usoro nkuzi. N'echiche, ndị etiti na-achọ inwetaghachi ụkpụrụ ọdịnala, mana anaghị ewere naanị ịlaghachi n'oge gara aga dị ka ihe ngwọta dị mma maka ụwa nke oge a. Ihe niile dị na Dhammakāya na-aghọta nke a ruo n'ókè ụfọdụ, ma Wat Phra Dhammakāya abụwo onye nwere nkà na-agwa ìgwè mmadụ okwu.

Ozizi ha ga-esiwanye ike na nsọpụrụ nsọpụrụ na ụkpụrụ omume ahaziri n'ụdị metụtara etu esi ebi ndụ. Na-azọrọ na ha na-emezu ọhụụ ahụ nke Luang Phau Sot buru, ha mere ka ọhụụ ahụ dị ọcha dịka ụkpụrụ okpukpe dị n'etiti oge ha si dị… Yabụ, na-azọrọ na ha bụ ndị nketa nke nna ha ukwu ahụ, ha ji aghụghọ were gbanwee nkuzi ya na nke ya ọhụụ maka nzube ọhụrụ na ndị ọhụụ ọhụrụ. (Zehner 1990: 408).

Lọ nsọ ahụ n'otu oge ahụ nakweere teknụzụ ọgbara ọhụrụ na aesthetics ma na-azụlite ihe ọ hụrụ na ọ bụ ọdịnala ụkpụrụ. N'ezie, ọ bụ ngwakọta a dị irè nke ọdịnala na nke oge a, dị ka a hụrụ na omume ntụgharị uche nke Templelọ Nsọ… na ịba uru… nke dọtara ọtụtụ puku puku ndị klas, ndị gụrụ akwụkwọ na kọleji na nkuzi na omume nke ”lọ Nsọ ” (Scott 2009: 54-55).

Isi ụgbọ maka ịgbasa ozizi bụ vijjā dhamakāya ntụgharị uche. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ọ bụ arụmụka nye ụfọdụ, ikekwe na-egosipụta esemokwu n'etiti usoro nnwale ya (ọkachasị samatha) na usoro ọgụgụ isi (ọkachasị vipassanā) nke onye isi ọrụ "dị jụụ" Theravāda (Crosby 2014: 155 ff; Scott 2009: 80 ff) Cholvijarn (2019), agbanyeghị, na-ekwusi ike na vijjā Dhamakāya gụnyere akụkụ nke samatha na vipassanā. Ọ dabere na ụzọ atọ nke itinye uche (ihe a na-ahụ anya, ncheta Buddha, na itinye ume iku ume), yana "cikpụrụ nke Center," ya bụ, na-eweta mgbado nke ihe ndị a na etiti ahụ (Rajyanvisith 2011 Nkem 26: 2008. Ọ dịghị otu n'ime ihe ndị a pụrụ iche na vijā Dhamakāya, ọ bụ ezie na ijikọ ha n'otu usoro dị obere (Newell 2009; Scott XNUMX).

Nkọwa nke usoro (s) ka mma maka ndị nna ukwu na-akụzi ya (dịka, Dhammakaya Foundation 2020; Rajyanvisith 2011). N'ebe a anyị na-arịba ama na vijjā Dhamakāya bụ usoro ihe ngosi "dịtụ mfe", nke "a na - akụziere ọtụtụ ndị mmadụ n'ụzọ dị mfe" (Swearer 1991: 660). Wat Phra Dhammakāya, n'ihi nhazi nke igwe ya, nwere ike buru nke a, ụlọ arụsị ndị ọzọ na-agwakwa ya mgbe ụfọdụ na-eme ka ọ dị mfe (Cholvijarn 2019; Newell 2008; Scott 2009). Okwesiri ighota na otutu ndi mọnk ndi na adighi agbaso omenala Dhammakāya ma ha bara uru imuta vijjā Dhamakāya (nke na-esite na Wat Paknam ma obu Wat Luang Phor Sodh Dhammakayaram ugbu a), obu ezie na obughi nani.

Itrụ ọrụ bara uru bụkwa ihe dị mkpa n'ọtụtụ omume Buddha, nke a ma ama n'ụdị ọdịnala na nke oge a nke Thai Theravāda. Mmesapụ aka na inye bụ otu isi ihe dị mkpa, ma nwee ike iweta nsonaazụ karmic dị mma, n'ihi na ha na-ebelata mgbakwunye. N'ikwu ya hoo haa, naanị inye ihe n'atụghị anya nloghachi ga-eweta kama dị mma; ọ bụrụ na mmadụ atụ anya irite uru, ọ nwere ike ịbụ ngosipụta nke anyaukwu karịa mmesapụ aka (dịka, Harvey 2013). Enweela mgbe ụfọdụ ihe mgbagwoju anya na Buddha a ma ama na Thai banyere ma ikike ịme ihe nwere ihe ọmụma dị ka ihe mgbaru ọsọ, ma ọ bụ na ọ ga-eme ka ọ dị ọhụrụ, nsogbu nke ịzụ ahịa nke oge a emeela ka njọ (Kitiarsa 2007).

Wat Phra Dhammakāya ahaziela ịba uru na nnukwu azụmaahịa, yana ihe ndị dị ka ụgbọ ala mgbagharị maka njem dị mfe, n'ahịa saịtị nke ihe ofufe, usoro ịre ahịa ozugbo, na ịkwụ ụgwọ onyinye kaadị kredit dị mfe. "Otu okpukpe ọhụrụ a gunyere Dhammakaya nke na-akuzi na mmadụ nwere ike zụta akara aka ma chekwaa ohere n'eluigwe site na inye onyinye n'ụlọ nsọ" (Ekachai 2016a). “Itrụ ọrụ bara uru abụrụla nke ọma ma kwadebe nke ọma nke a ga - enwerịrị ike nweta ma‘ mebie ’” (Fuengfusakul 1993: 168).

N'agbanyeghị nkatọ dị otú ahụ, Wat Phra Dhammakāya nwere ike ịkwụsị mmegide siri ike nke gọọmentị ogologo oge. "Thammakaay ewerewo ihe mgbu iji gosi onwe ya dị ka onye na-agbanwe agbanwe, 'na-egbutu', onye na-eme mgbanwe nke na-asọpụrụ ma na-anabata usoro dị ugbu a na iwu nke egwuregwu ahụ" (Fuengfusakul 1993: 176). "Ndị ọchịchị egosila na ha dị njikere ịnabata ihe ọhụrụ azụmaahịa nke Thammakaay ma ọ bụrụhaala na ọ naghị agbagha iwu Sangha na iwu" (Fuengfusakul 1993: 178). Nke a agbanweghi rue afọ ole na ole gara aga mgbe uru dị na nkewa na-acha na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke Thailand tụgidere n'akụkụ n'akụkụ Wat Phra Dhammakāya.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Wat Phra Dhammakāya enweela ezigbo nkà n'ịzụ ahịa n'onwe ya (Scott 2009), nke mere ka ọ bụrụ nke ọtụtụ mmadụ karịa nsụgharị Buddhist ndị ọzọ ma ọ bụ ọbụna iyi ndị ọzọ nke usoro Dhammakāya. Dika odi nkpa, obu oru ndi ochichi ya na ndi isi ochichi. Ngwurugwu na-ekpo ọkụ Dhammakāya dị ka mmegharị enweghị ezigbo nduzi ọ bụla, na, n'ezie, isi iyi atọ dị n'ụzọ kwụ ọtọ. Mana ha niile ghotara ma rụọ ọrụ n'ime ndị isi gọọmentị saṅgha, ma si otú a, kesaa ọtụtụ usoro nhazi dị ka ụlọ ọrụ Thai Theravāda dị jụụ. Na omume, agbanyeghị, Wat Phra Dhammakāya na-eme ihe ike ike na iwulite ọnọdụ ya, kwa, na-akpachapụ anya ịwepụta onwe ya dị ka onye nọ n'okpuru onye isi ọrụ Theravāda saṅgha. (Enwebeghị ajụjụ dị ukwuu banyere nke a maka ụlọ arụsị abụọ ndị ọzọ, nke na-edebekarị profaịlụ dịtụ.)

Ndị ọrụ gọọmentị saṅgha dị elu karịa ma ọ bụ obere usoro ndagide. (Isi okwu Ekachai nke 2013 kwuru nke a n'ụzọ doro anya: "Ndị isi ọchịchị Sangha ga-aga nke ọma".) Ọnọdụ dị elu (Saṅgharāja) dabere n'ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ na ọ bụ okenye, ọ bụ ezie na enwere ụfọdụ ikike iji gbanwee n'etiti iwu ndị isi nke ndị mọnk abụọ. Wat Prah Dhammakāya na Wat Paknam (nke bụ Mahanikaya) nwere ọtụtụ ndị mọnk dị oke oke (dịka, McCargo 2012), nke obere n'ihi na ha na-emesi ike idobe ndụ ha karịa ọtụtụ ụlọ arụsị ndị ọzọ. A họpụtara onye mọnk Wat Paknam ka ọ na-eme Saṅgharāja mgbe ọnwụ nke onye isi ọrụ na 2013 nwụrụ, mana enweghị nkwenye kpamkpam. Ọ bụ onye mmekorita Wat Prah Dhammakāya, na mgbe 2014 gbasasịrị, gọọmentị jụrụ ịkwado nhọpụta ya nye Eze maka nkwado. Mgbe ọtụtụ afọ nke ịtụgharị uche na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, mgbanwe ọrụ iwu na iwu nyere Eze ahụ nhọrọ, karịa naanị ikike nnabata. A họpụtara Saṅgharāja ọhụrụ na 2017, na-agabiga ma agadi ma oke mkpa nke ndị isi saṅgha nke gaara erite uru ndị mọnk Dhammakāya (Kulabkaew 2019; Malikhao 2017).

N'ime Wat Prah Dhammakāya n'onwe ya, Phra Dhammachayo bụ isi na-enweghị mgbagha ruo n'oge na-adịbeghị anya. Nhazi usoro nhazi nke ala a bụ otu esi arụ ọtụtụ ụlọ nsọ, yabụ usoro iwu abụghị ihe ọhụrụ, mana ihe dị na ya bụ. Laohavanich (2012) na-akọwa ikike Phra Dhammachayo dị ka ezigbo okpukpe, na mmegide ma ọ bụ nkatọ ọ bụla nwere ike ime ka a chụpụ ya n'ụlọ nsọ. (Ndị mọnk a chụpụrụ na-akwaga n'otu n'ime ụlọ nsọ Dhammakāya ndị ọzọ.) Ikike ya nwere ike belata mgbe ọ kwụsịrị na 2011 (ọ bụghị ihe doro anya ihe kpatara ya, ikekwe maka ahụike), mana Phra Dattacheevo na-arụkọ ọrụ mgbe niile. Na 2016-2017, gọọmentị na-agbaso ebubo nrụrụ aka ọhụrụ, nwaa ịnwụchi ya, Phra Dhammachayo kwụsịrị iji zere ikpe. A na-akọ na ọ hapụrụ mba ahụ. Gọọmentị jiri nwayọ nwayọ na-achọ ya (Bangkok Post 2019), mana ọ dịka ọ dị afọ ojuju ịhapụ ya naanị nhichapụ njikwa nke Wat Prah Dhammakāya.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Okpukpe Dhammakāya n'ozuzu ya nwere ike iguzosi ike, mana akụnụba nke Wat Phra Dhammakāya agbadatala na afọ ole na ole gara aga. Wat Phra Dhammakāya kwekọrọ na pro-Thaksin na-acha uhie uhie na agha agha nke agba agba na Thailand n'ime iri afọ abụọ gara aga (McCargo 2012; Prateepchaikul 2015b; Malikhao 2017). Mgbe ndị otu Thaksin nwere ike, nhazi a nwetara ụlọ nsọ ahụ ọfụma, gụnyere mkpebi dị mma nke ebubo nrụrụ aka dị njọ, bụ nke a kwụsịrị na 2006 (dịka, Prateepchaikul 2015a; Malikhao 2017). Nhazi ahụ were ụfọdụ nkwado nke etiti, na ngalaba ndị dị ugbu a nke batara n'ọchịchị na 2014 na-agbaso ebubo nrụrụ aka megide ndị isi ya (eg, Malikhao 2017; ma megide ndị ụkọchukwu ndị ọzọ rụrụ arụ, dịka, Ekachai 2018).

Mkpesa nrụrụ aka mbụ ahụ metụtara ebubo mpụ na ebubo siri ike nke Phra Dhammachayo siri ọnwụ na ihe dịka Baht 900,000,000 (≈ US $ 30,000,000) n'onyinye, ọkachasị ala, abụrụla ya onwe ya, kama ịga n'ụlọ nsọ. Saṅgharaja n'oge ahụ kwadoro n'ezie ka e mebie ya, ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ n'ihi na esemokwu ahụ gbanyeere arụmụka eziokwu nke Self / nibbāna. Ndị Dhammakāya jikọrọ aka na Council Saṅgha Kasị Elu gbochiri ya ịkatọ ya, ndị otu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị wee nweta ebubo ahụ na 2006 n'ihi na ọ laghachiri ala ahụ n'oge na-adịbeghị anya n'ụlọ nsọ (Prateepchaikul 2015a; Scott 2009; Swearer 2010). Ọgba aghara a na-ekwu ugbu a gbasara ebubo iji onyinye iji kpochapụ ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ 1,000,000,000 nke Baht 12,000,000,000 (≈ US $ 400,000,000) nke sitere na Klongchan Credit Union (Bangkok Post 2019; Nlekọta 2019; Prateepchaikul 2015a).

Ọtụtụ n'ime ndị nọ n'etiti enweela obi ụtọ ịhụ mbọ iji mee ka saṅgha dị ọcha, gụnyere Wat Phra Dhammakāya, nke nrụrụ aka, mana obere ịnụ ọkụ n'obi banyere "ịsacha" Theravāda nke echiche na-ekwekọghị ekwekọ. Ha na esemokwu abụọ ahụ akọwapụtara na Kulabkaew (2019), nke mere ka ihe dị mfe n'ọgụ dị n'etiti ndị na-achọghị mgbanwe n'okpukpe ndị kwenyere na ndị ọchịchị na ndị ọchịchị nwere ike ịkwado Ọtọdọks nke Theravāda, nke ndị isi saṅgha, nke jikọrọ Wat Phra Dhammakāya ( na, nwa oge, ndị otu ndọrọndọrọ Thaksin) iji kpuchido ọnọdụ nke ha. Ọtụtụ na-enwe obi ụtọ na e gbochiri ikike Wat Phra Dhammakāya, mana okwu a bụ ịza ajụjụ, ọ bụghị nkuzi, na ha achọghị ịhụ ka amachibidoro ya.

Ezigbo nsogbu abụghị ụlọ nsọ na nkwenkwe ya, kama ọ bụ ọnọdụ adịghị ike nke Buddha na Thailand. Ọtụtụ akụkọ sitere n'aka Sanitsuda Ekachai, ndị Bangkok Post onye na-ede akwụkwọ, kọwaa echiche ndị a nke ọma.

“Ka m kweta. Dhammakaya anaghị amasị m. Enweghị m mmasị n’itinye ego na nkwenkwe ụgha ndị mmadụ na okwukwe ha. Enweghị m mmasị otú ọ na-esi akụzi ozizi Buddha, otu o si egosipụta uru ọ bara na okwu ego, otu esi enyere ndị ọgaranya aka, ka esi azụta ndị isi na ndị isi, etu ụlọ nsọ si arapara na nrụrụ aka dị ka Klongchan Ebe a na-ede akwụmụgwọ Ebe E Si Nweta nke mere ka ebubo ikpe nke Phra Dhammajayo, na otu onye isi abbot na-eji ndị na-akwado ya iji chebe onwe ya nke nwere ike ịkpata ọgba aghara "(Ekachai 2017)

o sina dị,

Nkwa [Wat Phra Dhammakāya] nke eluigwe maka inye onyinye sitere na nkwenkwe ọdịnala. Mbuli ya ịbụ onye a ma ama sitere na enweghị ike ịgwa ndị isi okwu na ịzaghachi mkpa ha. Ka ọ dị ugbu a, ọfụma nke ọma nke kansụl ahụ sitere n'aka ndị okenye na adịghị ike nke usoro ahụ (Ekachai 2015).

Site na ntanye aka nye ndị okenye, njikọ na mmetụta dị na Dhammakaya achịkwalarị ndị isi ụka. Maka ịkatọ Sangha Council, a chụpụrụ Santi Asoke (Ekachai 2016a).

Santi Asoke (Heikkilä-Horn 2016), n'ezie, bụ ụdị ọzọ nke mgbanwe Buddhist nke oge a na Thailand, nke na-adịghị edozi na Rawlinson's (2000) (Speece 2013, 2019). (Thai mara na okwu Ekachai “chụpụrụ” pụtara na a chụpụrụ ndị mọnk ha na saṅgha gọọmentị na enweghị ike ịkpọ onwe ha Theravāda n'ụzọ iwu kwadoro. A machibidoro ha iwu dị ka ụfọdụ oge na-egosi na akụkọ ọdịda anyanwụ, mana ha nwere ikike ịme ihe ọ bụrụhaala na ha emeghị nọchitere onwe ha dị ka Theravāda.)

Ee e, Dhammayaka adịghị ize ndụ. Ọ bụ naanị otu n'ime otu okpukpere chi ọhụụ nke nwere mkpa ọhụụ na ọha mmadụ na-azụ ahịa nke oge a. Ihe dị egwu Buddhist Thai bụ nrụrụ aka nke ndị ụkọchukwu na-akpata nrụrụ aka (Ekachai 2018).

Dhamtù Dhammakāya adịghị ka ihe mebiri emebi site na ndọrọndọrọ ọchịchị dị ugbu a. A na-ewetara Wat Phra Dhammakāya ihe ntakịrị, mana nke ahụ nwere ike ịbụ uru ya ogologo oge. Na mbido, Ekachai amatala ọrịrị siri ike ya:

Ọchịchị obodo Thai na-achịkwa ọdịbendị ndị ahịa, yana ngagharị nke [Wat Phra] Dhammakaya site na ijikọta ikeketeorieke n'usoro ihe ya abụrụla ihe ewu ewu na ndị Thais nke oge a na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma, ịdị n'usoro, ịdị ọcha, ịdị mma, ịdị ebube, ngosipụta, asọmpi, na ihe ịga nke ọma n'ihe onwunwe. ịdị mma (Ekachai 1998).

Ihe ndị na-adọta akụkụ dị mkpa nke ndị etiti n'etiti ka dị. Ọtụtụ n'ime ihe ha katọrọ esighi ike na ụlọ nsọ Dhammakāya ndị ọzọ. Emeela ka ọ dị na Wat Phra Dhammakāya, na ochichi nke na-akwalite ụdị oke a nwere ike ọ gaghị enwetaghachi ike. Ogologo oge, òtù Dhammakāya nwere ike bụrụ onye a ma ama na ụdị Buddha dị iche iche na Thailand.

Foto

Foto # 1: Phra Mongkol Thepmuni.
Foto # 2: Wat Paknam.
Foto # 3: Khun Yay Maharatana Upasika Chandra Khonnokyoong.
Foto # 4: Wat Phra Dhammakāya.
Foto # 5: Phra Thepyan Mongkhon.
Foto # 6: King Mongkut.
Foto # 7: Wat Phra Phra Dhammachayo.
Foto # 8: Vijjā Dhamakā na-atụgharị uche.

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Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
29 September 2020

 

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