E. Nwa ojii Rebecca Moore

Nne Chukwu

UMUAKA CHINEKE

1925 (Eprel 4): Edna Rose Ritchings mụrụ na Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

1931: Ritchings buru ụzọ nụ banyere Nna Chineke ma malite akwụkwọ ozi na Peace Mission movement.

1941: Ritchings si na Vancouver, British Columbia kwaga Montreal, Canada ebe ọ rụrụ ọrụ dị ka stenographer n'ụlọ ahịa ọla. O sonyeere Mgbasaozi Udo nke obodo.

1941–1945: Ritchings jere ozi n’ọtụtụ ọnọdụ ndị isi na Montreal, Canada Peace Mission Mgbatị, ruo na gụnyere Onye isi oche na Onye isi ala.

1946: Ritchings si Canada kwaga n'isi ụlọ ọrụ ụwa nke International Peace Mission movement, na Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. O sonyeere ndị isi ụlọ ọrụ dị ka odeakwụkwọ nke Nna Divine (George Baker Jr.) wee kpọọ ya Sweet Angel.

1946 (Eprel 29): Na ememe nzuzo Sweet Angel lụrụ nna Chineke.

1946 (August 7): Nna Chineke kwupụtara ọkwa alụmdi na nwunye ya nye Angel, na-ekwupụta na ọ bụ nlọghachi nke nwunye Peninnah mbụ ya, na alụmdi na nwunye ha ga-adịkwa ọcha.

1947: Nna Chineke guzobere ụbọchị ncheta ncheta pụrụ iche iji mee ememe alụmdi na nwunye ya na Sweet Angel, nke a maara ugbu a dị ka Mama Divine, ka a na-ahụ kwa afọ na mgbakwunye Peace Mission niile.

1953: Isoro Nna Chukwu, Mama Divine si na Divine Lorraine Hotel dị na Philadelphia gaa na Woodmont ala na Gladwyne, Pennsylvania, nke dị na Philadelphia.

1961–1965: Nne Chukwu bụụrụ onye isi ọrụ dị ka onye isi nke emume yana onye na-ekwuchitere Peace Mission n'agbanyeghị mbibi anụ ahụ nke Nna Chukwu.

1965 (Septemba 10): Nna Chineke nwụrụ, na-ahapụ Peace Mission n'okpuru onye isi ọrụ nke mama Divine.

1968: Nne nke Chukwu wuru mkpu ncheta maka ozu nke Nna Chukwu na ogige nke Woodmont.

1972: Nne nke Chukwu gbasiri mbọ ike iwepụ na Peace Peace Mission nke Jim Jones, onye isi nke Peoples Temple.

1982 (February): Nne Chukwu dere akwukwo a, Udo Mgbasa Udo, dị ka nchịkọta siri ike nke akụkọ ihe mere eme, omume na nkwenkwe.

1985: N'ihi mbelata nke ndị otu Peace Mission, mama Divine nyere ikike ire ọrịre nke isi ihe mmegharị na ime ime obodo New York, nke akpọrọ Ala Nkwa ahụ.

1989: N'ihi na ndị na-agụ akwụkwọ na-agbadata, mama nne nyere ikike ịkwụsị mbipụta nke akwụkwọ akụkọ International Peace Mission movement, bụ Ụbọchị Ọhụụ, nke mbụ bipụtara na 1936.

1996 (Eprel): Mission Peace mere emume ncheta afọ iri ise nke alụmdi na nwunye Sweet Angel na Nna Chineke.

2000-2006: Site na mbelata nke ndị otu Peace Mission, mama Divine nyere ikike imechi na ọrịre nke ụlọ mbinye aka mmegharị ahụ, Divor Lorraine (2000) na Divine Tracy (2006).

2008 (August 12): Mama Divine bụ onye isi na-eme emume ncheta maka Nna Divine Library na Museum na akụ Woodmont.

2012–2013: N’igosipụta ihe ịrịba ama nke ịka nká, Nne Chukwu chigharịrị na ndụ ọha.

2017 (March 4): Nne nke Chukwu nwụrụ na ala Woodmont mgbe ọ dị afọ iri itoolu na otu. Ya na di ya abanyela n'ime Nna Nna ya.

2017 (Ọktọba): E hiwere ma meghee ọha na eze Akwụkwọ Nsọ na Museum.

BIOGRAPHY

Edna Rose Ritchings [Foto dị n'aka nri] ka a mụrụ na Eprel 4, 1925, na Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Ọ bụ ọkpara n'ime ụmụ ise, ụmụ nwanyị atọ na ụmụ nwoke abụọ, nke Charles na Mabel Farr Ritchings mụrụ. Maazị Ritchings bụ onye ọchụnta ego nwere ọganiihu na-elekọta Strathcona Floral Company, ụlọ ọrụ ọta akara na ifuru (Harris 1953).

Edna Rose Ritchings nwere mmasị na International Peace Mission Mission dị iche na ezinụlọ ya. Site na aka nke aka ya, mmasi nke Edna bidoro n'isi mbido mgbe ọ nuru otu ndi otu Divinites na-ekwu maka "obere Negro" onye sị na ya bụ Chukwu ma na-enye puku kwuru puku nri (Black 2013). Ọ malitere soro Fada Divine (ma ọ bụ, o yikarịrị ka ya na ọtụtụ ndị odeakwụkwọ na-elekọta ozi ya) wee malite ịdebanye aha na Ụbọchị Ọhụụ, akwụkwọ akụkọ nke Peace Mission kwa izu. Ka ọ na-erule afọ iri na ise, Edna Rose raara onwe ya nye òtù okpukpe ahụ siri ike, na-anabata ozi ya nke agbụrụ agbụrụ na òtù ụmụnna zuru ụwa ọnụ (Harris 1953; Weisbrot 1983; Watts 1995). Ọ kwagara Montreal, bụ ebe ọ banyere na Peace Mission center ebe ahụ, na-ebili n'ọkwá ka ọ bụrụ osote onye isi na onye isi nke ndọtị ahụ. N’oge opupu ihe ubi nke 1946, Ritchings kwagara n’isi ụlọ ọrụ International Peace Mission dị na Pennsylvania.

Nna Chineke bụ aha okpukpe na aha George Baker, Jr. (1877–1965) ji mee ihe, onye guzobere ya na isi otu ndọrọndọrọ ahụ. Peninnah (Nwanne nwanyị Penny, mgbe ahụ nne Penny), onye nwụrụ, ikekwe na 1943 (Morris 1995: 264), bụ onye mbụ ya nwunye na nne mbụ Chukwu. "Peninnah bụ oké nkume nke Chineke, onye a tụkwasịrị obi na onye na-eso ụzọ siri ike na-enweghị onye ọ na-agaraghị achịkwa" (Morris 2019: 209). [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ọ rụrụ ọrụ dị ukwuu na mmepe nke Peace Mission na 1920s na 1930s, guzobe otu "Ala Nkwa" nke otu ahụ na Ulster County dị n'ebe ugwu New York. Ọ bi ebe ahụ oge niile ma nwaa ịmeghe ụlọ ụmụ mgbei (Morris 2019: 245). N'agbanyeghị na mama Penny nwere nsogbu ahụ ike dị iche iche, ọ gara n'ihu na-enyere Nna Chukwu aka na nri abalị ụka kwa izu; ọdịdị ikpeazụ ọ mara bụ n'oriri na New York na 1942 (Morris 2019: 261).

Ọ bụ omume na Peace Mission iji nweta aha iji gosipụta njirimara mmụọ ozi mmadụ, ebe ọ bụ na Nna Chineke siri ọnwụ na ọ ga-agbaji n'etiti "ndụ ochie na ọhụụ nke ọmụmụ" (Parker 1937: 157): Edna Rose ghọrọ Angel Angel . Bọchị mgbe ọ kwagara Philadelphia, Sweet Angel na Nna Divine, ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ afọ iri ise ka okenye, lụrụ. N'ihi na otu n'ime ozizi nke Peace Mission bụ alụghị nwanyị n'ime na n'èzí nke alụmdi na nwunye (n'ụzọ ime mmụọ n'ihi na mmadụ na-ebi ndụ mmụọ ozi, mana ọ bụ n'ihi na alụm di na nwunye n'oge ahụ megidere iwu) alụmdi na nwunye ahụ bụ ihe nzuzo. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ya mere, ndị otu Peace Mission ahụ tụrụ ụjọ mgbe Nna Divine gosipụtara Sweet Angel dị ka "nwanyị na-amaghị nwoke nke na-enweghị ntụpọ" n'August 1946 (Weisbrot 1995: 288). O kwuru na nwunye ya ewerela mmụọ nke nne mbụ Chukwu, na alụmdi na nwunye ha ga-adị ọcha (Weisbrot 1983: 215). N'ihi na Nna Chineke kwupụtara n'ihu ọha na ikike ya na Ritchings, na-etinye ya na ihe omimi ya, o nyere ya ikike ịhazi Peace Mission na enweghị ya. N'ihi ya, "Mama Chineke ghọrọ ezigbo onye ọ bụla na-eduzi Peace Mission" (Weisbrot 1995: 288).

Nna na Nne Divine duziri Peace Mission site n'isi ụlọ ọrụ ya na Divine Lorraine Hotel na Philadelphia site na ngwụcha 1940 gaa n'ihu, ya na Angel Angel ghọrọ ihu ọhụụ nke ịka nká ma na-ebelata oke okpukpe ojii. Ndi oru oji ojii mere ihe omuma a, akuko banyere Peace Mission gosiputara ihe osise nke Oriaku Chineke nke abuo ma obu ya na di ya mere agadi, dika agasi na obu ntorobịa ya na ike ya ("Afọ Chineke" 1958). Na 1953, di na nwunye ahụ si na Divine Lorraine Hotel dị na Philadelphia gaa na ụlọ ọrụ Woodmont iri asaa na abụọ dị na Gladwyne, Pennsylvania, nke dị na mpaghara Philadelphia. Nna Chineke kwupụtara n'oge alụmdi na nwunye ha niile na ha bi n'ebe dị iche iche.

Ọchịchị mama mama ọhụrụ nke udo Peace Peace gosipụtara mgbanwe. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ebe ọ bụ na a rịọrọla Chineke ọtụtụ arịrịọ na ngagharị ahụ (ya bụ, Nna Chukwu) mgbe ya bịarutere, ya na Nna na ngọzi na agbamume zuru oke, ugbu a ka ha rịọrọ Chineke, Nna na nne Chukwu. Tinyere nrigo ya n'ime njem ahụ, ọnụnọ ya dị ka nne mbụ Chineke malitere ịmalite nkuzi nke ịlọ ụwa na Peace Mission theology (Guinn 2017: 87). E kwenyere na mama nne nke mbụ (Peninnah) nwụrụ ọnwụ ma weghachite ya na mama nke abụọ (Edna Rose Ritchings).

N'ihu ndi oru ikike nke ndi 1950s na 1960s, na ndi agha ohuru n'etiti ndi Afrika America, Peace Mission huru nkwekorita nke ndi otu. Na ahụ ike n'oge a, gụnyere ịdaba na ọrịa shuga na 1960 (Weisbrot 1983: 220, 223n29), Nna Divine ji nlezianya chepụta ọrụ ọchịchị iji chekwaa ọnwụ ya, ya na mama Divine n'isi. N'etiti 1961 na 1965, mgbe Nna Chukwu nwụrụ na Septemba 10, mama Divine weere ọrụ bụ isi dị ka ọnụ na-ekwuchitere Peace Mission (ọnụnọ ọha na eze) na onye isi na ememme Peace Mission (ọnụnọ onwe onye). Ọ gara n'ihu na-edu nzukọ ahụ ka akụnụba na ndị otu belatara, na-enwe ihe ịga nke ọma na-egbochi mbọ Jim Jones (1931-1978) nwara, onye isi nke Ụlọ ndị mmadụ, iji weghara onye isi na enweghị isi nwoke na njedebe 1960s na mmalite 1970s.

Dika Peace Mission kwagidere ndi nwuru anwu, Mama Divine welitere ego site na ire ahia ulo na ihe nke aka ya. N’afọ 1985, ọ rere “Ala Nkwa ahụ” na mpaghara ugwu New York. Nke a na-esote ọrịre nke ụlọ oriri na ọ Missionụ Peaceụ Peace Peace na Philadelphia, Chineke Lorraine na 2000 na Chineke Tracy na 2006. Ka ọ dị ugbu a, Mama Divine gara n'ihu na-azụlite aha nke Nna Chukwu, na-enye ikike iwube ncheta ncheta doro anya maka onye ndu na 1968, nke a kpọrọ Shrine to Life (Watts 1995: 177). [Foto dị n'aka nri] Afọ iri anọ ka e mesịrị, ọ na-eduzi ememe mgbawa maka Nna Divine Library na Museum, nke mepere ọnwa asaa mgbe ọ nwụsịrị (Melamed 2017).

Edna Rose Ritchings / Sweet Angel / Mother Divine duziri nzukọ International Peace Mission dị ka nwanyị di ya nwụrụ nke nna si na 1965 ruo mgbe ọ nwụrụ site na ihe kpatara ya mgbe ọ dị afọ iri itoolu na otu na March 4, 2017.

TEACHINGS / DOCTRINES

Ewubere okwukwe nke Peace Mission na eziokwu nke ndị na-eso ụzọ na nkọwa Akwụkwọ Nsọ yana echiche mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, akụ na ụba, na nke mmụọ nke Nna Divine kwusara ma kuzie. Udo nke Udo kwuputara na odighi Chineke di na elu igwe, na Nna Chineke bu Chineke Nke puru ime ihe nile n’aru mmadu n’elu uwa dika mmezu nke obibia nke onye Juu nke ndi Juu na nloghachi nke Jisos Kraist (Mama nke Chineke 1982: 44– 46). N'ịdabere n'echiche New Thought, Nna Divine kwupụtara na eluigwe na hel bụ ọnọdụ uche ma na obi ụtọ zuru oke ma ọ bụ "eluigwe" dị na ebe a na ugbu a, ọ bụghị ihe a ga-enweta ma ọ bụ na-aga mgbe a nwụsịrị. “Isi ihe [Nna ahụ Bụ Nna] zigaara ,wa,” nke e bipụtara na November 17, 1934, na-ekwu na ọ bụ ụdị onye ọ bụ n'ezie:

Abịarụ ahụ m n'ime nkwupụta bụ iwetara ụmụ mmadụ mmụọ nke ịdị adị nke Chineke. . . . Emere m ahụ m ka m wee mee ka ị mata na ọnụnọ nke Chukwu nọ na mbara igwe. . . . Otu okwu nke m na-agwa gị bụ Mmụọ na ha bụ Ndụ. . . . (Parker 1937: 200-01).

Peacetù International Peace Mission ahụ kwusara ozi ọma banyere enyemaka onwe onye, ​​ịjụ ịkwa iko, nnwere onwe akụ na ụba, mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, na òtù ụmụnna zuru ụwa ọnụ nke a ga-ebi nakwa nkwenye. Nna Chineke kụziri, ndị na-eso ụzọ ya nakweere, na nkuzi ya gosipụtara Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst na omume ma dabere na ụkpụrụ ụwa niile kwekọrọ na ọdịnala ime mmụọ niile. Otu akụkụ pụrụ iche nke nkuzi Chukwu, ọkachasị nkewa agbụrụ nke chịrị ndụ ndị America na 1920s na 1930s, bụ mmesi ike ya na ịhụnanya na mmekọrịta. Ezie na ọ mesiri oji itumgbere ahia ka esi n'aka enyemaka onwe onye na nlanarị (Lincoln na Mamiya 2004), ọ kwalitere nzukọ ndị agbụrụ na mpaghara mmekọrịta, dị ka oriri izu ụka kwa izu (Watts 1995: 75-76). [Foto dị n'aka nri]

Omume ọzọ pụrụ iche nke Peace Mission (nke sitere na nkọwa nke Nna Chineke na ntinye nke Mark 12:25 na Luk 28: 34-36) bụ nkwalite nke ndị na-abụghị nwoke na nwanyị, ndị agbụrụ na ndị mmekọ nwoke na nwoke na-ejikọ ọnụ akpọrọ "ejima ”(Mama nne nke 1982: 24–26). Ndị otu Peace Mission niile, site na Nna Chukwu gbadaa, ndị biri na ngwongwo na-ejikọ ọnụ n'ụzọ a. Ya mere, site n'oge ya dị ka onye otu ndị ọrụ odeakwụkwọ nke Nna Divine na ogologo oge niile ọ rụrụ ọrụ dị ka nwunye Chineke, wee bụrụ nwanyị di ya nwụrụ na onye ndu Peace Mission, Mother Divine na Miss Peaceful, "nwanyị pere mpe nke Africa gosipụtara" nwanyị dị ka ya ejima na onye anyị na ya bi n’otu ọnụ ụlọ (Harris 1953: 257–58). Womenmụ nwanyị abụọ a ga-abụrịrị onye ibe kachasị eji mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe, enyi, na onye inyeaka; Ọrụ mbụ ha rụrụ bụ ịgba onye nke ọzọ ume ka ọ na-edebe “ihe Nna m na-akụzi” mgbe niile. Nke a nyekwara aka hụ na a ga-agbaso usoro nke alụghị di ma ọ bụ nwunye.

Ndị ọrụ Peace Peace kwenyere na ndụ ebighi ebi n'ime anụ ahụ ga-ekwe omume ma bụrụ ihe a na-achọsi ike, na ndị nọ n'otu obodo ga-enweta eluigwe n'elu ụwa na-agbasochi nkuzi Nna nke Chukwu. Ebe tupu 1965 Peace Mission na-ekwuputakarị, na ndị otu gosipụtara nkwenye, anwụghị anwụ nke Nna Divine, mgbe 1965 n'okpuru nduzi nke mama Divine, ndị otu kwenyere na ọnwụ Nna Divine, nke a kpọrọ "ịtọgbọ ahụ," bụ nke akpachapụrụ anya na mkpebi ịchụ aja nke o mere. Mgbe ọ ka na-akụzi ohere nke ndụ ebighi ebi n'ime ahụ anụ ahụ maka ndị na-eso ụzọ Nna Chineke zuru oke, nne mama Chineke mesiri ike ịlọ ụwa nke ndị kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi mgbe ọ nwụsịrị ọnwụ, gụnyere atụmanya na atụmanya ịlọ ụwa nke Nna Chukwu n'ime anụ ahụ.

Mgbe Edna Rose Ritchings ka bụ nwatakịrị ya na ndị mụrụ ya bi, Peace Mission jikọtara ya na mmegharị ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị dị egwu na mpụga nke isi nke na-emegide agha na nke gosipụtara nkwenye na ịha nhatanha agbụrụ. Ruo oge ụfọdụ nke a gụnyere ndị Kọmunist na United States (Weisbrot 1983: 148-52), Mgbe e mesịrị, n'okpuru nduzi nke mama Divine, Peace Mission ahụ kwadoro nkwụghachi maka ụmụ nke ndị ohu (Nna Divine 1951) ma kwado maka ịdị irè nke mmekọrịta akụ na ụba na ibi ndụ (Nne nne 1982: 23, 24, 40; Mabee 2008: 155-58). Na 1990s, ka o sina dị, ndị otu kwadoro Reform Party nke onye ndoro ndoro ochichi Ross Perot, ntụgharị site na mmekọrịta ọha na eze na ịkpa oke mmadụ (Sitton 1993).

N'ikpeazụ, na mgbakwunye na ikwere na enwere ike izu oke n'otu n'otu site n'i theomi ndụ nke Nna Chukwu na itinye nkuzi ya ọnụ, ndị otu Peace Mission kwenyesiri ike na America nwere ike bụrụ na a ga-agbanwe ya n'Alaeze Chineke n'elu ụwa, ozugbo nkuzi na omume ha. ka emejuputara (Mama nke 1982: 20, 31–32, 110–11, na passim). Ka ọ dị ugbu a, ndụ nke ndị otu Peace Mission Mission kwesịrị inye ihe atụ nke ndụ zuru oke nke obi ụtọ dịịrị mmadụ niile.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Nzukọ Nzukọ Udo nke 1940s nke Edna Rose Ritchings sonyeere bụ nchịkọta nke ndị na-eso ụzọ iji too Nna Chineke, ozizi ya, na mmegharị ya. Nzukọ ndị dị otu a, nke akwadoro ihe karịrị afọ iri abụọ, bụ nke mmeghe site na ịbụ abụ nke Peace Mission yana ịgụ egwu sitere na ọdịbendị ndị ama ama nke gosipụtara akụkụ nke ozi Nna Chukwu (Fauset 1944: 64, 65; Harris 298-306). A na-ejikarị abụ ndị a ma ama na-abụ abụ nke ndị na-eso ụzọ mepụtara, ebe ndị ọzọ bụ abụ mbụ. Oge abụ ndị a na-enyekarị ndị otu ahụ obi ụtọ nke mmụọ, ebe glossolalia (ịsụ asụsụ dị iche iche) na okwu ime mmụọ ndị ọzọ bụ ndị nkịtị (Watts 1995: 75).

Na mpụga Philadelphia, ebe obibi, abụ na ngosipụta mmetụta uche na-esochi ịgụ okwu Nna anyị nke Chukwu bipụtara na Daybọchị ọhụrụ, site na ndị isi ndọtị nke Peace Mission. Okwu nke ndị ọkà okwu si esi bịa na-ekwu, ma ọ bụrụ na ọ dị. Nkwukọrịta dị otú ahụ, dị ka okwu Nna nke Chukwu ma ọ bụ okwu sitere n'aka ndị isi Peace Mission, ma ọ bụ ndị na-ekwu okwu nleta, ga-elekwasị anya na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, akụ na ụba, na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị dị ka mgbe mgbe na ndị mmụọ, ndị mmụọ. A na-ejedebe ọrụ na ihe akaebe nke ndị otu banyere ike Nna Chineke ịkọ ọdịnihu, gwọọ ma nye nzọpụta. Ihe omuma ndi a mekwara na nmekorita nke udo nke Peace Mission kwa izu, nke bu nnuku oriri n’enweghi ohere nye ndi nile biara. "Tebụl oriri ahụ bụ ebe etiti ebe ofufe na mkpakọrịta maka ndị na-eso ụzọ Peace Mission," ka ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme bụ Robert Weisbrot si kwuo, na-ede banyere ihe ọ hụrụ na 1980s.

Iche nri, nke dị iche iche na nke na-adịghị agwụ agwụ, na-echeta mmemme ụbọchị ụka a na-akwụghị ụgwọ nke nyere aka mee ka ndị otu a bụrụ ndị ama ama na mba n'oge Oké Ndakpọ Akụ (Weisbrot 1995: 285).

Na mbụ, a na-eri nri ndị ahụ kwa izu n'ụlọ ndị mmadụ, nke a kpasuru ndị agbata obi iwe banyere ọgbakọ agbụrụ ahụ. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Mana ka ọnụọgụgụ na-eto, oriri ndị ahụ karịrị oghere ụlọ wee kwaga na ntọala ụlọ ọrụ ma ọ bụ ọgbakọ. Nri elu igwe ahụ ghọrọ ụzọ bụ isi nke Peace Mission dọtara ndị na-eso ụzọ na 1930s, bụ nke e nyere ọtụtụ puku mmadụ nri n'oge Oké Ndakpọ Akụ. A ga-enwe "nnọkọ" na-aga n'ihu na Satọde na Sọnde iji nabata ìgwè mmadụ ahụ (Watts 1995: 75). Mgbe Ritchings lụrụ Nna Divine, oriri oriri nke eluigwe nwetara ihe ọhụụ na ụbọchị ncheta ha, ya na Nna Chukwu kpọrọ alụmdi na nwunye di na nwunye dịka mmezu nke Mkpughe 19: 7, 9, na-eme agbamakwụkwọ nke nwa atụrụ na nwunye ya (Weisbrot 1983: 215) .

Ka Peace Mission bịara bụrụ nke etinyere na 1950s, emepụtara iwu ndị ọzọ. "Rosebuds" bụ ụmụ agbọghọ; “Lily-buds” bụụrụ ụmụ nwanyị mere agadi; na “Ndị Agha Ntụte” bụ ndị ikom nọ n'afọ ndụ ọ bụla. Iwu ndị a nwere nke ọ bụla nwere ụkpụrụ omume ha, omume liturgical, uwe na-enwu gbaa (Weisbrot 1995: 288).

NDỤ

Edna Rose Ritchings gosipụtara ọchịchọ ya na ikike ya na njem International Peace Mission na mbido, na-ebili n'ọkwa onye isi oche na mgbe ahụ onye isi oche nke Montreal, Canada Peace Mission Mgbatị tupu afọ iri abụọ na otu.

Na mbido 1945, Ritchings gara n'isi ụlọ ọrụ ụwa nke International Peace Mission Movement na Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, na 1946 ọ laghachiri ịlụ Fada Divine ụbọchị ọbịbịa ya (Weisbrot 1983: 214). A na-ebubata ya ngwa ngwa n'ọkwá onye isi. Ma alụmdi na nwunye na Ritchings 'ịrị elu meteoric na nzukọ kpatara nyocha dị na mpụga na nkewa nke ime. Dị ka Weisbrot si kwuo, alụmdi na nwunye ahụ "rụrụ ọrụ dị mkpa iji nyere aka mgbanwe nke Peace Mission site na òtù nzuzo gaa ụka: ọ nyere onye nọchiri Nna Chukwu" (1984: 215). Agbanyeghị na egosighi ndị na-eso ụzọ ebumnuche a, nkwupụta nke Nna Divine na Sweet Angel nọchiri anya ụka ya n'ụwa (dịka ụka lụrụ nwa atụrụ na mmụọ nsọ na Mkpughe 19: 7, 9) etinyekwara ya ikike ịchị n'ọnọdụ ya.

Mama Divine jiri ikike “Chukwu nyere” ya mee ihe niile Nna Chukwu dara na 1950s na mgbe ọ nwụsịrị na 1965. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Udo nke Peace chere ihu na mmechuihu site n'aka ndị na-ahụ maka ikike obodo bụ ndị hụrụ na mmegharị ahụ abụghị nke oge ya na enweghị isi . Ihe egwu dị n'ime ọnọdụ ya sitere na ndị na-enweghị obi iru ala na nkwupụta na-abawanye nke ezigbo ikike mgbe Fada Divine ka dị ndụ. Ihe ịma aka ndị a na nke mpụga nke onye ndu ya gara n'ihu mgbe Nna Chineke nwụsịrị; ha gụnyere nnwale nke Jim Jones na Peoples Temple, nke obere akụkụ nke Divinites etinyebere na ndị na-enweghị nsogbu na-akwado ya na mbido 1970s (Guinn 2017: 207 - 11).

Ka ọ na-erule 1980, ihe egwu dị n'ime na mpụga nke ọnọdụ ya dị ka onye isi Peace Mission onye isi kpebiri na ya. Nne nke Chukwu kwesiri ijikwa ngwa ngwa na nbibi nke uwa nke International Peace Mission. Ugbu a ọ bụ onye nwere ntụkwasị obi na onye na-agbasaghị ọrụ onye isi ya, ọ nwere ike ịme omume ndị na-ese okwu mana na-arụ ọrụ, dị ka ire ere "oche oche oche" nke Nna Divine. Ọ kwụsịrị ịgba ọsọ afọ iri ise nke izu ụka ahụ, Ụbọchị Ọhụụ. O mezuru nrọ nke International Peace Mission ije iji kwado ma jigide obodo ime obodo paradise New York, nke a na-akpọ "Ala Nkwa ahụ," na-enweghị nsonaazụ ọ bụla site n'aka ndị ọrụ ma ọ bụ ndị na-eso ụzọ fọdụrụ (Mabee 2008: 25, 214-23) . O lekọtara nlekọta na njikwa nke ọtụtụ ndị agadi na ndị isi ike si na United States na mba ofesi. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, ọbụlagodi na mbọ nkwado siri ike, ọnụọgụ ndị na-eso ụzọ gara n'ihu na-ada ngwa ngwa. Ya mere nne Chukwu nyere ikike mmechi na ọrịre nke ụlọ ọrụ Peace Mission na-abanye aka na ụlọ nkwari akụ na Philadelphia, Divine Lorraine Hotel na 2000 na Divine Tracy Hotel na 2006.

Na nkwenye nke onye isi ya, Mama Divine kpaliri ịme ka nghọta ya banyere omume na okwukwe nke Peace Mission. N'iji ọnọdụ ya dị ka onye na-elekọta Peace Mission na-anọghị na anụ ahụ, mana ọnụnọ mmụọ, nke Nna Divine, ọ jidere akụkọ Peace Mission iji kwalite ụdị orthodoxy ideological (Watts 1995: 167-78). Emere nke a iji mee ka mmegharị ahụ pụọ na ihe omume dịka 1978 Jonestown mass igbu ọchụ na Guyana, yana site na echiche sitere na nke ndị na-emebi iwu n'ime. Ọ chọkwara igbochi ndị omempụ na akwụkwọ ndị ọzọ ọ dị ya ka ọ kọwaara ya Peace Mission site na ịde nyocha nke aka ya, Udo Mgbasa Udo, na 1982.

Okwu ncheta pụrụ iche nke Ụbọchị Ọhụụ nyere na Eprel 1996 maka ịkwanyere ụbọchị ncheta agbamakwụkwọ nke nne na Nna Nna nke iri ise, n'agbanyeghị agbanyeghị ole na ole, ndumodu mama Divine bụ onye a na-ajụghị ajụjụ na onye na-enweghị mgbagha. N’ile anya n’ọdịnihu, onye ndu Peace Mission dị afọ iri asatọ na atọ chịkọtara mwebe mbido maka Fada Divine Library and Museum na alakụba Woodmont na 2008. Mama Divine gara n’ihu na njem njegharị nke Woodmont. Ọ na-ekwukwa okwu pụrụ iche na Sayville, New York, na-aga n'ihu na ọrụ udo, ndị enyemaka na ndị odeakwụkwọ na-enyekwu aka. O furu ụzọ nke ọma n'ihu ọha n'etiti 2012 na 2013.

Mama Divine bụ onye ndu nke Peace Mission ruo mgbe ọ nwụrụ na ụlọ Woodmont na Machị 4, 2017, mgbe ọ dị afọ iri itoolu. “Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụghị onye ọhụụ ma ọ bụ onye na-ahụ maka mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya dị ka Nna Divine nọworo n'oge ntorobịa ya, Mama Divine. . . gosipụtara akara ngosi dị n'otu dị mma maka otu na-achọ ijigide nkwụsi ike nhazi n'etiti ọnụọgụ ọnụọgụ "(Weisbrot 1995: 289). Ka ọnwa asaa gachara, e mepere ọha na eze Nna na ebe ndebe ihe mmụta Chukwu ka ha mee nchọpụta ma tụgharịa uche.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Ihe ịma aka kasịnụ nye Edna Rose Ritchings bụ iduru otu ndị isi ojii na-arụ ọrụ na United States dị ka nwa agbọghọ na-acha ọcha si n'etiti ndị bi na Canada. Ọrụ ya bụ igosipụta ma gosipụta ịdị n'otu ya dị ka onye na-eso ụzọ Nna Chukwu: ịbụ ihe nlere anya maka nkuzi ya na agbụrụ, mba ụwa, òtù ụmụnna zuru ụwa ọnụ, na mmekọahụ rụrụ arụ.

Na isi ihe omumu ya na ihe omuma ya, Peace Mission bu ihe ndi nwanyi ndi isi ojii nke nwoke ojii na-efe dika Chineke. Dika odi otua, Peace Peace jere ozi dika ebe di nma ebe ndi ime obodo, ndi nwanyi ndi na-aru oru, ndi ohuru ndi ohuru ohuru, nwere ike ichota oru ha, nri oge niile, na ulo ha di elu n'enyeghi aka na nsogbu ndi obodo. Nche a tọhapụrụ ha n'atụmanya nke alụm na ịmụ nwa na ụmụ nwoke ndị isi ojii na-arụ ọrụ n'ime ime obodo, ndị anaghị enwe ike ịkwado ego na / ma ọ bụ n'ụzọ mmetụta uche ma ọ bụ ụmụaka nke sitere na ndị ọrụ ha.

Maka nwanyi ocha isi nke otu ndi isi Afrika, nke mejuputara otutu umu nwanyi, obu ihe siri ike; nke a bụ eziokwu ọkachasị n'oge nkewapụrụ nke iwu kwadoro. Nne nke Chukwu ghaghachitere na enyo enyo na mpụga na ọ bụ onye e merụrụ ahụ, ma ọ bụ onye so na ya, onye mmụọ ọjọọ, onye na-achịkwa uche ojii na-achịkwa uche nke na-agba ọsọ mgba okpuru ọcha ọcha (Wilson 1937). Ọzọkwa, a na-enyo ibe ya enyo na o jiri ntorobịa ya na ọmarịcha nwanyị ya, yana "ọcha ya," rata Nna Chineke meworo agadi ka ọ bụrụ di na nwunye. A hụrụ ngwa ngwa Ritchings ka ọ bụrụ onye isi ndị isi dị ka onye na-erughị eru na ngagharị nke ụmụ nwanyị "ndị a na-ahụ anya nke ọma na ọkwa elu na nke etiti nke Peace Mission nzukọ" (Weisbrot 1983: 61). Ọzọkwa, alụmdi na nwunye agbụrụ dị na eziokwu, megidere iwu n'ihe dị ka steeti iri atọ na America nke 1946.

Ozizi na-enweghị isi banyere agbụrụ na ịkpa ókè agbụrụ na Peace Mission dị ka ọ dị mma, na ọbụna kwenye, ọnọdụ a pụrụ iche. Nna Chineke jụrụ echiche ọ bụla nke oji na nke ọcha. "Enwere otu agbụrụ, Nna Divine siri ọnwụ, nke ahụ bụkwa agbụrụ mmadụ" (Weisbrot 1983: 100). Ọ jụrụ aha agbụrụ niile, ọkachasị okwu ahụ bụ "Negro," ma jụ ịga mmemme ọ bụla ma ọ bụ onyinye e nyere ndị Negro a ma ama. Mana Fada Divine megidere ihere agbụrụ, gbaa ndị mmụọ ozi ya ume ka ha ghara iji ihe na-acha ọkụ ma ọ bụ na-acha ọcha. Ọzọkwa, "Nna Chineke adịghịkwa njikere ịnakwere ndị ọcha dị ka ndị na-akụzi omume karịa ndị na-achọ mma" (Weisbrot 1983: 103). Nna Nna anyi ajupu ndi iche iche choro ka ndi otu ghara ichota onwe ha site na agburu.

N'echiche ya, agbụrụ adịghị adị n'ezie ma bụrụkwa ihe na-emebi emebi nke uche "(Watts 1995: 89). Iji nweta esemokwu agba dị iche iche, ndị otu nwere ike iji euphemisms dịka "emezuru ọkụ" ma ọ bụ "mejupụtara ọchịchịrị" (Weisbrot 1995: 286).

Ya mere, nrigo nke nwanyị ọcha ka ọ nọrọ n'ọchịchị dị ike n'ahụ ndị Africa America nwere ike ịbụ ihe mgbaru ọsọ kachasị nke njegharị na-acha ọcha.

Nsogbu yiri ya metụtara alụmdi na nwunye dị n'etiti Ritchings na Nna Divine. Ọ bụ ezie na di na nwunye ahụ kwuru ugboro ugboro na ha dị ọcha, ndị si n'ezi ofufe dapụ kọrọ akụkọ dị iche. Fọdụ ndị ndu Peace Mission dị elu jiri nwayọ hapụ ngagharị ahụ mgbe alụm di na nwunye nzuzo ghọrọ ihe ọha na eze mara ebe ndị ọzọ, dị ka Carol Sweet na John West Hunt, hapụrụ n’ime olu na ikwupụta nke ọma huff (Harris 1953: 259–76). Sweet na Hunt bụ ụmụazụ na-acha ọcha ogologo oge bụ ndị boro ebubo na ha esonyela, ma ọ bụ kpuchie, enweghị nsọpụrụ nke Nna Divine. Ha were iwe, ma yie onye ekworo, na etinyere ndị na-eto eto dị n'èzí n'isi amara nke Nna Chukwu. Oji ndi oru nta ojii adighi kwa ihe edeputara banyere Edna Rose Ritchings dika nne ohuru ohuru, ma enwere ihe omuma nke na nna nna Chineke adighi agha n’obodo ojii n’ihi ya (Harris 1953: 253–56).

Ndị ọzọ na-ekiri ihe na-emenụ enweghị obi abụọ na Edna Rose Ritchings nwere ike ịbụ ezigbo onye ndu Peace Mission. Otu ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Peace Mission na 1950 gara n'ihu ịkọwa na ọ bụrụ na Nna Fine anwụọ, ndị na-eso ụzọ ya ga-ahọrọ ọnụọgụgụ nke igbu onwe ha karịa ido onwe ha n'okpuru "enweghị ihe" ọ bụla nke mama Divine (Harris 1953: 312, 319–20).

Na-abata naanị onye ndu nke Peace Peace Mission na 1965 n'etiti oke ikike obodo, mbuso agha, na mmegharị nwanyị nke 1960s na 1970s, nzaghachi mama Divine abụghị inye ihe ọhụụ ma ọ bụ ihe ọhụụ. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Kama, ọ degharịrị ma gụgharịa nkọwa Nna nke Chukwu na okwuchukwu okwu banyere ikpe ziri ezi nke ọha na eze site na iri afọ ndị gara aga dị ka azịza nke Peace Mission maka mgbanwe mgbanwe na-emetụta ọha mmadụ gbara ya gburugburu. Agbanyeghị na omume a bụ ụzọ ezi uche dị na ya iji bịakwute okwu a, esemokwu juputara na ndị na-echeta ma kwanyere nsọpụrụ nke Nna Chukwu na mmegide mmekọrịta nke 1930 afọ. Ha chọtara ụzọ nne Chukwu si bụrụ ihe na-akpali akpali (Mabee 2008: 217–18).

N'iji nlezianya mee ihe banyere ajụjụ banyere onye isi nke mama Chineke, Reverend Jim Jones nke Peoples Temple guzobere mwakpo na-aga n'ihu iji weghara Peace Mission na nnukwu akụ ya na 1971 na 1972. Jones, bụ onye na-akpọtụrụ Peace Mission ogologo oge, zụlitere enweghị afọ ojuju nke ụfọdụ ndị òtù n'ime Peace Mission ndị na-ewe iwe n'okpuru nduzi nke mama Divine. Ha gụnyere ndị katọrọ ya n'ụzọ doro anya maka enweghị ike iulateomi ihe ndekọ nke Nna Chineke dị ka onye ọrụ ebube, onye na-agwọ okwukwe, na onye mmume. Womenmụ nwanyị ndị ọzọ kwusiri ike na ha abụrụla ndị mmekọ Fine Divine n'oge ọ lụrụ Sweet Angel, ma kwuo na ha echewo nkwụghachi n'aka mama Divine mgbe di ya nwụsịrị.

Na mgbasa ozi ya iji katọọ mama Chineke dị ka onye ndu, Jim Jones gbalịrị ime ka enyo enyo na ikike ya dabere na ịlụ nwanyị na mmezu nke akụkụ Akwụkwọ Nsọ, dị ka Peace Mission kwuru, mana na ọ na-enwe ihe ịga nke ọma, inwe mmekọahụ na-achịkwa onye isi Peace Mission onye isi. . Jones, onye lụrụ Marceline Baldwin Jones (1927–1978), kwupụtara na ya ajụla mama Divine ebe ha abụọ nọ naanị ha na nzukọ nzuzo mgbe ha gara Woodmont. N'ịgbalị ị nweta ihe akaebe doro anya nke Jones na-azọrọ na ọ bụ onye ndu nke otu ahụ, o boro ebubo na ọ nwere ọganihu mmekọahụ.

Ọ bụ ezie na enweghị ihe ịga nke ọma na ebumnuche ya niile nke ịbụ onye ndu nke International Peace Mission movement, Jones nwere ihe ịga nke ọma n'ịwepụ ọtụtụ ndị Divinites. Ndị a gụnyere onye bụbu onye isi Mgbasa ozi Peace Mission na onye otu ndị ọrụ odeakwụkwọ nke mama Divine, onye nakweere nkwupụta Jones na ọ bụ Nna Chineke ịlọ ụwa. Jones gosipụtara Peopleslọ Nzukọ Ndị Nsọ mgbe Peace Peace, na-achọ ka ndị òtù Peoples Temple kpọọ ya Nna ma ọ bụ Papa, ma tinye ọtụtụ ụkpụrụ nkà mmụta okpukpe nke Nna. Dị nnọọ ka di ya nwụrụ anwụ mere na 1932 (na-ekwupụta "Ọ kpọrọ asị ịme ya," mgbe onye ọka ikpe nke kpere ya ikpe nwụrụ na mberede) (Weisbrot 1983: 53), Mother Divine tụgharịrị ọnwụ na Jonestown, Guyana na 1978 ka a ịdọ aka na ntị banyere ntaramahụhụ Chineke, nke a na-arụ ọrụ ugbu a maka ya, megide ndị na-eso ụzọ na ndị nkatọ (Mother Divine 1982: 137–41).

N'agbanyeghị na ịkwado onye ndu ya nke International Peace Mission Movement site na 1980, Mama Divine chere nsogbu ndị ọzọ ihu dị ka onye na-elekọta alaeze ụwa nke na-eme ngwa ngwa nke nwere ụlọ na-arịwanye elu, nká, na ndị ahịa na-anọghị na ya. Iji weghachite ndị na-eso ụzọ dịpụrụ adịpụ na mpaghara ndị fọdụrụnụ nke usoro ahụ, na iji lekọta ha na obodo ndị ha kwere nkwa ma bụrụ ndị maara ha, Mama Divine malitere usoro afọ iri abụọ na ise iji belata mmefu ma weghachite ego ego. site na ire ihe omuma Peace Mission na ala.

Mama Divine chọkwara ịkọwa isiokwu gbara ọkpụrụkpụ nke nkà mmụta okpukpe Divinite, oghere dịịrị nke na-agba ndị na-eso ụzọ ya na ndị na-esoghị ya ume ka ha hụ ma chọọ "Nna" n'ụzọ nke ha. Mama Divine chọrọ ka e nwee nghọta nke omume Peace Mission na okwukwe nke mere ka ọnọdụ ya sie ike dị ka onye ndu Peace Mission. Nzaghachi ya nye nsogbu nke ejiri nkuzi nke Chukwu mee ihe megide ya bụ onye edemede Udo Mgbasa Udo na 1982. Nke a ghọrọ akwụkwọ nwere ikike iji ghọta theology na omume otu ahụ.

Iji mee ka ozi Peace Mission Movement dị na-adịru mgbe ebighi ebi maka ọgbọ ndị ga-abịa n'ọdịnihu, Mama Divine lekọtara emume ntọala maka Nna Divine Library na Museum na 2013. A ga-agwụcha ha ọnwa asaa ka ọ nwụsịrị na 2017.

Ibu aka na akwukwo nke ndi nwanyi n'IZI

Ọ bụ ezie na onye ndu otu nnukwu nzukọ ma ọ bụ n'okpukpe ndị bụ isi abụghị Edna Rose Ritchings. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Dị ka nwa okorobịa ọcha nke Canada, mama Divine ghọrọ onye ndu na-enweghị mgbagha nke otu ndị isi ojii na-arụ ọrụ mmekọrịta ọha na eze. Ọrụ ndụ ya bụ ihe ọmụmụ banyere otu ya na ndị otu si agagharị na ịma aka n'ụzọ iwu, ọrụ mmekọrịta mmadụ na nwoke na agbụrụ na njirimara agbụrụ n'oge oge Jim Crow racism. Nke a mere tupu na n'oge nke ugboro abụọ nke ụmụ nwanyị ije nke 1960s na 1970s na United States. N'ịgbalị ịmepụta ma gosipụta ihe nlereanya nke òtù ụmụnna nwanyị dị iche iche na ikpe ziri ezi nke ọha na eze na ọha na eze, ndị otu International Peace Mission rụrụ ọrụ iji wulite obodo yiri ya.

Dị ka mama Divine na International Peace Mission Mission, Ritchings jiri ma mebie ọrụ mmekọrịta ọha na eze nke nwunye na nwanyị di ya nwụrụ nke na-enweta ikike site na ịbịaru di nso. Ọ nakweere ọrụ ikuku nke nne na-enweghị nwa ma maa aka na omenala ndị nwoke na nwanyị, na-ajụ ikike nke alụmdi na nwunye iwu, na ịgọnahụ echiche nke agbụrụ. O mezuru nke a n'ime otu ndi nwere obi ojoo nke gosiputara nhụjuanya nke ụmụ nwanyị na olileanya utopian (n'okpuru nduzi mbụ nke nwoke ojii) na mmalite iri afọ nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ.

Okike na agbụrụ agbụrụ nke Peace Mission na-egosi mkpa ọ dị ọrụ ụmụ nwanyị nọ na World Peace Mission Mission n'ozuzu ha; Nduzi nke Nne nke Chukwu gosiputara ihe nke nwanyi ocha n'ime otu ndi ojii. Ọ bụ ezie na ụfọdụ ndị ọha na eze na-ahụta dị ka ajọ nzuzo ojii niile na-eduzi site na onye na-ebuli onwe ya elu na onye nzuzu, ndị ọcha niile, nke kachasị nke Montreal nke Peace Mission na-egosi na mmegharị Nna Chukwu nyere ahụmịhe pụrụ iche maka ụmụ nwanyị afọ dị iche iche na agbụrụ dị iche iche. Ha nwere ike isonye na ọkwa niile nke ọrụ na nzukọ mba ụwa, ọbụlagodi na ndị isi na-enwe nkụda mmụọ ma ọ bụ gọnahụ ụmụ nwanyị na mpụga Peace Mission. Ahụmịhe ahụ kwekwara ka ụmụ nwanyị ọcha (na ndị ọcha) nwee ohere iji gosipụta ọdịdị na eziokwu nke ịkpa ókè agbụrụ na-acha ọcha jupụtara na United States n'oge ahụ. Site na itinye onwe ha n'okpukpe ojii, ya na chi ojii dika onye ndu, ha nwere ike wepu onwe ha site na ocha na ikike ha chere, ikike ha chere na ikike ha. N'otu oge ahụ, enyemaka onwe onye na mmemme nke achụmnta ego nke International Peace Mission na-akwalite mere ka ihe na ọdịmma akụ na ụba nke ụmụ nwanyị Africa na ụmụ nwoke Africa.

Ya mere, ọmụmụ nke Nne Chukwu na onye ndu ya, na isonye na, International Peace Mission ije na-ekpughe obere akụkụ nke akụkọ ntolite agbụrụ na United States. Ọ na-akwalitekwa ihe ọkà mmụta mmekọrịta ọha na eze bụ David Feltmate kpọrọ "ohere mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya" karịa "nsogbu mmekọrịta ọha na eze" nke okpukpe ọhụrụ dị ka Peace Mission; ya bu, o gosiputara otu otu si edozi nsogbu na nsogbu di ugbu a (Feltmate 2016). Site n’ịtụle Edna Rose Ritchings, ya na ụmụ nwanyị ndị mejupụtara ngagharị ọ na-edu, anyị na-ahụ otu otu gbalịrị ibi ndụ ọzọ na obodo kewara oke na nke ịkpa oke agbụrụ.

Foto
Foto # 1: Edna Rose Ritchings, gụgharịrị Sweet Angel na Peace Mission.
Foto # 2: Peninnah (Nwanyị nwanyị Penny), nne mbụ Chukwu na nna na-eto eto bụ Chi.
Foto # 3: Nna Chineke, Angel dị ụtọ, na ndị odeakwụkwọ ndị ọzọ na Peace Mission Movement.
Foto # 4: Sweet Angel zoro ezo zoro Nna Chukwu na Eprel 29, 1946, wee bụrụ nne nke abụọ nke Chineke "n'ime ahụ."
Foto # 5: E wuru mkpu maka Nna Chukwu ma doo ya nsọ na 1968.
Foto # 6 inggafe nri gburugburu tebụl n'otu n'ime oriri ọ banụ heavenlyụ a na-enwe kwa izu nke a na-enwe na Peace Mission.
Image # 7: Nna Chukwu na Nne Chukwu na nnukwu oriri elu igwe.
Image # 8: Nne nke Chukwu na Nna mere agadi.
Image # 9: Nne nke Chukwu na Nna.
Foto # 10: Nne nke mere agadi Chineke.

References

Black, E. 2013. "Ndị Nwunye nke Chineke, Ndị Nne nke Ndị Kwesịrị Ntụkwasị Obi: Edna Rose Baker na Marceline Jones dị ka ndị nne Chineke." akụkọ jonestown, October 15. Nweta site na https://jonestown.sdsu.edu/?page_id=40226 na 20 October 2019.

Nwa. E. 2014. "Ihe mgbakwunye 1: Ọchịchị Na-agbanwe Agbanwe nke esstụle Nna Chineke na Jim Jones." jtr ngbasa ozi. Nweta site na https://jonestown.sdsu.edu/?page_id=61374 na 20 October 2019.

“Afọ Chineke.” 1958. Jet 14 (Mee): 49.

Onye okwukwe Mary [Viola Wilson]. N'afọ 1937. “Chineke”: Ọ Bụ Naanị Nwoke Na-ahụ Anya. Philadelphia: Universal Ìhè.

Nwa nwanne, David. 2016. "Icheghari Ntughari Okpukpe Ohuru Na-abụghị Usoro Nsogbu Ọha." Nova Religio 20: 82-96.

Guinn, Jeff. 2017. Ụzọ nke Jonestown: Jim Jones na Peoples Temple. New York: Simon na Schuster.

Onyekwere, Sara. 1953. Nna Chineke: Di di Nsọ. Ogige City, NY: Doubleday.

Lincoln, C. Eric, na Lawrence H. Mamiya. 2004. "Daddy Jones na Nna Chineke: Okpukpe dị ka Okpukpe Ọchịchị." Pp. 28–46 mu Templelọ ndị mmadụ na okpukpe ojii na America, nke Rebecca Moore, Anthony B. Pinn, na Mary R. Sawyer dere. Bloomington: Mahadum Indiana University.

Mabee, Carleton. 2008. Ala Nkwa: Nna ndi mmadu di iche iche nke Chineke na Ulster County, New York. Fleischmanns, NY: Purple Mountain Pịa.

Melamed, Samantha. 2017. "Nna Chineke Ntinye Aka: Nwere ike idekọ akwụkwọ na ebe ngosi ihe mgbe ochie Chekwaa Peace Peace Mission?" Philadelphia Inquirer, Nọvemba 6: 7.

Morris, Adam. 2019. Ndị Amerịka Amụma: Ndị Amụma ofgha nke Mba Na-abaghị Uru. New York: Imeju.

Nne Chukwu [Edna Rose Ritchings]. 1982. Udo Mgbasa Udo. New York: Akwụkwọ Anno Domini Nna.

Nna Chineke. 1951. "Ntughachi na nkwụghachi ụgwọ nke ndị a na-emekpa ụwa." Ozi Udo, August 8. Nweta site na http://peacemission.info/sermons-by-father-divine/restitution-retroactive-compensation-to-the-oppressed-of-the-earth/ na 20 October 2019.

Fauset, Arthur Huff. 1944. Chi ojii nke obodo ukwu: Okpukpe okpukpe nke Negro nke North Urban. Philadelphia: Mahadum nke Pennsylvania Press.

Parker, Robert Allerton. N'afọ 1937. Mesaya ahụ Dị Incrịba: Nna nke Nna Chi. Boston: Little, Brown na Companylọ ọrụ. (Ọ dị na ntanetị site na Hathi Trust Digital Library).

Sitton, Lea. 1993. “Perot Were Mgbasa Ozi na Ndagwurugwu Forge; Ọ na-agba ume Washington; Ọ bụ 60th Rally nke Afọ a; Ọ Drew 2000 Ndị mmadụ, gụnyere Mama Chineke. ” Philadelphia Inquirer (August 23): A1.

Watts, Jill. 1995. Chineke, Harlem, USA: Nna nke Chineke Story. Berkeley: Mahadum California Press.

Weisbrot, Robert. 1995. "Nna Chukwu Peace Mission Movement." Pp. 285–90 n’ime Okpukpe Ndị Ọzọ nke America, nke Timothy Miller dere. Albany: University University of New York Press.

Weisbrot, Robert. 1983. Nna Chineke na mgba maka ịha nhata agbụrụ. Boston: Beacon Press.

AJỤRỤ AKWỤKWỌ NDỊ

Black, E. 2013. “Jonestown na Woodmont: Jim Jones, Mama Divine na Mmezu nke Ebumnuche nke Nna Chineke Maka Obodo Chi Na-efu.” akụkọ jonestown, Ọktọba 15. Nweta site na https://jonestown.sdsu.edu/?page_id=40227 na 20 October 2019.

Black, E. 2012. "aytọgbọ Isi Ahụ: Ndabere na ịchụ àjà maka ihe kpatara Peace Mission na Peoples Temple." akụkọ jonestown, Ọktọba 14. Nweta site na https://jonestown.sdsu.edu/?page_id=34229.

Black, E. 2010. "'Na-ekwesị Ntụkwasị Obi Mgbe Niile': Ọsọmpi dị n'etiti mama Divine, Jim Jones na ndị na-eso ụzọ ha maka Supremacy na Ikwesị Ntụkwasị Obi Nye Ihe Kpatara Ya. akụkọ jonestown, Ọktọba 12. Nweta site na https://jonestown.sdsu.edu/?page_id=30222 na 20 October 2019.

Boaz, Rut. 1965. “Afọ Iri Atọ mụ na Nna Chukwu.” ojii 20: 89-98.

Boccella, Kathy. 2011. "Gladwyne Mansion, Ncheta nke Nna Chineke Dị Ndụ Na." Philadelphia Inquirer, April 17.

Boccella, Kathy. 2011. "Naanị Aka Aka Ndị Na-eso erszọ Hapụrụ torụ Ọrụ Nna Chineke." Philadelphia Inquirer, April 26.

Burnham, Kenneth E. 1979. Chineke Abia America. Boston: Lambeth Press.

Erickson, Keith V. 1977. "Black Messiah: Nna Chineke Peace Mission Movement." Quarterly Journal of Okwu 63: 428-38.

“Nna Chineke.” 2003. Ndị isi Okpukpe Africa-America: A na Z nke ndị Africa America, dezie site. Nathan Aasang. Ntughari. New York: Eziokwu na Faịlụ.

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. na Cornel West. 2000. “Nna Chukwu.” Na Oge Afrịka-Amerịka: Otu Black America Si Mee Obodo Anyị, ed. Henry Louis Gates Jr. na Cornel West, 122–25. New York: The Free Press.

Grimes, William. 2017. “Nne Chukwu, 91, nwụrụ; Eweghara Okpukpe Di Ya. ” New York Times, Machị 15: B.14.

Hoshor, Jọn. N'afọ 1936. Chineke na Rolls Royce: The Rise of Father Divine — Madman, Menace, or Messiah. New York: Hillman-Curl.

Primiano, Leonard Norman. 2019. "International Peace Mission Movement na Nna Chukwu." Encyclopedia nke Ukwuu Filadelfia. Nweta site na https://philadelphiaencyclopedia.org/archive/international-peace-mission-movement-and-father-divine/.

Satter, Beryl. 1996. "Marcus Garvey, Nna Chukwu na Jenda Ndọrọ Ndọrọ Ọchịchị nke Ọdịiche agbụrụ na nnọpụiche agbụrụ." American Quarterly 48: 43-76.

Seely, Katharine. 1986. "Nne Chukwu: Idebe oku oku." Philadelphia Inquirer, March 31.

ỌR DIGITAL

Dixon, Vince. 2018. "Eluigwe Bụ Ebe ke Harlem." Vidio Vox. Nweta site na https://www.eater.com/a/father-divine na Ọktoba 2019. [Gụnyere ihe nkiri nke Fada Divine na ọtụtụ foto].

“Nna Chineke.” 2019. International Peace Mission Movement. Nweta site na http://peacemission.info/ na 14 October 2019.

“Nna Chineke.” N'afọ 1930. "March nke Oge" [akwụkwọ akụkọ]. Nweta site na https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JNLNrNxPmDA na 2 October 2019.

“Nna Chineke na Udo nke Udo.” nd America na Utopian Dream. Beineke Rare Book na Manuscript Library. New Haven: Mahadum Yale. Nweta site na http://brbl-archive.library.yale.edu/exhibitions/utopia/uc18.html na 20 October 2019.

“Nna Chukwu na Tarrytown, New York. 1946 (?). Nweta site na https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HveytJSnlEc na 2 Ọktoba 2019. [Ihe oyiyi nke Nne Chukwu].

“Ozi Udo nke Chukwu nke Chukwu: Olileanya Maka Ndị Ogbenye.” Nke a site n'okwukwe. Usoro PBS Television. Nweta site na http://www.pbs.org/thisfarbyfaith/journey_3/p_10.html na 20 October 2019.

Garcia, Tom, Jr. 2019. tommygarcia.com. Nweta na 13 October. [Weebụsaịtị nke nwa nwoke nke Nna Chukwu na Nne Chukwu, nwere isiokwu na foto.]

Kaluza, Wanda. 2011. "An American Castle: The Alan Wood Jr. Estate." Nweta site na https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LRefPu32xHo. [Vidiyo nke mpụga nke Woodmont Estate].

Luers, uche. 2012. "Nna nke Project Chineke na Vimeo." Nweta site na https://vimeo.com/channels/326983 na 20 October 2019.

Ụbọchị Post:
26 October 2019

 

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