Kira Ganga Kieffer

Paula White


AKWKWỌ PAULA WHITE

1966 (Eprel 20): Paula Michelle Furr mụrụ na Tupelo, Mississippi.

1984: Furr ghọrọ onye Kristian na ụka Damascus nke Chukwu na Maryland mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na asatọ.

1984: Paula Furr lụrụ Dean Knight ma mụọ nwa nwoke, Bradley Knight.

1989: Paula Furr Knight na Dean Knight gbara alụkwaghịm.

1990: Paula Furr Knight lụrụ Randy White, onye pastọ nke Churchka Chukwu.

1991: Paula White guzobere na-enweghị Walls International Church na Tampa, Florida, na Randy White.

2001: Paula White malitere ịgbasa mmemme televangelism, Paula White Taa.

2003: Paula White bipụtara Thingme Ihe Nrọ Gị: Atụmatụ Chineke maka Ibi Ndụ n'agha.

2004: Paula White bipụtara Akụ Dị Oké Ọnụ Ahịa (Okwu Amamihe Maka Ndụ jupụtara na ike).

2004: Paula White bipụtara Ọ hụrụ m n'anya, ọ hụrụ m n'anya ọ bụghị: ihe nwanyị ọ bụla kwesịrị ịma banyere ịhụnanya na-enweghị atụ mana ọ na-atụ ụjọ inwe mmetụta.

2005: Paula White bipụtara Na-eme ya! Akwụkwọ ọgụgụ site n'aka Paula White.

2005: Paula White bipụtara M ekwe gị nkwa… Nkwenye Chineke maka ibi ndụ kwa ụbọchị.

2005: Paula White bipụtara Aro ndị dị mfe maka ndụ ndụ. 

2005: Paula White bipụtara Mweghachi: Ike nke Ọbara.

2006: Paula White bipụtara Na-eme ya! Pụrụ Imeri Ihe Will Na-agaghị Aghọtara.

2007: Paula White na Randy White gbara alụkwaghịm.

2007: Paula White bipụtara Enweghi m izu ezu… Nke ahụ bụ Nsogbu: Ime Mmekọrịta Na-arụ Ọrụ.

2007: Paula White bipụtara All Na-na Na niile! Ghọta Nzube Chineke Maka Ndụ Gị.

2007: Kọmitii Na-ahụ Maka Ego na United States, nke Sen. Chuck Grassley (R-IA) duziri malitere nyocha na Paula na Randy White, yana ndị ọrụ mgbasa ozi ise ndị ọzọ maka ebubo ebubo iji ego eme ihe. 

2008: Bipụtara Gaa n'ihu, Gbanwee. 

2009: Paula White bipụtara Amaja nrọ: Hụ Onwe Gị dịka Chineke Si ahụ Gị.

2012–2019: White jere ozi dị ka Onye Isi pastọ nke New Destiny Christian Center na Apopka, Florida.

2014: Na-enweghị Walls International Church gbara akwụkwọ maka enweghị ego.

2014: Kọmitii Na-ahụ Maka Ego na United States kọrọ na enweghị ebubo a ga-ebo ndị ọcha mgbe afọ asaa nyochachara.

2015: Paula White lụrụ Jonathan Cain, keyboardist maka egwu egwu Journey.

2017 (Jenụwarị 20): White nyefere arịrịọ na ntinye nke Onye isi ala Donald J. Trump.

2019: Paula White bipụtara Ihe Ka Ukwuu: Findchọta Mmeri Ọnwụnwa.

2019 (Mee): White lara ezumike nká site n'ọkwá ya dị ka onye isi pastọ na New Destiny Christian Center; mara ọkwa na nwa nwoke ahụ, Bradley Knight na nwunye ya dịka ndị na-esote ya; weghachite ulo uka obodo nke akara aka.

2019 (November 1): White ghọrọ Onye Ndụmọdụ Pụrụ Iche nke Faith’s Faith and Opportunity Initiative.

2020 (Ọktọba): N'ime oge ikpeazụ nke ntuli aka onye isi ala, White kpọrọ enyemaka Chineke maka Onye isi ala Donald Trump.

BIOGRAPHY

Paula Michelle White-Cain (née Furr) mụrụ na Eprel 20, 1966 na Tupelo, Mississippi, nye ndị nne na nna Janelle na Donald Furr. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Mgbe Paula dị afọ ise, nne na nna ya gbara alụkwaghịm, nne ya kpọgara Paula na nwanne ya nwoke na Memphis, Tennessee, ebe ha dara ogbenye. Donald gburu onwe ya obere oge ka nke ahụ gasịrị. Dị ka White si kwuo, ụjọ kpatara ya maka ọnwụ nna ya n'oge ọ bụ nwata, na n'oge ọ dị afọ iri na ụma, ọ tara ahụhụ n'ụzọ anụ ahụ na mmejọ site n'aka ndị na-elekọta ya, nne ya na-emejọ uche, na bulimia. Mgbe White nne lụrụ ọzọ, ezinụlọ ahụ kwagara Washington, DC, na White gụsịrị akwụkwọ na Seneca Valley High School na Germantown, Maryland.

N'oge na-adịghị anya mgbe ọ gbasịrị afọ iri na asatọ, White ghọrọ onye Kristian na Damascus Church of God dị na Maryland. Ọ lụrụ di mbụ ya, bụ Dean Knight, ma mụta nwa nwoke, Bradley. Dị ka White si kwuo, ọ natara ọhụụ nke a gwara ya ka o kwusaa ozioma nke Jizọs Kraịst gburugburu ụwa mgbe o tinyechara ndụ ya nye Chineke (Lee na Sinitiere 2009: 115). N'oge obere alụmdi na nwunye ya na Dean Knight na 1980s, White wepụtara onwe ya na ndị ọrụ ime obodo na Washington, DC mgbe ọ na-amụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ na ụlọ akwụkwọ nke Chineke nke dị na mpaghara. Na 1987, ọ zutere onye ụkọchukwu Pentikọstal Randy White, ha abụọ gbara alụkwaghịm di ha ma lụọ na 1990.

Ndị Whites ahụ kwagara Flọrịda wee hiwe ozi nke ha na 1991, ebe Paula mụtara aka ọrụ ịzụ nwa. Mgbe ụgha ole na ole malitere, Paula na Randy White malitere Enweghị Mgbidi Chọọchị International na Tampa, na-adọta ndị otu agbụrụ na agbụrụ dị iche iche. N'ime oge mbu nke 1990s, White jidere uche nke onye ụkọchukwu ụkọchukwu megachurch nke Africa bụ TD Jakes. White na-ezo aka Jakes dị ka "nna ime mmụọ," [Foto dị n'aka nri] na ọ dabere na ndụmọdụ ya ka ọrụ ịzụ atụrụ ya malitere. Ọ mụtakwara na Jakes nkà mmụta okpukpe miri emi nke mere ka ozi ndị ọcha pụọ ​​na Pentikọstalism banye na mpaghara enweghị aha (Duin 2017). Jakes wetara White n'ime ogige ahụ ma mee ka ọhụhụ dịkwuo elu site n'ịkpọ ya ka ọ kwusaa ozi ọma na nnọkọ njem nlegharị anya abụọ maka ụmụ nwanyị, "Nwanyị Art Na-apụ apụ" na "Nwanyị Na-eduga Chineke" (Lee na Sinitiere 2009: 119).

Na 2001, akụkọ White ka Chineke kpọrọ ka ọ bido ozi telivishọn, ọ wee malite mmemme Paula White Ministri, Paula White Taa. Ka ọ na-erule afọ 2006, a na-ekenye usoro ihe omume a ma na-ebugharị na ntanetị dịgasị iche iche, gụnyere Trinity Broadcast Network, Black Entertainment Network, na Country Music Television, n'etiti ọdụ ndị Kraịst ndị ọzọ. Ọganihu ya na telivishọn nyeere ọganihu nke ụka na-enweghị mgbidi, na-adọta ndị bịara 20,000 oge niile na ozi ya (Duin 2017).

Ọdịmma White mere ka o bipụta akwụkwọ enyemaka onwe onye karịrị iri na abụọ nke Ndị Kraịst na-enyere ndị na-agụ ya aka ịba ọgaranya na ndụ ha: inwekwu ego, ahụike ka mma, mmekọrịta siri ike karị, na ịmata ikike nke ịhụnanya Chineke enweghị atụ. Na 2000s, o jekwara ndị ama ama na ndị ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị nọ na nsogbu, ọkachasị onye ọbụ abụ Michael Jackson bụ onye e boro ebubo ebubo nwatakịrị mgbe ọ rutere White maka ọzụzụ nke aka ya (Lee na Sinitiere 2009: 110). Na mgbakwunye, White ghọrọ onye ndụmọdụ mmụọ nke onwe ya nye ndị ama ama, gụnyere Tyra Banks, Darryl Strawberry, na Donald Trump. Dị ka White si kwuo, na 2002, Trump kpọrọ ya mgbe ọ hụrụ ihe ngosi telivishọn ya ma jaa ya mma maka inwe ihe '' ọ bụ ''. Ha abụọ zutere wee bụrụ ndị enyi, Trump wee rịọ ndụmọdụ ya na ekpere ya gbara gburugburu azụmaahịa na mkpebi ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị dị mkpa (Leusner 2017; Glenza 2019; Peters and Dias 2019).

Na 2007, Kọmitii Na-ahụ Maka Ego na United States, nke Senator Chuck Grassley (R-IA) duziri, malitere nyocha na Randy na Paula White na enweghị Walls International Church, yana ụlọ ụka ise ndị ọzọ, maka iji onyinye eme ihe n'ụzọ na-ezighị ezi. N'afọ ahụ, Paula na Randy kwupụtakwara ịgba alụkwaghịm ha. Na 2014, nyocha ahụ kwụsịrị na enweghị nnukwu nchọta ma ọ bụ ebubo, mana na enweghị Walls International Church gbara akwụkwọ maka enweghị ego na Paula gbara arụkwaghịm ka ọ bụrụ onye isi ụka ụkọchukwu nke New Destiny Christian Center na Apopka, Florida (Zoll 2014).

N'etiti 2012 na May 2019, White jere ozi dị ka onye ụkọchukwu pastọ nke New Destiny Christian Center, bụ ebe ọ na-ebute ụzọ nke ụka na ọtụtụ ndị minista na mba na ụlọ mkpọrọ na obodo US, yana South Africa na Haiti. Na 2015, ọ lụrụ onye na-akụ egwu n'oké egwu Jonathan Cain, onye keyboard maka otu egwu ahụ.

N'oge a, White rutere nso na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, na-aga n'ihu na-arụ ọrụ ya na ụda ma na-elekọta Kọmitii Advisory Evangelical iji nyere aka jikọọ mkpọsa ya na ndị ntuli aka Ndị Kraịst na-agbasa ozi n'oge mkpọsa president 2016. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Na Jenụwarị 20, 2017, White bụ nwanyị mbụ nyere arịrịọ na ntinye ọkwa onye isi ala US, ọ rụọla ọrụ dịka onye ndụmọdụ mmụọ na Trump kemgbe ọ banyere n'ọchịchị.

Na Mee 2019, White kwupụtara arụkwaghịm ya na New Destiny, ma tinye nwa ya nwoke na nwunye ya ka ha bụrụ ndị isi ụka nke ụka, aha ya bụ Destiny City. O kwuru na akpọrọ ya ka ọ bido ụlọ ụka 3,000 na mahadum (Kuruvilla 2019). Na Nọvemba 2019, a họpụtara White ka ọ duru Faith and Opportunity Initiative na White House n'ọkwa gọọmentị. Na ọrụ ikpeazụ ya dị ka onye isi ụkọchukwu na New Destiny, White kwupụtara na mkpebi ya dabere na ozi sitere n'aka Chineke, bụ onye gwara ya ka ọ gaa n'ihu ohere ọhụrụ. A kọrọ na ọ gwara ọgbakọ ahụ, sị, "Onyenwe anyị gwara m okwu nke ọma wee sị, 'Ọ bụrụ na ị na-atụ uche n'oge a, ị ga-egbu oge. Echefula oge a '”(Kuruvilla 2019). White egosila ụda na Queen nke Akwụkwọ Nsọ ma kwuo na ọ bụ Chineke họọrọ ya ka ọ duru United States (Itkowitz 2017).

N’agba ikpeazụ nke ntuli aka onye isi ala n’afọ 2020, White kwuru n’oge ọrụ ekpere na “ndị mmụọ ọjọọ jikọrọ” na-arụ ọrụ izuru mmeri Trump. Ọ kpọrọ oku maka “nkwado mmụọ ozi” na mkpọsa Trump site na Africa na South America wee kwuo na "Ana m anụ ụda mmeri, Onyenwe anyị kwuru na emeela" (Grantham-Philips 2020).

TEACHINGS / DOCTRINES

White bụ onye ụka na-anaghị anabata okpukpe ọfụma bụ onye emeburu baptizim na Pentikọstal ofka nke Chukwu. Na weebụsaịtị ya, a na-anọchite anya nkwenkwe White n'ụdị isii: Akwụkwọ Nsọ; Atọ n'Ime Otu; Nzọpụta; Baptizim; Ọgbakọ; ye Obio Ubọn̄. N'ime usoro nkwenkwe a, ọ na-esonyere ndị Kraịst ndị ọzọ na-abụghị ndị ụka Kraịst, ma nkọwa ya banyere Akwụkwọ Nsọ anaghị etinye mkparịta ụka banyere enweghị ike nke Akwụkwọ Nsọ ma ọ bụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ dị ka "okwu Chineke," nke na - eme ka ọ dị iche na Ndị Kraịst nwere nkwenye siri ike. Kama, o kwuru, “Anyị kwenyere na Akwụkwọ Nsọ sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ Chineke, ọ bụkwa mkpughe nke Chineke n'onwe Ya nye mmadụ. Anyị kwenyere na ọ bụ ụkpụrụ dị n'ime ya ka a ga-esi bi na ya, na ogo nke okwukwe na nkuzi anyị "(Paula White Ministri 2019). Na nkwusa White, ọ na-ezo aka na Bible mgbe mgbe, na-adabere na ozi ya na ịkọwapụta amaokwu ụfọdụ na metụtara ha na nsogbu onwe onye, ​​ezigbo ndụ.

Dika onye Kristian nke nkwusa ozioma, nkwenye White banyere ike nke baptism na “imu gi ozo” site na nchighari bu ihe di nkpa nke ozizi ya. Okwusi ike ya abughi oku nke ebe ịchụàjà, mana kama na ịgba akaebe na ike nke akụkọ onwe onye. Dika onye oka mmuta banyere ihe banyere mmadu bu Susan Harding dere banyere akuko Christianist na usoro okwu, ihe omuma nke ntughari bu ndi ozo site na "asusu ma obu ire okwu" nke na akowaputa mgbanwe di ebube na ndu onye gbanwere ma nwee ekele nye Chineke maka nzoputa ya (Harding 2000: 34). Whitezọ White populist ji eme nkwusa na ịgba akaebe na-eme ka o doo anya na onye ọ bụla nwere ike nweta onyinye ndị a nke baptizim, na ha na-agbanwe ndụ ka mma. Ọ na-ezo aka na onwe ya dịka "nwa agbọghọ Mississippi gbagọrọ agbagọ" nke nsogbu ya na nsogbu nwata nwere ike ime ka ndụ ya, ahụike uche, na ikike ịkwado na ikwusa ozi ọma nye ọtụtụ nde mmadụ enweghị ike ịkwụ ụgwọ. N'izo aka na nsogbu ya, nsogbu ya na mmeri ya, White na-agba akaebe banyere ntụgharị ya dịka akụkụ nke usoro nkwusa ya na atụmatụ ya (Lee na Sinitiere 2007: 107).

Ozi White na ozi ọma na-akwado nkà mmụta okpukpe ọganihu. Ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke okpukpe ndị America Kate Bowler rụrụ ụka na nkà mmụta okpukpe ọganihu, ma ọ bụ ozi ọma banyere ọganihu, "na-amasị nkwenkwe nkà mmụta okpukpe, ma n'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, n'adịghị ka mmegharị ndị ọzọ na-agbanwe agbanwe nke na-ewepụta iwu na ụlọ ọrụ nwere nzube ironclad" (Bowler 2013: 4). Kama nke ahụ, ndị nkwusa na-enwe ọganihu na-abụkarị ndị ama ama "na-arụ ọrụ dị ka ndị ọkà mmụta okpukpe na ụlọ ọrụ, na-ebili, na-anọgidesi ike, ma na-ada n'ike" (Bowler 2013: 4). Nkọwa a dabara nke ọma n'ọkwa ama ama White na ọrụ onwe ya dị ka onye ụkọchukwu megachurch na onye ndumodu nke ime mmụọ. Oziọma ọganihu na-atụ aka na nkà mmụta okpukpe na-ekwusi ike ụgwọ ọrụ sitere n'aka Chineke a ndụ, nke bụ n'ụdị akụ na ụba na ahụ ike. Dịka onye nkwusa na-aga n'ihu, White kwere ndị kwere ekwe nkwa na itinye ego ha (nke mmụọ na akụnụba) na ụka ga-enweta ụgwọ ọrụ. Dịka o siri kwue n’ozizi 2019, “ihe masịrị gị nwere ekele! ” nke o tinyere n'ọrụ ego, mmekọrịta, mmekọrịta ịhụnanya, na ihe ọ bụla dị mma na ndụ mmadụ (White 2019). Ihe omuma ego nke ihe ndi nwere ekele bu ihe nnochi anya nke uzu ocha nke ocha nke ndi White kwenyere na ha gha enweta ihe ha tinyere uche ha.

A makwaara ndị nkwusa ọganihu maka agbamume ha nyere ndị na-eso ụzọ ka ha nye otu ụzọ n'ụzọ iri ma ọ bụ nye ego maka ọrụ ha ma ọ bụ nzukọ ụka dịka ụzọ isi gosipụta ọchịchọ ha maka ụba. White na-atụkarị aka n’amaokwu Agba Ọhụrụ “Maka onye ọ bụla nke nwere, a ga-enyekwu ya, ha ga-enwekwa ụba. Onye ọ bụla na-enweghị, a ga-anapụkwa ha ihe ha nwere ”(NIV Matiu 25:29) iji kọwaa echiche mmụta mmụọ a. Maka White, enwere ozi abụọ dị mkpa n'amaokwu a. Nke mbu, inye ego na Chineke (maka White, nke a pụtara theka, nke pụtara Chukwu) ga-eweta ndị na-enye enye Ọzọ ego ma ọ bụ ngọzi. Nke abụọ, inwetara ngọzi na-enye aka inweta ọtụtụ ngọzi. N'ikwu ya n'ụzọ ọzọ, inwe ọtụtụ (akụnụba ma ọ bụ ahụ ike) bụ omume ọma, ọ bụghị mmehie ma ọ bụ ihe ihere. N'ihi ya, dị ka White si kwuo, ka otu onye nwere, otú ahụ ka onye kwesịrị ịnata (ma nata). Na ọgbakọ White's Without Walls, otu ụzọ n'ụzọ iri nwere "ụkpụrụ nduzi doro anya" yana nhọrọ iji nye onyinye "Otu ọnwa; 'Sgwọ otu ụbọchị; Gwọ otu izu; Ihe nkpuru mbu kachasi nma m kacha mma ”(Bowler 2013: 129-30). N'oge nyocha nke ndị Sineti, na-enweghị Walls International slogs bụ "Onyinye Nsure, Eluigwe Ike." Dika onye oka mmuta nke nkwukọrịta Douglas J. Swanson gosiputara, ndi megachurches “mmeghari ohuru ohuru” dika ndi Ocha 'jikọtara omume nke inye otu ụzọ n'ụzọ iri na onyinye nke Mmụọ Nsọ n'ụzọ ịpụta "onyinye karịrị ike mmadụ" maka ịzụta (Swanson 2012: 66- 7).

RITUALS / PRACTICES 

White na-eme ọtụtụ emume na omume ndị metụtara ọdịnala metụtara akụkụ mara mma nke Pentikọstal. Ndị a gụnyere ịnye onyinye nke Mmụọ Nsọ site na ịsụ asụsụ dị iche iche (glossolalia); na-ebikwasị aka maka ọgwụgwọ; na-ebu agha ime mmụọ; na ịchụpụ mmụọ (Wacker 2001; Bowler 2013). Na ọrụ ụka, White na-ekwusa ozi ọma na-ekpo ọkụ, na-agbakarị ikere oku na nzaghachi ndị na-ege ntị, wee mechie ọrụ ahụ na oge maka ndị ọgbakọ na-ete mmanụ na mmanụ dị nsọ ma na-eduga ekpere. N'ihi oke ọgbakọ ya, a na-akụzi ha, na-eme ihe omume nke ọtụtụ pastọ nke ọtụtụ narị ndị ọgbakọ na-abịa n'ihu ebe a ga-ekpe ekpere maka ha. White na-eduzi ekpere na ọwa nke Mmụọ Nsọ site na ịsụ asụsụ dị iche iche na ịsụgharị ndị na-ege ntị ihe asụsụ a na-amaghị ama pụtara. Nsụgharị ndị a bụ ụdị amụma nke ngọzi maka ndị otu ọgbakọ (White 2012).

White na-ebuso agha ime mmụọ agha, ụdị ekpere a na-eme iji kpughee ike aghụghọ na mmụọ nke mmụọ na ịkpọku ịdị mma nke Mmụọ Nsọ iji nye eziokwu ma ọ bụ amụma amụma. Dị ka ọkà mmụta okpukpe bụ R. Marie Griffith si kwuo, “Ọdịbendị na-adọrọ adọrọ ọ bụghị nanị ịdị adị nke Setan kamakwa eziokwu nke ọnụ ọgụgụ a na-apụghị ịgụta ọnụ nke ndị mmụọ ọjọọ na-adịghị mma, nke ọtụtụ n’ime ha kwekọrọ n’echiche bụ́ isi, omume, na ọnọdụ uche” (Griffith 1997: 97) ). Dị ka onye pastọ na onye ndu ime mmụọ, White banyere ọnọdụ ekpere wee ghọta eziokwu sitere na akụkọ ifo, ezi ihe na ihe ọjọọ, ịkọ akụkọ banyere ozi ọ natara site na mmụọ mmụọ ma jikwa ike Chineke mee ihe iji lụso ajọ omume nke ndị mmadụ ma ọ bụ ọgbakọ ya ọgụ. N'ime ọrụ ya dị ka onye ndụmọdụ mmụọ nke mmụọ nke Trump, White na-anabatakwa akụkọ banyere amụma ndị anakọtara site na mkparịta ụka ime mmụọ ma tinye ha n'okwu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị ma ọ bụ nke gọọmentị (Ahmed 2019).

Ekpere bụ isi maka White. Ọ na - akuzi ndi n’eso ụzọ ya na “enwere ụzọ asatọ Chukwu si agwa ha okwu”, nke bụ isi ma ọ bụ nke onwe (White 2014). White na-ekpekwa ekpere n'ihu ọha, na-arịọ arịrịọ na ekpere maka ọgbakọ yana President Trump, ma na nzuzo ma n'oge ọha (Duin 2017; Glenza 2019; Itkowitz 2017).

NDỤ

White ejeela ozi dị ka onye isi ụkọchukwu na ọgbakọ ụka megachurch nke Christian, na-enweghị Walls International na New Destiny Christian Center, nke ọ lara ezumike nká na 2019. Ọ na-arụkwa ọrụ Paula White Ministri, televangelism mba ụwa na ọrụ ebere, ọ bipụtakwala karịa akwụkwọ onwe-iri na abuo na akwụkwọ ndi Kristian, ọdịyo, na akwụkwọ ọrụ okwukwe.

Na nkwusa ozioma nke America, enwere oke nkewa nke na-egbochi ọgbakọ ma ọ bụ mmegharị ụlọ ụka ka ha bụrụ agbụrụ (Emerson na Smith 2000). Ọ bụ ezie na ndị isi chọọchị n'ozuzu ha na-egbochi nkewa a, ozi White bụ ihe ama ama maka ịrịọ arịrịọ na ọtụtụ ọdịbendị (Lee na Sinitiere 2009: 112, 122; Walton 2009: 82).

Na 2019, White sonyeere Trump Trump dị ka onye ndụmọdụ pụrụ iche nke White House Faith & Opportunity Initiative. [Foto dị n'aka nri] N'ime ikike a na ọrụ mbụ ọ na-arụ dị ka onye ndụmọdụ ime mmụọ nke Trump na onye nhazi mgbasa ozi mgbasa ozi nke mkpọsa president ya, White nwere mmasị ma dụọ ndụmọdụ n'okwu ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na nke iwu gbasara enyemaka enyemaka mba ụwa, mmegide ime na ikpe ikpe mpụ. .

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Dị ka nwanyị a ma ama na-ezisa ozi ọma na ọdịbendị okpukpe na-adịghị agbanwe agbanwe nke na-eji ọrụ nwoke na nwanyị akpọrọ ihe, White enwetawo ihe ịma aka site na ọgbakọ Ndị Kraịst na nkwenye ya dịka nwanyị pastọ nọ n'ọhịa (Lee na Sinitiere 2009: 122). O nwetakwara nkatọ n'ihi ịbụ nwanyị gbara alụkwaghịm na nne nanị ya na-azụ ụmụ na omenala okpukpe nke na-ele alụmdi na nwunye na ezinụlọ nuklia anya dị ka ihe dị nsọ ma bụrụ nke a na-apụghị imeri emebi.

Ọ bụ ezie na White na-eche nkatọ siri ike site na mgbasa ozi mgbasa ozi na ndị nnwere onwe ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị maka nkwenkwe ya na ngwakọta nke okwukwe na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, yana mmekọrịta ya na Onye isi ala Trump, ndị nkatọ ya siri ike sitere na ọtụtụ ndị isi ụka ozioma ọdịnala na ndị Protestant na-emesapụ aka bụ ndị na-ele nkà mmụta okpukpe dị ka ndị jụrụ okwukwe (Peters na Dias 2019) na ndị na-ahụ White na ndị nkwusa ndị ọzọ nwere ọganiihu na ndị televangelist dịka ndị nwere nghọta bụ ndị na-erite uru ego site n'ịchọ mkpa na ntụkwasị obi nke ndị na-eso ụzọ ha. Onye isi Baptist Baptist Russell Moore akpọrọ White dị ka "charlatan" (Duin 2017). Onye ụkọchukwu na-emesapụ aka bụ Rev. William J. Barber II, onye ndu nke Moral Mondays ngagharị iwe na North Carolina, hụrụ ọ dị elu na White House dị ka "akara ngosi jọgburu onwe ya" na ngosipụta nke "narcissism ndị Kraịst" (Peters na Dias 2019). Tụkwasị na nke a, njikọ White na Trump na Republican Party meriri ọtụtụ ndị na-eso ụzọ Africa America bụ ndị na-ele amụma na nchịkwa nke onye isi ala dị ka ịkpa oke agbụrụ (Peters na Dias 2019).

Ọganihu nke nkà mmụta okpukpe, megach ụka, na televangelism adabala n'okpuru nyocha ọha na eze na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị kemgbe 1980s n'oge elu nke nkwusa telivishọn na nchịkọta ego na ọdịda nke ndị nkwusa dịka Jim na Tammy Faye Bakker, Jimmy Swaggart, na ndị ọzọ. Ndị Senate US nyochara Paula na Randy White maka iji onyinye eme ihe n'ụzọ na-ezighị ezi na 2007, ha dekwara akwụkwọ maka enweghị ego na 2014 mgbe ha mechiri ọtụtụ saịtị nke enweghị Walls na Florida (Zoll 2011).

Ibu aka na akwukwo nke ndi nwanyi n'IZI

White dị ịrịba ama n'ịmụ ụmụ nwanyị n'okpukpe n'ihi ohere a na-enwetụbeghị ụdị ya na onye isi ala United States nọ ọdụ dị ka onye ndụmọdụ mmụọ. O burukwa nwanyi mbu mejuputara aririọ n’emume imere onye isi ala. N'echiche a, ọrụ White na-akọ na ndụ onye isi ala na nchịkwa karịrị nke onye ụkọchukwu ozioma a ma ama bụ Rev. Billy Graham (1918-2018), onye jere ozi dị ka onye pastọ nke onye isi ala ọ bụla site na Harry S Truman (n'ọfịs 1945-1953) ruo Barack Obama (n'ọfịs 2009-2017), mana ọ naghị arụ ọrụ na White House na ikike (Wacker 2014).

N'ihi iwu ndị a na-egbochi ndị ndu ụmụ nwanyị na obodo ndị na-ezisa ozi ọma, yana ndị Kraịst na-achọghị mgbanwe na-emesi ike ọrụ ndị nwoke na nwanyị, ụmụ nwanyị anaghị arụ ọrụ dị mkpa nke ịzụ atụrụ na ụka ụka. A ma ama na White maka ndu ya na onye isi ozuzu ụka nke megach ụka abụọ nke ntọala ya. Ọ dịkwa mkpa na White bụ Onye Kraịst nwere obi ụtọ, ebe ọ bụ na ụmụ nwanyị enweela ikike na ikike igosipụta njikọ Chineke na ịkọwa ọdịnala ọdịnala dịka Pentikọstal oge mbụ (Wacker 2000). Onye mbu nke Pentikọst nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ bụ Aimee Semple McPherson (1890-1944) gosipụtara ụkpụrụ a (Sutton 2007), a ga-ele White anya dị ka akụkụ nke ihe nketa McPherson n'ihi na ha na-emekọ ihe omume na ndị a ma ama.

Foto 

Foto 1: Paula White.
Foto 2: Paula White na “nna ime mmụọ” ya, Bishọp televangelist TD Jakes.
Foto 3: Paula White na-ekwu okwu na Mgbakọ Republican Republic na 2016.
Foto 4: Onye isi ala Donald Trump na-ege ntị ka Paula White na-eduga ekpere na White House na 27 August 2018.

References

Ahmed, Tufayel. 2019. “Trump Pastor Paula White gwara ndị na-eso ụzọ ha ka ha nye $ 229 maka‘ Ntụziaka Amụma ’banyere otu esi emeri ndị iro ha.” Newsweek, November 15. Nweta site na https://www.newsweek.com/trump-pastor-paula-white-prophetic-instruction-defeat-enemies-1471978 na 10 December 2019.

Bowler, Kate. 2013. Gọziri agọzi: A History of the American Prosperity Gospel. New York: Oxford University Press.

Duin, Julia. 2017. "Ọ duru ụda na Christ: Nbili nke Televangelist nke na-adụ White House ọdụ." Akwụkwọ akụkọ Washington Post, November 14. Nweta site na https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/magazine/she-led-trump-to-christ-the-rise-of-the-televangelist-who-advises-the-white-house/2017/11/13/1dc3a830-bb1a-11e7-be94-fabb0f1e9ffb_story.html na 10 December 2019.

Emerson, Michael O., na Christian Smith. 2000. Nkewa Ekewara: Okpukpe Evangelical na Nsogbu nke agbụrụ na America. New York: Oxford University Press. 

Glenza, Jessica. 2019. “Paula White: Onye Pastorkọchukwu Na - enyere Trump Aka Nụrụ Ihe‘ Chineke Kwuru'nụ. ’” The Guardian, March 27. Nweta site na https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2019/mar/27/paula-white-donald-trump-pastor-evangelicals na 10 December 2019.

Grantham-Philips, Wyatte. 2020. “Pastọ Paula White na-akpọku ndị mmụọ ozi si Africa na South America ka ha weta mmeri Trump.” USA taa, November 11. Nweta site na https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2020/11/05/paula-white-trumps-spiritual-adviser-african-south-american-angels/6173576002/?utm_source=Pew+Research+Center&utm_campaign=a1e208f7db-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2020_11_06_02_45&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_3e953b9b70-a1e208f7db-399904145 na 7 November 2020.

Griffith, R. Marie. 1997. Ughtersmụ nwanyị Chineke: Womenmụ nwanyị Na-ezisa Ozi Ọma na Ike nke Nrubeisi. Berkeley: Mahadum California Press.

O siri ike, Susan Friend. 2000. Akwụkwọ Jerry Falwell: Asụsụ na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Itkowitz, Colby. 2017. "'Chineke zụlitere ya': Televangelist Paula White ji Trump tụnyere Queen Esther." Washington Post, August 23. Nweta site na https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/acts-of-faith/wp/2017/08/23/raised-up-by-god-televangelist-paula-white-compares-trump-to -nwere-esther / na 10 Disemba 2019.

Kuruvilla, Carol. 2019. "Paula White, Onye Ndụmọdụ Ime Mmụọ Trump, Ahapụrụ Chọọchị Florida Na-enwe Ọchịchọ Ọhụrụ." HuffPost, Mee 8. Nweta site na https://www.huffpost.com/entry/paula-white-trump-church_n_5cd2e310e4b0a7dffccfa91e na 5 December 2019.

Lee, Shayne, na Phillip Luke Sinitiere. 2009. Mgbakọ Dị Nsọ: Ndị Ọhụụ Evangelical na Ahịa Ime Mmụọ. New York: New York University Press.

Leusner, Jim. 2017. "50 Kasị Ike 2017: Philanthropy & Voice Voices." Magazin Orlando, June 26. Nweta site na https://www.orlandomagazine.com/50-most-powerful-2017-philanthropy-community-voices/ na 10 December 2019.

Ndị Paula White ministri. 2019. “Mara Paula.” Nweta site na https://paulawhite.org/paula.html#news1-25 na 5 December 2019.

Peters, Jeremy W. na Elizabeth Dias. 2019. "Paula White, Kacha ọhụrụ White House nnyemaaka, bụ Pụrụ Iche Trumpian pastọ." New York Times, November 2. Nweta site na https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/02/us/politics/paula-white-trump.html na 10 December 2019.

Sutton, Matthew Avery. 2007. Aimee Semple McPherson na mbilite n'ọnwụ nke Christian America. Cambridge: Mahadum Harvard University.

Swanson, Douglas J. 2012. "Na-aza Chineke, ma ọ bụ Senator Grassley?: Olee otú na-eduga Christian Health na Wealth Ministri 'weebụsaịtị Afọ gosipụtara Social Order na Financial aza ajụjụ Na-eso a Federal Nchọpụta." Akwụkwọ akụkọ nke Media na Religion 11: 61-77.

Wacker, Onyinye. 2003. Eluigwe N'okpuru: Ndị Pentikọst oge mbụ na omenala ndị America. Cambridge: Mahadum Harvard University.

Wacker, Onyinye. 2014. Pastọ America: Billy Graham na Shamepụta Mba. Cambridge: Akwụkwọ akụkọ Belknap.

Walton, Jonathan L. 2009. Lelee Nke a! Ethkpụrụ na Aesthetics nke Black Televangelism. New York: New York University Press.

White, Paula. 2019. “Ndị mkpesa Nọgidere na-eto otuto ebili,” October 7 Paula White ministri Podcast. Nweta site na https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/paula-white-ministries-podcast/id1143586641 na 10 December 2019.

White, Paula. 2014. “8zọ asatọ Chineke si agwa Anyị Okwu, Nkebi. 2: Asụsụ. ” Ndị Paula White ministri. Nweta site na https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zPx2JGaJ8r0 na 10 December 2019.

White, Paula. 2012. "Ike nke Mmụọ Nsọ." Ndị Paula White ministri. Nweta site na  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ar39gjJPLEQ na 10 December 2019.

Zoll, Rechel. 2011. "Televangelists gbapụrụ ntaramahụhụ na nyocha Senate." NBC News, January 7. Nweta site na http://www.nbcnews.com/id/40960871/ns/politics-capitol_hill/t/televangelists-escape-penalty-senate-inquiry/#.XebABi2ZPjA na 10 December 2019.

AJỤRỤ AKWỤKWỌ NDỊ

Bowler, Kate. 2019. Nwunye Onye Nkwusa: Ike Na-adịghị Egwu nke Womenmụ nwanyị Na-agbasa Ozi Ọma. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Fea, John. 2018 Kwere M: Evzọ Evangelical na Donald Trump. Grand Rapids: B.lọ Ọrụ Na-ebipụta Akwụkwọ William B. Eerdmans.

Posner, Sarah. 2008. Uru Chineke Bara Uru: Okwukwe, Igha, na Ọchịchị Republic maka Ndị Ntuli Aka. Sausalito: PoliPoint Press.

White, Paula. 2017. Amaja nrọ: Hụ Onwe Gị dịka Chineke Si ahụ Gị. Nashville: FaithWords.

White-Cain, Paula. 2019. Ihe Ka Ukwuu: Findchọta Mmeri Ọnwụnwa. Nashville: FaithWords.

Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
13 December 2019

 

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