Christine M. Robinson Sue E. Spivey

Ọpụpụ International

 

OZI OZI OZI

1976: Emepụtara EXODUS na Nzukọ Nnọkọ Ex-Gay Intervention Team (EXIT) na Anaheim, California. Emere ihe omume a ka nzukọ mba mbụ nke nzukọ ahụ.

1979: Ndị na-eme nchọpụta EXODUS abụọ, Michael Bussee na Gary Cooper nke EXIT, kwupụtara na ha nwere ịhụnanya wee hapụ usoro ahụ.

1982: Johan van de Sluis si Netherlands duziri mgbalị iji mepụta Ọpụpụ Europe dị ka nzukọ nweere onwe ya (nke metụtara Exodus North America).

1983: Alan Medinger ghọrọ onye isi oche nke nzukọ ahụ.

1985: Bob Davies ghọrọ onye isi nchịkwa nke abụọ nke nzukọ ahụ.

1988: Australian Peter Lane, site na nkwado nke ndị isi EXODUS, nyere aka guzobe Ọpụpụ South Pacific, njikọta nke ndị minista si Australia na New Zealand.

1995: Onye Onye Isi oche Patricia Allan haziri, Ọpụpụ (North America) kwadoro nzukọ nke ndị isi mpaghara mpaghara ụwa. Ha hiwere otu kansụl na-edu ndú ụwa na 1995 nke mechara kpọọ Exodus Global Alliance. Allan bụ onye isi oche mbụ ya.

1998: Ọpụpụ International (nke bụbu EXODUS) sonyere na "Eziokwu na ”hụnanya" mkpọsa mgbasa ozi mmekọ nwoke na nwoke ya na ndị isi otu Christian Right.

2001: Alan Chambers ghọrọ onye isi nchịkwa nke atọ na nke ikpeazụ (emesịa weghachite Onye isi ala) nke Ọpụpụ International, North America.

2003: Onye ọkà mmụta sayensị bụ Robert Spitzer, bụ onye kwadoro na 1973 iji kọwaa nwoke idina nwoke dị ka nsogbu uche, bipụtara otu ọmụmụ, na akụkụ dabere na ndị mmadụ si n'aka Ọpụpụ International, kwubiri na enwere ike ịgbanwe mgbanwe mmekọahụ. Na 2012, Spitzer rịọrọ mgbaghara ma chọọ iweghachi ihe ọmụmụ ya, na-ekwu na ọ dị njọ.

2005: Ọpụpụ International obibi ozi ke Memphis, Love in Action, ka ndị ọchịchị nyochara maka ya "Mgbaba" mmemme maka umuaka.

2006: Onye isi ala George Alan Chambers na Onye isi ala Randy Thomas kpọrọ Onye isi ala George Bush ka ọ gaa nnọkọ ogbako nke White House iji kwado usoro mmegharị iwu iwu iji gbochie alụm di na nwunye na United States.

2009: Onye otu Board Don Schmierer gosipụtara na ogbako gbasara mmekọ nwoke na nwoke na Uganda; Ndị omeiwu ya tụlere ụgwọ iji kwado ntaramahụhụ ọnwụ maka nnabata nwoke na nwanyị idina ụdị onwe n'oge na-adịghị anya. Ọzọkwa, netwọkụ ozi abụọ nwere mmekọ nwoke na nwoke (Otu na otu maka ndị Presbyterian na formgbanwe Ọgbakọ maka Methodists) sonyeere Ọpụpụ International.

2012: Ọpụpụ International President Alan Chambers kwupụtara n'ihu ọha na mgbanwe mgbanwe ntụgharị uche nke nwoke na nwanyị enweghị ike, nke kpaliri ụfọdụ ndị ozi ịhapụ ma mepụta Network Hope Hope. California tinyere iwu izizi na US machibidoro ụfọdụ ndị ọkachamara ikikere ịnwa ịgbanwe usoro mmekọahụ na / ma ọ bụ njirimara nwoke na nwanyị.

2013: Ndị isi oche nke Ọpụpụ International North America kpebiri itisasị nzukọ ahụ. Ihe ka ọtụtụ n'ime ndị ọrụ gọọmentị jikọrọ ya na Exodus Global Alliance gara n'ihu na-arụ ọrụ.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

EXODUS (nke e mechara kpọọ aha Ọpụpụ International) [Foto dị n'aka nri] tọrọ ntọala na 1976 dị ka ọgbakọ na-enweghị uru, nzukọ otu okpukpe dị iche iche nke Ndị Kraịst na-akwalite ozi nke "Nnwere onwe pụọ na ndina ụdị onwe site n'ike nke Jizọs Kraịst." Ọpụpụ bụ netwọọdụ izizi nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke na ụwa. Aha ya bụ "Mgbanwe ga-ekwe omume." A malitere EXODUS n'ụbọchị ikpeazụ nke Nzukọ Nnọkọ Ex-Gay Intervention Team (EXIT), emere na Septemba 10-12, 1976, na Melodyland Christian Center dị na Anaheim, California. Ọ bụ EXIT, bụ ụlọ ọrụ Melodyland, bụ onye nhazi ọgbakọ ahụ ma hazie ya bụ isi site na EXIT na ozi ọzọ, Love in Action. Ndị bịara ya karịrị ndị isi iri isii, na-anọchi anya ndị minista iri na abụọ nke Ndị Kraịst si US "EXODUS" bụ ndị Robbi Kenney tụrụ aro n'ọgbakọ ahụ, otu n'ime ụmụ nwanyị ole na ole bịara (Dennis 2019; Hartzell 2015; Worthen 2010). Kenney kwuru aha ahụ n'ihi na "Ndị na-edina ụdị onwe ha na-achọ nnwere onwe na-echetara m ụmụ Israel ịhapụ agbụ nke Ijipt ma kwaga n'Ala Nkwa ahụ" (nke e dere na Davies 1990: 50).

Na ogbako ahụ, e guzobere ọhụụ ọhụụ na usoro ndu ya wee họrọ ndị isi ọrụ mbụ. Nkwupụta mbụ nke ebumnuche kwupụtara, sị: “EXODUS bụ mgbalị Ndị Kraịst zuru ụwa ọnụ iji ruo ndị na-edina ụdị onwe ha na ndị na-edina ụdị onwe ha. EXODUS na-akwado ụkpụrụ ezi omume na ịdị nsọ nke Chineke, nke na-ekwupụta na nwoke idina nwoke bụ mmehie, na-egosipụtakwa ịhụnanya na mgbapụta ya iji weghachi mmadụ. Ọ bụ ebumnuche nke EXODUS International iji zipu ozi a na Chọọchị, ndị mmekọ nwoke na nwoke, yana ọha mmadụ "(Davies 1990: 50). Dabere na Frank Worthen (2010), ndị isi oche mbụ gụnyere Jim Kaspar (oche), Greg Reid (osote onye isi oche), Michael Bussee (odeakwụkwọ kwekọrọ), Robbi Kenney (odeakwụkwọ ndekọ), na Worthen (onye na-echekwa ego). A na-ahụta mkpokọta 1976 dị ka ogbako mba mba mbụ. Ọpụpụ nwere nzukọ kwa afọ rue 2013. Ọ bụ ezie na ndị minista niile nọchitere anya na 1976 bụ ndị otu na-ahụ maka EXODUS, na onye ọ bụla n’ime ndị nnọchi anya ịtụ vootu guzobere nzukọ a, ndị mmadụ metụtara itinye aka na EXODUS gụnyere Michael Bussee, Gary Cooper, Ron Dennis, Ed Hurst, Barbara Johnson, Jim Kaspar, Robbi Kenney, Greg Reid, na Frank Worthen. Otu n'ime ndị isi EXIT wepụtara okwu a bụ "onye bụbu nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke" (Kaspar na Bussee 1979).

Ndị isi nke EXODUS lere ozi nke nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke dị ka naanị nzaghachi dị ka Kraịst n'ezie maka okwu gbasara nwoke idina nwoke, dị ka ihe ọzọ maka ikpe ọmụma nke ụka ụka na-agbanwe agbanwe na ikike nke ụka na-emesapụ aka nyere (Dallas 1996; Kaspar na Bussee 1979; Philpott 1977). Ọzọkwa, ndị isi lere anya na ozi ndị nwoke na nwanyị nwere mmasị na mgbanwe na mgbapụta, ọ bụghị naanị maka ndị mmadụ na-achọ mgbanwe, kamakwa maka Chọọchị n'onwe ya, nke bịara na-abawanye na mmekorita nwoke na nwanyị site na 1976-2013. Dị ka Mozis si ele ihe anya, ma nkatọ ma ikike e nyere 'kwara ihe akara. ” EXODUS, nke na-anọchite anya “amara” na “eziokwu,” nwere ike ije ozi ma nyere aka weghachi ahụ nke Kraịst (Chambers et al. 2006) [Foto dị n'aka nri]

Afọ ndị malitere nzukọ a nọ n'ọgba aghara. Esemokwu dị iche iche nke ozizi na esemokwu n'etiti ndị isi Ọpụpụ mere ka ụfọdụ ndị minista hapụ njikọ (Davies 1990). Na ọkwa ozi, ndị isi ụlọ ụka na-enweghị uche na ndị isi na enweghị nkwado ụka, nlekọta, na nkwado nke ndị ụkọchukwu nyere aka na mbibi ha (Davies 1990; Kaspar na Bussee 1979; Worthen 2010). Ọtụtụ ndị isi ozi (gụnyere ụfọdụ ndị na-eme ntọala Ọpụpụ) nwere ezigbo ọdịda "mmekọahụ" ma ọ bụ pụta dị ka nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke (Blair 1982).

Na 1980s, EXODUS kwụsiri ike ma nwee ọganihu n'ọtụtụ ụzọ, site na mgbasawanye mba ụwa, mgbasa ozi nke mba (ma ndị Kraịst Kraịst na ndị isi ụlọ ọrụ mgbasa ozi), na uto ozi (Davies 1990; Worthen 2010). Na 1983, Alan Medinger, onye guzobere regeneration ministri, ghọrọ onye isi ụlọ ọrụ Ọpụpụ nke mbụ. Dabere na Hartzell (2015), Medinger, onye na-akwụ ụgwọ, zọpụtara nzukọ ahụ n'ụzọ nkịtị ka ọ daa. O weputara ego iji hụ na nzukọ mba ga-aga n'ihu wee depụta akwụkwọ iji dozie "nsogbu ụtụ" Ọpụpụ na nlọghachi. Ọzọkwa, nzukọ ahụ mejupụtara ihe ndị siri ike maka ndị mmekọ mmekọ (Worthen 1990) wee guzobe Board of Reference iji nye nduzi maka Board of Directors (Hartzell 2015), na-akpata nkwụsi ike maka ha abụọ (Davies 1990). Kemgbe 1977, nzukọ EXODUS dọtara ndị ndu ozi si mba ọzọ, ndị chọrọ nkwado maka ịmekọrịta njikọta gafere North America (Davies 1990). Johan van de Sluis si Netherlands haziri nzukọ na 1982 maka ndị isi ozi na Europe, ma guzobe Ọpụpụ Europe dị ka nzukọ nọọrọ onwe ya, mana ndị mmekọ. Na 1988, Australian Peter Lane, yana nkwado site na Ọpụpụ North America, duuru mmepe nke Ọpụpụ South Pacific, ndị nweere onwe ha, mana ndị mmekọ, njikọ nke ndị minista na Australia na New Zealand (Lane 2020). Na 1987, onye ọkà mmụta okpukpe Elizabeth Moberly (onye guzobere ọgwụgwọ mgbapụta) ka a kpọrọ ka ọ kwuo okwu na ogbako mba Ọpụpụ North America, bụ nke nwere mmetụta dị ukwuu na njem ahụ (atụlerịrị n'okpuru). N'ikpeazụ, nsogbu ọrịa AIDS nwere mmetụta dị egwu na uto nke ozi ọma. Dabere na Davies (1990), ndị ụka enweghị ike ileghara eziokwu ahụ anya na enwere "ndị mmekọ nwoke na nwoke metụtara" n'ọgbakọ ha ma chọọ enyemaka Ọpụpụ.

Na 1990s, Ọpụpụ North America gara n'ihu na-akwalite ọgwụgwọ mgbapụta, nke gbara ume ka mwebata nke echiche akparamaagwa nke mmekọrịta nwoke na nwanyị dị ka nsogbu nke njirimara nwoke na nwanyị na ozi ndị Kraịst nwere mmekọ nwoke na nwoke (yana akwụkwọ nke ọtụtụ ndị isi otu ahụ dere). Ntughari ọgwụgwọ nyere nkwado nke sayensi na nkwuputa nke mmekorita nwoke na nwanyi (na okike okike) mgbanwe. Agbanyeghị na anabataghị ya na ngagharị ahụ niile wee nata nnyocha na nkatọ siri ike site n'aka ndị na-eme ihe ike na ndị ọkachamara ahụike ọgụgụ isi (Besen 2003; Shidlo et al. 2001), usoro mmegharị ahụ ka juru ebe niile na Ọpụpụ International ministri (lee Robinson na Spivey 2015, 2019). Na 1990s, Ọpụpụ jiri ụma tinyekwuo ego na mgbasawanye ụwa (Worthen 2010), ọkachasị na Asia (Venn-Brown 2017) na Latin America (Queiroz et al. 2013). Na 1995, Ọpụpụ North America kwadoro nzukọ nke ndị isi mpaghara mpaghara ụwa nke Ọpụpụ, nke onye isi oche Patricia Allan si Canada haziri. Ndị isi a hiwere otu ndị ndu ndu ụwa iji nyekwuo mmekọrịta na mmekọrịta n'etiti ndị isi Ọpụpụ gburugburu ụwa (Davies 1998). Allan ghọrọ onye isi nchịkwa mbụ ya. Aha izizi aha ya bụ Exodus International (nke e mechara kpọwa aha ya Ọpụpụ Global Alliance), ọ rụrụ ọrụ dịka nzukọ nche anwụ nwere onwe ya nke Ọpụpụ North America na mpaghara Ọpụpụ ndị ọzọ ga-esonye. Mgbe aha ahụ gbanwere Ọpụpụ Global Alliance, Ọpụpụ North America gbanwere aha ya ka ọ bụrụ Exodus International (oge ụfọdụ na-akpọ onwe ya Ọpụpụ International North America). N'ikpeazụ, 1990s na-anọchite anya isi mbịara nke nzukọ ahụ na-emegide nkwupụta ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke LGBT (Fetner 2005) na mmekorita ya na ndị otu Christian Right, nke gbasiri ike na narị afọ nke iri abụọ na mbụ.

Ọpụpụ International gosipụtara ọmarịcha ọhụụ n'ọkwa ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị n'okpuru nduzi nke onye isi nchịkwa ikpeazụ ya (onye isi ala mechara bụrụ onye isi ala), Alan Chambers, onye goro ọrụ na 2001, yana site na mmekọrịta ya na ndị otu Christian Right. Ebumnuche Ọpụpụ ghọrọ “Nchịkọta ozu Kraịst iji jeere amara na eziokwu nye ụwa nke mmekọ nwoke na nwoke metụtara” (Ọpụpụ International 2005). Na 2006, a kpọrọ Chambers na onye osote onye isi ala, Randy Thomas ka ha gaa nnọkọ ogbako nke White House iji kwado nkwado mmegharị nke Onye isi ala Bush machibidoro ịlụ nwoke na nwoke (Waidzunas 2015). Ka ọ na-erule 2010, nzukọ ahụ ewepụtala atumatu na-emegide ịlụ nwoke na nwoke, iwu mmebi iwu ịkpọasị, amụma ịkpa oke agbụrụ na nsogbu ndị ọzọ metụtara obodo na ikike ụmụ mmadụ nke ndị LGBT na US na gburugburu ụwa (lee Spivey na Robinson 2010). Nzukọ ahụ na-emegidekwa ikike nke transgender na ndị na-abụghị ndị ọnụọgụ abụọ (Lee, Robinson na Spivey 2019).

N'ikpeazụ, ọhụhụ dị ukwuu na itinye aka na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị mere ka a na-enyocha ma na-emegide ọrụ nke Ọpụpụ International, gụnyere na karịa nkwupụta ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ya. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ọpụpụ 'mgbochi LGBT na mmekọrịta ya na ndị isi otu Christian Right ka edere nke ọma (Besen 2003; Burack 2014; Burack na Josephson 2005; Erzen 2006; Fetner 2005; Khan 1996; Spivey na Robinson 2010; Waidzunas 2015 ). E nwere ihere ndị ọzọ na mmemme ọha na eze mebiri nzukọ ahụ n'ime afọ iri gara aga. Na 2005, nyocha nke Love in Action maka obibi nke ụmụntakịrị ka agbasiri ike na mgbasa ozi ma gosipụta na akwụkwọ ahụ, Nke a bụ Ihe Lovehụnanya Na Omume Dị. Na 2007, ndị lanarịrị bụbu ndị nwere mmekọ nwoke na nwoke, ndị bụbu ndị sonyere na mmemme mmemme nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke mana emesịa nakweere usoro mmekọ nwoke na nwoke ma ọ bụ njirimara nwoke na nwanyị na-abụghị ụkpụrụ, nwere ọgbakọ ọgbakọ. Na ogbako a, ndị isi atọ bụbu ndị isi mba ofesi, gụnyere onye na-akwado EXODUS Michael Bussee, rịọ mgbaghara n'ihu ọha maka mmerụ ahụ ha kpatara na ọrụ ozi ha na ndị otu nwoke na nwanyị (Trounson 2007). Na 2009, onye otu Ọpụrụiche nke International Board Don Schmierer gosipụtara na ọgbakọ mkparịta ụka gbasara mmekọ nwoke na nwoke na Kampala yana onye otu otu asị Scott Lively, onye na-ede akwụkwọ Pink Swastika: Mmekorita nwoke na nwoke na ndi Nazi. N'oge na-adịghị anya mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, ndị omeiwu nke Uganda tụlere iwu iji kwado ntaramahụhụ ọnwụ maka mmekọ nwoke na nwoke na nwoke ma ọ bụ nwanyị ibe ya inwe. Ihe ndị a na ihe ndị mere nnukwu aha ọjọọ nke nzukọ ahụ, na-ebute ọgbaghara na esemokwu nke ime. Mgbalị Alan Chambers na-achịkwa mmebi ahụ, weghachite ntinye nke International International na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, na ịkwalite ozi nke "amara" dugara n'ọgba aghara ọzọ n'etiti ndị isi nke nzukọ (Chambers 2015). Onye bụbu onye ndu Ọpụrụiche nke mba ofesi Stephen Black (2017), nke nwere njikọ na Restore Hope Network, wepụtara echiche dị oke mkpa banyere ndị isi nke Chambers na onye ọzọ na-ahụ maka esemokwu n'ime nzukọ ahụ. Na 2013, Ọpụpụ International onye ndu McKrae Game (2015) tọrọ ntọala ọzọ mmekorita nke nwoke na nwanyị nwere mmekọ nwoke na nwoke, Hope for Wholeness Network, dịka ihe ọzọ na Network Restore Hope. Nakwa na 2013, Ọpụpụ International Board of Directors (Clark Whitten (Onye isi oche), Martha Whitten, Don na Diana Schmierer, Kathy Koch, na Tony Moore) tozuru oke igbari nzukọ (Black 2017), nke Alan Chambers kwupụtara n'ihu ọha na nke ikpeazụ Ọpụpụ Nnwere Onwe Mgbakọ na June 20, 2013.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

EXODUS bu ihe mbu gbasara mmeko nke ndi nwoke na ndi nwanyi, ha hiwere ya dika ndi otu ndi otu Kraist. EXODUS kpaliri ndị ọzọ imepụta ụdị netwọkụ ozi otu a, ọtụtụ n'ime ha gara n'ihu na-arụ ọrụ (Lee, Besen 2003; Beers 2018; Cohen 2007; Goldberg 2009; Ide 1987; Kuyper 1999; Petrey 2020). . Ọ bụ ezie na ndị na-emebu nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke na-anọgide na-abụkarị ndị Kraịst (ọ dịkwa oke iche na nke ndị isi ala), Ọpụpụ International bụ onye Protestant na onye ezisa ozi ọma (Gerber 2011; Hartzell 2015; Bjork-James 2018). Iji sonye na Ọpụpụ dị ka ndị mmekọ, achọrọ ka ndị otu kwenye na nkwupụta nkuzi na amụma nke Ọpụpụ.

Nkwupụta ozizi nke Ọpụpụ International kwupụtara, sị:

Anyị kwenyere na Akwụkwọ Nsọ nke Agba Ochie na Agba Ọhụrụ bụ Okwu Chineke sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ, ikike ikpeazụ maka nkuzi, ịba mba, mgbazi, na ntuziaka maka ibi ndụ ziri ezi. Anyị kwenyere n'otu Chineke, dị ebighi ebi n'ime mmadụ atọ: Nna, Ọkpara, na Mmụọ Nsọ. Anyị kwenyere na chi nke Onyenwe anyị Jizọs Kraịst, mmadụ zuru oke na Chineke n'ụzọ zuru oke, otu Ọkpara nke Nna mụrụ naanị ya. A tụụrụ ime ya site na Mmụọ Nsọ, nke a mụrụ site na Virgin Mary, ma bie ndụ na-enweghị mmehie. Ọ tara ahụhụ n'okpuru Pọntiọs Paịlet, kpọgidere ya n'obe, lie ya ma si na ndị nwụrụ anwụ bilie. Ọ rigoro n’aka nri nke Nna ma ga-abịakwa ọzọ n’ike na ebube. Anyị kwenyere na okwukwe naanị na Jizọs Kraịst dị ka Onye Nzọpụta na Onyenwe anyị na-eme ka anyị nwere onwe anyị pụọ n'ike nke mmehie, na nsonazụ ya nke ọnwụ na amamikpe ebighi ebi. O weere ntaramahụhụ nke ọnwụ n'onwe Ya, ma mee ka anyị nwee ike ibi site na ndụ bilitere n'ọnwụ ruo mgbe ebighi ebi. Anyị kwenyere na Mmụọ Nsọ na-arụ ọrụ mmeghari ohuru a na ndụ anyị, na-enye anyị ike ito eto n'ịhụnanya anyị na Nna anyị nke Eluigwe na ije ije na nrube isi nye uche Ya. Anyị kwenyere na Nzukọ nke Jisus Kraịst bụ nke ndị niile maara Ya dị ka Onye Nzọpụta ha na Onyenwe ha, agbanyeghị nkwenkwe okpukpe ”(Ọpụpụ International 2005).

Banyere ndina ụdị onwe kpọmkwem, Ọpụpụ Board wepụtara iwu na 1980 (Davies 1990) nke na-akọwa etu akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ si emetụta mmekọ nwoke na nwoke: “Ọpụpụ na-akwado nwoke na nwanyị inwe mmekọahụ dị ka nzube Chineke maka ụmụ mmadụ ma na-elezi okwu idina ụdị onwe anya dị ka ihe na-abụghị uche Chineke. Ọpụpụ kpọtụrụ ọchịchọ idina ụdị onwe dị ka otu n'ime ọtụtụ nsogbu ndị na-ewetara ụmụ mmadụ dara ada. Họrọ idozi echiche ndị a site n’omume idina ụdị onwe, iwere njirimara nwoke idina nwoke, na itinye aka n’omume idina ụdị onwe, a na-ewere ya dịka mbibi, ebe ọ na-agbagọ nzube Chineke maka onye ahụ wee bụrụ mmehie. Kama, Kraist nenye ndi ozo aru ogwugwo idina ụdị onwe. Ọpụpụ na-akwado mgbapụta maka nwoke idina ụdị onwe ya dị ka usoro nke esi emebi mmehie, [Foto dị n'aka nri] na onye ahụ nwere onwe ya ịmara ma nweta ezigbo njirimara dị ka achọpụtara na Kraịst na Nzukọ Ya. Usoro a gụnyere nnwere onwe ito na nwoke na nwanyị ”(Ọpụpụ International 2001). Ma site na usoro okpukperechi (Kaspar na Bussee 1979) ma ọ bụ usoro mmegharị (Moberly 1983), Ọpụpụ kụziri na nwoke idina nwoke abụghị usoro ebumpụta ụwa ma ọ bụ nke ziri ezi yana na "enweghị ụdị" dị ka nwoke idina nwoke. E wezụga okwu nkuzi ndị a na-anọchite anya Ọpụpụ na ndị otu ya, ndị mịnịstrị dị na mpaghara jiri ụzọ dị iche iche wee kwalite “nnwere onwe pụọ na mmekọ nwoke na nwoke.” Minfọdụ ministri bụ naanị okpukperechi, ebe ndị ọzọ tinyekwara echiche ọgwụgwọ site na ị addictionụ ọgwụ ọjọọ na ụdị "nkwụghachi" (lee Robinson na Spivey 2019).

Ọ bụ ezie na nkwupụta mbụ nke Ebumnuche nke ebumnuche doro anya kwupụtara na mmekọ nwoke na nwoke bụ mmehie, nkwenkwe ya banyere ụkpụrụ omume nke nwoke idina nwoke (na okike dị iche iche) wepụrụ site na echiche izizi nke ndị isi ma dabere na nyocha ya banyere ọrụ nke nhọrọ onye ọ bụla (ya mere, ụta) na ebe nkiri ( nghazi), njirimara, na akparamagwa (Robinson and Spivey 2007; Gerber 2011). Ọpụpụ kụziri na ọ bụ ezie na omume nwoke na nwoke ma ọ bụ nwanyị idina nwanyị na njirimara bụ mmehie, ịdị adị nke agụụ mmekọ nwoke na nwoke ma ọ bụ mmetụta nwoke na nwanyị dị iche abụghị mmehie ebumpụta ụwa n'ihi na a họrọghị ha. Ndi ndu mbu (Kaspar na Bussee 1979) kuziri na mbido ebumnobi nwoke idina nwoke adighi ama ma adighikwa mkpa; ihe dị mkpa bụ nhọrọ ndị mmadụ mere banyere mmetụta ha, njirimara ha, na omume ha. Ọtụtụ ndị isi Ọpụpụ nabatara "akụkọ ifo mmalite" iji kọwaa nwoke idina nwoke na nwoke na nwanyị ọdịiche (Burack na Josephson 2005b; Robinson na Spivey 2019). Ka o sina dị, ọnọdụ nkwenye nke Ọpụpụ bụ na ịchụso mgbanwe bụ ihe dị mkpa.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Ememe emblematic nke metụtara Exodus International bụ akụkọ onye mbụ akpọrọ dị ka ịgba ama nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke (mgbe ụfọdụ a na-akpọ "ịgba akaebe," agbanyeghị na okwu ndị a nwere nkọwa dị iche). Ihe akaebe nke ndi nwoke nwere onwe ha bu akuko banyere nzoputa di egwu, akuko (ekwuru ma obu edere) banyere omuma nke mmadu banyere nmehie, nnaputa na ogwu. Ihe akaebe nke nwoke nwere onwe ya na-agba akaebe na "nnwere onwe site na nwoke idina nwoke" na, nke kachasị mkpa, na-akpọsa ma na-ekwupụta mgbanwe a maka ike na-enweghị njedebe nke Jizọs. Otutu ihe omuma ndi nwoke na nwoke na ndi nwoke na nwanyi na-akowa 1) ihe omumu oge mbu nke onye na ekwenye ekwenye kpatara ma obu nye aka na nmekorita nwoke na nwoke na nwoke ma obu nwanyi; 2) ahụmahụ nke ime ihe na mmetụta na / ma ọ bụ ibi ndụ dị ka ndị LGBT (nke a na-esonyere ya na nkọwapụta nke LGBT "ụdị ndụ") sochiri nsogbu; 3) ngbanwe miri emi ma obu “amuru ozo” (ebe obu na otutu ndi nwoke na ndi nwanyi ghotala onwe ha ndi Kraist), tinyere ncheghari na nmehie nke mmadu na ntinye ibi n’okpuru onye-isi nke Jisos, na 4) nkowa banyere otu Jisos si gbaputa ha "agbụ" nke nwoke idina nwoke ma gbanwee ha ka ha bụrụ ihe okike ọhụrụ (nke gụnyere alụmdi na nwunye na ụmụaka).

Ọpụpụ (na ndị otu ya so na ya) gbara ndị mmadụ ume ịkọ akụkọ ha ka ha bụrụ akaebe, bụ nke a na-eji wee zisa ozi ma kwalite ozi gbasara nwoke na nwanyị (mgbe ha rụkwara ọrụ dị ka ịgba akaebe). A na-eji akaebe na akaebe eme ihe mgbe ụfọdụ; n'agbanyeghị, ha dị iche, na, dị ka n'elu, akụkọ banyere nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke bụ mgbe niile. Ihe akaebe gbara akaebe n'eziokwu a swornụrụ iyi (dị ka ị takingụ iyi n'ihu Chineke) banyere mgbanwe mmadụ. Ihe akaebe na-ezo aka na nkwado mmadụ ma ọ bụ nkwenye nke ihe ekwupụtara (dịka ike nke Jizọs iweta mgbanwe yana mkpa ọrụ onye mmekọ nwoke na nwoke na-enyere mmadụ aka). Ihe akaebe na-abụkarị ihe akaebe n'ihi na a na-eji ya agbasa ozi ọma (na mgbe ụfọdụ, iji kwalite ozi ọma nke nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke). Ihe akaebe, karịa akụkụ ọ bụla ọzọ nke ozi ọma nwoke na nwanyị, gbanwere ozi nke "mgbanwe" nke Ọpụpụ kwuru na ọ ga-ekwe omume, ọ nọkwa na nnọkọ Ọpụpụ (mba na mpaghara), yana n'ọtụtụ akwụkwọ na ihe ndị ọzọ ọ emeputara, kwalite, ma ree. Ka Ọpụpụ na ndị ministri ya jiri ụma chọọ itinye ndị ọzọ na-ege ntị nke ndị "mmekọ nwoke na nwoke metụtara" ma ọ bụ "mgbagwoju anya nke nwoke" n'ime ozi ya, gụnyere ndị di na nwunye, ndị ezinụlọ, na ndị ọzọ, akaebe ha gbasakwara na ọrụ nke nzukọ ahụ. Beyond Ọpụpụ International, na-agba akaebe bụ quintessential ememe nke niile bụbu-nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke ozi taa. Ọtụtụ ọmụmụ banyere Ọpụpụ ma ọ bụ ndị otu so na ya kọwaa ma nyochaa akụkụ nke ịgba akaebe (Ọnwa 2005; Erzen 2006; Gerber 2011, Wolkomir 2006; Robinson and Spivey 2015, 2019).

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Ọpụpụ International nọgidere bụrụ nche anwụ na nzukọ nnabata maka ndị mmekọ mmekọ mbụ nke mmekọ site na 1976 ruo mgbe mgbasa ya na 2013. Nduzi ya na nhazi ya gbanwere n'ụzọ dị ukwuu karịa oge, dịkwa ka usoro ndị otu ya (na ihe ndị a chọrọ maka minista mmekọ).

Ọdịdị mbụ nke iduzi nke EXODUS gụnyere Board of Directors (Worthen 2010), nke ndị nnọchi anya mịnịsta họpụtara (lee ngalaba "Ndị guzobere"). E guzobere ọnọdụ onye isi oche, nke ndị Board Board họpụtara, na 1983. Alan Medinger, onye nchoputa na onye isi nke Regeneration Minista, rụrụ ọrụ a na 1983-1985. Bob Davies, onye bụbu onye ọrụ Love na Action, rụrụ ọrụ site na 1985-2001. Alan Chambers, onye duziri Mịnịsta Ọpụpụ maka ndị ntorobịa, ghọrọ onye isi oche na 2001 wee rụọ ọrụ ruo mgbe nzukọ ahụ gbawara na 2013. 

Ndị otu, usoro, na aha nke nzukọ ahụ gbanwere n'ụzọ dị ukwuu n'oge, site na mgbasawanye ụwa na okike nke ndị otu ọhụrụ karịa ndị minista. Site na 1976 rue etiti 1990s, ndị ministri ndị na-edina ụdị onwe mejupụtara mebere netwọkụ nke Ọpụpụ North America. Uto nke ndi oru na 1980s na United States, nke oria ojoo oria oria ojoo a riri elu na 1990s. Na 1980s, Ọpụpụ akwadolarị ndị na-emepe emepe na mba ndị ọzọ (Davies 1990). Ka ọ na-erule ngwụsị 1980s ọ malitere iji aka ya etinye ego na mgbalị ịkụnye ndị ọrụ mmekọ nwoke na nwoke karịrị North America (Davies 1990; Worthen 2010), na-ejedebe na okike nke Ọpụpụ Global Alliance na 1995 (nke a tụlere na mbụ). Ọ bụ n'oge a nke mgbasa mba ụwa ka EXODUS ghọrọ Ọpụpụ North America, wee bụrụ Ọpụpụ International.

Otu ndị mmekọ nọ na Ọpụpụ International gbasaa n'ihi mmetụta nke ọgwụgwọ nkwụghachi na 1980s na 1990s, mgbe ọtụtụ ndị isi na ndị isi Ọpụpụ tinyere echiche ọgwụgwọ na akwụkwọ na nkuzi ha. Ọ bụ ọkà mmụta okpukpe Britain bụ Elizabeth Moberly (1983), bụ onye guzobere “ọgwụgwọ ọgwụgwọ” na-emetụta ha, na mgbe e mesịrị, onye na-agwọ ọgwụgwọ na-akwụ ụgwọ Joseph Nicolosi, bụ onye kwadoro otu òtù ndị ọkachamara, National Association of Research and Therapy of Homosexuality, na 1992 Ihe omume ndị a mepụtara ohere maka Ọpụpụ International iji hiwe ọnọdụ ịbụ onye otu maka ndị ndụmọdụ ọkachamara (gụnyere ndị ndụmọdụ Ndị Kraịst, ndị ozuzu aturu, na ndị ọkachamara ahụike), bụ ndị ritere uru site na ntinye aka nke Ọpụpụ. Createddị njikọ nke atọ nke òtù ụka ka e kere na 2005 n'okpuru nduzi Alan Chambers. Ọhụụ Chambers maka Ọpụpụ International bụ na onye na-edina ụdị onwe ga-abụ ọrụ nke Isi nke Kraịst; ya bụ, etinyebere ya na ụka, kama ịnọgide na -emekarị ọrụ ndị mịnịstrị para-church. E hiwere ụlọ ọrụ Ọpụpụ Church na 2005.

Kemgbe ọtụtụ afọ, Ọpụpụ International mepụtara ọtụtụ nkewa na ngalaba, gụnyere nhazi mpaghara mpaghara n'ime US Mpaghara Ọpụpụ ọ bụla dị na US nwere onye isi na-ahazi ọgbakọ mpaghara (mgbe ụfọdụ a na-eme kwa afọ, mgbe ụfọdụ kwa afọ). Ngalaba ndị ọzọ gụnyere Akwụkwọ Ọpụpụ (nke mepụtara akwụkwọ akụkọ nzukọ, ọdịnaya dị n'ịntanetị, na mgbasa ozi ndị ọzọ), Ọpụpụ Akwụkwọ Ọpụpụ na Resources, Ọpụpụ Ndị Ntorobịa, Mmekọrịta Mgbasa Ozi, Ihe Omume na Ọrụ Mgbakọ, Ọganihu nke Ọzụzụ, Azụmaahịa na Ọha Ọha, Ozi Women'smụ nwanyị, Nhazi Churchka na ndị ọzọ. Ọtụtụ ndị isi ngalaba ndị a bụ ndị ndị ọrụ akwụ ụgwọ; ụfọdụ bụ ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Ọpụpụ International na ndị ministri ya chere ọtụtụ nsogbu na nkatọ na-adịghị akwụsị akwụsị ihu n'ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ afọ iri anọ, ọkachasị n'ihe ọ na-ekwu maka "mgbanwe," ọtụtụ ihere mmekọahụ na ọpụpụ nke ndị isi, usoro ndị ministri ya ji eme ihe, mgbochi ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke LGBT na mmekorita ya na Ndị Kraịst Organizationstù ziri ezi na ndị isi, yana ọ na-elekwasị anya n'oge ntorobịa. Ọpụpụ International chere nnukwu ndị mmegide ihu, gụnyere ndị na-akwado LGBT, ndị ọrụ ahụ ike ọkachamara, ndị isi okpukperechi dị iche iche na ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ. Ndị bụbu ndị isi mba ofesi na ndị lanarịrịnụ (ndị bụbu ndị ahịa nke ndị otu ya) nwere ike bụrụ ndị kacha emebi. N'ikpeazụ, ọpụpụ Ọpụpụ International sitere n'ime.

Site na mbido, ndị na-agagharị agagharị jụrụ ajụjụ banyere ntụkwasị obi nke Ọpụpụ ma kwuo na mgbanwe mgbanwe mgbanwe mmekọahụ (Blair 1977, 1982). [Foto dị n'aka nri] Site na 1998, onye isi oche Ọpụpụ International nke North America, Bob Davies kwetara "Ọtụtụ mmadụ anaghị eleda anyị anya" (Hiassen 1998). Mmekọahụ / mkparị nke mmekọrịta nwoke na nwanyị, mwepụ, na ọpụpụ nke ọtụtụ ndị isi, yana ọgụ na-aga n'ihu nke ọtụtụ ndị fọdụrụ, ka ejiri mee ihe iji mebie ozi nke "mgbanwe." Ndi ndu nke ulo oru Exodus International jigidere nkwa nke “mgbanwe” dika “mmadu, obughi usoro,” na-ekwusi ike na ihe mgbaru ọsọ mbu kwesiri ibu amata na ndu n'ime Kraist obughi nmekorita nwoke na nwoke. Ka o sina dị, òtù ahụ kwalitere ụzọ dịgasị iche iche iji gbanwee usoro mmekọahụ, ndị nkatọ wee wakpo ụzọ nke ministri nke Ọpụpụ (usoro ọgwụgwọ na-atụgharị uche, mmemme riri ahụ na omume mgbanwe, na ụdị dị iche iche nke ọgwụgwọ / nnapụta okpukpe). Na nzaghachi nke mmụba nke mmegharị ahụ na oge na mgbasa ozi na-arịwanye elu nke ọ natara na mgbasa ozi mgbasa ozi, ọtụtụ ndị otu ọkachamara na US nabatara nkwupụta amụma na-akụda ndị ọkachamara ikikere ikike ịnwa ịgbanwe mgbanwe mmekọahụ na / ma ọ bụ njirimara nwoke na nwanyị. N'ime nnukwu akụkọ, American Psychological Association (2009) tụlere nrụpụta ọrụ na ụkpụrụ omume mgbanwe mmekọrịta nwoke na nwanyị. Ndị ọrụ ahụike na ahụike ọgụgụ isi na United States wepụtara nkwupụta megide mbọ iji gbanwee njirimara nwoke na nwanyị, na 2013, ndị American Psychiatric Association dochiri "nsogbu njirimara nwoke na nwanyị" na "okike dysphoria" iji wepu ihere ejikọtara na esemokwu nwoke na nwanyị (APA 2013) . Na nnukwu nsogbu nke Ọpụpụ International (na ndị otu nwoke na nwanyị ibe ya n'ozuzu ya), na 2012 California wepụtara iwu mbụ na US iji machibido ụfọdụ ndị ọkachamara ikikere ịnwa ịgbanwe mgbanwe mmekọahụ ma ọ bụ njirimara nwoke na nwanyị. Kemgbe ahụ, ọtụtụ steeti US agafewo iwu ndị dị otú ahụ (Movement Advancement Project 2020). Na agbanyeghị nke a, na otu ngagharị zuru oke na US iji machibido ndị ndụmọdụ aka ọrụ nwere ikikere ịnwa ịgbanwe usoro mmekọahụ na / ma ọ bụ njirimara nwoke na nwanyị, usoro ọha na eze ugbu a na US na n'ọtụtụ mba gburugburu ụwa anaghị egbochi ahụike ikike. ndị na-enye nlekọta, ndị mịnịstrị, ndị ndụmọdụ okpukperechi, ma ọ bụ onye ọ bụla ọzọ na-anwa ịgbanwe usoro mmekọahụ ma ọ bụ njirimara nwoke na nwanyị nke okenye ma ọ bụ obere ụmụaka (Lee, ILGA World 2020)

A katọrọ Ọpụpụ International maka mgbasa ozi ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị LGBT. EXODUS anaghị etinye aka na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị n'oge mmalite ya (Kaspar na Bussee 1979; Worthen 2010), ọ bụ ezie na ụfọdụ ndị isi ozi ya bụ (lee Robinson na Spivey 2019). Na 1980s, ọ malitere ịmalite mmekọrịta na ndị nkwusa ozioma a ma ama dị ka Jerry Falwell (Worthen 2010) na ịkpọsa mgbasa ozi na nkwado site na akwụkwọ akụkọ mgbasa ozi (Davies 1990). N'ime afọ ndị ikpeazụ ya, ọgbọ ọhụụ nke ndị mmegide, mkpọsa, na nzukọ (ọkachasị, Beyond Ex-Gay, Box Turtle Bulletin, Ex-Gay Watch, Onye bụbu Ex-Gay Leaders Alliance, Eziokwu Na-enweta mmeri, National Center for Lesbian Rights , Southern Poverty Law Center, na Trevor Project) chọrọ ijide Ọpụpụ International, na mmekorita nke nwoke na nwanyị nwere oke, na-aza ajụjụ. 

Ihe nketa nke EXODUS dị omimi mana karịrị ọrụ nke profaịlụ nhazi a. Na nzuko ya, Ọpụpụ International nwere ihe karịrị ndị mmekọ mmekọ 400 na mba iri na asaa (ILGA World 2020). N'agbanyeghị mmechi nke Ọpụpụ International, North America, usoro mmegharị mba nke EXODUS mepụtara ma kpalie mmụọ, gụnyere ọtụtụ netwọkụ ozi mba ofesi (nke ekwuru na mbụ) nke na-arụ ọrụ kemgbe ọtụtụ iri afọ (leekwa Robinson na Spivey 2019) dị ndụ ma na-aga n'ihu. Akwụkwọ ọgụgụ dị iche iche nke Ọpụpụ International na-emepụta ma na-ere site na akwara ya (ILGA World 2020; Robinson na Spivey 2019).

Foto
Image # 1: Ọpụpụ International logo.
Foto # 2: Ọpụpụ Internationalboardboard.
Foto # 3. Akwụkwọ akụkọ Newsweek gbara banyere okwu ngbanwe mmekọ nwoke na nwoke.
Foto # 4: Ọpụpụ Internationalboardboard.
Foto # 5: Mkpesa megide Ọpụpụ International.

References

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Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
24 May 2020

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