Chloe Sugden

Rosaleen Norton

ROSALEEN NORTON TIMELINE

1917 (October 2): Rosaleen "Roie" Miriam Norton mụrụ na Dunedin, New Zealand site n'ezinụlọ Ọtọdọks nke Ọtọdọks.

1925 (June): Norton na ezinụlọ ya kwagara Lindfield, Sydney, Australia.

1934: Norton dị afọ iri na isii bipụtara akụkọ atọ na-atụ ụjọ na akwụkwọ akụkọ, Kwa izu Smith. Bụ́ nke kwesịrị ọrụ ya, Nke Smith goro ya ka onye oru nta akuko nke cadet na onye na-ese ihe maka onwa asatọ.

1940 (Disemba 24): Norton lụrụ Beresford Lionel Conroy (1914-1988).

1943 (June): Edemede dị na Norton, "Ọhụụ nke enweghị oke," ka e bipụtara na magazin ahụ Kwesịrị. E gosipụtara Norton dị ka onye na-eme ihe omimi, nwee ike ịnweta mbara mbara igwe site na ọkwa nke mmụọ.

1949: spaceschọ ebe ngosi ihe ngosi nka, Norton si na Sydney gaa Melbourne ya na onye ibe ya na Kwesịrị onye ntinye aka, Gavin Greenlees (1930-1983).

1949: E gosipụtara Norton maka omume rụrụ arụ maka ihe ngosi eserese ya na Rowden-White Gallery, Mahadum nke Melbourne. Ndị ọkà mmụta gbachitere ya ma wepụ ebubo ha

1949: N'oge njem ya na Melbourne, Norton ji aka ya nyochaa onye ọkà n'akparamàgwà mmadụ, Dr. LJ Murphy nke Mahadum Melbourne. Ihe ndekọ a mere bụ ihe ndekọ zuru ezu banyere omume ya na omume ọma ya.

1951: Norton gbara alụkwaghịm Conroy.

1952: E boro Norton ebubo rụrụ arụ maka akwụkwọ ya, Art nke Rosaleen Norton (1952), na cenyere mbipụta ndị a na-achọghị. N'ụlọ ikpe, ọ gbachiteere nkà ya, n'agbanyeghị na ọ kaghị emezi, site na nchepụta Jungian.

1953: Onye ama ama na onye nduzi Britain na onye dere abụ, Sir Eugene Goossens (1893-1962) sonyeere Norton n'ime ime anwansi, nke ọ kọwara dị ka "onye ọgbụgba ndụ" ya.

1955: Ndi mmadu abuo zuru ohi site na ulo Norton, nke gosiputara ya na Greenlees. Ha nwara ire akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ foto, Anyanwụ. Ndị uwe ojii jidere echiche ndị ahụ ma boro Norton ebubo ịme mbipụta rụrụ arụ.

1955: Nwanyị na-enweghị ebe obibi New Zealand, Anna Hoffman, tara ụta maka ọnọdụ dara ogbenye ya na Norton. Hoffman kwuru na Norton emerụwo ya na Black Mass metụtara “mmekọrịta nwoke na nwanyị oriri na ọ partiesụ andụ.”

1955: DL Thompson gara leta Norton na ndị otu ya na ya “Sydney-Temple” nke Sydney. Nleta a bụ isi mmalite nke Akwụkwọ Australasian  Isiokwu bụ́ “Adọ Aka ná Ntị Maka Australia: EKPSHIPRSHIP IKPUTA NIILE!”

1956: Mmekọ anwansi nke Norton na Goossens kwụsịrị mgbe ndị Omenala jidere ya na ọdụ ụgbọ elu Sydney Mascot. A hụrụ foto ndị na-akpali agụụ mmekọahụ, masks ndị a na-eme n’usoro na ihe nsure ọkụ na-esi ísì ụtọ n’ime akpa.

1957: Norton bipụtara usoro akụkọ autobiographical na Akwụkwọ Australasian, nwere utu aha ndị dị ka “Amụrụ m Amoosu.”

1960: Ndị uwe ojii jidere ihe osise iri abụọ na itoolu site na ihe ngosi Norton na Sydney's Kashmir Café. Nnukwu ọrụ a ka ọkụ mechara gbaa.

1979 (Disemba 5): Nanị na ndụ ọzọ, Norton nwụrụ na ọrịa kansa eriri afọ mgbe ọ dị afọ iri isii na abụọ. Nwa oge tupu ọnwụ ya, o kwuru, sị: “Abịara m nwee obi ike n'ụwa; M ga-eji obi ike pụọ. ”

BIOGRAPHY

Rosaleen “Roie” Miriam Norton (1917-1979) bụ onye na - ese ihe, onye na - ede uri, onye edemede, onye anwansi na ụdị mgbasa ozi si Sydney, Australia [Image n'aka nri]. Na okirikiri ime mmụọ, amaji ama ya dị ka akpọ "Thorn." Presslọ ọrụ mgbasa ozi na-ewu ewu na Sydney kpọrọ ya "The Witch of King's Cross" (Richmond 2009: ix). Amụrụ na Dunedin, New Zealand, ya na ezinụlọ ya kwagara Lindfield, Sydney na 1925 (Drury 2017: 20). Site na nwata, rue obi ojoo nke nne na nna ya na ndi nkuzi ya, Norton na-ede akuko egwu joghariri nke Lovecraftian (Richmond 2012: 309). Mmasị o nwere na macabre, esemokwu karịrị nke mmụọ kpaliri mmasị mbụ dị na anwansi; ọ sịrị na 'amụrụ ya amoosu' (Norton 1957: 4).

Dabere na Sidney's King Cross n'oge ndụ ya niile, Norton bụ onye ọkà ihe ọmụma na onye na-eme mgbaasị siri ike ruo ọnwụ ya na 1979. Ọ na-eme anwansi, na-eji njide onwe onye na-enyo enyo iji nweta atụmatụ mbara igwe dị ukwuu. N'ime usoro izizi ndị a, o kwuru na ya na-ezute ụdị chi na ihe ndị ọzọ na-abụghị mmadụ nke ime anwansi ahụ (Drury 2008: 248). Norton kpọrọ onwe ya “Onye isi nchụ-aja na ebe ịchụ-aja nke Pan,” chi nwanyị Greek nke a ma ama (Drury 2012: 52). Pan bụ chi kacha elu n'usoro anụ ya, ọ bụ ezie na ọ na-efe ọtụtụ mmadụ ofufe n'ụzọ mmekọrịta ụka. Chi ndị ọzọ a ma ama na pantheon ya bụ Hecate, Lilith na Lucifa n'ọrụ ya dịka “Onye Mmegide” (Norton 2009: 11-34). A makwaara Norton ka ọ na-eme ọfụma nke ndị Crowleyan na ememe ndị ọgọ mmụọ raara onwe ya nye “Chineke ukwu,” Pan (Norton 2009: 69,98-99). N'ihe odide dị iche iche nke ngwụsị afọ ndị 1950, nke onye akụkọ ọdịnala Margaret Murray (1863-1963), Roie jikọtara anwansi ya na 'prech Christian Witch Cult of Ancient Britain and Europe' (Norton 2009: 69; Norton na Greenlees 1952: 79) . Ebumnuche ya nke anụ ahụ gbakwunyere na voodoo, ụzọ aka ekpe tantra, kundalini yoga, na anwansi anwansi nke Goetia (Drury 2008: 247-48). Norton zoro aka na usoro ime mmụọ ya dị ka “amoosu,” na-ebido naanị ndị otu (Norton 2009: 46; Bogdan na Starr 2012: 12).

Ọ bụ ezie na Roie nwere ihe ngosi n'ihu ọha dị ka onye na-efe Ekwensu na Sidni, ọ bụghị onye mgbaasị. Iwe were ya mgbe e boro ya ebubo na ya chịkọbara ndị Nkịtị ojii na ịchụ anụmanụ n'àjà n'oge ememe Setan. Àjà e ji ụmụ anụmanụ chụọ mere ka ọ bụrụ onye na-eche echiche ọjọọ. Ọ kpọrọ ụdị arụrụ arụ niile dị n'ụlọ asị ma na-edebe ọtụtụ anụ ụlọ n'akụkụ ya. N'ime 'ncheta ya,' Ogwu n’anụ Ahụ, o dere, sị: "Àjà anụmanụ ekwesịghị ịdị ma ọlị, n'ihi na ebumpụta ụwa ebumpụta ụwa na echiche ụmụ anụmanụ na-ama nke ọma na Nature" (Norton 2009: 38). Ememe ọgbụgba ndụ ya ekwuteghị Christian ekwensu, ọ gara “ogologo oge” ịkọwapụta na Pan abụghị Lucifa, chi nke ndị ofufe (Drury 2012: 81). Lucifa bụ atọ nke atọ n'ime usoro anwansi Norton. N'abụ ya, “Kpakpando nke Setan,” ọ kọwara Lucifa dị ka “onye mmegide na-adịghị anwụ anwụ,” “Nna nke omume,” “ọhụụ nke ihe ochie” na “onye na-eweta ìhè.” Ọrụ ya bụ ijikọ mmadụ mgbe ọ “na-aba ụba nke ukwuu maka akpụkpọ ụkwụ ya.” Norton's Lucifer na-achọ ikpughe ebe mmadụ na-agaghị egbochili onwe ya (Norton 2009: 11).

Roie kwenyere na anwansi anwansi ya bu oru ohaneze. Ọnọdụ ihu igwe dị n'etiti etiti narị afọ nke iri abụọ na Sydney na-ekwenye ekwenye. Ruo mgbe Agha Secondwa nke Abụọ gasịrị, pasent iri asatọ nke ndị bi na Australia bụ Anglịkan, Presbyterian, Methodist ma ọ bụ Roman Katọlik (Drury 2017: 12). Onye bụbu Mịnịsta Ala Ọstrelia, Robert Menzies (1894-1978), wulitere ụkpụrụ ndị nna ochie na iwu ịkatọ iwu siri ike. Ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme, Judith Brett kọwara ya dị ka "onye edemede, n'agbanyeghị na ọ na-ekwupụta nkwenkwe mmesapụ aka" (Snowdon 2013: 221). N’ụbọchị ihu igwe a nke 1940, Norton malitere ọrụ ya dị ka onye na-ese ihe mgbaasị na onye mgbasa ozi Sydney.

Siri nkatọ banyere ụkpụrụ Australia na-agafeghị oke, Roie bụ onye na-eme nwoke na nwanyị na nwanyị nwere ahụ nwanyị. N’agbanyeghi na ekwuputara ya na nkwuputa ya, o lere onwe ya anya di ka onye otu, ma nwee mmekorita nwoke na nwanyi n’ebe ndi ozo (Norton 2009: 5,40,70-74). Rtzọ ndụ Norton na-akwadoghị, njirimara ọha na eze dị ka onye amoosu, na nka ihu na-emebi ụkpụrụ mmekọrịta ọha na eze nke klaasị nke Sydney. Ọ jụrụ itinye ụkpụrụ nke njirimara ọcha nke Australia. Gọọmentị na-emegide ya, o boro ebubo ebubo iberiibe maka eserese ya, nke na-egosipụta chi dị iche iche ma na-enwe ọhụụ na agwọ. N'ihe dara ogbenye ma na -ebi ụlọ palọ, o chere ebubo nzuzu (Drury 2017: 108,172). Norton bụ naanị nwanyị “nwanyị (sic)” nke e boro ebubo igosipụta akụkọ rụrụ arụ na akụkọ Victoria. Ọzọkwa, ọ bụ naanị onye omenkà Australia nwere ihe osise nke iwu mkpebi mebiri, ma bụrụ onye a ga-ekpe ikpe maka ihe arụ na mgbakwasị akwụkwọ (Richmond 2012: 308).

Roie bụ ihe Denise Ferreira da Silva kwupụtara isiokwu "a na-anabataghị". N'oge ọ bụrụ na amabeghị nwoke ma ọ bụ nwanyị nwere nsogbu nwoke, ọ kpara ókè isiokwu kwesịrị ekwesị siri pụta. Norton bibiri akụkụ nile nke nwanyị / oke megide “ụtọ asụsụ nke nna ochie” (Ferreira da Silva 2018: 19-41). N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, ọ lere feminism, Marxism, socialism na '' mmadụ niile '' dịka akụkụ nke ụlọ ọrụ (Johnson 2016). Ọ bụ onye ama ama banyere mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya bụ akụkọ metụtara ọrịa metụtara akwara. Ọ kọwara ọha n'ihu ọha dị ka amoosu iji gosipụta "ya dị ike, ebumnuche ya na ndụ ya dị ka onye na-eme anwansi" (Johnson 2015).

Norton rụrụ Bacchanalian, ụdị polytheistic nke ịbụ maka ndị nta akụkọ site na mgbasa ozi gbara ajụjụ ọnụ a na-akpọsa nke ọma. Ruo afọ iri atọ, ọ bụ onye na-eme ka ọha na eze na-ekesa ihe ọmụma anwansi a na-ekwu n'ebe niile na Sydney. Mgbe agụchara gbasara anwansi ya, ndị mmadụ sitere na afọ niile nke 1950 Sydney ọha mmadụ malitere ime anwansi (Snowdon 2013: 236). Ọ bụ ezie na Norton emeghị ememe ọdịnala na mbụ maka ndị na-amaghị ihe, o mepụtara usoro mgbasa ozi na mgbasa ozi maka mgbasa ozi. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, na 1955, Roie kwere Akwụkwọ Australasian odeakụkọ, DL Thompson n'ụlọ ya nke gbara okpukpu abụọ dị ka ebe a na-eme ememe nsọ — ya bụ “ụlọ ebe a na-anọ efe efe.” Ebe ịchụ-aja, anwụrụ ọkụ, na ọtụtụ ndị anwansi a ma ama, ọ pụtara dị ka “Coven Master” na akpịrị ịkpọasị na mkpuchi nke ndị amoosu. Ndị otu ọgbụgba ndụ zoro aka na ibe ha dabere na ihe ha jiri eyi (Toad, Cat na Rat). Ndị mmadụ gbara ọtọ, Norton megharịrị ahụ ya n'ọdịdị anụ ahụ, na-akpọsa Pan, Lucifer na Hecate ofufe. Okwuru na ebumnuche nke ajụjụ ọnụ a bụ iwepu akụkọ na-eduhie eduhie na "amoosu ya." Thompson jụrụ ma ndị otu a na-eme “ụfọdụ omume obi ọjọọ” dị ka akụkụ nke ememe ya. Toad zara, sị: "Nke ahụ bụ kpamkpam… Mgbu ndị mmadụ bụzịkarị ndị a na-akpọ okpukperechi kemgbe akụkọ ntolite malitere, mana ụmụazụ Lucifa anaghị eme mmadụ ma ọ bụ anụmanụ mmeso ọjọọ" (Thompson 1955: 37).

Ajuju nke Thompson bara oke uru, ebe Norton dekwara nkọwa banyere ọrụ anwansi nke ọgbụgba ndụ ahụ; ya na onye ode akwụkwọ rụkọtara ọrụ nke ọma (Richmond 2012: 332). Norton na-akọwa na ọgbụgba ndụ ya nwere mmadụ asaa nke nwoke na nwanyị abụọ na-ezukọta na ụlọ oriri na ọ herụ studụ ya. Mbido na-a takeụ iyi nke ịkwado chi nile nke ọgbụgba ndụ, nwoke na nwanyị, mgbe ụfọdụ a na-akpọ Pan na Hecate. Agbakoro ike nke ọchịchị Elemental anọ, tupu ma ọ bụ mbido ya, dịkwa mkpa ”(Thompson 1955: 37).

Na-abụghị akụkọ ederede, Norton jikwa ahụ ya, uwe ejiji na ihe omume emume na foto mgbasa ozi. Ihe onyonyo onyonyo a nyere aka na onyunyo obodo ya dika onye anwansi-ama ama. Ha bụkwa ndị na-ajụ maka ịkọ akụkọ banyere ụwa na ime mmụọ anwansi ndị na-agụ akwụkwọ. Na foto nke pụtara n ’ederede Thompson [Foto dị n’aka nri], Norton gburu ikpere n’ala n’ememe emume ya n’okpuru Pan Pan. N'ihe onyonyo ndị ọzọ nke otu ọnọdụ ahụ, n'ihu ya, ndanda na-acha ọkụ ọkụ na kandụl ememme ọkụ. Ọ na-eyikwa ihe nkpuchi feline, nweta a anụmanụ nwere oghere or ihu chukwu. N'iru Cat, ọ na - ewepụ “ihe omume nke njirimara mmadụ” (Naacke 2006: 1165).

Maka arụmọrụ nke Thompson, a na-ekechi nnyefe nke ihe nzuzo a na-eme anwansi na ime nke nkpuchi. Echiche a rụrụ arụ nke ndị Coven, a na m ekwu, e gosipụtara na ebumnuche ha n'ụdị anụmanụ. N'ihe banyere ememe ememe, ihe nkpuchi ahụ nwere ike ịbụ ihe eji eme ka a mata “ihe nnọchianya… nke sitere na masquerade (nke ihe na ihe omume) na ngosipụta ha (ịgba egwu, egwu, mmegharị ahụ).” Nkpuchi ahụ na-eme ihe nkiri Greek oge ochie mere ka a mata onye ọ bụ. nke onu ogugu di egwu na oru ha (Naacke 2006: 1165, 1167). Claudia Naacke dere na “Ndị Nna nke Chọọchị” kwadoro nkatọ. E lere aterlọ ihe nkiri ahụ dị ka “ngosipụta nke echiche arụsị dị iche iche” na “ngosipụta ọdịnala iji sọpụrụ chi chi Gris Dionysus.” N'ụzọ dị otú a, mmụọ ọjọọ ji masịrị m. Yiri usoro a, Ndị Nna Chọọchị zụlitere “echiche mmadụ n'ime nke emebere njirimara onye ọ bụla na Chineke pụrụ ime dị ka ezigbo mmadụ.” Ihe nkpuchi ahụ ghọrọ ebe obibi; “ngosipụta ụgha… na-enyo enyo na ikpere arụsị” (Naacke 2006: 1167). 

Norton ji ihe nkpuchi ihu nwere ike gosipụtawo ihe o maara banyere mkpakọrịta ndị ọgọ mmụọ ya oge ochie. Agabataghị iji ya eme ihe na ọgbụgba ndụ, ọ ga-abụ na o jiri sọks mee ihe na mgbasa ozi ihe oyiyi dika ihe ngosiputa ọdịbendị nke ike nke ofufe nke ndị ọgọ mmụọ na oriri okike. A gwara ya nke ọma na mkpakọrịta ndị ọgọ mmụọ nke ikpuchi isi na ụlọ ihe nkiri ndị Gris na ndị Rom. Agụmagụ Norton na ememe Bacchanalian na ihe omimi nke Diony pụtara ìhè. O nyere otu n'ime eserese ya dịka ọmụmaatụ, Dionysus ọzọ, Baccanal [Image na nri]. In Baccanal, Norton na-ede ihe omuma nke anwansi ya n’ime ihe omimi, nke na-adọrọ adọrọ banyere oriri ọ .ụ .ụ. Pan na-achịkwa ọtụtụ ihe karịrị mmadụ, anụmanụ na anụmanụ. N'aka ekpe ya, nwanyị na-eme mkpi. N'aka nri ya, otu onye na-ahụ ụzọ ojii ojii nke ndị amoosu ka ha na-agbaga.

Ndị Bacchanalia bụ ememme ndị Rom iji sọpụrụ Bacchus, chi ndị Gris na ndị Rom na-enye ọ ecụ, mmanya, mmanya na nnwere onwe. Ememe ndị ahụ sitere na Dionysia nke Greek na ihe omimi ha nke Dion, na-erute na Rome n'ihe dị ka 200 TOA. Dika okpukperechi di omimi, amaghi ihe banyere ememe Bacchanalian. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ Norton matara banyere akụkọ nzuzu Bacchanal nke 186 TOA. Ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme Rome, Livy (Titus Livius, 64-59 TOA), kọwara ememe ndị rụrụ arụ n'emeghị ememe ọ bụla. Dị ka Livy si kwuo, ha mere “ikwa iko, anụọ iyi, ma kwe nkwa na ịkwa iko na mpụ ndị ọzọ.” Ọ katọrọ ajọ omume nke emume a, ghere oghe maka ọgbọ, afọ na nwoke na nwanyị - “emume nsọpụrụ n'etiti ndị amaala niile” (Walsh) 1996: 191). (Nke ka nke, otu oghere ahụ mere maka ọgbụgba ndụ Norton.) Ọzọkwa, n'ime Chineke nke ndi amoosu (1931), akụkụ nke ọba akwụkwọ Norton, Murray na-akọwa egwu dị nsọ n'oge ochie. O dere banyere akwụkwọ nyocha nke Bacchanalian-esque nke Therapeutae: "Ha dị ka egwu nke ndị amoosu, na ọ ga - ekwe omume ha abụọ si n'otu ebe ahụ" (Murray 1960: 44).

Dị ka Livy, Norton ji ihe osise Bacchanalian mee ihe ngosi ihe omimi site na nsogbu omume (Walsh 1996: 191). N'ebe mgbanwe Sydney na-agbanwe agbanwe, ọrụ mgbasa ozi ya rụrụ ọrụ dị ka nyiwe nkuzi, usoro iwu amamihe ya dị ka amoosu jikọtara ya na ihe nkiri. Site na nyocha-mmemme, ọ kpughere ọha na eze na nkwenkwe esoteric. Ka ọ na-enyefe onye odeakụkọ ihe nkiri mgbaasị, ha mere dị ka onye na-ajụ maka azịza ya na-enweghị isi. O jiri ndi oru nta akuko dika ndi nnọchi anya nke asusu ndi mmadu: oghere nke ofufe na-asọpuru di na Sydney. Roie's studio-temple bụ, n'okwu Edmund B. Lingan, ebe a na-egosipụta “arụmọrụ ime mmụọ ọzọ.” Kemgbe narị afọ nke iri na itoolu, ndị na-eme mgbaasị na ndị na-eme mmụọ mepụtara saịtị dị otú ahụ. Lingan na-eme egwuregwu nke ndị mgbaasị dị iche iche, gụnyere Aleister Crowley (1875-1947), Katherine Tingley (1847-1929), Gerald Gardner (1884-1964), na Marie (1867-1948) na Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925). Na Aterlọ ihe nkiri nke Occult Revival (2014), ọ dere na ha “ụlọ ihe nkiri niile bara uru dị ka ngwaọrụ iji kwalite echiche ha ma mepụta ahụmịhe nke mmụọ n'ime mmadụ” (Lingan 2014: 2). Ọmụmụ ihe ndị ọzọ nwere ike ịtụle maka akụkọ akụkọ Norton megide ụlọ ihe nkiri nke ndị anwansi a dị n'elu. Christine Ferguson na-ekwu, sị: “Ọ bụrụ na anyị chọrọ ịma otú e si ghọta anwansi abụghị naanị nwere site na ndị na-eme ihe nkiri akụkọ ihe mere eme, ọ dị anyị mkpa ile anya karịa peeji ndị e biri ebi ka… ememe na arụmọrụ. ”Ahụmahụ na arụmọrụ nke nkwenkwe aghụghọ ọgbara ọhụrụ bụ" enweghị ike ịtụgharị uche "na ederede naanị (Ferguson 2017: 120) Lingan bụ naanị ọmụmụ ogologo oge dị na ụlọ ihe nkiri dị ka usoro anwansi na-arụ ọrụ, yana usoro ọhụụ maka ụkpụrụ arụmọrụ esote dị mkpa.

Dika Norton tinyere onwe ya na ulo oru mgbasa ozi ya iji megharia anwansi, ebum n’uche ya n’ise ihe bu otu ihe. Ọ na-eji nka eserese na ịkọwa ikike nke ikike karịrị nke mmadụ [Image dị n'aka nri]. Site na oeuvre nka nka, o gosiputara udiri chi na ndi mmadu na abughi ndi bi n’ime cosmos a. N'oge Roie, enwere mgbanwe nke usoro anwansi iji gboo steeti nke mmụọ. Dabere na Hermetic Order nke Golden Dawn, dịka ọmụmaatụ, edepụtara ọtụtụ ọhụụ na-enweghị atụ na ahụ, ahụmịhe omimi (Drury 2008: 189). Ha na-akpọ akụkọ banyere njem ndị a "efe efe." Nwanyị ụma nwatakịrị nwanyị Dawn, Florence Emery (née) Farr (1860-1917), na-akọ akụkọ banyere anwansi ya site na Tarot. Mgbe o chetara ihe mere ya, Norton dere banyere ahụmịị nke ọhụụ.

Na November 1892, Soror Sapientia Sapienti Dona Data (Farr; aha anwansi), zutere “chi dị iche iche n'elu Osisi nke ndụ.” (Nke a ga --eme ka isi Arcana nke Tarot bụrụ njikọ nke ụzọ ihe atụ n’elu Osisi Ndụ Kabbalistic.) Farr dere banyere “ “mmụọ nke nwanyị dike” ji nwanyị ahụ kpuchie onwe ya akwụkwọ ndụ akwụkwọ ndụ, okpueze nke kpakpando n’isi ya, mkpanaka ọla edo, na-enwe otu ifuru na-acha odo odo nke na-acha ọbara ọbara nke emechiri emechi. ; n'aka ekpe ya aka oruru nke nwere obe. ”Farr gara n'ihu ikwu, sị:“ Ọ mụmụrụ ọnụ ọchị, ka mmụọ mmadụ na-achọkwa aha ya, zara 'Abụ m mama dị ike nke Isis; Onye kachasi ike nile nke uwa nile, Mu onwem bu onye n’adighi agha, kama ana m emeri ya ”(Drury 2011: 167,178-79).

Ahụmahụ ọhụụ nke Farr bụ ngwakọta nke Ndị Kraịst oge ochie, ndị Ijipt, ndị Roman na ndị Celtic. Ọ na-agbanwe "ndepụta nke chi na chi nwanyị ka ọ bụrụ eziokwu na 'ụgbọ elu dị n'ime'" (Drury 2011: 178-79). Nkọwa ndị a doro anya na-aga n'ihu n'ọtụtụ peeji. Ihe ndekọ ya na-ekwu banyere chi dị iche iche na-ekerịta myirịta na mysticism syncretistic nke Norton. Ihe omuma nke Norton na ihe omuma nke ndi mmadu mere ka ha na ndi ozo anwansi nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ. E gosipụtara nkà ya, n'okwu ya, "ihe niile m hụrụ ma hụ na nke a na ụgbọ elu ndị ọzọ nke ịbụ" (Norton 2009: 37).

Norton kọwara ọrụ ya dị ka igosipụta “usoro, na mbara ihe atụ, nke 'sistemụ' na maapụ ọhụụ nke ụwa." O kwuru na usoro ndị a sitere na "ụlọ dị iche iche na-akụzi nkuzi nke bi na ụwa nke Echiche (The The Plane nke Cosmic Mind na akụkụ ya kachasị ukwuu ”(Norton and Greenlees 2013: 8). Ihe nka Roie, mmadu gha aririta, bu otu ihe ndia. Cosmogram, dika John Tresch nke ulo akwukwo Warburg kọwapụtara, bụ eserese na-anọchite anya cosmologies. Ha gụnyere ihe onyonyo, ihe, ihe owuwu, mmeme ahụ na omume (Tresch 2005: 57; Tresch 2007: 155). Ihe bara uru nke cosmogram bu aru ya; Ọ na-egosi atụmatụ nke echiche ụwa. Cosmograms “na-egosi ebe ụkpụrụ ọkọlọtọ na-agbadata, ebe enwere mgbawa n'ezie, nke ụwa ọhụụ zuru ezu nwere ike isi na ya pụta.” Ha nwekwara ike ịbụ ihe niile dị adị. Igwe eji ekpomkpu Tresch bụ ihe ọ bụla na - egosipụta 'enweghị mmekọrịta,' na - agafere oge a na oge na oghere ”(Tresch 2005: 58,74).

Ihe osise Norton bụ ihe ịchọ mma, ka ha na - ejide otu "mmekọrịta adịghị", na - ahụ maka ọhụụ nzuzo nke Australia. Ihe odide ya "Kabbalistic", na ihe osise ndị ọzọ na ihe osise ndị a zoro ezo na-azọrọ na ihe ịchọ mma nke anụ ahụ na-ekwu. Norton gwara ndị enyi nkwenye ya na ịlọ ụwa. Ọ kọwara na ọ bụ onye a kpụrụ n'ọmụmụ “n'oge Elemental yana nke mmadụ.” Nwanyi a maara nke ọma, o kwenyere na ọtụtụ ụlọ ọrụ “na-abụghị nke mmadụ.” Roie dere na enwetaghachila mmadụ. ime ihe dị ka “njem ha na ụwa nke mmadụ” (Richmond 2009: xiii). Site n'enyemaka na nchebe nke "ndị ezinụlọ," o kwuru na ya gafere ụzọ ndị dị otú ahụ nke "Ndị Na-ahụ Maka Uche Ndị mmadụ". N'akwụkwọ gbara akwụkwọ ozi nke akwụkwọ akụkọ amabeghị, o dere, sị:

 … Njikọta nke m bụ ọkachasị nke a na-akpọ Elemental Kingdom na alaeze nke ọgụgụ isi. Ndị a na Onwe Ha adịghị mma ma ọ bụ ihe ọjọọ (Norton na Richmond 2009: xiii).

Norton seresere mbara igwe sara mbara dị n'ilu ya, Ihe okike nke uwa [Foto dị na aka nri]. N'ọrụ a, “eriri usoro nke ịdọ aka ike” na “ụgbọ elu ebighi-ebi n'ụdị nke okirikiri” na-agbasa mbara mbara, nke kpakpando na-enweghị nsọtụ na-enwu. Roie kọwara ụdị ndị a na ndekọ ọhụụ (Norton 2009: 47). Richmond na-ekwu na ihe ndị na-agba gburugburu “nwere ike iduzi njem njem a kwadebere nke ọma n'okporo ụzọ gaa ụlọ ọrụ ndị ọzọ” (Richmond 2009: xv). Dị ka Mandala, ha na-efegharị efegharị na mpụga, na-agagharị ihu abụọ na gburugburu. Norton kwusiri ike na mandala dị ka ụdị cosmogram. Na Art nke Rosaleen Norton, ọ kọwara mandala dị ka “maapụ geometrical nke psyche, na-enwekarị akara zuru ụwa ọnụ” (Norton and Greenlees 2013: 78). N'ime a mandala-esque, hypnotic cosmic idaha, Pan anwụ agha na-adịghị anwụ anwụ-Chineke si n’elu.

Ihe okike nke uwa na-egosi na Art nke Rosaleen Norton, tinyere Grik nke Gavin Greenlees dere n’otu aha. A na-arịọ onye na-agụ ya ka ọ nabata ọrụ ọbụ abụ French, Darius Milhaud (1892-1974) La creation du monde (1923). Greenlees dere, sị: “Site n'ọnụ nke mmụọ / ụzọ dị ọcha n'ụzọ niile doro anya na-egbu egbu / igwu mmiri doro anya — mbipụta okike nke mkpụrụ akwụkwọ / na-agagharị, na-eji ire ụtọ.” Greenlees na Norton na-agakọ “akụnụba akachaghị akwụsị” nke ihe Milhaud mejupụtara ụdị ihe mebere Norton. Ihe onyonyo ya nwere ike ese ese “Archetypal Plane, mgbe ụfọdụ ana - akpọ Chi nke Chukwu” (Norton and Greenlees 2013: 20).

Na nlegharị anya, Norton kwuru na ya ga - ezute “Archetypal Universe.” E kewara Eluigwe na Ala ụzọ atọ a: Oge, Ebe, na oghere. Norton kwuru, uche kwesịrị ilebara akụkụ ndị a anya dị ka “ndị na-ahazi nghọta; okpu nke ihe nile emere gosipụtara. ”Ha bụ“ ụdị ebighi-ebi nke ọdịdị dị na ngosipụta mbụ ha. ”Norton kwuru okwu Jung," archetypes. "Maka ya, archetypes bụ" ihe dị n'ime onwe ha karịa ịkọwapụta ihe atụ banyere ha. na akụkọ ọdịnala na cosmology ”(Norton and Greenlees 2013: 8). Ihe okike nke uwa O yikarịrị ka ọ bụ ọdịdị dị omimi nke akụkụ ụwa a dị na Archetypal. Na ahụmịhe ọhụụ ya, Roie dere, sị: “Karịa oge niile anyị maara ya… anọ m na Space — Space n'onwe ya, ọ bụghị obere nke enweghị ihe ọ bụla — ebe site na ụgbọ elu na okwu niile na - enye echiche na - akpali mmụọ nke Ndụ” (Norton 2009) : 47).

Mgbe e mesịrị na uri, Greenlees dere, sị: “Aloof na nke dị gburugburu kristal, okpueze nke ụlọ nche ya / hundued, Dubouros, eze nke na-agbanwe agbanwe, / Holds, rapara na mma ya, obere aka / sere na jazz, nke N'ihe dị n'akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ a, o kọwara onye na-enweghị ihu, uwe na-enweghị atụ, Dubouros. Dubouros pụtara Ihe okike nke uwa N'ibubata ọkụ, aka weliri. Otu akụkụ nke usoro nkwenkwe mkpụrụ ndụ Norton, ọ kọwara Dubouros dị ka "onye na-anọchite anya uche… nke ya na chi nwanyị Thoth dị ka onye na-adọrọ adọrọ, onye na - edekọ ihe. 2013: 238-41). Norton dere, sị:

O yiri m, mgbe m na-enwe oke ike nke ọgụgụ isi, okike na ikike iche echiche, ịbụ onye a dọpụrụ n'ụzọ enweghị atụ site na ụwa gbara m gburu gburu (Norton kwuru na Drury 2013: 241).

Ihe nnọchi anya Roie nke oghere liminal na-ekwenye n'echiche nke Tresch nke cosmogram. Tresch na-akọwa na cosmogram nwere ike ịkọwa oge obere oge, ebe “mmekọrịta mmadụ na onye anọrọ” na “ntụrụndụ nke ụwa na ọha, n'otu oge” (Tresh 2005: 74). Mgbe ọhụụ ahụ gachara, Norton kwuru na ya alaghachila n'ụwa nke gbanwee. Ọ na-eji esereese (n'ụdị nka na ịkọ akụkọ) ka odekọ etu echiche ya banyere cosmos gbanwere. N'okwu Tresch, post-amụma “ohere ịbụ nke emechiri emechi ọzọ” (Tresh 2005: 74-75). Maka Norton, ịse ihe bụ ihe nlere cosmos na-egosipụta mgbe eziokwu ahụ gasịrị. N'anya anya na-eme ka ọhụ ụzọ gbasara ụwa ya, Roie gara n'ihu n'ọrụ ya dịka ọhaneze na-ahụ maka ọhaneze. Ihe okike nke uwa bụ mbọ ya iji kọwapụta usoro nkwenye, nke na-agaghị ekwe omume ndị ọzọ. N’ime eserese na-ekwu na mbara igwe dị na mbara igwe, Roie kwuru, “ekwuola m ọtụtụ oge na ụdị wdg (sic) enweghị nke ya na ndụ dịka anyị maara ya.” Thesedị ndị a “enweghị ike ịkọwa ihe kpamkpam; N'ihi ya, aghaghịrị m maka eserese m ahọrọ naanị ọdịdị na akara dị ka ama ụfọdụ ama ama ”(Norton kwuru na Richmond 2009: xv-xvi).

Norton kwuru na ọhụụ ọhụhụ na-aesthaticized in Ọnọdụ Astral [Image na nri]. Na eserese pensụl a, Roie nọrọ onwe ya na cosmos mkpụrụ ya. O dikwa nzuzu na aru ndi ozo Ihe okike nke uwa. Dị ka ọ dị na ọrụ gara aga, ụdị na-egbuke egbuke na-apụta site na mbara gbara ọchịchịrị, na-agbagharị gburugburu ya. Ihu ya na-eji oji, na ntutu isi na-eme ka ihu ya ghara idi nma, ebe o na - etuto site na onu ya. Na mmụọ ime mmụọ nke oge a, ectoplasm bụ “ihe nnụnụ,” nke na-esite n'ahụ ahụ nke ndị na-ajụ mmụọ ase mgbe ịnọ n'ọhụụ. Ectoplasm na-eme ka “mmụọ nwụrụ anwụ gosipụta onwe ya n'ihu ndị na-ege ntị gbakọtara na nnọkọ ahụ.” Kpamkpam, Norton na-ekwu na ọ na-eji ụzọ ọhụụ mee ihe iji “mepụta ahụ ya nke ọma site na ebumnuche anwansi.” (Drury 2017: 52).

In Ọnọdụ Astral, na ebumnuche anwansi, Roie na-egosi sigil karịa ya. Sigil ahụ na-egosi iberibe na mpi abụọ anwansi, ikekwe na-egosi arịrịọ na-aga nke ọma nke Pan (Drury 2017: 51). Pan na-achịkwa oge ọhụụ, na-egosipụta nkwado nke mmadụ niile na Roie's pantheistic worldview (Norton 2009: 98). Oge ọhụụ nke onwe-ya, dịka ọ dị Ọnọdụ Astral, ihe ekwuru mere mgbe Norton nọ n’azu plasmic ya. Ahụ plasmic ahụ bụ “onye 'astral' na ahụ ya, nke a na-ebufe nsụhọ site na omume nke uche." Norton boro ebubo na ụgbọ elu mbara igwe ahụ n'onwe ya bụ nke "onye na-achịkwa ma na-eduzi n'echiche na ebumnuche" (Norton kwuru na Drury 2008 : 243). N'ajụjụ ọnụ Murphy, ọ kọwara echiche ya banyere ahụ Plasmic. Ahụmahụ ya mbụ banyere ileta ụgbọelu ọzọ “bụ ọ ofụ nke obi ụtọ, n'oge nke ya ka ọ dị ka ọ ga-agbari ma mebie, wee jiri nwayọọ nwayọọ nwetaghachi ọhụụ… mgbanwe niile nke ahụ na mmụọ.” O dere na ya Ọ sịrị: “Ahụ mmadụ dị ka à ga-asị na e ji ọlaedo kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ mee ya.” Ọ sịrị, “Ahụ ahụ, ọ fọkwara obere ka ọ bụrụ ihe na-eri ahụ, ihe niile mejupụtara ya na-abanyekwa n'ime ọbara. ihe kacha mee ka mmadụ nwee mmụọ nke ukwuu ruo n'ókè ụfọdụ na-eme ka ahụ mmadụ nwee ike ịmata ihe nke ọma ma ọ bụrụ na e jiri ya tụnyere ya (Norton hotara na Drury 2008: 413-22).

Ọnọdụ Astral ka ihe bara uru dika cosmogram, ka Norton dobere onwe ya otutu otutu. Ọ fọrọ obere ka ọ bụrụ na ọ na-arịa ahụ ọ bụla. Physicaldị anụ ahụ ya adịghị ndụ na ectoplasm na-agba ọkụ: “ahụ anụ ahụ aghọọla ihe na-eri ahụ.” Ọ na-egosi onwe ya dị ka arịa maka ahụmahụ obi ụtọ, na-ebi ọtụtụ ala nke ịgbagharị ohere na oge. O si ot di u ah u gh ota ot is u ya na ak uk o ah. U isi ak o. Enwere uche nke ihu na ihu ọnụnọ Norton n'otu oge. O gosiputara uzo di otutu, otutu ihe anya na ihu; usoro nke ọhụụ-cosmology na-eweta.

Roie dekwara usoro ịchọ mma site na iji usoro Osisi Ndụ nke Kabbalistic (ma ọ bụ Otz Chiim). O mepụtara “idegrams” iji gosipụta echiche Kabbalistic. Osisi nke ndụ kwekọrọ na ntụle ụwa ya nke ọma, ebe ọ gbasara “ebe nrigo” nke ọchịchị ụwa. Ebe ọdịnala ndị Juu dị omimi, Osisi nke ndụ bụ ihe ịchọ mma. N'ime ya iwu dị nsọ iri sitere n'aka Chukwu (Ain Soph Aur). Ihe omuma ndi a nke ime mmuo bu umu ogwu Sefiroth iri di: Malkuth, Yesod, Hod, Netzach, Tiferet, Gevurah, Chesed, Binah, Chokmah na Keter. Ndi Kabbalists oge ochie ghoro sephiroth iri ma kee Osisi gaa uwa ano. Na Kabbalah, ụwa anọ ndị ahụ bụ otu maka akara ime mmụọ nke ngosipụta okike (Scholem 1961: 1-39). Enwere Atziluth (Archetypal World), Briya (ofwa nke Okike), Yetzirah (World of Forinal), na Assiah (World Physical) (Drury 2008: 68). Dabere na Zohar (Akwụkwọ nke Splendor; N’afọ 2001 O.A., Chineke buru ụzọ kuziere ndị mmụọ ozi nkuzi nke Kabbalistic (Scholem and Hellner-Eshed 2007: 647-64).

Ihe omimi nke Kabbalistic bu ihe diri omume Norton. Ọtụtụ ọdịnala anwansi na-esite na Kabbalah, yana ndị ochie na nke ochie. Roie kpọrọ aha ihe osise mgbe ọ nwụsịrị ụfọdụ ma kpọọ ndị mmụọ ozi ndị Juu ka ha kwụsị ememe okpukpe. Ọ makwaara echiche Dion Fortune (1880-1946) nke Kabbalistic, na-edepụta Omimi Qabbalah (1935) dịka mmetụta n’usoro ya (Norton and Greenlees 2013: 79). Roie kwenyere na atụmanya nọ n'ọrụ, na iji anwansi a na-ahụ anya na ịhụ ọhụụ, gbagoro Osisi ahụ. Na Osisi nke Ndụ O lee foto nke iri Osisi nke Ndụ n'ụzọ ọdịnala, nke ọ nwere ike ịmụta n'ihe odide anwansi. O debere sephiroth na ogidi atọ. Ihe izizi izizi atọ pụtara na isi: Kether (The Crown), Chokmah (Amamihe), na Binah (Nghọta). Oge asaa ahụ fọdụrụ na Osisi ya na-anọchi anya okike nke ụwa (Scholem 1960: 33,56,60). Dika osisi nke ndu “nwere akuku ihe nile ekere eke”

Osisi nke Ndụ nwere ike ịbụ nsụgharị kwụ ọtọ, mana Norton ọzọ Kabbalistic cosmogram adighi. Na Idegram [Foto dị n'aka nri], dịka ọmụmaatụ, Roie eserese ọkwa nke ihe omimi dị na incarnation nke Osisi. Idegram si otu a gosiputa usoro ochichi nke anwansi ya. Dị ka Osisi nke Ndụ, ọrụ ikpeazụ a na-egosipụta akụkụ atọ a ma ama. Ma ogidi ndị ahụ abụghị ihe akara akara. Kama, Roie kpachapụrụ aha ụlọ atọ n'ụzọ zuru ezu na peeji ahụ: “ARWA,” “RUNELFINIA” na “HEAVEN.” Okwu ndị ọzọ a kpụrụ akpụ, dị ka “INFINITE” na “FAERIE” na-agbanye gburugburu. Ihe edeputara n’akwukwo nile nke oru ahu na-ezoputa uzo nke yiri nke atumatu, ma obu hexagrams nke jikotara sephiroth. Norton kọwara ideagram na paragraf abstruse:

Idegrams bụ akụkụ nke ọrụ nke Butzirah (ụwa nke Mmepụta na ndị mmụọ ozi) nke ọrụ ha bụ ịhazi ma jikọta nkọwa nke atụmatụ Idea site na nhazi Bida gaa n'ọdịdị ha kacha elu na Malkuth. Idegrams bu rụọ ọrụ ngwụcha ngwụsị nke ike a gwara okwu n'asụsụ ụmụ mmadụ. Ebumnuche niile a tụụrụ ime na Briya (dị ka echiche dị ọcha) bụ agagharị: ịbụ ụdị map zuru oke na ọkwa Pre-Man fusation nke Yetzirah — dị iche na echiche ebighi ebi nke Archetypal nke Atziluh (Norton 2009: 45).

Roie yiri ka ọ na-atụ aro na idedura sitere na "ụlọ ọrụ" nke Butzirah, otu n'ime ụwa anọ nke Kabbalistic. Ọ na-ejikọ ide idegram ya na ụlọ Kabbalistic ndị ọzọ. O kwuru okwu banyere Briya, Atziluth na Assiah (nke Malkuth kwuru, nkera nke iri nke World Nkịtị). Idegram si otu a na-ahụ ihe ịchọ mma Kabbalistic n'ihe niile. Ọrụ ahụ bụ ihe eji echepụta ihe maka ichepụta ihe. Norton, dị ka ọtụtụ ndị na-eme anwansi, hụrụ Osisi nke Ndụ na esoteric praxis dị ka matriks nke jikọtara akụkọ ọdịbendị akụkọ ihe mere eme nke ọdịda anyanwụ. Drury na-akọwa Osisi nke Ndụ na ọdịnala Drawn dị ka ihe nnọchianya nwere ike, “na-anọchite anya ala nke ohere dị nsọ” (Drury 2008: 85).

Kabbalah bụ ụzọ dị na Norton ịnweta archetypal na akụkọ ifo site na nsogbu zutere. O kwusiri ike na chi dị iche iche, chi nwanyị na ihe ndị ọzọ na-abụghị mmadụ dị n'ụkpụrụ nke aka ha. Maka ya, ha abughi ihe omuma nke ihe omuma ya. Na ntughari, o nwetere “ihe di n’ ebe anhuru uzo dika ihe ‘ezigbo’ ”(Drury 2008: 192). Dịka ọmụmaatụ, na nyocha nke uche Murphy, ọ na-ekwu na ọ na-ahụ onye mmegide ahụ (Lucifer / Satan) dị ka ihe dị n'ime ya (Norton kwuru na Drury 2017: 53). Ihe nnọchiteanya ya na-eji anya nke uche hụ ahụrụ ahụmịhe doro anya nke mmụọ na anwansi. Echiche na Norton bụ onye omenkà Surrealist kwesịrị ka a nyocha ya.

Dị ka Surrealist art, ọrụ Norton abụghị ihe metụtara otu mmekọrịta ọha na eze, kama ọ bụ isiokwu amaghị ihe gbasara ụwa niile. Dịka ọ dị na art artisation Surrealist, Norton's cosmogram na-ebupụta arụmụka banyere ndụ, ọ bụghị nka. Ndi nkatọ ilu Australia, Rex Butler na ADS Donaldson, na-ekwu na Roie 'ohiere' oeuvre bụ onyinye ndị Australia maka ụwa Surrealism. Ha dị, na-eme ngwa ngwa iwepu ahụmahụ o nwegasịrị. Ha dere, "A rụrụ ọrụ ya dabere n'ihe ndị a hụrụ n'ọhụụ," ka ha dere site na njiri onwe onye nke mmadụ, ya na ụmụ mmadụ dị iche iche, ndị ọ tụlere na ha nwere nnwere onwe ha (ọ bụ ezie na ha niile bụcha onyonyo.) " Butler na Donaldson 2013: 2-3,12). Echiche nile nke ọrụ Roie bụ ihe ngosipụta onwe onye, ​​na-eleghara oeuvre ya anya dị ka inyefe ihe ndị o kwuru dị ka ndụ, na-ezute ndị na-abụghị mmadụ. N'ezie, Roie gọrọ agọ na a ga-akpọ ya Surrealist na katalọgụ ngosi.

Nnyocha ndị a ga-enwe n'ọdịnihu nwere ike iji ọrụ Norton tụnyere nke ndị na-eme nchọpụta banyere ụdị anụ ahụ, Remedios Varo (Spanish; 1908-1963) na Leonora Carrington (British-Mexico; 1917-2011); onye mgbaasị, Marjorie Cameron (American; 1922-1955); ma ọ bụ na-agwọ ọrịa, Emma Kunz (Switzerland; 1892-1963). A na-adọta ndị na-eme ihe nkiri Surrealist, gụnyere Varo na Cameron na anwansi iconography na ọdịnaya nke anwansi dị ka mmega ahụ. Ọzọkwa, Susan Aberth dere, “Ihe osise Cameron abụghị nkọwa nke echiche anwansi… ha na arụ ọrụ dịka akụkụ dị iche iche nke ịgba afa na ịrịọ arịrịọ niile, a na-agagharị n'ọhụụ… eboro ebubo site na ike karịrị ike mmadụ” (Aberth 2018: 238). N'otu aka ahụ, ihe osise Kunzre yiri nka na Norton n'ụdị “mgbanwe” ya, dị ka nchịkọta nke eserese, nke na-ese ihe banyere ike ndị zoro ezo kwuru. Kunz gakwuuru ihe omumu ihe omuma di ka ihe nmekorita, kama dika uzo isi enye ya ikike idi ihe banyere ya. O jiri eserese gbara pendulum nke pendulum gosipụta ihe “ekwesịrị ga-ekwe omume” nke cosmology metaphysical ya (de Zegher 2005: 113-16).

Ọ bụ ezie na atụnyere ihe ngosi nka nke Norton na ndi ozo nke anwansi ndi ozo, a gha emeela njikọ ndi ozo. Norton kpebiri na ndị nkatọ ji nkà ya tụnyere nke Norman Lindsay (1879-1969), Aubrey Beardsley (1872-1898) na William Blake (1757-1827). "Nke a bụ otu ụdị umengwụ n'etiti ụfọdụ ndị nkatọ," ka o dere. “Ọ na-adịrị ha mfe ijikọ ọrụ onye na-ese ihe nwere ebumpụta ụwa niile” (Norton and Greenlees 2013: 9). N’agbanyeghi nke a, o kwenyere na mmekọrịta ya na Blake. Ha abụọ, n'echiche ya, gosipụtara pantheistic, "mkpuchi zuru ụwa ọnụ;" ntụgharị uche onwe onye ebe “ihe ọ bụla dị ndụ dị nsọ.” Chi dị iche iche n'oge ochie na ihe ndị ọzọ na-abụghị mmadụ dị mkpa na ha mejupụtara. Na Blake's Abalị Ọ Enụ Enitharmon (1795), dịka ọmụmaatụ, o gosipụtara chi nwanyị Greco-Roman, Hecate. Ọ bụ chi bụ isi na mbara igwe ya na Norton. Na nkọwa ya nke Hecate, o gosikwara Enitharmon, onye isi mgba akụkọ ọdịnala ya. Maka Blake, Enitharmon na-anọchi anya ịma mma nke mmụọ na mmụọ nsọ, na-achị dị ka eze nke Eluigwe na ọrụ ya (Frye 1990: 127). Blake na Norton kpọkọtara ndị mmụọ mmụọ sị na "onye gbawara agbaji," "usoro aghụghọ n'echeghị echiche". Site n'ime nke a, ha nyochagharịrị akụkọ ifo ndị dị n'akụkụ ọdịda anyanwụ. Nkà ha na njirimara di omimi site na onu ogugu na otutu ihe eji eme ihe ma nwe kwa nkweko (Makdisi 2003: 1).

Dika Norton siri were eserese ma choo ihe nzuzo nke anwansi, oeuvre bu ihe ochie nke ihe nlere. Approachzọ o siri mee nka dị ka nke anwansi gbadoro ụkwụ n'ihe ọmụmụ ya, ịkọwa anwansi na akụkọ akwụkwọ akụkọ. Ọ na-eji otiyo rọba, dị ka eserese, ederede, arụmọrụ, na onyonye (yana ike iji pịa) na eserese na ọhụụ na - enweghị isi, ọhụụ akụkọ omimi niile na Sydney. N'ime afọ ndị 1950 na 1960, Norton bụ aha ezinụlọ n'ofe obodo ahụ. Roie dere, “Kemgbe m dị ihe dị ka afọ iri na ise — ma ọ bụ ma ọ dịkarịa ala, na mgbe mbụ m hụrụ ya, enwewo m ike psi… imebi echiche na echiche onwe onye n'oge Mind nke Mgbakọ” (Norton 15: 2009).

Foto dị iche iche **

** Ihe onyogho nile bu nke anabatiri ighota maka ihe onyonyo buru ibu. (Norton adịkarịghị ụbọchị ma ọ bụ debe ihe ndekọ banyere ihe okike ya. N'ihi nke a, ịlụ ya na ịchọta ha na-abụkarị ọrụ ịkọ nkọ.)

Foto # 1: Foto nke Norton dị ka Pan, ihe dị ka 1955.
Foto # 2: Norton na emume ncheta, 1955.
Foto #3: Bacchanal, ụbọchị amabeghị.
Foto # 4: Foto nke Norton, ụbọchị amabeghị.
Foto #5: Ihe okike nke uwa, ụbọchị amabeghị. Walter Glover Archive.
Foto #6: Ọnọdụ Astral, na 1940s. Nchịkọta onwe.
Foto #7: Osisi nke Ndụ, ụbọchị amabeghị. Nchịkọta onwe.
Foto #8: Idegram, ụbọchị amabeghị. Nchịkọta onwe.

References 

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Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
18 December 2019

 

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