Helen Cornish

Museum of Witchcraft and Magic

MUSEUM OF WITCHCRAFT NA MAGIC TIMELINE

Mbubreyo 1930s: Cecil Williamson guzobere Researchlọ Ọrụ Na-agba Ọkụ nke Witchcraft.

1951-1960: Cecil Williamson mepere Museum of Magic na Superstition na Isle nke Mmadụ, ọ kwagara ya na United Kingdom n'oge 1950, nke mbụ na Windsor na Bourton-on-the-Water.

1960: Cecil Williamson kwagara Museum of Witchcraft na Boscastle, Cornwall.

1996 (October 31): E resịrị ụlọ ihe ngosi nka na Graham King.

1998: E liri olili nke egosipụtara (kwuru dị ka Joan Wytte, Na-alụ ọgụ Nwanyị Bodmin, 1781-1822).

2004: Iju mmiri mere na Boscastle. Emechiri ihe ngosi nka maka otu afọ, mepee na March 2005.

2013 (October 31): E nyere onyinye ahụ na Museum nke British Folklore, Simon Costin.

2015: Aha ụlọ ihe ngosi nka gbanwere na Museum of Witchcraft and Magic.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY 

"Thelọ ihe nkiri nke chta Amoosu na Ime Anwansi na-enyocha anwansi anwansi nke Britain, na-eme ihe atụ na usoro nkwenkwe ndị ọzọ, site n'oge ochie ruo n'oge a" (MWM Guidebook 2017: 5). [Foto dị n'aka nri] Cecil Williamson mepere Museum of Witchcraft and Magic na United Kingdom na Castletown na Isle nke mmadụ na 1951, ọ guzobewokwa Researchlọ Ọrụ Nta Ọkụ na njedebe 1930s. Mgbe ọ nwere ụlọ ngosi ihe nka na Castletown ọ gbara Gerald Gardner aka dị ka onye amoosu bi, onye zụtara ụlọ ahụ mgbe Williamson [Foto dị n'aka nri] kpaliri nchịkọta ya na ala. N'ime oge 1950s Williamson guzobere ụlọ ihe ngosi nka na nkenke na Windsor, nke Bourton-na-Water na-esochi, tupu ịkwado na Boscastle na mgbago ugwu Cornish ebe ọ nọrọ (Patterson 2014; Williamson 2011), ma na-agba afọ iri isii nke ya na 2020 Thelọ ihe ngosi nka nwere onye nwe / onye ndu atọ: onye nchoputa Cecil Williamson (1950-1996), Graham King (1996-2013), na Museum nke British Folklore, onye nduzi Simon Costin (2013-present). Ọ bụ "micro-Museum" (Candlin 2015) na-akwado ma na-akwado onwe ya, ya na "Enyi nke Ụlọ Ngosi Ọta na Ime Anwansi." Maka obere ụlọ ngosi ihe ngosi nke onwe, ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị bịara nleta dị elu, na-ahụ 40,000 n'etiti Ista na Halloween na 2018.

Ụlọ ihe ngosi nka dị na Boscastle dị na nsọtụ ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri dị ala, ụlọ ụlọ nkume abụọ, otu akụkụ nke akụkọ ntolite obodo ahụ. Ochichi eze nke Cecil Williamson bu ihe ndi choro nke eze choro ya, obu kwa ugbua ihe kariri iri abuo ihe nesiputa n 'ugbua site na obere ulo di iche iche. Ụzọ ahụ na-agba ume na nduzi nduzi site na ụlọ ihe ngosi nka, ma na-eme ka e nwee nmikpu n'ime ụwa. N'elu ala, warara a na-eji okpukpu kpụ ọkụ n'ọnụ (onyinyo, mkpagbu, mgbaasị Ndị Kraịst, herbs), oghere maka ngosi oge na-adịghị, na ihe ngosi nke ụlọ iri na itoolu nke Witch (ụlọ Joan). [Foto dị n'akụkụ aka nri] N'elu elu, ọ na-abanye n'ime nnukwu ọnụ ụlọ haziri nke ọma (dịka ọmụmaatụ, mkpuchi, nchebe, nkọcha, mandrake, chi nwanyị, Green Man, nchịkọta Richel, ihe osise nke Chineke nke Chineke). Uzo ukwu nke uzo abuo na - eduga na obere ohia di iche iche ato (dika ihe ndi ozo, ndi ngbasi, ihe ndi ozo, na ndi amoosu nke oge a). Site n'èpụ bụ ụlọ nsọ, ebe dị jụụ iji tụgharịa uche, ebe a na-eji osisi na nkume nkume mepee n'elu iyi nke na-aga n'akụkụ n'akụkụ nke ụlọ ahụ ruo ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri ahụ. N'èzí otu obere ahịhịa ndụ na bench na-eme obere ogige, na nnukwu willow sculpture nke Pan (na ogologo oge ego) na-ele anya n'ofe osimiri na ọdụ. Nchịkọta ahụ na-achịkwa ihe 3,000, ọbá akwụkwọ nke nwere akwụkwọ 7,000, na nnukwu ihe ndekọ nke digitized (viewable by appointment).

N'oge nduzi nke Graham King, n'August 2004, idei mmiri na-ebibi ihe na Boscastle, na-emechi obodo ahụ ruo ọtụtụ ọnwa ka ọ rụziri ụlọ, okporo ụzọ na àkwà mmiri. E mebiri ihe nchịkọta ihe ngosi nka ma merụọ ya, mana ụlọ ọrụ ihe ngosi ahụ mepere na Machị 2005. Mgbe idei mmiri ahụ gasịrị, Eze guzobere ntụkwasị obi maka nchịkọta ihe ngosi nka wee mee ka mkpakọrịta ndị enyi na-enweghị atụ ghọọ ọrụ ebere aha. N'ihi nke a, Kerriann Godwin deziri nchịkọta nke ncheta ndị ọbịa, bụ ebe akụkọ ndekọ na akụ na ụba na-egosipụta njikọ dị n'etiti ụlọ ihe ngosi nka na ọtụtụ ihe na akụkọ ya, na ndị ọbịa, ndị na-abụkarị ndị amoosu nke oge a na Wicca (Godwin 2011).

Na 2015, onye nduzi ohuru, Simon Costin [Foto dị n'aka nri] gbanwere aha na Museum of Witchcraft and Magic and created space space exhibition with displaying annually changes. Ọ weghachite Williamson's Witchcraft Research Center site na Anya Ojuju akwukwo. Otu ndi oru ihe ngosi nka eguzobe ememe ndi mmadu n'ememe ememe ndi oru ugbo na ndi mmadu, nke otutu ndi amoosu nke oge a choputara dika ihe ndi mere eme nke kalenda ha, bu Wheel of Year, ma gosiputa na ngbanwe ndi ozo.

Ihe ngosi nka abughi nani site na ndi oru nke ugwo ojoo, ma obu Wicca, ma obu omenala ndi ozo di iche iche nke di n'uwa dum na okpukpe ndi mmadu na-eto n'ike. Ọ ghaghị ịzụlite ma gwa ndị dịgasị iche iche nwere ọdịiche dị iche iche dịka ọ na-akọwa akụkọ banyere ụdị anwansi na Ịta Amoosu nke oge a. Ọ na-achọ ijere ndị nleta njem njem na-agafebeghị ihe ọmụma banyere Wicca ma ọ bụ ndị amoosu na ndị na-ege ntị na mba niile gụnyere ndị Witch (ma ọ bụ ndị ọzọ na-eme ihere, mgbaasị, na ọdịnala esoteric), na ndị nwere mmasị na akụkọ ifo na anwansi. Nleta ugboro ugboro na okwu sitere n'obi site n'aka ọtụtụ ndị na-eme ihe ngosi na-egosi mmasị ya dị ka ebe nchekwa dị oké ọnụ ahịa nke artifacts na saịtị nke ihe nketa bara uru. Maka ndị ọbịa a, ụlọ ihe ngosi nka bụ njem njem njem, a na-ahụkwa ọnọdụ ya na Cornwall ka ọ daba na akụkọ ntolite esoteric. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ dịghị akụkọ ọ bụla edepụtara banyere amoosu ma ọ bụ ọrụ anwansi ndị ọzọ na-eme na Boscastle, Williamson kwukwara na ọ bụ "mmanụ a touristụ nke ndị njem nleta" dị mma (Williamson 1976: 26), a tụwo aro na ndị amoosu nwere ike "na-ere ifufe" ndị ọkwọ ụgbọ mmiri nọ n'ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri ebe a, [Foto dị n'aka nri] dị ka e gosipụtara na akara ngosi ihe mgbe ochie. Otu n'ime aha ngosi ihe mgbe ochie nke Williamson na-akọwa na “kilomita atọ site na ebe a ị ga-ahụ nkume a na-atụghị egwu akụkọ ihe mere eme a pịrị na ihu nkume dị ndụ… ọ bụ ya mere ụlọ ebe a na-edebe Witta Amoosu dị ebe a, otu na-eguzo na nsọtụ nke ọzọ . ” Ylọ nyocha dị na ndagwurugwu Rocky, nsụda mmiri na Nectan's Glen, na nkume ncheta nke Joan Wytte na Minster Woods na-azọ saịtị nke saịtị nwere ụlọ ngosi ihe nka na etiti ha, dịka ebe ndị jikọtara ọnụ.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Ụlọ ihe ngosi nka nwere ọtụtụ nchịkọta anwansi nke West West, ihe mgbagwoju anya, na ihe ndị aghụghọ, tinyere ihe onwunwe nke mara na narị afọ nke iri abụọ Wiccans na Witches (dịka Gerald Gardner, Doreen Valiente, Alex Sanders, Stewart na Jannet Farrar), Golden Dawn, na Dutch Richel-Eldermans Collection (King 2016), na onyinye sitere na ndị omekorị na-enweghị ọkwa profaịlụ (Brownie Pate, Iain Steele). Ụlọ ihe ngosi nka nwere nnukwu nchịkọta ihe oyiyi nke ndị amoosu site na mgbasa ozi na akwụkwọ, ọ na - akọwakwa ịkọ amoosu na narị afọ nke iri na isii na nke iri na asaa na Europe site na nzụlite ndị ọzọ. Joyce Froome, onye so n'ìgwè ihe ngosi nka, bipụtara akụkọ banyere ule nke ndị amoosu Pendle na ihe gbasara anwansi ndị mmadụ na nchịkọta ihe ochie (Froome 2010). N'ụzọ bụ isi, ọ na-ewe anwansi na amoosu na-echebara ihu ma gbanye mgbọrọgwụ na nkà. Echebewo echiche ndị a na akụkọ ihe mere eme nke ụlọ ihe ngosi nka, gafee Cecil Williamson's, Graham King, na steeti Simon Costin. Ha na egosiputa uru nke anwansi dika ihe omuma na ime ihe ike ndi mmadu n'ime uwa ihe ojoo (Patterson 2014). N'ihi na onye nleta na-eleta ihe ngosi nka na-enye ihe ọmụma na akụkọ ihe mere eme site na ngwá ọrụ na ihe eji eme ihe, njedebe ikpeazụ na-egosi ihe nzuzo anwansi nke ndị ọkàiwu a maara na narị afọ nke iri abụọ, ma kpọọ ya "Ọ ka na-aga taa." [Foto dị n'akụkụ aka nri]

Ụlọ ihe ngosi nka nke Cecil Williamson gụnyere ihe ngosi egwuregwu nke gosipụtara echiche ndị a ma ama na akụkọ banyere ememe amoosu. Otú ọ dị, o doro anya site na nyocha ya, akwụkwọ akụkọ ihe ngosi nka, na ihe ndị na-achọsi ike na ọkachamara dị mgbagwoju anya nke ndị aghụghọ na ndị maara ihe, onye ọ kọwara dị ka "Aunty May" ma ọ bụ "Wayside Witch" ma gosipụta ya ngwá ọrụ na artefacts nke mpaghara, na-abụkarị ụmụ nwanyị, na ọtụtụ n'ime British West Country (Cornwall, Devon, Somerset, Dorset). N'etiti ụlọ ihe ngosi nka na-anọdụ n'ụlọ ndị Witch, nke Joan maninquin Joan, nke ndị ọrụ ya ji gbaa ya gburugburu, maka ịkọ ọhụụ, ọgwụgwọ, ọgwụ na nchebe maka nchekwa:

Nwanyị anyị maara ihe 'Joan' gosipụtara ọtụtụ ụzọ dị iche iche eji enyere ndị na-achọ enyemaka aka, dịka ọmụmaatụ: ịkọ ọdịnihu site na iji kaadị tarot ma ọ bụ bọl scry; ahịhịa iji mee ntụ ọka na-agwọ ọrịa maka onye ọrụ ugbo nwere anụ ụlọ na-arịa ọrịa, ma ọ bụ akpa nke ọtụmọkpọ iji kpọgidere n'akụkụ ekwú ọkụ iji gbochie mmụọ ọjọọ "(MWM Guidebook 2017: 15).

A kọwara onye amoosu a dị ka onye ọkachamara nke nwere ebe dọkịta, midwife, onye na-elekọta mmadụ na ndị mmekọ. Nye ọtụtụ ndị amoosu taa, a na-ahụ ndị a dị ka ndị nna nna, ọ bụ ezie na ndị ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme na-akọwa, nke a na-akwadoghị ihe ndekọ nke akwụkwọ (Hutton 1999; Davies 2003).

RITUALS / PRACTICES  

Ihe ndị a na-etinye n'ime ụlọ ihe ngosi nka na-ede ihe ememe na omume nke akụkọ ihe mere eme nke anwansi ulo na ọrụ ndị ọkachamara ọkachamara ọkachamara na ndị amoosu nke oge a. A na-eji ememme Wiccan na-anọchite anya ndị ọrụ nke oge a. Omume nke ndị maara ihe na ndị aghụghọ na-egosi site na ọgwụ, ọgwụ na nchebe, motifs apotropaic, ọmịiko ọmịiko maka nchebe ma ọ bụ ọgwụgwọ, na mpempe akwụkwọ arụpụtara maka ọbụbụ ọnụ. Enwere mbadamba amoosu juputara na nkwụcha, mbọ na mmamịrị iji gbochie ihe ize ndụ ma ọ bụ weghachite anwansi ọjọọ. Omume ememe a na-eme eme, dịka ijikọta, ijikọta ọnụ, ịgụta ọnụ, ịmalite, ịkwọ abụ, ka egosipụtara dịka usoro nhịahụ dị irè. A na-esere eriri ụyọkọ nke eriri ka ndị ọrụ ụgbọ mmiri dị ka igwe ihu igwe na ihe ngosi ihe ngosi nka. Ọ na-egosi n'ụzọ doro anya azụmahịa a na ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri Boscastle, ebe ndị a na-eme ka mgbidi Joan's Cottage dị mma na ihe atụ ndị ọzọ nke omume nwanyị maara ihe, na ụda nke ịkụ abụ nwere ike ịnụ (Patterson 2016). Ihe ngosi ndị a na-egosi otú e si etinye ihe ndị sitere n'okike ụwa, osisi, nkume, ọkpụkpụ, okooko osisi, maka ebumnuche kpuru, ma jikọta ya na ememe ndị na-eji ihu igwe, oge mgbanwe, ọnwa na-eme ka mmiri na-agwụ, ma ọ bụ ike nke mmiri. Uwa ihe omuma a bu ihe di ndu, ihe ndi a di kwa ndu, tinye aka n'ebumnuche madu na ike mmadu (Hewitt 2017).

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP  

A na-ahụ na Cecil Williamson na-achọsi ike na-arụ ọrụ mgbe nile na ụlọ ọrụ ihe nka taa. N'oge ọ bụ nwata, o nwere njikọ ezinụlọ na ọha mmadụ dị iche iche, ọ hụrụ otu onye amoosu obodo nke ndị agbata obi na-emejọ ya, onye ọzọ gbara ya ume ka ọ rụọ ọrụ anwansi iji chebe onwe ya pụọ ​​n'aka ndị isi ụlọ akwụkwọ, ya na "onye Witchdoctor lara ezumike nká" mgbe ha na-arụ ọrụ n'ugbo colonial na Rhodesia na 1930s. Mgbe ọ laghachiri Britain, ọ rụrụ ọrụ na ụlọ ọrụ ihe nkiri ahụ, ọ bụkwa "Onye Nchọta Onye Nzuzo" maka Ụlọ Ọrụ Mba Ọzọ n'oge Agha Ụwa nke Abụọ, bụ mgbe ọ malitere Ụlọ Ọrụ Nta Ọkụ (Williamson 2011). Ọ na-akọwa Otu Akuko sitere na Ajuju Ajuju nke Asu otú ahụmahụ ya si mee ka e nwee ntọala dị mma iji guzobe ya mbụ Museum of Witchcraft na Isle nke Mmadụ (Patterson 2014: 272-77).

Graham King jere ije na 200 kilomita site na Hampshire ruo Cornwall ka ọ bụrụ onye nwe ụlọ ọrụ nka na etiti abalị na October 31, 1996 (Eze 2011). Nchikota nke eze nke "cabinet of curiosities" nke Williamson nọgidere na-elekwasị anya na ndị nkịtị, ndị aghụghọ, na nke ụwa. O tinyere ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo site na Cornwall na Devon Pagan Federation iji nyere aka n'ịgbaghara ya; e wuru nkume gburugburu n'ala (nkeji nkeji gbara gburugburu). E wuru ụlọ Joan na ntụgharị nke steepụ. Onye na-ese ihe na-eme ihe bụ Vivienne Shanley rụgharịrị ihe ngosi ihe ngosi nka bụ "Ịchụpụ Ifufe" ma gosipụta Wheel Wiccan nke Afọ site na ememme ugbo na nke oge. Eze guzobere ụlọ akwụkwọ ihe ochie na ụlọ akwụkwọ ochie, ọ haziri ndị ọrụ afọ ofufo iji malite ọrụ ogologo nke ntinye akwụkwọ ozi na nkọwa. E kpochapụrụ iyi ahụ na-aga n'akụkụ ụlọ ihe ngosi nka ma wuo ụlọ nsọ ahụ. Akpụkpụ ahụ nke a kwụbara n'elu ụlọ n'oge Williamson bụ oge e debere ya n'ime igbe ozu maka afọ ole na ole tupu e lie ya na Minster Woods dị nso na 1998. Boscastle nwere ide mmiri na August 2004; ụlọ ihe ngosi ahụ mechiri ka Eze na ndị ọrụ ya gbalịsiri ike imezi emebi. Simon Costin chịkọtara onyinye nke Natural History Museum nke ngosi ngosi Victorian dịka akụkụ nke mmezigharị (Costin 2011).

Na 2013, e nyere onyinye ahụ na The Museum of British Folklore. Onye nduzi, Simon Costin, na ìgwè ndị na-eme ihe ngosi ya eguzobelele ogbako na ihe omume, na-elegharị anya site na Anya Ojuju, na imelite ngosipụta. Dị ka Eze, Costin nọgidere na-enwe mmasị na Williamson n'igosi anwansi ndị mmadụ, ndị aghụghọ, na ịrụ ọrụ nke anwansi, yana ịmepụta ikike ihe ngosi nka dị ka ebe nchekwa maka ihe ndị enyere onyinye nke ndị ọrụ oge a. Na 2015, a gbanwere aha ahụ iji gosipụta ụlọ ngosi ihe ochie mbụ nke Williamson na Isle nke Mmadụ, a gbanwere nkume gburugburu na oghere oghere. Mpaghara ahụ hụrụ ihe ngosi nke ihe atụ Jos A Smith nke akwụkwọ Erica Jong Ndị amoosu (Jong 1981), "Poppets, Pins and Power: the Craft of Cursing" (2016), "Glitter and Gravedust: Halloween Past & Present" (2017), "Igirigi nke Eluigwe: Ihe nke Ime Anwansi Anwansi" (2018) na " Betwixt na N'etiti: Isobel Gowdie, Witch nke Auldearn "(2019). Ihe ndi mmadu choro na ndi amoosu na anwansi ahutala otutu ihe eji anata ihe ngosi ndi ozo. E bipụtara edemede edemede nke ihe na nchịkọta na 2016 (Hannant and Costin 2016). N'oge ederede, ndị otu ihe ngosi nka na-akwadebe maka Nzere ntozu Museum.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES  

Ihe ịma aka na-ebute banyere ajụjụ nke inweta na ikike. Ihe ndekọ nke Williamson dị oke oke ma ghara ezu ezu, ikekwe iji gbanwee ihe kpatara akụkọ ahụ (Fenton 2013). Edere aha ya ogologo oge ma dị mgbagwoju anya, ha na-enyekwa aka n'eme egwuregwu nke ọtụtụ n'ime ihe ngosi ya. Taa, mgbe ndị nleta na-echeta ha nke ọma, ndị ọzọ na-enwe nchegbu na ha mebiri ikike nchịkọta ahụ, Eze dịkwa njikere imezi usoro. Echere nchegbu gbasara ngosipụta nke ụmụ mmadụ ka mkpebi Eze mere ka ọ wepụ site na igosipụta ọkpụkpụ nke e gosipụtara kemgbe 1960s. Williamson kwuru na "ihe efu nke Joan Wytte, Na-alụ Agha Nwaanyị Bodmin," e weere ya dị ka onye amoosu, ma nwụọ n'ụlọ mkpọrọ Bodmin maka ịwakpo ndị ikom abụọ dị ike. Eze na-agba ọkpụkpụ n'ọhịa n'èzí Boscastle na October 31, 1999. Dika akụkọ banyere Joan Wytte bu ndi ndi oru omenala na ndi na-ede akuko (Jones 1999, Wallis 2003) nekotara ya, ya na ndi nwanyi maara ihe na ndi nzuzu dika ndi okacha ihe di nma, dika uzo nke ndi emekorita nke ndi Wiccan nke oge a. nkwenkwe. Ndụ na ọnwụ nke Joan Wytte na-akwado ọtụtụ ndị nleta, karịsịa ndị ọkachamara, ma ọ kabeghị ihe àmà na-egosi na ọ dị n'ezie (Semmens 2010; Cornish 2013). Ọtụtụ ndị ọbịa na-agụnye njem gaa na nkume ncheta na Minster Woods [Foto dị n'akụkụ aka nri] dịka akụkụ nke weebụ nke gbasaa site na ụlọ ngosi ihe nka na mpaghara Ọhịa.

E nwere ihe ịma aka na ụlọ ihe ngosi nka mgbe nile banyere ajụjụ nke ịrụ ọrụ ike na ebe amoosu nke oge a. A na-achọkwa ịkwado mkpa nke ọtụtụ ndị mmadụ, iji mee ka ndị njem na-agafe, na-enye ọnụ ọgụgụ nnukwu ego nke ụlọ ọrụ ihe ngosi nka, nakwa ka ndị na-enwe mmasị ma ọ bụ nke onwe ha na nchịkọta ahụ na-eju afọ. Dika ugwo ojoo na Wicca na-etolite, ihe profaịlụ ya na-abakwawanye n'ihu ọha, mmesi ike na akụkọ ihe mere eme ya na ndị òtù ya na-abawanye. Otú ọ dị, echiche nke eluigwe na ala na-anọgide na-etiti, na ụlọ ngosi ihe nka, na nnukwu nchịkọta nke artefacts na-ekwu na:

Ihe ndị ị ga - ahụ n'ebe a bụ obere, ebe nkịtị, ihe ọhụrụ, ubiquitous. Ihe niile bụ ihe anwansi: ha nwere ike pụrụ iche ma dị mkpa, ma kpughee ihe nketa anwansi nke ka dị ndụ taa (MWM Ntuziaka 2017: 6).

Foto
Image #1: Museum of Witchcraft and Magic © Helen Cornish (2014).
Foto #2: Cecil Williamson (c) Museum of Witchcraft and Magic.
Image #3: Simon Costin na Graham King (c) Museum of Witchcraft and Magic (2013).
Foto #4: Joan's Cottage © Helen Cornish (2014).
Image #5: Ịchụ Ọsọ © Helen Cornish (2012).
Image #6: Ihe ngosi nke oge a na-aghọ aghụghọ © Helen Cornish (2014).
Foto #7: Ihe ncheta Joan © Helen Cornish (2010).

References

Candlin, Fiona. 2015. Micromuseology: Nnyocha nke obere obere ihe ngosi nka. London: Mgbasa Ozi Bloomsbury.

Cornish, Helen. 2013. "Ndụ nke Ọnwụ nke" Nwanyị Na-alụ Agha nke Bodmin ": Akụkọ akụkọ banyere Museum of Witchcraft.  Echiche Anthropological of European Culture 22: 79-97.

Costin, Simon. 2011. "Kpachara anya ihe ị chọrọ: Oge, nghọta na mmezu nke ochicho." P. 29 n'ime Ụlọ Ngosi Ihe Ọmụma: Akọlọtọ Mebere, nke Kerriann Godwin deziri. Bodmin: Ụlọ Ọrụ Nwụrụ Anwansi na Ndị Enyi nke Ụlọ Ọkụ nke Witchcraft.

Davies, Owen. 2003. Ndị aghụghọ: ewu anwansi na English History. London: Hambledon Continuum.

Fenton, Louise. 2013. "Cablọ ọrụ nke Nkọcha: Nyocha banyere ndị na-akpata poppets emere na Museum of Witchcraft." Ngwaahịa nke Ahịa: Otu ụbọchị nke okwu maka Museum of Witchcraft: The Wellington Hotel, Boscastle, May 2013, akwụkwọ a na-agbasaghị.

Froome, Joyce. 2010. Ihe Ọjọọ Ọjọọ: A Na-ede Banyere Ndị amoosu Na-agba Ụta na Ime Anwansi. Lancaster: Akwụkwọ Palatine.

Godwin, Kerriann, ed. 2011. Ụlọ Ngosi Ihe Ọmụma: Akọlọtọ Mebere. Bodmin: Ụlọ Ọrụ Nwụrụ Anwansi na Ndị Enyi nke Ụlọ Ọkụ nke Witchcraft.

Hannant, Sara, na Simon Costin. 2016. Nke onyinyo: Otu narị ihe si na Museum of Witchcraft and Magic. London;

Hewitt, Peter. 2017. "Colnakọta na ejiji ihe anwansi na Cecil Williamson."Anya Na-emekpa Ahụ 1: 44-60.

Hutton, Ronald. 1999. Mmeri nke Ọnwa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Jones, Kelvin. 1999. Otu Joan na Crone: Akwụkwọ akụkọ na ọrụ nke Witch Witch. Ahụhụ: Oakmagic Publications.

Jong, Erica. 1981. Ndị amoosu. New York: Harry N. Abrams.

Eze, Graham. 2011. "A Journey na-agafe." Pp. 127-28 n'ime Ụlọ Ngosi Ihe Ọmụma: Akọlọtọ Mebere, nke Kerriann Godwin deziri. Bodmin: Ụlọ Ọrụ Nwụrụ Anwansi na Ndị Enyi nke Ụlọ Ọkụ nke Witchcraft.

Eze, Graham. 2016. Foto na Artefacts nke Richel-Eldermans Collection: Aka Aka atọ.

MWM Ntuziaka. 2017. Museum of Witchcraft and Magic Guidebook: Museum of Witchcraft and Magic.

Patterson, Steve. 2014. Akwụkwọ nke Witchcraft nke Cecil Williamsons: A Grimoire of Museum of Witchcraft. Mmegharị akwụkwọ: Troy Books.

Patterson, Steve. 2016. Nkọwa sitere na Womanlọ Nwanyị Amamihe. London: Troy Books Publishing.

Semmens, Jason. 2010. "Bucca Redivivus: Akụkọ ihe mere eme, akụkọ ọdịnala na iwupụta njirimara agbụrụ n'etiti ndị amoosu nke oge a na Cornwall." Nnyocha ọka 18: 141-61.

Wallis, Kathy. 2003. Mmụọ na Nsogbu: Ezi Akụkọ nke Joan Wytte, Na-alụ Agha Nwaanyị Bodmin. Wadebridge, Cornwall: Ụlọ nke Lyngham.

Williamson, Cecil. 2011 [1966]. "Otú Museumlọ Ihe Nketa Amoosu Si Malite." Pp. 12-19 Na Ụlọ Ngosi Ihe Ọmụma: Akọlọtọ Mebere, nke Kerriann Godwin deziri. Bodmin: Ụlọ Ọrụ Nwụrụ Anwansi na Ndị Enyi nke Ụlọ Ọkụ nke Witchcraft.

Williamson, Cecil. 1976. "Museumlọ ihe nkiri Witta Amoosu - na ihe ọ pụtara ịnwe otu."  Quest 27: 4-6.

Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
3 May 2019

 

Share