John Paul Healy

Yoga Siddha


SIDDHA YOGA TIMELINE

1908: Swami Muktananda (aha ọmụmụ, Krishna), nke ụmụazụ ya maara dịka Baba, amụrụ na Karnataka State, India.

1923: Mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na ise, Muktananda, mgbe ahụ Krishna, buru ụzọ hụ ọdịnihu ya bụ Guru Bhagavan Nityananda, n'oge na-adịghị anya ọ hapụrụ ụlọ ịchọ ndụ ime mmụọ.

1947: Muktananda natara Shaktipat (mbido ime mmụọ) site n'aka Guru Bhagawan Nityananda. N'ime afọ iri sochirinụ Muktananda nọrọ oge ya niile na-atụgharị uche n'otu obere ụlọ na obodo Yeola, Maharashtra.

1956: Bhagawan Nityananda nyere Muktananda obere ala dị kilomita ole na ole site na ashram nke ya ebe Muktananda wuru obere ụlọ wee zụlite ogige rose.

1961 (August 8): Guru Muktananda, Bhagawan Nityananda, nwụrụ. Ọnwụ nke Bhagawan Nityananda hapụrụ ọtụtụ ndị na-anọchi ya, gụnyere Muktananda, gaa n'ihe a na-ewere ugbu a dị ka agbụrụ Siddha Yoga.

1970: Njegharị ụwa mbụ nke Muktananda mere. Ka ọ na-erule ngwụsị nke afọ ndị 1970, Muktananda na obere ìgwè nke ndị na-efe ofufe gara ma kuziere Siddha Yoga na Europe, Australia, Singapore na America.

1974-1976: Njegharị ụwa nke abụọ nke Muktananda mere. Muktananda laghachiri n'Australia, bụ nke guzobere Ashrams abụọ, Europe, wee nọrọ ọtụtụ oge na America na Oakland Ashram ọhụrụ ahụ ma mepụta nzukọ ahụ, Siddha Yoga Dham Associates (SYDA) na ịgagharị US.

1978-1981: Muktananda nke atọ na njem ụwa ikpeazụ mere. Ọ gụnyere ogologo oge na Santa Monica Ashram e guzobere ọhụrụ na Nityananda Ashram (nke mesịrị bụrụ Shree Muktananda Ashram) na South Fallsburg, New York, nke jere ozi dị ka isi ụlọ ọrụ ahụ, wee mepụta ọkwa dị elu n'ụwa dịka onye guru.

1981: N'oge ememe na South Fallsburg Ashram na New York, Muktananda kpọrọ nwa agbọghọ Swami Nityananda onye nọchiri ya.

1982 (May): Mgbe nnabata Swami Chidvilasananda, nwanne nwanyị Swami Nityananda, Muktananda kpọrọ ha abụọ ka ha bụrụ ndị nọchiri usoro Siddha Yoga.

1982 (October 2): Swami Muktananda nwụrụ na Swami Chidvilasananda (mgbe e mesịrị Gurumayi) na Swami Nityananda ghọrọ ngalaba-gurus nke òtù Siddha Yoga.

1982-1985: Swami Chidvilasananda (nke bụ Gurumayi ugbu a) na Swami Nityananda duziri Siddha Yoga, na-agbasa ozi ha na mba ụwa mana na-agakarị iche.

1985: Swami Nityananda guzoro dị ka ngalaba-guru n'etiti ọnọdụ esemokwu. N'oge na-adịghị anya Nityananda kere nzukọ nke ya Shanti Mandir ka ọ gaa n'ihu n'ọrụ ya dị ka onye nọchiri Muktananda.

1985-2020: Gurumayi gara n'ihu dị ka onye ndu naanị na Guru nke Siddha Yoga ma nọgide na-azụlite ọdịnala ahụ. Ọtụtụ Ashram na ebe ndị Muktananda guzobere na-arụ ọrụ.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Amụrụ na 1908, wee kpọọ ya Krishna, Muktananda [Foto dị n'aka nri] anaghị ekwu maka ezinụlọ ya ma ọ bụ nwata, ọ bụ ezie, amaara na ọ hapụrụ ụlọ mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na ise ịgbaso ndụ nke onye nwere onwe ya ma nwee ike ịbịa otu ụlọ elu ka ezinụlọ bara ọgaranya. Ọ ghọrọ saṃnyāsī dịka nwa okorobịa na usoro Sārasvatī na ọdịnala nke Daśanāmīs na Siddharudha's śśram na Hubli (Brooks 2000; Prakashananda 2007). N’ogologo ndụ ya, o ji ụkwụ gaa India nile. Muktananda bụ yogī eclectic; o weputara omume, ememe, na bhajans site na ndị okpukpe dị iche iche ọ zutere n'oge njem ya. Mgbe ọ bụ okorobịa, ọ chọsiri ike ịmụta ihe n’aka nnukwu ndị nsọ nọ n’India. Muktananda mụtara site n'aka ndị Alakụba, Ndị Kraịst, na ndị Hindu. Na akụkọ ndụ ya Egwuregwu nke ciousmara: Chitshakti Vilas (Muktananda 1974), ọ na-akọwa oge ọ na-awagharị na nnukwu ndị nsọ nke India nke ọ zutere, na-ejedebe site na mbido śaktipāta ya (edemede nke mmụọ ike a maara na ọdịnala a dị ka kuṇḍalinī na-akpọte site na amara nke guru) site n'aka ya, Bhagawan Nityananda (1888-1961) nke Ganeshpuri. [Foto dị n'aka nri]

Mgbe ọtụtụ afọ nke nyocha gasịrị, Muktananda mechara biri na guru ya n'obodo Ganeshpuri na-adịghị anya na Mumbai. Agbanyeghị, Muktananda na-ekwu na ya zutere onye isi ya bụ Bhagawan Nityananda nwa oge dịka nwa akwụkwọ, nke bụ ihe dugara ya n'ọchịchọ ime mmụọ ya ịmụta n'aka nna ukwu a. Mgbe Bhagawan Nityananda nwụsịrị, Muktananda malitere ịmepụta ā ram nke ya site na obere ụlọ ime ụlọ atọ na ala ndị gbara ya gburugburu nke Bhagawan Nityananda nyere ya. Site na mbido di ala n’ime obodo Ganeshpuri, iri asatọ site na Mumbai, a mụrụ ụdị nke Mukuruanda nke ọdịnala guru – mbet, wee kuzie ụwa Siddha Yoga (“yoga nke siddhas”).

Muktananda raara onwe ya āśram nye guru ya ma gụọ ya Shree Gurudev Ashram, na mgbe e mesịrị, Gurudev Siddha Peeth. Iji guzobe onwe ya n'etiti usoro ọmụmụ mmụọ, Muktananda kwupụtara na ọ bụ ya ga-anọchi guru ya; Otú ọ dị, n'etiti ndị na-eso Bhagawan Nityananda, ọ bụghị n'ụzọ doro anya ka a ga-enwe ndị na-anọchi ya. N'adịghị ka otu nnọchi, enwere mmata n'etiti ndị na-efe Bhagawan Nityananda nke ọtụtụ ikike ndị na-anọchi ya, gụnyere Janananda Swami, Muktananda, [Foto dị n'aka nri] Shaligram Swami, Shankar Teerth Swami, Sadananda Swami, Tulsiamma, na Gopalmama (Kodikal na Kodikal 2005). Janananda Swami bụ n'ezie isi Bhagawan Nityananda Ashram na Kerala n'oge ọnwụ Nityananda na mgbe ọ nwụsịrị, nke gaara eme ka ọ bụrụ onye ga-anọchi ya. Agbanyeghị, autobiography Muktananda (1974) kwusiri ike na ọ bụ onye ga-anọchi ihe ọ lere anya na agbụrụ nke siddhas (ndị chi doro anya), ya mere aha ya Siddha Yoga. Otú ọ dị, usoro ọmụmụ ga-arụrịta ụka na-atụle na Bhagawan Nityananda enweghị guru n'onwe ya; ya mere, ikwu na usoro ọmụmụ nwere ike ọ bụghị nkwupụta nke usoro ọmụmụ kama ọ bụ usoro ọmụmụ siddhas. Na Siddha Yoga āśrams gburugburu ụwa, e nwere eserese nke siddha dị iche iche nke Muktananda weere dị ka akụkụ nke usoro ọmụmụ ya.

N'ime 1960s, Shree Gurudev Ashram dọtara ọtụtụ ndị India na ọnụ ọgụgụ na-arịwanye elu nke ndị na-efe Western. Otú ọ dị, ọ bụghị ruo mgbe 1970 ka Swami Muktananda si Siddha Yoga webatara na West dị ka akụkụ nke azụmahịa mbụ ya na mpụga India (Thursdayby 1991; White 1974). Ọtụtụ ndị India na-arụ ọrụ n'oge a emeela njem gaa West ma nwee nnukwu soro. Emere njem nleta mbụ nke Muktananda site na nkwado nke onye India na-eto eto ya na ọnụọgụ ole na ole nke ndị na-eso ụzọ Western. Swami Rudrananda (Albert Rudolph) na Baba Ramdas (Richard Alpert) dịkwa mkpa njem njegharị ụwa mbụ nke Muktananda. Swami Rudrananda, nke a na-akpọkarị Rudi, bụ otu n'ime ndị Western ole na ole zutere guru Muktananda, Bhagawan Nityananda. Site na njedebe nke 1950s gaa n'ihu, Rudi malitere njem gaa India na-achịkọta ihe mgbe ochie iji ree na ụlọ ahịa ya New York Manhattan. Rudi ghọrọ onye ofufe nke Bhagawan Nityananda, n'oge ya na Nityananda ọ zutere Muktananda.

Mgbe Bhagawan Nityananda nwụsịrị na 1961, Rudi guzobere onwe ya dị ka onye nkuzi mmụọ na New York City ma mechaa śśram n'obodo Big Indian nke dị na New York, na-adọta ndị na-eso ụzọ ya. Śśram ahụ nke ọ kpọrọ Big Indian bụ wasśram mbụ raara nye Bhagawan Nityananda na West. (Shanti Mandir nwere nke 2020, Ashrams atọ na India na otu na Walden New York.)

Rudi gara n'ihu na-aga India mgbe Bhagawan Nityananda nwụsịrị ma na-agakarị Muktananda. Ọ bụ Muktananda nyere Rudi aha Swami Rudrananda. N'oge njem mbụ nke Muktananda, Rudi kpọrọ Muktananda ka ọ gaa Big Indian, bụ ebe ọ kpọbatara Muktananda ụmụazụ ya. Muktananda nọrọ dị ka ọbịa nke Rudi na Big Indian na n'ụlọ Rudi New York. Somefọdụ ndị na-eso ụzọ Rudi ghọrọ ndị na-efe Muktananda, gụnyere Franklin Jones, a makwaara dị ka Adi Da Samraj, bụ onye mechara zute Muktananda guzobere aha ya dị ka onye nkụzi mmụọ na-agbanwe agbanwe ma na-ese okwu. Ọ bụ site na nkwado nke Rudrananda na Baba Ramdas ka Muktananda nwee ike ịga United States.

Baba Ramdas, onye bụbu prọfesọ mahadum na onye na-eme nchọpụta ọgwụ na ọgwụ ọjọọ na Timothy leary na Aldous Huxley, bụ enyi Swami Rudrananda. Rudi kpọrọ Ramdas ka ọ zute Muktananda na Big Indian. N'oge ya na Big Indian, otu n'ime ndị na-eso ụzọ Muktananda jụrụ Ramdas ma ọ nwere ike were Muktananda gburugburu America. [Foto dị n'aka nri] N'oge a, Ramdas bụ onye ndu kachasị na ihe omimi nke ọwụwa anyanwụ, na-agagharị ebe niile ma na-ekwupụta ọhụmịhe ya na guru nke ya Neem Karoli Baba. N'oge Muktananda nọrọ na Big Indian, Ramdas nwere ọhụụ nke guru ya Neem Karoli Baba, onye gwara ya ka ọ "nyere nwoke a aka," nke pụtara Muktananda (Coroneos 2005). Ramdas na Muktananda gafee America gafee Melbourne, Australia, wee gazie India, na-ewebata Muktananda na kọmịị mara mma nke oge ahụ. Ọ bụ ruo n'ókè ụfọdụ nkwado nke Baba Ramdas [Image na nri] na Swami Rudrananda nke bu ụzọ nyere aka igosipụta ntụkwasị obi nke Muktananda dị ka guru na West wee malite ntọala maka omume Siddha Yoga nke ya.

Mgbe njem ụwa mbụ nke Muktananda gasịrị, ndị na-efe ofufe n'Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ ọhụrụ malitere ịmalite ebe Siddha Yoga na mba ha. Dika mmeghari ndi ozo nke India, dika ISKCON or Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh /Osho, A ga-ewere Siddha Yoga dị ka òtù okpukpe ọhụrụ n'okwu ndị Melton (1993) tụpụtara, n'ihi na mgbe ọ banyere n'Ọdịda Anyanwụ, ọ nwetara ndị si mba ndị ọbịa. Ọ bụ ezie na ọdịnala ndị guru – ndị na-eso ụzọ bụ ndị amaara nke ọma ma hiwe ya na India ruo ọtụtụ narị afọ, n'oge ngwụsị 1960 na mbido 1970s, ndị otu a na-enye ndị ọdịda anyanwụ ọnọdụ ime mmụọ ọzọ maka echiche Ndị Kraịst kachasị. N'oge ndụ ya, Swami Muktananda duziri njem atọ nke West, na-enyefe nkuzi nke guru ya Bhagawan Nityananda n'ihe ọ na-ewere dị ka usoro nke siddhas, ma ọ bụ nna ukwu zuru oke (Brooks 2000; Foster 2002).

Njem nleta nke abụọ nke Muktananda, na 1974, ka emere site na nkwado nke Werner Erhard nke Erhard Seminars Training (est). Werner Erhard guzosiri ike na Human ikike nwere ikike nke 1970s ma nwee ọtụtụ puku ụmụazụ na usoro mmemme ya (Graham 2001; Prakashananda 2007). Ọ kwụrụ ụgwọ maka Muktananda na obere ndị otu ya ka ha si India pụọ, dịkwa ka Ramdas na Rudi mere na 1970, mere ka Muktananda gere ndị na-ege ya ntị (Brooks 2000). Werner Erhard mere ka Muktananda mata ebe a na-enye onwe ya ikike inyocha ihe. Worklọ ọrụ ndị a yiri ka ha nwere mmetụta ụfọdụ na Muktananda bụ ndị malitere ịmalite mmemme nke ụbọchị abụọ nke iwebata Siddha Yoga; ihe ndị a ghọrọ ihe siri ike nke Siddha Yoga śaktipāta nnabata maka ndị ọhụụ. Ka ọ na-erule ngwụsị nke 1975, Muktananda eguzobewo ezigbo ihe na-eso nke ya ma na-eduzi izu ike izu ụka na satsaṅg ọdịnala (na-eso) n'ofe niile. Amerịka. Ọ bụ ezie na Werner Erhard na Muktananda esoghị mgbe oge a (ma ọ bụ Baba Ramdas), ọ gara Muktananda na India obere oge tupu Muktananda anwụ na 1982 (Graham 2001). [Foto dị n'aka nri]

Maka njem nke abụọ a, na 1974, obere ụlọ dị na Webster Street, San Francisco, ghọrọ śram mbụ na mpụga India nke a raara nye Muktananda si Siddha Yoga omume. Ọ bụ Ed Oliver na-elekọta āśram bụ onye, ​​n'oge njem nke abụọ nke Muktananda nke America, soro obere ìgwè nke ndị na-efe ofufe, gụnyere ụfọdụ n'ime ndị ahụ a kpọtụrụ aha n'elu, gaa n'obodo dị iche iche nke America iji kwadebe maka nleta Muktananda (Siddha Path 1982a) . Na 1975, njem Muktananda nke America mechara biri na Oakland āśram e guzobere ọhụrụ, nke mechara bụrụ ebe maka mmepe nke usoro a haziri ahazi maka Siddha Yoga na West. A na-akọ na Muktananda, n'otu n'ime njem ya gburugburu Oakland, na-agafere ochie Stanford Hotel ma chee na ọ ga-eme ezigbo āśram na isi maka ịmalite mmepe Siddha Yoga n'ụwa niile (lee "Ebe a nwere Ihe Niile" 1982b). N'oge na-adịghị anya, ndị na-efe ofufe si Australia, sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ site na nzukọ Muktananda, guzobere śśram na Melbourne na Sydney. Nke a mere Australia nke abụọ kachasị satsaṅg n'èzí India (Brooks 2000: 83).

Njem nke atọ, na 1978, guzobere Muktananda si Siddha Yoga n'ụwa niile na Shree Muktananda Ashram, ihe onwunwe m2 na South Fallsburg, n'ebe ugwu New York, dị ka ntọala nchịkwa ọdịda anyanwụ. Ọ bụ ihe na-akpali mmasị na isi Siddha Yoga āśram dị na America guzobere na-adịghị anya site na Rudrananda Big Indian Ashram, nke Muktananda nọrọ na njem mbụ ya.

Ka ọ na-erule oge ọnwụ Muktananda na Indian āśram na 1982, Siddha Yoga etolitela na mba ụwa na āśrams na ebe dị iche iche gburugburu ụwa na ihe ruru otu ụzọ n'ụzọ anọ nke otu nde ndị na-eso ụzọ (Graham 2001: 13). Maka obodo Siddha Yoga, ọnwụ nke guru ha bụ na mberede ma na-agbawa obi; nye ụmụazụ ya, Muktananda bụ Siddha Yoga.

Tupu Muktananda anwụọ, ọ wụnye mmadụ abụọ n'ime ndị na-efe ya ofufe ka ha duzie otu ahụ dị ka ngalaba-gurus (Beit-Hallahmi 1993; Thursdayby 1991). N'oge ememe gurupūrṇimā na 1981, Muktananda akpọrọ onye nọchiri ya Swami Nityananda (1962–1958); ọnwa isii ka nke ahụ gasịrị, aha nwanne Nityananda Swami Chidvilasananda, onye a na-akpọbu Malti na nke a maara ugbu a Gurumayi (2000–115), ka akpọrọ onye ga-anọchi ya (Brooks XNUMX: XNUMX) Nityananda na Gurumayi bụ ụmụ nke ndị fere oge ogologo oge nke Muktananda ma biri ọtụtụ afọ ma soro ya gaa njem. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Gurus ọhụrụ nke Siddha Yoga gara ọtụtụ n'ime afọ atọ ha ọnụ dị ka ndị isi-ụka ruo mgbe ncheta nke atọ nke ọnwụ Muktananda, nke e mere na Gurudev Siddha Peeth na Ganeshpuri, India.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE 

Ọdịdị dị egwu nke guru nwere ike bụrụ ihe dị mkpa maka omume nke Siddha Yoga karịa omume ime mmụọ ọ bụla (Thursdayby 1995: 206). Mkpakọrịta guru – eso ụzọ onye na-eso ụzọ bụ isi ihe ga - eme ka mmụọ nke ndị na - efe ya nwee mmụọ. Mgbe onye na-emeghe ma na-anabata ihe batara na śakti nke siddha dị ndụ, edemede ime mmụọ na-enweghị atụ n'ime mmadụ nwere ike ime. Na akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ ọwụwa anyanwụ, edemede a ma ọ bụ nnabata a maara dị ka śaktipāta. Ozugbo nke a mere, onye ọ bụla na-amalite usoro na-eduga na ngbanwe zuru ezu (Siddha-Yoga 1989: 1).

N'iburu onye guru mkpa, onye na-achọsi ike nwere ike ịtụgharị uche n'ụdị guru kama iji mantra. Na omume Siddha Yoga, a kwenyere na mmalite nke guru, ma ọ bụ śaktipāta, na-akpali mmụọ ime mmụọ nke onye na-achọsi ike, ya mere ntụgharị uche na mantra ugboro ugboro ghọrọ ọdịdị nke abụọ. A makwaara Śaktipāta dika “kuṇḍalinī edemede” ma ọ bụ “edemede nke kuṇḍalinī” (Muktananda 1990; White 1974). Site na nke Siddha Yoga, edemede a bu mbido nke ndu ime mmuo ma obu sādhana, nke na omenala ndi guru – nke ndi India bu omume nke akwukwo banyere mmuo iji nweta nnabata chi (Sharma 2002; Uban 1977). Echiche nke śaktipāta na Siddha Yoga sitere na ọdịnala nkà ihe ọmụma nke Kashmir Śaivism (Brooks 2000; Shankarananda 2003). Otu n'ime edemede ndị ọdịnala a bụ Nkiruka, ederede ekpughere nke onye dere ya bụ Śiva, onye kpughere ya na Vasugupta (Chatterji 2004; Singh 1990). Kashmir Śaivism na-anwa ịkọwa ụzọ maka nghọta ma ọ bụ nnabata nke eziokwu ma ọ bụ onye kachasị elu, ma ọ bụ Siva (Shankarananda 2003: 53). Okpukpe Śaiva-Śakta bụ otu n'ime okwukwe ochie na ụwa; tupu Vasugupta, ọ bụ ọdịnala a na-edeghị ede (Singh 1990: 3).

Shankarananda (2003: 57) na-ekwu na Śaivism dị ka nkà ihe ọmụma na-akwado ndụ nke kwetara na ihe niile onye ahụ hụrụ ma hụ bụ chi. N'ime omume Siddha Yoga, ihe niile bụ chi, na ọchịchọ nke ndị na-eso ụzọ na-abụ chi na chi. Site na echiche nke Śivasūtra, mgbe yogī mechara nweta ọkwa kachasị elu, ọ na-aghọ Śiva, ma ọ bụ chi (Singh 1982: 186). Ozugbo enwere ọnọdụ a, guru ma ọ bụ satguru (guru zuru oke) na-aghọ akụrụngwa nke ihe ọmụma, ụwa juputara na ya śakti ma ọ bụ ike ya (Singh 1982: 197-197). Ọnọdụ Śiva, ma ọ bụ chi, bụ nkwupụta mmụọ ime mmụọ nke guru n'ime Muktananda si Siddha Yoga ọdịnala (Foster: 2002; Uban 1977). Otú ọ dị, onye guru Muktananda Bhagawan, Nityananda kwuru ihe ndị na-esonụ: “O zighị ezi ịsị 'Abụ m Brahman [chi].' Otu kwesịrị ikwu karịa 'You bụ All, ụwa dum bụ onwe gị' '(Kodikal na Kodikal 2005: 168).

N'ime ọdịnala nke Kashmir Śaivism, nnwere onwe nke onye ọ bụla "enwetaghị site na mgbatị ahụ nke ọgụgụ isi, ọ na-abịa site na saktipat [sic] (ọdịda nke Sakti Chukwu) ma ọ bụ" Amara Chineke "(Singh 1990: 26). Ya mere, a na-ahụ guru dị ka akụkụ dị oke mkpa nke omume Siddha Yoga, dị ka amara inye ike nke Śiva ma ọ bụ chi. Na Gurugụta, abụ nke amaokwu 182 sitere na Skandapurāṇa, nke dị na narị afọ nke isii na nke asatọ OA (Chapple 2005: 15), na-enye ndebiri maka mmekọrịta dị n'etiti guru na onye na-eso ụzọ maka ndị na-efe Siddha Yoga, a na-abụkwa ya kwa ụbọchị na Siddha Yoga āśrams. Dị ka Gurugụta, "Ọ dịghị ihe dị elu karịa Guru" (Nectar nke Ịkụ abụ 1990: 28). Muktananda dekwara ọtụtụ akwụkwọ banyere guru, jiri ihe atụ mmekọrịta ya na guru nke ya, onye gosipụtara echiche nke guru dị ka chi. Agbanyeghị, mgbe Bhagawan Nityananda kwuru na "Guru bụ Chukwu," ọ soro nke a "Chineke bụ guru" (Kodikal na Kodikal 2005: 61) na "Ezigbo guru enweghị akpụkpọ ụkwụ n'ụkwụ ya, enweghị rosary na aka" ( Kodikal na Kodikal 2005: 161).

A na-ewere onye guru na omume Siddha Yoga dị ka ọdịdị nke onwe ma ọ bụ chi na ngosipụta nkepụta nke onwe n'ime mmadụ niile. Na guru bu chi yiri ka nnabata buru oke ibu; otu osila dị, nke a n’echiche site n’echiche na mmadụ nile bụ chi, ọ bụ ezie na ha nwere ike ha amatabeghị nke a. Onye na-achọsi ike nwere ike mechaa jikọta ya na chi ma ọ bụ guru wee bụrụ guru. Otu nkuzi nkuzi Siddha Yoga bụ isi "Chineke bi n'ime gị dịka gị." Muktananda na-ekwukarị ihe ndị a: "Sọpụrụ Onwe Gị, Fee Onwe Gị, Na-atụgharị uche na Onwe Gị, Chineke bi n'ime gị dịka gị" (Graham 2004: 71).

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Siddha Yoga bụ maka ọtụtụ akụkụ ọdịnala ndị guru – mbet. Ndị na-eso ọdịnala a bụ akụkụ nke ofufe na-efe chi dị ndụ site na ọdịnala nke chi dị ndụ.

Omume Siddha Yoga gụnyere ntụgharị uche, abụ, sevā, Haṭha Yoga, ọmụmụ ihe, ntụgharị uche, na dakṣiṇā (onyinye onyinye). "Omenala ọdịnala nke Siddha bụ Vedanta na Kashmir Shaivism, na omume ndị a bụ kundalini yoga" (Beit-Hallahmi 1993: 284). E nwekwara ọkwa dịgasị iche iche nke Tantra dị ka Caldwell (2001) tụlere n'isiokwu ya bụ "Obi nke Nzuzo: Ezigbo Nzuzo na nke Mmụta na Shakta Tantrism na Siddha Yoga." Ndị na-efe ofufe n'otu n'otu na-abịakwute omume ọ bụla nwere ike ịdị iche (Healy 2010). Dịka ọmụmaatụ, enwere ndị na-efe ofufe na-agaghị ewere Haṭha Yoga dị mkpa na omume ha yana ndị ọzọ na-abụ abụ ma ọ bụ sevā bụ omume ha niile. Ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu nwere ike ịdaba na ụdị omume ụfọdụ nke dabara na njirimara onwe ha ma gosipụta ụdị ọdịnala Indian yoga nke a tụlere na Bhagavadgītā, dị ka karmayoga, jñānayoga, na bhaktiyoga. Karmayogins na-arụ ọrụ sevā ma na-etinye oge ka ukwuu na Siddha Yoga na-arụ ọrụ maka nzukọ ahụ, jñānayogins nwere mmasị n'ịchụso ọgụgụ isi nke ọmụmụ na ntụgharị uche nke ederede okpukpe okpukpe India dị iche iche, na bhaktiyogins na-enwekarị ọ enjoyụ na omume nke ịbụ abụ na itinye uche na ụdị nke guru. Ndi mmadu di iche iche adighi adi na ndi ozo, otutu ndi mmadu na etinye aka na udiri ihe ndia.

Medtụgharị uche na omume Siddha Yoga na-abụkarị mantra ntụgharị uche ma ọ bụ ntụgharị uche na ụdị ahụ guru. Initialdị mbụ nke ntụgharị uche mantra nke e webatara na ndị ọhụrụ na-efe ofufe bụ ikwughachi oṃ nāmaḥ śivāya (ofufe nke Onyenwe anyị Śiva na mgbakwunye nke primordial oṃ ma ọ bụ aum). Enwere ike ịghọta nke a dị ka "M na-ehulata Śiva," a pụkwara ịghọta ya dịka "M hulatara onwe m" ma ọ bụ "Ana m ehulata isi m," nke bụ Śiva, dịka nkọwa nke ndị nkuzi dị iche iche nke Siddha si kwuo Omume Yoga. Mgbe Muktananda buru ụzọ gaa West, ọ na-enyekarị mantra guru oṃ; agbanyeghị, na mmemme Siddha Yoga ma ọ bụ satsaṅgs, a na-abụkarị oṃ nāmaḥ śivāya na-abụkarị obodo tupu ntụgharị uche. Na mantra na ntụgharị uche na-ugboro ugboro na onye ọ bụla na na ume. Mantra ọzọ ndị na-efe ofufe ji atụgharị uche bụ soʾham, nke a na-akpọkarị ham sa. A na-akụzi mantra a n'oge nkuzi izu ụka kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ ma ọ bụ ihe Siddha Yoga kọwara dị ka "ike," nke mbido śaktipāta na-ewere ọnọdụ. The soʾham mantra bụ ike mantra ọzọ maka ịgbaso ume, na-atụle obere okwu. A mantra okirikiri, nke ham dere na iku ume na otú ọ na-esi pụta, a ghọtara ya pụtara "Abụ m nke ahụ." Na-eso ume ume na ịpụ, mantra na-abụ "Abụ m na m bụ na m bụ ihe m bụ," na na. Site na oṃ nāmaḥ śivāya mantra, enwere nkwenye na onye na-etinye aka na-ekwenye na njikọ ya na enweghi ngwụcha, onwe ya, ma ọ bụ chi. Ebumnuche nke soʾham mantra bụ na ọ mechara bụrụ ihe okike dị ka ume n'onwe ya, ya mere mantra ugboro ugboro ghọrọ omume a na-eme mgbe niile. A na-emekwa ka Mantra ugboro ugboro site na iji japamālā. Dị ka iji cha cha cha ma ọ bụ chaplet chaplet, a na-ejide japamā n'aka aka ya, a na-agafe mkpịsị aka site na mkpịsị aka mmadụ; a na-eme mantra ugboro ugboro na chaplet ọ bụla. Ebumnuche niile nke mantra ugboro ugboro na ntụgharị uche ma ọ bụ ndụ kwa ụbọchị bụ imechi uche ka mmadụ wee nwee ike ịbịaru onwe ya ma ọ bụ chi ya.

Sevā ma obu oru nke guru nye guru bu ihe nlebara anya nke Muktananda si Siddha Yoga ma we di ka onye isi nke Gurumayi na ndi ozo di iche n’agbata Muktananda. A na-ewere Sevā dị ka omume ime mmụọ; ọ bụ site na ọrụ guru ka ndị mmadụ ji ụgwọ ọrụ, n'etiti ihe ndị ọzọ, ụdị ahụmịhe omimi, mmetụta ịhụnanya na ịdị jụụ (Brookes 2000: 144). Ọ dịkwa mkpa ịnakwere na-enweghị ọrụ afọ ofufo nke ndị na-efe ofufe, ụdị mmegharị a ga-esiri ya ike ịdị adị, ma ya fọdụ ito.

Isi ihe dị mkpa na omume Gurumayi nke Siddha Yoga bụ ọnọdụ dị n'etiti Dakshina, ma ọ bụ inye nzukọ ahụ, ọkachasị nke "Inye Enyemaka." Inye ego emere atụmatụ bụ ndokwa maka inye onyinye ego na ndụ njedebe iji nye onyinye nye nzukọ (siddhayoga 2020).

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Siddha Yoga gara n'ihu n'okpuru otu onye ndu nke Gurumayi n'oge niile nke nhazigharị n'oge 1980s na-agbaso esemokwu onye isi na nsogbu ndị na-esote nke mkpughe dị oke egwu na otu The New Yorker (Harris 1994; Beit-Hallahmi 1993; Brooks 2002; Williamson 2005). Ihe omumu Williamson (2005: 163) gosiputara odida na ndi otu Siddha Yoga ma huta mmechi nke ufodu akuku ndi otu. Otú ọ dị, n'ihi na ọ nweghị onye ọ bụla nọ na Siddha Yoga (Melton 1993: 935), ọ na-esiri ike nyochaa isi otu ndị otu. Enwere ọdịbendị na-agbanwe agbanwe na usoro ọhụụ ọhụụ ọhụụ, dịka iji teknụzụ n'ịntanetị karịa. Nke a pụtara ìhè na weebụsaịtị ha. The online sie ike na onyinye ego site na omume nke Dakshina na-egosi igosipụta otu ndị na-agba mbọ na-atụlegharị ihe ndị dị ugbu a na ọdịnihu. Agbanyeghị, Gurumayi, anaghịzi agagharị ọtụtụ oge iji zute ndị na-efe ya gburugburu ụwa ma ọ bụ na ọ na-eduzi ihe omume ọha na eze. Ozizi Gurumayi bụ ndị okenye svāmīs ma ọ bụ site na ntanetị weghaara ede.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Site na mmalite nke 1980s, afọ ole na ole tupu Swami Muktananda anwụọ, enwere asịrị ugbua banyere mmekọrịta Muktananda na ụmụ agbọghọ na-ekesa na obodo Siddha Yoga. E kwupụtara asịrị ndị a n'ụzọ doro anya n'oge 1981 na akwụkwọ ozi mepere emepe Swami Abhayananda (Stan Trout), zigara Siddha Yoga Ashram ọ bụla (Rodarmor 1983). Na 1983, Rodarmor gosipụtara akụkọ mbụ edepụtara banyere mmejọ, mmekọahụ na amamihe ndị ọzọ e boro megide Muktananda na nzukọ Siddha Yoga. Rodarmor gbara ụfọdụ ụmụ nwanyị ajụjụ ọnụ wee nweta akụkọ aka mbụ banyere mmejọ Muktanandas. Ọ bụ ezie na akwụkwọ ozi ahụ na edemede ahụ nyere nkọwa dị ukwuu, n'oge ahụ ha mere ka ọ ghara igbochi uto na aha ọma nke Swami Muktananda ma ọ bụ Siddha Yoga. Ọ bụghị ruo mgbe otu na n'ihu ihe ndekọ na-adade ke New Yorker na 1993 site na Liz Harris ọ malitere imebi aha Siddha Yoga n'ụwa niile na Onye Ndú Gurumayi ugbu a. Ọ bụghị naanị na edemede ahụ gosipụtara usoro mmekọahụ nke ụmụ nwanyị site n'aka Muktananda, kamakwa omume mkparị nke Gurumayi na nzukọ ya n'ebe nwanne ya nwoke bụ Swami Nityananda nọ, bụ onye a chụpụrụ site na ngalaba-onye ndu n'okpuru ọnọdụ dị omimi (Harris 1993). Na 2001, edemede Sarah Caldwell, weghachitere ọzọ na mmejọ mmekọahụ nke Muktananda, agbanyeghị, na ntụgharị ntụgharị na nkọwa Shakta Tantrism. Ndị sonyere na ọmụmụ ihe Healy banyere Siddha yoga (Healy 2010) gbalịsiri ike ịchọpụta echiche doro anya, ebe onye bụbu Siddha Yoga swami Elizabeth (pseudonym) na ndị ọzọ kwuru, na n'ime ọdịnala Tantric, mmekọrịta nwoke na nwanyị nwere ike ịbụ akụkụ nke omume guru.

O yiri ka edepụtara ebubo nke mmejọ gburugburu Muktananda; otu o sila dị, maka onye kwere ekwe, ma ọ bụ otu onye etinye ego na echiche nke omume ime mmụọ a nwere ike ịla azụ "ịchụpụ nwa ahụ na mmiri ịsa ahụ." Ọdịnala Siddha Yoga nke Muktananda na-aga n'ihu na ọtụtụ òtù na ndị nwere ntụkwasị obi nye ya. Groupstù ndị ahụ ga-ahụ onwe ha n'ọgbọ nke Swami Muktananda gụnyere mana ọnweghị oke: Gurumayi's Siddha Yoga; Shanti Mandir nke Swami Nityananda; Swami Shankarananda nke Shiva Yoga; Nna-ukwu Charles 'Synchronicity; Jivanmukta Swami Ganapati nke Siddha Shiva Yoga; Ntụgharị uche kachasị elu nke Acharya Kedar; Mark Griffin siri ike Center nke edemede; Swami Prakashananda; na Sally Kempton.

Ememe ncheta nke atọ nke ọnwụ Muktananda mere na Ọktoba 1985 wee dọta ọtụtụ puku ndị na-efe Western na India; ọ dị ka ebe dị elu nke mmegharị ahụ, nke ghọrọ ụlọ ọrụ nde kwuru nde (Caldwell 2001: 26). Otú ọ dị, ọ bụkwa oge mgbanwe maka njem ahụ, dị ka ndị na-eguzosi ike n'ihe nke ndị pụtara ìhè pụtara ìhè n'etiti ndị na-efe ofufe n'ebe ụmụaka abụọ ahụ nọ. Nityananda n'otu oge, n'ihu ọtụtụ ndị na-efe ofufe, were aka Gurumayi, jidere ya wee jiri mmụọ ụfọdụ kwuo, sị, "N'agbanyeghị ihe ị na-eme, n'agbanyeghị ihe ị chere gbasara anyị, anyị agaghị ekewa," nke pụtara bụrụ onye na-ezo aka na nkewa na-eto eto nke iguzosi ike n'ihe n'etiti ndị na-efe ofufe (Harris 1994: 102). Dị ka George Thursby (1995: 206) si kwuo, ọ bụ mmetụta nke guru bụ ihe bụ isi maka omume Siddha Yoga, na eziokwu ahụ na njem ahụ nwere ọhụụ abụọ yiri ka ọ ga-eme ka ndị na-efe ofufe Siddha Yoga guru karịa ụwa n'oge Muktananda. Otú ọ dị, mbipụta abụọ a mekwara ka e nwee nkewa, esemokwu na-etokwa.

Na Nọvemba 10, 1985, Nityananda jụrụ ọ bụghị naanị ngalaba-ndu ya nke Siddha Yoga kamakwa nkwa ya nke monk saṃnyāsī (maka akụkọ Nityananda maka ihe ndị a, lee Kottary 1986). N'akwụkwọ ozi nye ndị na-efe ofufe, ndị nlekọta nke Siddha Yoga kwupụtara ihe ndị a: "I kwesịrị ịma na ntọala SYDA na-ahụ Gurumayi Chidvilasananda dị ka onye isi mmụọ nke Siddha Yoga" (Chidvilasananda 1986). Ihe mere n'ezie n'oge a nke Siddha Yoga bụ isiokwu nke esemokwu ruo ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ afọ iri atọ. Melton (1993: 935) ekwuola na ihe omume a dị ka Nityananda lara ezumike nká, na Thursdayby (1991: 177) kọwara ya dị ka esemokwu onye ndu. Ha abụọ nwere ike izi ezi. Siddha Yoga bu ụzọ gwa ndị na-eso ụzọ ha na Muktananda bu n'obi na Nityananda na-eduzi otu ahụ ruo afọ atọ wee rituo. Mgbe Nityananda hapụrụ njem ahụ, a kọọrọ ya n'akwụkwọ akụkọ ndị India na Ihe ngosi kwa izu nke India na a manyere ya iguzo dị ka onye isi-ndu (Harris 1994; Kottary 1986). N'otu oge ahụ, Siddha Yoga kọrọ na Nityananda kwuru na ọ dara site na nkwa ya saṃnyāīn nke alụghị nwanyị site na isoro ụfọdụ ndị nwanyị na-efe ofufe na-emekọ ihe (Chidvilasananda 1986). Nkwupụta ndị a adịghị site na Nityananda na nyocha nke mechara The New Yorker (Harris 1994).

Mgbe ọ hapụrụ Siddha Yoga, Nityananda weghachiri nkwa ya saṃnyāsī na ọdịnala Dashnam, site na nkwado nke Mahamandaleshwar Swami Brahamanand Giriji Maharaj, wee weghachite ọrụ ya dị ka onye nọchiri Muktananda site na ịmepụta nzukọ nke ya, Shanti Mandir, na 1987 (Beit-Hallahmi 1993; Foster 2002; Melton 1993). Mgbe ahụ, ndị na-akwado Gurumayi na-esogbu Nityananda maka ihe ha lere anya na-akwadoghị iwu Nityananda na agbụrụ Siddha Yoga (maka akụkọ zuru oke nke oge a, lee Harris 1994). Thursby kwukwara na Siddha Yoga hụrụ Nityananda na-ekwusi ike na ọ ga-anọchi Muktananda dị ka ihe iyi egwu yana “iji kpuchido ikike iji usoro iwu, omume, na ihe eji eme ihe n’ụzọ iwu kwadoro maka nsogbu ndị a na-atụghị anya ya… debara aha ha” Tọzdee 1991: 178). Nchebe nke aha Siddha Yoga yiri ihe dị mkpa nye nkwuputa Siddha Yoga na-ekwu na ọ bụ naanị usoro nke Muktananda (Brooks 2000; Williamson 2005). A kpochapụrụ Nityananda na akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Siddha Yoga ma e wezụga peeji ole na ole na Siddha Yoga Mgbanwe ntụgharị uche: A History and Theology of the Siddha Yoga Movement (Brooks 2000: 131-34).

Ọ bụ ezie na Muktananda si Siddha Yoga dị, ma na-aga n'ihu n'okpuru nduzi nke Gurumayi, obere ọgbakọ okpukpe ọhụrụ, ma e jiri ya tụnyere ISKCON na mmegharị ndị Hindu ndị ọzọ, ọ bụ ihe na-atọ ụtọ ịmara na, ebe ọ bụ na ọ dị na West na 1970, ọ nwere amuru umu aka na esemokwu (Healy 2010). Enwere otutu ndi di na odida anyanwu nke sitere na omume Muktananda nke Siddha Yoga, tinyere Swami Nityananda's Shanti Mandir, Swami Shankarananda's Shiva Yoga, Master Charles 'Synchronicity, Jivanmukta Swami Ganapati's Siddha Shiva Yoga, Acharya Kedar's Meditation Medial, Mark Griffin's Hard Light Center nke Edemede, na Sally Kempton. Offọdụ n'ime ndị a, site na nkwado nke ọtụtụ ndị na-efe Siddha Yoga (mana ọ bụghị ndị isi), mepụtara mmegharị nke ha mgbe ha hapụsịrị Siddha Yoga. Taa, otu ndị a dị iche iche na-aga n'ihu usoro ọmụmụ nke guru ha ma mesie ike mkpa mmekọrịta guru na ndị na-eso ụzọ n'ime ọdịnala Muktananda. Shanti Mandir nke Swami Nityananda, ọkachasị, na-eweta ihe ịma aka nye nzọda Siddha Yoga naanị maka usoro ọmụmụ Muktananda, ọkachasị n'ihi na Nityananda bụ obere oge onye isi ngalaba Siddha Yoga (Brooks 2000; Williamson 2005).

Kemgbe ọnwụ Muktananda, enwere ike ịga n'ihu usoro ọmụmụ Siddha Yoga site na òtù dị iche iche ma ọ bụ mmegharị dị iche iche apụtawo ìhè. Omume Siddha Yoga nke Muktananda na-aga n'ihu na-etolite ọ bụghị naanị site na nzukọ mbụ nke Siddha Yoga na ndị isi nke Gurumayi kamakwa site na ọtụtụ nzukọ na-atụle mmegharị nke onwe ha ka ha nọrọ n'usoro nke guru ha, Swami Muktananda.

Foto

Image # 1: Swami Muktananda.
Image # 2: Nwa okorobịa Bhagavan Nityananda.
Image # 3: Muktananda ya na guru Nityananda ya.
Image # 4: Muktananda na Ramdas.
Image # 5: Werner Erhard na Swami Muktananda.
Image # 6: Chidvilasananda (mgbe e mesịrị Gurumayi) na nwanne ya nwoke Nityananda.

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Publication Ụbọchị:
7 October 2020

 

 

 

 

 

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