Anna-Karina Hermkens

Marian Ebere Mission

MARIAN M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M MSKPATTỌTA TINT

Afọ 1900 (Oge Ikpe):  Ndị Bishọp ozi German na Frans nke Society of Mary (MSSM) kpọbatara okwukwe Katọlik, MFM, guzobe ọdụ mgbasa ozi izizi ha na Kieta na 1901.
1953: A mụrụ Francis Ona.

1959: The Me'ekamui Pontoku Onoring ("gọọmentị nke ndị na-eche nche nke ala ahụ dị nsọ ma ọ bụ ebe nsọ") hiwere.
1977: Ebube Katọlik nke Charismatic (CCR) na Bougainville site n'aka ndị ozi ala ọzọ nke Australia nke Sacred Heart (MSC).

1988 (Nọvemba): Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA) mebiri pylon ike, na-egbusi ike nke Panguna ma na-ebute agha obodo afọ iri.
1993: Francis Ona guzobere Marian Mercy Mission (MMM) na onwe ya dị ka onye ndu (nke kachasị elu).

1994: ndị ụkọchukwu Katọlik gara obodo Guava iji doo ndị ahụ nsọ.
1998: Agha obodo biri.
2005 (July): Francis Ona nwụrụ.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Francis Ona (1953-2005) guzobere Marian Mercy Mission (MMM) na 1993 na obodo Guava n'akụkụ ebe a na-egwupụta Panguna na Central Bougainville, akụkụ nke mpaghara Bougainville ugbu a (AROB) na Papua New Guinea. (Onyonyo n'aka nri) E bidoro ngagharị ahụ n'etiti agha obodo, nke manyere Francis Ona n'obodo obibi ya Guava n'ugwu Panguna. Ọ nọgidere na nzuzo a ruo na njedebe nke esemokwu ahụ (1998) site na enyemaka nke ụzọ mgbochi, na-egbochi onye ọ bụla ibili ugwu ahụ na-enweghị nkwenye ya. Mgbe ndị otu ahụ nwere ndị na-eso ụzọ na Koromira, Buin na Nagovisi (mpaghara ndịda na ndịda Panguna na Central Bougainville), etiti ngagharị ahụ bụ onye isi obodo Francis Ona na Guava. Ka Francis Ona nwụsịrị na July 2005, nzukọ ahụ ji nke nta nke nta gbazee.

Ntinye nke Marian Mercy Movement nwere njikọ chiri anya na akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Marist Mission na Catholic Church na Bougainville (Hermkens 2018; Kronenberg 2006; Kronenberg and Saris 2009; Momis 2005), omenala na echiche dị iche iche (Hermkens 2007, 2011), na ya na nsogbu Bougainville. Ndị ozi ala ọzọ nke German na French nke Society of Mary (MSSM), nke akpọrọ ndị Marist, kpọbatara okwukwe Katọlik na mmalite nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ. Ndi otu a nwetara aha ya site na Virgin Mary onye ndi otu ahu nwara i imitateomi ya na mmuo ha na oru ha kwa ubochi. N'etinye anya na idozi esemokwu n’etiti (post-post) nchịkwa obodo na ndị bi n’obodo, ha na-ekwukarị ma ọdịmma ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị obodo na echiche ya n’esepụghị aka n’ụzọ okpukpe, na mmekọrịta ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke akụ na ụba na nke ‘Bougainville post-colonial’ (Hermkens 2018: 132) -33). Ndị ozi ala ọzọ nke Marist nwere oke nchegbu ma kwue okwu banyere nguzobe nnukwu ọla kọpa n'akụkụ oke ugwu nke agwaetiti ahụ nso na obodo nta Panguna. Nke a, nke bụ otu n’ime ogbunigwe ọla kọwaa n’ụwa, ga-ebulikwa agha obodo ruo afọ iri, nke kpatara oke ọgbaghara, mbibi na ọnwụ nke mmadụ.

Ngwunye Panguna bụ nke Conzinc Riotinto nke Australia (CRA) ma bụrụkwa nke Bougainville Copper Ltd (BCL) sitere na 1972 gaa n'ihu. Ihe oru a bidoro nwegide mmegide obodo na ihe ngosi nke ndi nwe ala. Francis Ona, onye nwe ụlọ ọrụ Panguna onye azọrọ ebubo na onye ọrụ BCL gara aga n'onwe ya, ga-eduzi ngagharị iwe ahụ na 1980s na 1990s. Ya na nwanne ya nwanyị, Ona choro nkwụ ụgwọ ụgwọ ijeri iri maka mmebi gara aga na ala na gburugburu ebe obibi, mana ụlọ ọrụ na-egwupụta akụ na-achịkwa ọchị a ma jụ imezu usoro ndị ọzọ. Iwe dị na nzaghachi nke BCL, Francis Ona na ndị otu ya, ndị a ga-akpọrọ dị ka ndị otu ndị agha Bougainville Revolutionary (BRA), mebiri usoro pylonị ike, na-ebepụ ikike na nke Panguna. Ihe agha a, nke mere na Nọvemba 1988, ihe ndị ọzọ na-esochi imechi ogbunigwe na-esochi ya. Mkpuchi nke ogbunigwe ahụ pụtara mbibi ego nke Bougainville na PNG, BLC ịbụ nnukwu onye ọrụ mba ahụ ma na-enye ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ọkara nke ihe PNG na-ebubata (Waiko 1993: 240). Gọọmentị Papua New Guinea jiri ike rụọ ọrụ, na, mgbe izipuchara ndị uwe ojii na-eme ọgba aghara, kpọkọtara ndị agha ya (PNGDF) iji chebe ogbunigwe ahụ ma mee ka BRA nwee ike. Ihe si na ya pụta bu agha agha nke ruru afọ iri nke ọ bụghị naanị Papua New Guinea megidere Ógbè Bougainville na ndị bi na ya, kamakwa kpatara ọgba aghara obodo na Bougainville ebe mpaghara, obodo na ezinụlọ na-esiwanye ike na usoro okpukpe na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị.

Francis Ona, dị ka onye ndu nke Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA), rụrụ ọrụ dị ukwuu na nhazi na ịgbatị nsogbu ahụ. Ọhụụ ya maka Bougainville abụghị naanị inwere onwe ya, kama ọ bụ ịbụ onye mmụọ nsọ sitere n'aka Ona dị ka onye nwe ya bụ Eze Me'ekamui (lee n'ihu Hermkens 2007, 2013). Okpụrụ okpukpe Ona na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nke Ona mere ka e hiwe ọtụtụ mmụọ nsọ Marian ndị ọzọ amara (lee mkparịta ụka n'okpuru Isi Okwu / Nsogbu) n'oge nsogbu Bougainville, ha niile kwadoro ọgụ Ona maka nnwere onwe na ọbụbụeze. Mmegharị ndị a niile lere anya Ona dị ka onye ndu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ha.

N'agbanyeghị mkparịta ụka udo na nguzobe nke nkwekọrịta udo gọọmentị na ngwụcha 1990s, Ona na ndị na-eso ụzọ ya jụrụ isonye na mkparịta ụka ndị a. Ona kwuru na Bougainville enwerelarị onwe ya, soro ya dị ka onye ndu, ma jụ ịnabata ọchịchị gọọmentị Bougainville họpụtara mgbe agha bisịrị. Na 2005, ọnwa ole na ole tupu Joseph Kabui, onye bụbu onye otu BRA, ka a hoputara dị ka onye isi ala nke Gọọmenti Autonomous nke Bougainville, Francis Ona kwupụtara onwe ya na ngagharị iwe dị ka Onyeisi Ọchịchị Royal Francis Dominic Dateransy Domanaa, Eze nke Royal Royal nke Me 'ekamui. Mgbe ọnwa abụọ gachara, na Julaị 24, Ona nwụrụ na mberede. Mgbe Francis Ona gafere, Marian Mercy Mission, yana ndị otu Marian ndị ọzọ hibere n'oge nsogbu ahụ, jiri nwayọ gbazee. Ihe kpatara ọdịda a metụtara eziokwu ahụ bụ na site n'ọnwụ Francis Ona, ebumnobi ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na ịhụ mba n'anya nke mmegharị a mebiri nke ọma. Ọzọkwa, njedebe nke ọgba aghara ahụ kpatara ndalata dị ukwuu nke ndị òtù na ọrụ ndị otu na ikere òkè na mmegharị ndị a. Ndi ndu nke ndi otu Marian guzosiri ike n'oge nsogbu a banyere ndi otu ha tufuru elebara anya nke onwe ha na nsogbu ha. Ọ bụ ezie na omume omume agha a na-esote agha butere nguzobe nke mmegharị ọhụụ, dị ka njem Rosa Mistika na obodo Muguai dị nso na Buin na South Bougainville (lee anya n'okpuru), ọ dịghị otu mmegharị Marian guzobere n'oge nsogbu ahụ dị ọnwụ nke Francis Ona na mmekọrịta ọhụụ nke mmekọrịta Bougainville. Agbanyeghị, na ụfọdụ ụfọdụ na-akwa echiche, nkwenkwe na olile anya Ona, ọ ka nwere nkwado ma na-asọpụrụ ya, ọkachasị na mpaghara Central nke Bougainville Island (Onyinye aka nri)

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE
Marian Mercy Mission bụụrụ ọgụ ike, jikọtara nkwenkwe na omume Katọlik na echiche ime mmụọ na nke ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. O yiri ka ndi Marian Mercy Movement ka sitere na Catholic Charismatic Renewal (CCR), nke ewepụtara na Bougainville na ngwụsị 1970s. Ndị otu ga-anata Mụọ Nsọ site na ikwu okwu n'asụsụ dị iche iche, na-anata onyinye nke ibu amụma na ịnata onyinye nke ịgwọ ọrịa. Na mgbakwunye itinye Mary na omume nke ịrara onwe ya nye, ngagharị ahụ nwekwara atụmatụ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị siri ike. Ntugharị ahụ kwusiri ike na omume ọma, na-agba mbọ maka ntụgharị nke ndị Bougainvilleans ka ụlọ nke Bougainville wee bụrụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ ọzọ, Me'ekamui (Holy Holy of Bougainville).

Echiche nke Me'ekamui sitere na njikọ Ona na Me'ekamui Pontoku Onoring ("gọọmentị nke ndị na-echekwa ala dị nsọ ma ọ bụ nsọ"). Ọ bụ Damien Dameng malitere nke a gburugburu 1959 (Regan 2002: 21-22). Ndị na-agba mbọ na ndị Me'kamui na ndị na-eso ụzọ chọrọ iji wughachi usoro Bougainville nke ọha na eze dị ka nzaghachi nye ọchịchị colonial na ndị otu Kraịst, nke Dameng megidere. Agbanyeghị, ebe echiche Francis Ona banyere Bougainville dị ka ala dị nsọ yiri nke Dameng, Ona hụrụ ọdịnihu na nzọpụta Bougainville ọ bụghị naanị na omenaala, kamakwa, na ikekwe karịa, na ofufe Katọlik na nkwenye. Ona kwenyesiri ike na ọ bụrụ na Bougainville ga-adị nsọ ọzọ, ndị Bougainvilleans, ọkachasị ndị isi ha, ga-adịkwa nsọ. N'ọhụụ Ona nke Me'ekamui, okwukwe Katọlik na, ọkachasị, asọpụrụ Meri so rụọ ọrụ dị mkpa n'ọchịchọ a.

Otu ebumnuche ebumnuche Marian Mercy Mission bụ inyere ndị ọzọ aka na ikpe ekpere. Ndị otu kpere ekpere maka ọgwụgwọ, kamakwa maka nkwado nsọ. Akpọrọ Mary maka nchekwa, ngwongwo na nri, na nke kachasị mkpa, iji weta nnwere onwe na Bougainville. N’ezie, Francis Ona na ndị otu Marian Mercy Mission nwetara ike dị ukwuu site na mmegharị ahụ iji chụlite nrọ ha na mgba maka mkpebi onwe na nnwere onwe. Dika akuko Maria si n’obodo Guava, onye buru onye otu MMM n’afọ 1993:

Ona nwere ọhụụ Meri na-agwa ya okwu. Ọ na-agwa ya ka ọ gwa ndị mmadụ na ha ga-agbanwe. Mmadu aghagh i id i ns o. Ọ ga-ahụ Meri ihe ga-eme n’ọdịnihu. Ona bu nwoke n’ekpe ekpere. O nyefere onwe ya n’ekpere ka ihe ga-esi na ya pụta bụrụ nnwere onwe. Mlọ ọrụ nile nke ndị Marian Mercy ebere nyefere onwe ha na echiche ndị a. Nrọ nke Ona bu ka ndi Bougainville nile bata n’ime Lotu [Okpukpe / okpukpe] ma buru nnwere onwe. Santu Maria nyeere anyị aka na mgba anyị maka nnwere onwe. O chebere anyị. Marian Mercy Mission kpere Maria maka enyemaka. Maka ibu na ego si America ma ọ bụ obodo ndị ọzọ. […] Santu Maria anọwo na-enye Francis Ona ọtụtụ ihe. Ọ bụ Santu Maria na Chukwu chụpụrụ nnukwu ụlọ ọrụ na-egwupụta akụ. O jiri enyemaka ya mee ka nke a kwe omume. Santu Maria nọ ya nso na Francis Ona (ajụjụ ọnụ onye otu MMM bụ Maria (2005) na Hermkens 2015).

Nrara onwe Ona nye Meri bukwara site na eziokwu bu na o kwuru okwu kwa ụbọchị a na-ese onyinyo Meri, na-achọ ndụmọdụ ya. Ona ga na-eme ihe ọ na-eme kwa ụbọchị mgbe o nwetasịrị ozi nkwenye n'aka Meri. Nmekorita nke etiti mba nke Ona na ntinye aka ya nye Meri bukwara nke oma n’inabata nnabata a nabatara ya na njem uka nke mba di aso n’iile bu Nwanyi nke Fatima nke di n’obodo Guava n’ime obodo Guava. 1997 (Hermkens 2009). Ona gosipụtara na Meri kwenyesiri ike ịkwụsị ọgụ (n'oge na-adịghị anya mgbe ọbịbịa Fatima, nsogbu ahụ kwụsịrị). Ndị ozi ala ọzọ Katọlik weghaara usoro ihe nkiri na oge ahụ, na ihe ndekọ ndị a, a pụrụ ịhụ Ona ma nụ ka ọ na-ekpe ekpere n'ihu ihe akpụrụ akpụ ahụ, na-ekwe Nwanyị Nwanyị Fatima nkwa na ya ga-arụ ọrụ maka udo. (Foto dị n'aka nri) Nke ka mkpa, Ona na-edozikwa agwaetiti Bougainville n'aha Mary. Dika odi, Ona weputara Bougainville niile na aha Meri, si otú a gbanwee Bougainville dum n'otu Mba Katọlik Dị Nsọ.

Ọ bụ ezie na Marian Mercy Mission bụ nke dị na obodo Guava, ndị Marian ndị ọzọ na-ebugharị echiche nke imegharị a na mpaghara (lee n'okpuru), nke ga-agagharị n'ebumnuche nke inyere ndị mmadụ aka na ịtụgharị. Na mgbakwunye, ndị mmụọ nke Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA) nke Francis Ona sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ Marian Mercy Mission, dịka (ndị Katọlik) ndị agha ga na-ekpe chapleti ma na-ekpe ekpere na oge ibu ọnụ tupu ha ebuso agha (lee n'ihu Hermkens 2007). (Foto dị n'aka nri)

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Nzukọ ekpere bụ ihe dị n'ụdị nke Marian Mercy Mission. Ndị na-efe otu ahụ gụchara chaplet ruo ọtụtụ awa ma na-emechi ọnụ mgbe niile. Ndi ndu na ndi n’eso ya naecheta inata onyinye (charismata), dika nkwusi ike nke si na Mo Nso na / ma obu Meri, onyinye nke ogwugwo, nnwere onwe nke ujo, na ikwu asusu. Chapleti na ihe oyiyi na ihe oyiyi Meri pụtara ihe ndị metụtara okpukpe ndị mmadụ. Ona kwa ụbọchị na-agwa otu akpụrụ akpụ nke Meri na ndị otu BRA na-ebu chaplet na obere akpụrụ akpụ nke Meri ọdụ n'ọgbọ agha ka ha wee dịrị nsọ n'oge ọgụ na inweta nchebe Meri ka ọ ghara ibute mmerụ ahụ (Hermkens 2007, 2013).

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Francis Ona guzobere Marian Mercy Mission (MMM) na ya onwe ya dị ka onye isi (onye ka elu) n’afọ 1993. Ọ gwara ndị obodo Guava ka ha kpee ekpere maka aha otu ekpere ha. Ha kpegara Santu Maria ekpere, na aha ahụ bụ Marian Mercy Mission pụtara. Ndị otu a nwere ndị ọrụ ụka, katkizim, na otu ụmụ nwanyị na ndị ntorobịa. Mana ndị otu ahụ chọkwara ụkọchukwu nwere ike inye ngọzi na sacrament ahụ. Ndi nna ndi Marist abuo, ndi otu n’ime ha kuziri Francis Ona n’oge ya na ulo akwukwo di elu, gara obodo Guava n’oge nsogbu a ka ha nye ndi mmadu ohere ikpe ekpere na uka. Ọzọkwa, mgbe akwụsịsịrị ọkụ na 1994, ndị ụkọchukwu Katọlik gbagoro n'obodo Guava iji doo ndị otu a nsọ. Nleta ndị a mere ka òtù a sie ike. Inwe nkwado na nkwenye sitere na Churchka Katọlik na Bougainville kwenyesiri Francis Ona ike na ya nwere Chọọchị n'azụ ya. Ka osi di, ndi uka Katoliki nke Bougainville ekwenyeghi na ochicho ochichi nke Francis Ona na agha nkewa nke ya (lee kwa Griffin 1995). N'agbanyeghị esemokwu ndị a, a na-akwụ Ona ụgwọ maka idebe okwukwe Katọlik, ọkachasị n'obodo Guava.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

N'oge nsogbu ahụ, ọkachasị na Central Bougainville, nguzobe na ewu ewu nke mmegharị Marian dị ka Marian Mercy Mission na ndị ọzọ (dị ka Our Lady of Mercy (OLM), Rosa Mistica, Nwanyị anyị nke Obi Dị Nsọ, na Exaculate Con uche) niile. mere mgbe ndi mmadu choro inweta nduzi nke ime mmụọ iji nagide ihe isi ike ha zutere. Mmeghari a ebe mmụọ nsọ Charismatic Renewal na nkwanye ugwu doro anya ma ọ bụ buru ya, mana ha jikọtara echiche na nkwenkwe obodo banyere ọchịchị na ikike ọchịchị. N’oge nsogbu ahụ, ọtụtụ ndị ụkọchukwu si mba ọzọ ahapụla Bougainville, onye isi ala Bougainville bishọp Gregory Singkai nwụrụ n’oge nsogbu (Septemba 1996). N’ihi nke a, Marian Mercy Mission na ndị ọzọ Marian na-ahụ maka ọlụ mepere emepe ma tozuru oke n ’ụlọ nzukọ Katọlik nke gọọmentị (lee n'ihu Hermkens 2018). N’ezie, mgbe ụfọdụ, theka na-ajụkarị ha ka ha na-etolite n’ihe ndị isi Chọọchị na ndị ọzọ kpọrọ, “nkpọrọ” (lee Swain na Trompf 1995).

Esemokwu a dị n'etiti ndị na-eme mkpọtụ obodo (Marian) na Churchka Katọlik na-aga n'ihu na Bougainville. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, n'agbanyeghị na Bishọp nwa amaala Gregory Singkai na onye nọchiri ya, Bishop Dutch Henk Kronenberg, Rosa Mistika Movement (Image n'aka nri) jisiri ike idobe onwe ya ozugbo nsogbu ahụ dakwasịrị n'obodo Muguai na ndịda Bougainville, mpaghara nke dịpụrụ adịpụ na Bougainville ndị ọzọ. ogologo oge mgbe nsogbu ahụ kwụsịrị n'ihi ọnụnọ nke ụzọ mgbochi. Nnọọpụ iche na njikwa na mmetụta nke Chọọchị a pụtara na ngagharị ahụ nwere ike too ma na-eme nke ọma n’enweghị nsogbu ndị ụka. N'afọ 2005, nzukọ a weghaara obodo nta niile ma na-achịkwa ihe omume ụbọchị niile na usoro ememe nke ọtụtụ ndị bi na ya na-enwe nzukọ ekpere ụbọchị niile (gụnyere ndị otu na-anata onyinye nke ibu amụma na ị na-eme ememe ofufe), ma na-ahazi ogologo oge. nke ibu ọnụ (Hermkens 2005). N'afọ 2014, mmegharị ahụ ka na-aga n'ihu, agbanyeghị na officialka na ndị ụkọchukwu gbalịsiri ike ịchịkwa na ịbanye na ya.

Foto
Foto # 1: Map nke Bougainville.
Foto # 2: Pamphlet nke Francis Ona n'ime obodo Buka.
Foto # 3: Francis Ona na Fatima.
Foto # 4: table table Marian Mercy Mission.
Foto # 5: Rosa Mistica ije, South Bougainville.

References

Griffin, James. 1995. Bougainville: Ihe ịma aka nke ụka dị iche iche. Usoro ikpe ziri ezi nke Katọlik, ọ dịghị. 26.

Hermkens, Anna-Karina. 2018. "Marists, Marian Devotion, na Ọchịchọ maka ọbụbụeze na Bougainville." Sayensị Social na Missions 31: 130-61.

Hermkens, Anna-Karina. 2015. "Marian Movements na Secessionist Agha na Bougainville, Papua New Guinea." Nova Religio 18: 35-54.

Hermkens, Anna-Karina. 2013. “Dị ka Mosis nke duru ndị ya gaa Ala Nkwa: Mba- na ụlọ nke steeti na Bougainville. Oceania 38: 192-207.

Hermkens, Anna-Karina. 2011. Mary, Mothermụ nwanyị na Mba: Okpukpe na echiche nke nwoke na nwanyị na Bougainville Secessionist Warfare. Ntinye. Okike nwoke na nwoke na nwanyi na Asia na Pacific. Nweta site na http://intersections.anu.edu.au/issue25/hermkens.htm na 15 March 2020.

Hermkens, Anna-Karina. 2009. "Njem Mary site na mbara ihu Bougainville." Pp. 69-85 na Meri kpaliri: Ike nke njem njem na Ụwa nke Oge, nke Catrien Notermans, Anna-Karina Hermkens na Willy Jansen Farnham, Burlington dere, Ashgate.

Hermkens, Anna-Karina. 2007. "Okpukpe ibu agha na udo: Unkọghepe mbinye Mary na nsogbu Bougainville." Omenala na Okpukpe 8: 271-89.

Hermkens, Anna Karina. 2005. Nyocha banyere agbụrụ.

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Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
22 March 2020

 

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