Olivia Groff Timothy Miller

Okwukwe

OKWUKWE AKW FAKWỌ

1828 (June 5): John Ballou Newbrough mụrụ na mpụga nke Springfield, Ohio.

1882: mbipụta mbụ nke Oahspe e bipụtara.

1883 (November 24-26): E nwere mgbakọ na New York City, nke mere ka ndị mmụọ ime mmụọ nwere mmasị nwere ọnụ Oahspe na nguzo nke ógbè.

1884 (October 4): A zụrụ ala na Los Cruces, New Mexico maka ọchịchị Shalam site n'aka Andrew Howland.

1885 (Disemba 28): "Akwụkwọ nke izizi nke Tae" bụ ndị okwukwe nke ala Shalam gbara akwụkwọ.

1885-1890: Shalam kpọsaa maka ndị okwukwe ọhụrụ na-atụgharị site na akwụkwọ akụkọ na almanacs.

1886 (March): A chụpụrụ ndị isi obodo ise na Shalam n'ihi na ha anaghị asọpụrụ ụkpụrụ nduzi.

1887 (Septemba 28): John Ballou Newbrough na Frances Van De Water Sweet lụrụ.

1887-1900: Ihe dị ka ụmụ mgbei iri ise ka ebiri na Shalam.

1891 (Eprel 22): Newbrough nwụrụ.

1893 (June 25): Frances Van De Water Sweet, nwanyị di ya nwụrụ Newbrough, na Howland lụrụ.

1907 (November 30): Howland, Oriaku Newbrough-Howland, na ụmụ anọ ndị ọzọ kwagara California na ọnụ ụzọ ndị ọchịchị Shalam mechiri kpamkpam.

1930: Wing Anderson na Essenes nke Kosmon guzobere ógbè dị na North Salt Lake, Utah.

Mmalite 1940s: Essenes nke Kosmon kwagara ógbè ha na Montrose, Colorado.

1950s: Essences nke ógbè Kosmon mechiri.

1953: Ejikọtara Universal Faithists nke Kosmon na California.

1973: E tinyebere Oahspe Foundation na Oregon.

1977: Ejikọtara Universal Faithists nke Kosmon na Utah.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

John Ballou Newbrough [Foto dị n'aka nri] mụrụ na June 5, 1828 n'èzí Springfield, Ohio ma kpọọ ya aha onye nkwusa Universalist John Ballou. Ahụmahụ okpukpe Newbrough ka akọwara na ọ bidoro n'oge ọ bụ obere n'ụdị ịhụ mmụọ na ịnata ozi. Nne ya bụ onye ji mmụọ kpọrọ ihe, ma sikwa otú ahụ ghọta ihe nwa ya mere. Ka o sina dị, nna Newbrough “enweghị ndidi n'okwu nzuzu dị otú ahụ” wee tie Newbrough ihe maka “omume adịghị mma nke iso ndị mmụọ na-emekọ ihe.” O doro anya ihe ọrụ ahụmahụ okpukpe ndị a na-arụ n'oge ntorobịa Newbrough (Stoes 1958: 2).

Newbrough mechara gụsịrị akwụkwọ na Cincinnati Medical College, na-eme atụmatụ ịbụ dọkịta. O kpebiri ịgakwuru eze eze ma kwaga New York City. Ọbụna n'oge a, nchegbu Newbrough nwere maka ndị ọzọ na mkpasu iwe maka ikpe na-ezighị ezi. Mgbe ọ nọ na New York, ọ mepụtara usoro maka imepụta efere eze nke ọ nyere ọrụ ezé na-enweghị patent. Newbrough kpebiri ịmalite ọrụ a n'ihi na Goodyear Rubber Company bụ onye njide nke patent pụrụ iche maka usoro maka efere eze na, n'ihi nke a, a na-erere eze n'ọnụ ọnụahịa dị oke elu maka ndị ogbenye. Ọ bụ Goodyear gbara akwụkwọ na Newbrough. E kpebiri ikpe ahụ maka ọdịmma ya ma mee ka ọnụ ụlọ ndị ahụ dịkwuo ọnụ (Onye Nchụàjà 1988: 6).

N'oge 1849 ọgba aghara ọla edo, Newbrough gara California. Atụmatụ a bụ ihe ịga nke ọma ma duga njem na mpaghara ọla edo nke Australia. Njem a bụkwa ihe ịga nke ọma ego maka Newbrough na onye ọchụnta ego azụmahịa ọ zutere na California, John Turnbull. Newbrough lụrụ nwanne nwanyị Turnbull, bụ Rachel. Ọ laghachiri na eze na dọkịta na New York, wee gaa n'ihu na-arụ ọrụ a ruo iri afọ abụọ sochirinụ. Newbroughs nwere ụmụ atọ, otu n'ime ha nwụrụ na nwata. N'oge a, Newbrough nwere nsogbu nke ịda ogbenye na ọnọdụ obibi ndụ ọ hụrụ na New York City. Ọ bụ nwatakịrị na-anwụ anwụ na New York City metụrụ ya n'obi ma soro na ọrụ ebere iji nyere aka belata nhụjuanya. KD Stoes, enyi Justine Newbrough, kwuru na "ọdịda nke ụka anaghị arụ ọrụ ndị Kraịst" na "ịkpakọba ihe onwunwe na-abaghị uru" dugara Newbrough ịhapụ ndị otu a (1958: 5-6).

Ọ bụ n'oge a na akụkọ ndụ ya na Newbrough gosipụtara ahụmịhe ime mmụọ. Malite na 1870, Newbrough gara China, Japan, Egypt, na India n'okpuru nduzi mmụọ. Ọ mụrụ okpukpe nke ebe ndị a wee bụrụ onye dọtara mmasị ya na isi mmalite okpukpe mgbe ochie. Njem ya nile kpaliri ochicho n'ime ya ime ka ikike nke mo nke ya di n'ime onwe ya. Newbrough ghọrọ onye otu onye ọchịchị ime mmụọ na Jamestown, New York na Onye Nlekọta nke New York State Spiritualistic Society. Stoes na-akọ na "aka ya ga-adaba na iwe, na-edekwa ozi n'akụkụ niile, na-enweghị uche ya." Stoes kwukwara, sị: "Mgbe ụfọdụ ike na-awakpo ire ya, anya ya, na ntị ya, ọ ga-ekwu okwu, hụ ma nụ ọnụ ọgụgụ na-enweghị atụ" (1958: 7).

Mgbe ọ na-etinye aka na Jamestown, ógbè New York na New York State Spiritualistic Society, Newbrough sonyekwara n'ịtụle izi ezi nke ndị na-ajụ ase site n'ọtụtụ ule. O doro anya na Newbrough nwere mmasị na uru ndị dị na nkwukọrịta mmụọ. Mmasị ya abụghị na nkwukọrịta n'etiti ndị ọ hụrụ n'anya nwụrụ anwụ, kama ọ bụ ndị ọchụnta ego ama ama gara aga. Iji mee ka nkwukọrịta a kwalite, Newbrough chere na ọ dị ya mkpa ilekwasị anya na ịdị ọcha nke ahụ na itinye uche nke uche. Newbrough anabatachala nri onye anaghị eri anụ ọtụtụ afọ gara aga, mana n'oge a, ọ wepụkwara mmiri ara ehi, akwa, na akwụkwọ nri. O kwenyekwara na oge kachasị mma maka nkwurịta okwu na nduzi ime mmụọ bụ n'isi ụtụtụ, wee si otú a na-ebili n'isi ụtụtụ kwa ụtụtụ (Stoes 1958: 6-8).

Omume ndị a yiri ka ihe ịga nke ọma maka Newbrough, ebe ọ bụ na a gwara ya n'ụzọ ime mmụọ inweta typewriter ma soro ndị mmụọ ozi, ma ọ bụ "ezigbo mmụọ," kwurịta okwu ruo afọ abụọ. Newbrough kwuru, sị:

Otu ahịrị ụtụtụ dakwasịrị m n’aka, na-agbadata dị ka waya. N’elu isi m aka abụọ dị abụọ wee ghọọ mmadụ, mgbe m n’azụ m, otu mmụọ ozi guzoro m aka n’ubu m. Mkpịsị aka m na-agba ọsọ ọsọ ọsọ ọsọ ọsọ na typewriter. A machibidoro m ịgụ ihe m dere, abịara m nwee ụdị ọ ecụ nke okpukpe nke na m ji nsọpụrụ rube isi (Stoes 1958: 8).

Ihe si na izu iri ise nke usoro odide a pụta Oahspe, akwụkwọ nwere ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ peeji 900. [Foto dị n'aka nri] A gụnyere ọtụtụ ihe atụ site na njikwa ime mmụọ, ụfọdụ n'ime Newbrough ka a gwara ka ha detuo site na akwụkwọ ndị ọzọ. Oahspe gụnyere ihe ndị e si n’aka ọtụtụ ndị amụma na okpukpe dị iche iche dị ka Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst, okpukpe Buddha, na okpukpe Confucius. Akwụkwọ a, nke a kpọrọ "Bible ọhụrụ" nyere nkuzi maka ndị bi n'ụwa nke oge a.

ozugbo Oahspe Emechara, Newbrough gbalịsiri ike ịchọta ụzọ ego iji bipụta ya. O mefuola ezigbo ego ọ kpatara n'oge njem njem ọla edo ya na njem na ọrụ ebere. Ọrụ ebere a gụnyere ịzụta ala na Salsburg, Pennsylvania maka ụlọ na inyere ndị aholicụrụma aka. Enweghi ike ịchekwa ego n'ime afọ ndị ọ lekwasịrị anya na mmepe ime mmụọ ya kama usoro ọgwụgwọ ya. Azịza ya bịara n'ụdị onyinye a na-achọghị. Ndị a gụnyere onyinye a na-amaghị aha $ 2,000 nke ezitere site na mail na $ 3,000 nyere site na onye ezinaụlọ nke nwoke nke Newbrough lebara anya. Site na onyinye ndị a, a zụtara otu igwe na - ebi akwụkwọ Oahspe ebipụta (Stoes 1958: 9).

Mgbe Oahspe's mbipụta, Newbrough kwuru okwu na United States na England. Obere ìgwè ndị a tọghatara malitere ịpụta. Otu onye a ma ama tọghatara bụ Andrew M. Howland. Howland, onye Quaker, bụ onye nketa nke azụmaahịa na-enye ezigbo ego, nke gosipụtara na ọ bụ nnukwu enyemaka na mmezu nke ụfọdụ akụkụ nke Oahspe. Mgbe m gụsịrị Oahspe, Howland zutere Newbrough na ụmụ nwoke abụọ ahụ malitere ọbụbụenyi. Dedicatedmụ nwoke abụọ raara onwe ha nye karịsịa maka imekọ ihe n'Ala Childrenmụaka akọwapụtara na Oahspe (Na-ere 1958: 10).

Na 1883, enwere nzukọ na New York City nke mere ka ndi ndu nke ime mmụọ na ndi mmadu gbanwee Oahspe. Ndị a tọghatara kpọrọ onwe ha “Ndị okwukwe nke mkpụrụ Abraham.” Ndị nwere nzukọ ahụ nwere mmasị iji nyere ndị ọzọ aka ma kpebie ilekwasị anya na iwu Shalam, Ala Childrenmụaka. Na nkenke, ihe mgbaru ọsọ nke Shalam ga-abụ ịmepụta obodo nke ụmụaka nke agbụrụ ka mma, nke nwere mmụọ ime mmụọ ga-etolite. Dị ka a gwara na Oahspe, ihe ga-esi na ya pụta ga-abụ “mbilite n'ọnwụ nke mmadụ site n'ụwa a chụpụrụ ụmụntakịrị.” Shalam agagh enyere umuaka ndi choro nlekọta na ulo aka, ma o gedakwa zoputa ndi mmadu site na nbibi nke onwe.

N'oge ọkọchị nke afọ 1884, Newbrough na Howland gawara ịchọta ala ahụ e buru amụma ya site na Oahspe. E weere ọtụtụ ọnọdụ site na Virginia ruo Mexico maka mpaghara ahụ. Site n'enyemaka nke ime mmụọ, e duru ụmụ nwoke ahụ gaa n'ebe ndịda New Mexico n'akụkụ Rio Grande. Na Los Cruces, azụtara ala na October 4, 1884 site n'aka Howland. Ka ọ na-erule ngwụsị ọnwa ahụ, Newbrough na mmadụ iri abụọ okwukwe kwagara Shalam. N'ime ndị a chịrị n'oge ndị a bụ Oriakụ Frances Van De Water, onye a ga-ahụ dị ka "nne Shalam," na nwa ya nwanyị dị ọnwa asatọ, Justine. Ndị Shalam Faithists rahụrụ n'ụlọikwuu ruo mgbe e wuru obere ụlọ adobe site na enyemaka nke ihe dị ka 250 New Mexico na obodo Dona Ana (Stoes 1958: 16-18).

Ndị agbata obi New Mexico a gosipụtara na ọ dị mkpa maka ịdị ndụ nke Shalam oge mbụ. Ha kụziiri ndị okwukwe Shalam banyere ihe ọkụkụ nke mpaghara ahụ na oven ndị dị n’èzí na-ewu ewu na mpaghara ahụ. Ọbụna site na enyemaka a, ndị Shalam Faithists gbalịsiri ike n'oge ndị a, ụfọdụ na-anwụ n'oge oyi n'ihi ọnọdụ ibi ndụ siri ike. Enwere obere nri, ndị ọrụ ụgbọ oloko na-adịghị eweta na mpaghara ahụ. Mgbe Howland kwagara na Shalam kpamkpam na 1885, isi ya ghọrọ nri ógbè ahụ. Newbrough lekwasịrị anya n'ịrụ ụlọ ebe ụmụ ọhụrụ ga-ebi (Howlind 1945: 287-90).

Na December 28, 1885, ndị Shalam Faithists tinyere akwụkwọ iwu n'akwụkwọ n'okpuru aha “Chọọchị Mbụ nke Tae.” (Tae pụtara nwoke ime mmụọ dị ka nke dị na Newbrough, onye ndu ha). Achọrọ ka ndị sonyeere na Shalam banye na ọgbụgba ndụ ahụ dị nsọ, na-ekwu na ya agaghị enwe ihe ọ bụla nke ndị ọzọ nwere ike iji mee ihe. Edere ntuziaka maka Shalam na mbido. Onye obula nke banyere n’ime ogbugba ndu ahu kwetara na ya onwe ya agagh enweta ego obula nihi onyinye ya, kama inata nri, ulo na ihe ndi ozo di nkpa. N'ikwekọ na nri Newbrough nakweere tupu ịnata Oahspe, a gaghị eri anụ, àkwá, chiiz, ma ọ bụ mmiri ara ehi na Shalam, ma e wezụga mmiri ara ehi nke ụmụaka na-erubeghị afọ isii. Ọzọkwa, ndị toro eto na-eri nanị nri ugboro abụọ n’ụbọchị. A gaghị anabata mmanya na-aba n'anya, ụtaba, na ọgwụ ọjọọ, ọ gwụla ma dọkịta agwa. Ikekwe nke kachasị mkpa, ọ dịkarịa ala ụmụ mgbei ise ka a ga-anakwere kwa afọ (Perry 1953: 38; Priestley 1988: 18-20).

N'agbata afọ 1885 na 1890, ndị okwukwe nke Shalam kpọsara ógbè ahụ iji gbalịa ịdọta ndị otu ọhụrụ, sitere na ndị okwukwe dị adị na ndị a tọghatara ọhụrụ. Ihe mgbochi maka ịbụ onye otu bụ na mmadụ enweghị ike ife ofufe "onyenwe ọ bụla, chi, ma ọ bụ onye nzọpụta nke nwanyị mụrụ" na onye "chọrọ ibi ndụ site na mmụọ ya" ga - ewepu (Stoes 1958: 20). Mgbasa ozi ndị e debere n'akwụkwọ akụkọ na almanacs webatara ndị ọhụrụ. Otú ọ dị, dị ka ọ dịla n'ebe ndị okpukpe ndị ọzọ nọ, ọ bụghị ndị otu niile bịara Shalam n'ihi ezi obi. Werefọdụ nwere mmasị na Shalam site na nkwa nke ndụ obodo, mana ha anaghị adịte aka ozugbo ha matara nraranye chọrọ ha. Fọdụ rutere Shalam bụ ndị raara onwe ha nye okwukwe okwukwe na ihe kpatara Shalam, mana ndụ dị na mpaghara ahụ siri ike. N'ihi oke ịba ụba nke ndị otu chọrọ, ọnụ ọgụgụ anaghị arịwanye elu (Stoes 1958: 20).

N'oge a, Newbrough nwekwara mgbanwe dị ukwuu na ndụ ya. N’afọ 1886, ọ gbara akwụkwọ ka ya gbaa nwunye ya alụkwaghịm. Ihe kpatara ha sitere na ọdịiche dị iche iche nke omume na nkwenkwe, na-aga azụ ma ọ dịkarịa ala afọ iri. A kwadoro ịgba alụkwaghịm ahụ ma gbaa akwụkwọ na October 6, 1886. Na September 28, 1887, Newbrough lụrụ Frances Van De Water Sweet, [Foto dị n'aka nri] otu n'ime ndị mbụ Shalam Faithists. Ọ ghọrọ nne Shalam, na-elekọta ụmụ mgbei, mgbe ụfọdụ, na obere enyemaka (Priestley 1988: 20).

Newbroughs mepere ụlọ nnabata maka ụmụ mgbei na New Orleans, na ndị ọzọ na Chicago, Kansas City, na Philadelphia. Oriakụ Newbrough na otu odibo ji ụgbọ oloko buru ụmụ iri ụmụ mgbei izizi, ihe na-erughị ọnwa isii, si New Orleans gaa Shalam. Atọ n'ime ụmụaka iri na atọ nwụrụ. N’agbata afọ 1887 na 1900, ihe dịka ụmụ mgbei iri ise sitere n’agbụrụ niile ka a kpọbatara na Shalam. Ndị okwukwe kwenyere ụmụaka niile nha anya, na-agbaso isi ihe edepụtara Oahspe. Ndị niile natara aha Oahspian, dị ka Hiatisi na Astraf, ọ nweghịkwa ndekọ nke ọmụmụ ha ma ọ bụ nne na nna ha (Priestley 1988: 25-26).

N’afọ 1890, a rụchara usedlọ ahụ, ebe obibi nke ụmụ mgbei na ndị na-elekọta ha. Tinyere ime ụlọ ihi ụra iri abụọ na nnukwu ụlọ akwụkwọ ọta akara, includedlọ ahụ gụnyere nnukwu ụlọ egwuregwu nwere ngwongwo ụmụaka ga-eji biri. Ndị Newbroughs na ndị ọzọ Shalam Faithists nyere nlekọta kachasị mma maka ụmụ mgbei a, yana akụrụngwa gụnyere obere ọdọ mmiri iri, nke mbụ na mba ahụ. Umuaka guru akwukwo na ngalaba ọgụgụ isi, aka oru, na nke ime mmuo, ebe umu nwoke na umu agbogho na-enweta otu nkuzi. Childrenmụaka, na ndị otu ndị ọzọ nọ na ya, gara ọrụ na Temple nke Tae ebe Newbrough ga-ekwu okwu na ụkpụrụ nke Oahspe (Na-agbanye 1958: 103-04).

Ọ bụ ezie na a raara nye ilekọta ụmụ mgbei na ịgba ọsọ Shalam, Newbrough nọgidere na-eteta n'ụtụtụ kwa ụtụtụ. Ọ ga-anọ n'ụtụtụ ya n'ụlọ enweghị windo a na-akpọ Studio, ebe ọ ga-ese ihe osise nke nnukwu ndị nkuzi okpukpe site na nduzi ime mmụọ. N'oge opupu ihe ubi nke 1891, influenza gafere Shalam, gbuo ọtụtụ ndị otu. Mgbe Oriakụ Newbrough dara ọrịa, Dr. Newbrough rụrụ ọrụ ilekọta ya, yana ada ha na ụmụ mgbei na-arịa ọrịa, n'agbanyeghị na ọ na-arịa ọrịa n'onwe ya. Imirikiti ndị bi na Shalam gbakere, belụsọ Newbrough. Ọ malitere ịrịa oyi baa ma gawa na Eprel 22, 1891. Ekwuru na oge ọ nwụrụ, ndị bi na Shalam gbakọrọ ọnụ na-atụ egwu ụda na mkpọtụ ndị ọzọ mere. Howland na-anọghị n'oge ahụ, na-akwadebe maka mbipụta nke mbipụta nke abụọ nke Oahspe. Ndị okwukwe nke Shalam chere ruo mgbe Howland laghachiri iji mee ememe olili ozu maka Newbrough, bụ onye e liri ya n'ebe a na-eli ozu ya na ụmụ mgbei a mụrụ (Howlind 1945: 299-300).

Mgbe Newbrough nwụsịrị, Andrew Howland [Foto dị n'aka nri] weghaara ọrụ maka ịmalitewanye Shalam, mgbe Oriakụ Newbrough gara n'ihu na-etinye ike ya n'ilekọta ụmụ mgbei. Howland were ndi oru ohuru Mexico ka ha nyere aka na iwu ulo igba mmiri na iku ihe ubi n’ime mgbali ime Shalam nkwado onwe ya. A na-ebubata ehi n’olileanya nke ịmalite ọrụ na-enye mmiri ara ehi na chiiz. Azụkwara ọkụkọ na-atụ anya na ire akwa ga-enye Shalam ego. O di nwute, ulo oru abuo a enweghi ihe ịga nke ọma. Iji mee ka ihe ka njọ, a na-ezukarị anụ ụlọ na Shalam. Ebe ọ bụ na ndị okwukwe ekweghị na ime ihe ike ma ọ bụ itinye aka na iwu n'okwu ndị a, ọ dịkarịrị ihe ha nwere ike ime iji kwụsị amụma a (Priestley 1988: 39).

Ka June 25, 1893, Howland na nwanyị Newbrough di ya nwụrụ lụọ. E kwuru na ihe kpatara alụmdi na nwunye ahụ ji mee, dịka ọmụmaatụ, iji chebe aha nke ndị abụọ n'etiti asịrị. N'agbanyeghị ihe kpatara alụmdi na nwunye ahụ, Howland na Oriakụ Newbrough-Howland dị n'otu na ebumnuche ha maka Shalam (Priestley 1988: 39).

N'oge na-adịghị anya mgbe alụmdi na nwunye ha gasịrị, Howland malitere ịzụlite ógbè a na - akpọ Levitica maka ezinụlọ ka ha biri iche, dị na mpụga Shalam Colony. E wuru ụlọ iri abụọ na traktị nke ala wee jiri ụgbọ oloko weta ezinụlọ nwere mmasị na Kansas City. Tinyere ụlọ ndị e nyere arịa, e nyere ezinụlọ ndị a mkpụrụ na ngwa ọrụ ugbo n'olileanya na ha ga-enye onwe ha ihe site na ịkọ akụ na El Paso. Lọ ọrụ a enweghị ihe ịga nke ọma ma gosipụta na ọ bụghị naanị ego efu. Ndị nwe obodo Levitica rụrụ ụka ma ghara iwepụta ihe ọkụkụ iji kwado onwe ha. Mgbe afọ abụọ gasịrị, Howland nyere ezinụlọ ọ bụla ego maka mmefu onwe ha wee ziga ha n'ụgbọ okporo ígwè gaa ebe ọ bụla ha chọrọ (Stoes 1958: 115-16).

Nsogbu bilitere n'ime mpaghara Shalam. Idei mmiri, mmiri ozuzo, na anụmanụ mebiri ihe a kụrụ n'ubi. Ahịa El Paso erughị eru maka ihe ọkụkụ ndị Shalam Faithists toro. Ego emebiela ego site na mbọ anụ ụlọ na Levitica dara. Ndị okwukwe raara onwe ha nye Shalam nwere oke iwe megide ndị ahụ hụrụ na ha anaghị etinye aka na ọrụ ahụ. Ofmụ Shalam eruola afọ iri na ụma ha wee malite inupụ isi. Nsogbu a ka njọ mgbe a ga-emechi ụlọ akwụkwọ ahụ n'ihi enweghị ego maka onye nkuzi. Nke a pụtara na ụmụ Shalam nọrọ oge ha n'etiti ndị nọ n'èzí ma kpughee ụzọ nke ụwa na-abụghị nke ndụ ha echedoro na Shalam (Stoes 1958: 116-18).

Na 1901, Templelọ Nsọ nke Tae dara. Concludedfọdụ kwubiri na nke a bụ ozi sitere n'aka onye nwụrụ anwụ Newbrough ma bibie ya iji chekwaa ya n'aka ndị na-ekweghị n'okpukpe nwere ike ịgabiga ma merụọ ya. N'oge a, ihe dị ka mmadụ iri abụọ ma ọ bụ iri atọ kwenyere na Shalam. N'ime afọ ole na ole sochirinụ, ndị otu jiri nke nta nke nta hapụrụ ma pụọ ​​na ụlọ ndị dịpụrụ adịpụ na-enweghị ebe obibi. N'ikpeazụ, n'agbanyeghị mgbalị nke Howland na Oriakụ Newbrough-Howland, Shalam kwesịrị imechi ọnụ ụzọ ya. Themụ iri abụọ na anọ na-erubeghị afọ iri na anọ toro na Shalam gara ụlọ ọrụ ma ọ bụ chọta ụlọ na ezinụlọ. Mụaka ndị toro eto gbabara n'ụwa ịchọta ọrụ. Na November 30, 1907, Howland, Oriaku Newbrough- Howland, Oriaku Newbrough-Howland na ụmụ okorobịa atọ ọzọ hapụrụ Shalam maka California (Priestley 1988: 43-45).

Howland na Oriaku Newbrough-Howland laghachiri El Paso afọ ole na ole ka nke ahụ gasịrị wee nọrọ ebe ahụ ruo ọnwụ ha (Howland na 1917 na Oriaku Newbrough Howland na 1922). Nwa ada Newbrough-Howland, Justine, rụrụ ọrụ maka akwụkwọ akụkọ El Paso ruo afọ ole na ole n'okpuru aha Jone Howlind. O dere otu maka Akwụkwọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke New Mexico na 1945, nke isiokwu ya bụ “Shalam: Eziokwu Banyere Fgha.” Isiokwu a na Shalam na ndị okwukwe kwusara n'ihu ọha ihe ọ ghọtara ịbụ ụgha na asịrị a na-akọ n'akụkụ ndị ọzọ edepụtara na otu ahụ, ọkachasị nke Julia Keleher dere (1944).

N'agbanyeghị ọnwụ nke ntọala òtù nke okwukwe, Oahspe gara n'ihu na-adọta ndị ọhụrụ na-atụgharị n'okpukpe na ọnụ ọgụgụ na-eto. Ndi otu ndi okwukwe kwenyesiri ike hibere obodo n'ime otutu onodu di iche-iche. Ná mmalite afọ ndị 1900, e guzobere ógbè dịdebere Denver, na-akọ na-adọta ụfọdụ ndị bụbu ndị ọchịchị Shalam. Cologbè a jikọtara ya na otu na-akpọ onwe ya Brothermụnna Nwanyị nke Ìhè. Wing Anderson, onye okwukwe ama ama, na otu a kpọrọ Essenes nke Kosmon hiwere otu ọchịchị na North Salt Lake, Utah na 1930s. Ndị otu a kwagara Montrose, Colorado na mbido 1940, na-emechi mpaghara ahụ na 1950s. N'ime oge a, etolitere ógbè ọzọ na Arizona a na-akpọ Otis Acres (Ebe nrụọrụ weebụ Ọbá Akwụkwọ Mahadum Ọhụrụ nke Mexico).

Onye ahụ akpọtụrụ aha bụ Wing Anderson, onye ya na ndị Essenes nke Kosmon nọ na-akpakọrịta, ọ bụghị naanị na ọ nọ na-guzobe ógbè, kamakwa nyekwara aka na mgbasa nke akwụkwọ okwukwe. N’afọ 1935, ọ zụrụ nke mbụ Oahspe efere, nwebisiinka na nde iri abụọ na asaa nke mbipụta 1910 sitere Justine Newbrough, ada John Newbrough. Tupu ikike nwebisiinka ahụ agwụ na 1938, o bipụtara otu Oahspe site na Kosmon Press na Los Angeles (Priestley 1988: 48-49). Anderson bipụtara akwụkwọ nke aka ya, gụnyere Ìhè nke Kosmon: Beingbụ akwụkwọ asaa nwere amamihe ime mmụọ dị mkpa site na Oahspe, yana ọrụ ndị ọzọ nke ọdịdị amụma.

E wezụga ibipụta akwụkwọ ndị okwukwe na ịtọ ntọala, ndị okwukwe nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ gara n'ihu na-arụsi ọrụ ike site na Faithist Lodges. E guzobere ụlọ obibi mbu nke Faithist Lodge na New York City ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ozugbo mbipụta nke Oahspe. A na-ehibe ebe obibi a na ebe obibi ndị ọzọ iji kpọkọta ndị chọrọ ịmụ akwụkwọ Oahspe ma tinye ụkpụrụ ya n'ọrụ. Ndị otu na-ezukọ kwa izu na ndị otu amaara dị ka ndị nke mbụ, nke abụọ, ma ọ bụ ndị otu nke atọ dabere na ihe ọmụma nke Rites of Emethachavah na "Book of Saphah," akwụkwọ dị n'ime Oahspe. Newbrough na-arụsi ọrụ ike ma na-akwado ma na-enye nkwado maka ụlọ obibi ndị a. Enwere ihe akaebe na otutu ebe obibi na-arụ ọrụ n'akụkụ East Coast, na Midwest, na Denver, Colorado n'oge Newbrough. Na-ekwusi ike mkpa dị na Shalam na ebumnuche nke ilekọta ụmụ ọhụrụ nke ụwa, ndị otu nọ n'ụlọ otu ụzọ n'ụzọ iri, e zigara ego ahụ na Shalam, ruo mgbe mmechi ya (Greer 2007: 343).

Mgbe Newbrough nwụsịrị, Faithist Lodges gara n'ihu na-arụ ọrụ. Ikekwe onye ama ama dị na Lodges dị na Denver, Colorado. Lodge a kpọrọ onwe ya hoodtù ofmụnna nke Ìhè, na-emesị gbanwee aha ya ka ọ bụrụ Faithtù istmụnna nke Ìhè ahụ iji zere ọgba aghara na otu ọzọ nwere otu aha mbụ. Ndị otu a zụtara ala ma rụọ ọrụ, na-elekọta ụmụ mgbei dị ka ndị Shalam Faithists mere. Faithtù Okpukpe nke Ìhè yiri ka ọ ga-enwe ihe ịga nke ọma ruo mgbe Oké Ndakpọ Akụ na Agha Worldwa nke Abụọ, mgbe ọrụ ya yiri ka ọ bịarutewo (Greer 2007: 343-46).

Ọ bụ ezie na e nweela, ma na-aga n'ihu, ọtụtụ otu ndị okwukwe, ndị kachasị ama taa bụ Universal Faithists nke Kosmon. Otu a bidoro na ngwụcha 1950. Will Crosby nke Prescott, Arizona nọ na-arụsi ọrụ ike na ibipụta ihe Oahspe akwụkwọ akụkọ ma chee na achọrọ nzukọ. N'oge Crosby, emere usoro iji tinye aha ya, mana emeghị nke a ruo mgbe ọ gafere. Na 1977, e tinyebere Universal Faithists nke Kosmon na steeti Utah. Ihe nke a sochiri ya na Colorado na Nebraska. Dabere na weebụsaịtị ya, Universal Faithists nke Kosmon, ebe ụlọ ya dị nso na Molina, Colorado, nwere ndị otu dịka mmadụ iri atọ na ise. Ebumnuche ha gụnyere imepụta ọnọdụ obibi ndụ maka onwe ha nke ga-enyere ha aka ị nyere "ụmụaka nwere ike ịnwe nsogbu na ndị nwere nsogbu ka ha nwee ezigbo ndụ na ibi ndụ" (Universal Faithists of Kosmon website). Otu a ka nọ n'ọrụ site na ịntanetị, na-eji mkparịta ụka mkparịta ụka na saịtị mgbasa ozi iji soro ndị kwere ekwe ibe ya na ndị nwere mmasi ịmụ ihe Oahspe.

Ndị otu okpukpe ndị ọzọ ama ama na United States gụnyere Children Kansas, obodo Eloin, Four Winds Village Peace Center, na Yorklọ Nsọ New York Kosmon. Kansmụaka Kansas tọrọ ntọala gburugburu 1973 ma ọ bụ 1974 na Florence, Kansas site n'aka Rolf na Edie Penner, wee kwụsị na ngwụcha 1970s (Miller 2015: 76). Kansmụaka Kansas keere òkè na mmemme obodo ma kọwaa nkwenkwe ime mmụọ ha dị ka "ụdị egwu sitere na Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst ruo Yoga ruo esoteric, niile n'akụkụ dị mma," nwere mmasị na ụkpụrụ Oashpian (obodo 1978: 35). Obodo Eloin malitere ibi na obodo na 1975 n'ọzara na mpụga Ashland, Oregon. Ha na-ewere onwe ha dị ka "usoro ihe omimi nke a kpọrọ Usoro nke Ahụhụ" ma nwee "mgbọrọgwụ n'ọtụtụ nkuzi ime mmụọ gụnyere Oahspe”(Mmekọrịta mkpokọta webụsaịtị Community 2018). Obodo Eloin na-ezere ị alcoholụ mmanya na ụtaba, na-agbaso nri ndị anaghị eri anụ, ma bụrụ ebe obibi na-adịghị mma. N'ihe banyere 2018, Eloin na-akọ ndị okenye asaa na ndị na-abụghị ndị bi na ya (Mmekọrịta nke weebụsaịtị Community Intentional 2018). Anọ Winds Village Peace Center dị na Tiger, Georgia na mmadụ iri tozuru etozu kọọrọ na 1992 (Miller 2015: 163). Yorklọ nsọ New York Kosmon dị na Brooklyn, New York. N'oge na-adịbeghị anya nabata okpukpe, ọmụmụ ihe ọgbakọ Oashpe, kwenyere na onye okike dị mma, na-agba ume maka onye anaghị eri anụ ma ọ bụ ụdị ndụ anaghị eri anụ, na-agba mbọ ịwepụta ụkpụrụ enyemaka mmadụ na ịkwalite nkwekọ, na-akwado ndị na-adịghị eme ihe ike, ma na-eme ihe omume obodo, dị ka ebe a na-eme ahụike na ahụike maka obodo.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Nkwenkwe okwukwe na ọrụ, Oahspe, nke John Newbrough dere maka afọ abụọ. "Oahspe" bụ okwu ihe atụ pụtara Earth, Sky, Spirit. KD Stoes kọwara Oahspe dị ka “mkpughe maka ụwa nke oge a — na nnwere onwe site na nkwenkwe, nkwenkwe, na òtù nzuzo ndị meworo ka mmụọ mmadụ gbanwee ogologo oge. Ọ naghị eburu ofufe dike iji chegharịa ”(Stoes 1958: 11). Ebumnuche ndị a gụnyere abụghị nke ọhụụ, kama ọ bụ dịka ozi nke ekpugherela ọtụtụ ụmụ mmadụ kemgbe afọ. Oahspe na-ede akụkọ ihe mere eme dị nsọ nke “eluigwe dị ala na ala dị ala kemgbe afọ 24,000 gara aga, yana nkọwa nke mbara igwe nke eluigwe na ala; ihe e kere eke nke mbara ala; ihe e kere eke nke mmadụ na ụwa a na-adịghị ahụ anya; na ọrụ nke chi na chi nwanyị ndị dị n’eluigwe ”(Stoes 1958: 11-12).

Otu akụkụ dị mkpa nke Oahspe bụ mmebi nke aha okpukpe. E kewaghị ndị mmadụ n’òtù dịka “Christian,” “Buddhist,” na “Muslim”. N'ezie, a na-akwanyere ndị ndú okpukpe dị iche iche ùgwù ma na-eduzi ndụ ụmụ mmadụ. Na Oahspe, Onye Okike, ma ọ bụ Ìhè Kasị Elu kpọrọ aha ya Jehoih. Ọzọ, Nchikota Stoes:

Chi na chi nwanyị bara ụba na enweghi ngwụcha; ndi mo-ozi bu ndi amuru site na ala ma nke elu-igwe, ma ha agaghi ahu mmadu ozo. E nwere mmụọ ndị ahụ achọghị ka a kpọlite ​​ha n’ọnwụ; na mmụọ ndị ọzọ ndị na-ahapụbeghị ụwa ma bụrụ ndị e kere eke na-anwụ anwụ (Stoes 1958: 13-14).

Asụsụ nke Oahspe gụnyere Paneric (na-ezo aka na kọntinent nke Pan, echere ka ọ dinaa ala n'etiti Japan na North America) okwu, yana gbanwere ma mepụta okwu. Newfọdụ ndị ọhụrụ mbipụta nke Oahspe a sụgharịrị gaa na Bekee nke oge a na-amata nke ọma, na-ewepu ụfọdụ okwu agbanwere na Paneric. A haziri ederede a iji gosipụta ọrụ nke eluigwe na ụwa, yana akara na ibe ọ bụla na-eke nkewa a. Edere ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ peeji 900, ya bụ, akwụkwọ iri atọ na isii. Fọdụ lekwasịrị anya n’akụkọ ihe mere eme, ndị ọzọ agbadoro anya na nkà mmụta sayensị, ma ndị ọzọ lekwasị anya n’ihe ime mmụọ. Iji ghọta nke ọma ọdịnaya nke Oahspe, mmadu aghagh ikwuputa mmetụta nke moismism na Newbrough na ederede. Ọbụghị naanị na e zigara ederede a site na Newbrough mgbe afọ ya gachara ịkwalite nka ọfụma, kamakwa n'ime Oahspe "Akwụkwọ nke ịdọ aka ná ntị" na-akọwapụta omume kwesịrị ekwesị maka ịzụlite ikike ime mmụọ na nghọta mgbakwunye (Newbrough 1891).

Ọ bụ ezie na nkwenkwe ụfọdụ nwere ike ịdị iche, e nwere ụfọdụ akara nke okwukwe okwukwe ndị a na-enwekarị n'etiti otu dị iche iche nke ndị okwukwe. Bụ onye kwere ekwe bụ nke a na-ahụkarị site na ịgbaso ụkpụrụ nke Oahspe, nkwenye na onye okike, nnabata nke ihe ọmụma sitere na ọdịnala okpukpe dị iche iche, imesi ike na omume ndị mmadụ, ibi ndụ anaghị eri anụ na izere ịxicụbiga mmanya oke iji bie ndụ dị ọcha, na enweghị ime ihe ike.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Omume ndị dị n'etiti ndị okwukwe nke ọchịchị Shalam na ndị okwukwe nke oge a sitere na Oahspe. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ikekwe nke kachasị mkpa bụ OahspeNkatọ nke ọha mmadụ (na okpukpe ndị dị ugbu a) maka enweghị ike iwepụta echiche ha kwuru. O zughị ezu ikwu maka iweta udo ma ọ bụ ịlụso ịda ogbenye ọgụ; mmadụ ga-agba mbọ ime ihe ndị a. N'echiche a, Oahspe enwere ike ịtụle, na akụkụ, "ụkpụrụ maka ezi ndụ n'ụwa ebe a na nnabata doro anya ịbanye na eluigwe dị elu na ala" (Priestley 1988: 13). Ihe atụ kachasị mma nke a bụ imepụta mpaghara Shalam dabere na ntụzi aka na Oahspe maka ebe.

N'oge ọchịchị Shalam, Newbrough ga-eduzi ọrụ na oflọ Nsọ nke Tae nke ga-agụnye Newbrough na-atụle ọdịnaya nke Oahspe, na-ekerịta amụma ya, na oge ụfọdụ, na-enyere ndị okwukwe aka ịkwalite njikọ ime mmụọ ha. N'ihi na eziokwu na ọ dịghị a centralized nzukọ ma ọ bụ ikike, na mgbakwunye na Oahspe, maka ndị okwukwe nke oge a, atụghị anya atụmatụ maka omume. Agbanyeghị, mmadụ nwere ike ịchịkọta ihe omume ndị e mere dị mkpa site n'aka ndị okwukwe nke oge a. Dị ka enwere ike ịtụ anya ya, omume ụfọdụ nke ndị okwukwe mbụ bidoro ka ndị ha na ha dịkọrọ ndụ na-agbaso. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ụkpụrụ nduzi nri megide anụ, akwa, na mmiri ara ehi maka ndị gafere afọ isii nke emere na Shalam ka ụfọdụ ka na-agbaso. Oahspe setịpụ ihe mgbochi ndị a dịka ọgwụgwọ maka ọrịa. Ekwenyere na nri a nwere uru ahụike na nke ime mmụọ, yana nchọpụta ihe ọgbara ọhụrụ na-akwado ọtụtụ ụkpụrụ nduzi nri ndị a. Tụkwasị na nke a, ndị okwukwe na-egosi na ha na-etinye aka na ọrụ ebere ma na-ekere òkè dị ka ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu n'ọtụtụ ọrụ ebere.

N’ime iri afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya, ịntanetị abatawo oke ọrụ na omume nke ndị okwukwe. Dị ka otu dị iche iche na-adị obere ma ndị otu gbasasịa n'ogologo anya, ịntanetị ekwela ka nzukọ na-eme na ntanetị. Yana ifịk ifịk mkparịta ụka nke Oahspe na mbipụta nke ọrụ okike na mmụta mmụta karịa na ederede ahụ, ụfọdụ ndị okwukwe na-esonye maka ọrụ ofufe n'ịntanetị.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Site na mmalite afọ mgbe ebipụtara nke Oahspe, ndị okwukwe ahụ ahaziri nke ọma n'okpuru nduzi na nduzi nke John Newbrough. Na nzukọ 1883 nke ndị okwukwe na New York City, a họpụtara Newbrough ka ọ duru ndị ọchịchị Shalam. Ọrụ ndu a gụnyere ihe bara uru nke Shalam na onye ndu mmụọ nke Chọọchị Mbụ nke Tae. Banyere nhazi nke Shalam, e mere atụmatụ na a ga-etinye usoro nke Kansụl Ime na Kansụl Isi na onye isi ahọpụtara maka nke ọ bụla. Ndị bi na ógbè Shalam ga-abụ na Kansụl Ime. Ndị na-ekere òkè na Lodges ma ọ bụ ihe omume okwukwe ga-agụnye ndị Outer Council. Agbanyeghị na enweghị usoro iwu, ndị sonyere na ngalaba ahụ kwenyere ịgbaso ihe ọgbụgba ndụ nsọ ahụ chọrọ. Ndị okwukwe ekweghị ibi na Shalam nọgidere na-arụsi ọrụ ike na ìgwè ha gbasasiri ike, ọ chọghị ka ha na Newbrough nwee mkparịta ụka kpọmkwem ka ha rube isi n'iwu Oahspian (Priestley 1988: 14-21).

Mgbe Newbrough gafere, ndị isi nke Shalam dara Howland, na, na-enweghị mgbagha, Oriaku Newbrough- Howland. Ha abughi oru nke onye ndu ime mmuo, ma ha abuo riri oru iji mee ka Shalam di ire ma na aru oru. Howland mepụtakwara Levitica, obere obodo maka ndị okwukwe nọ na-achọ ịhazi ndụ ezinụlọ ha. N'agbanyeghị mgbalị niile ha mere, Howland na Oriakụ Newbrough-Howland mechara kesaa Shalam ma chọta ebe obibi kwesịrị ekwesị maka ụmụ mgbei (Stoes 1958: 110-21). N'agbanyeghị obere ihe ịga nke ọma nke Shalam na Levitica, bụ ndị na-arụkarị ọrụ gọọmentị nke okwukwe, obodo ndị na-eso ụzọ Faithist gara n'ihu na-apụta.

Organizationstù ndị kwenyere n'okwukwe anọgidewo na-adịkarị ntakịrị ma rụọ ọrụ n'ụzọ dịpụrụ adịpụ na ibe ha. Otu dị iche iche gbasasịa na United States na mba ndị ọzọ gụnyere England, Japan, na Germany. Otu n'ime narị afọ nke iri abụọ mara ama bụ ndị Essenes nke Kosmon, n'okpuru Wing Anderson. N'ihi na enwebeghị ụkpụrụ okwukwe dị iche iche ma ọ bụ onye ndu etiti, inyefe iwu nke Oahspe abụrụla ihe nduzi nke ndị otu okwukwe. Otutu ndi otu okwukwe ekwenyela na akwukwo ha. A na-enwe nzukọ kwa afọ nke na-emekọ ndị okwukwe ọnụ na United States afọ ole na ole. N'ime afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya, ịntanetị abụrụla oke ọrụ na mgbasa nke ebumnuche Oahspian, ebe ị na-akparịta ụka na ebe nrụọrụ weebụ na-elekọta mmadụ emeela ka ohere maka ndị okwukwe agbasasị ka ha na-ekwurịta okwu.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Otu n'ime nsogbu ndị mbụ Newbrough meriri bụ ịchọta ụzọ iji bipụta ya Oahspe. Ikekwe n'ihi aha o meere onwe ya n'ihe metụtara ọrụ ebere, e nyere ya ego, na-enyere aka Oahspe ka ebiri. Ihe ịma aka ama ama ama nye ndị okwukwe bụ mbọ iji mee ka ala Shalam dị ka e gosipụtara Oahspe. Dika odi na ndi ozo ndi ozo, ndi Shalam Faithists gbasiri ike banyere nsogbu ego na nsogbu nke ndi ozo. Oahspe kọwapụtara na ala nke Shalam ga-abụ “obodo ọzọ,” ebe ndị ọzọ na-agaghị ebi, ma bụrụ ebe nke “udo na ịba ụba” (Priestley 1988: 13).

Ọrụ nke iwulite na ịchekwa Shalam ghọrọ ihe na-agwụ ike na ego. Ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ raara onwe ha nye actualizing na Shalam nke Oahspe na inye ụlọ maka ụmụaka a chụrụ achụ, ụfọdụ ndị bịara Shalam esoghị ebumnuche ndị a ma nye aka na nsogbu ndị ọchịchị ahụ chere ihu. N'ikpeazụ okwu ndị a, yana ịgafe nke Newbrough, bịara sie ike nke ukwuu, emechiri Shalam. Otu n'ime nsogbu ndị a na-atụghị anya na-eche ndị okwukwe nwere ihu bịara na mmechi nke Shalam. Ebe ọ bụ na edebeghị ndekọ banyere nne na nna ụmụ mgbei, ndị bụbu ụmụ Shalam enweghị ike ịchọpụta mgbọrọgwụ ha ozugbo ha hapụrụ. Iji gbakwunye na nsogbu a, mgbe a manyere Shalam ka ọ mechie, Howland na Oriakụ Newbrough-Howland enweghị ike ịlekọta ụmụ mgbei, na ọtụtụ n'ime ụmụ Shalam bụ ndị sitere na naanị ezinụlọ ha mara (Stoes) 1958: 122-23).

Otu n'ime nsogbu ndị okwukwe ahụ na-eche ihu mgbe niile bụ nke dị n'etiti ndị otu. N’ime iri afọ ole na ole gara aga, nzukọ na nzukọ kwa afọ nyere aka ibelata anya nke a site na ịkpọkọta ndị okwukwe, ma ha abughi ebe niile n’afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya. Ochichi nke Shalam na Oahspe Museum, nke dị na Las Cruces, New Mexico, bipụtara akwụkwọ akụkọ nke gụnyere ọkwa nke mmemme ndị metụtara okwukwe. E debere ụlọ ihe ngosi nka n'ọtụtụ ntọala tupu emesịa mechie ma bufee ụfọdụ n'ime ihe ndị ahụ na ebe nchekwa ndị ọzọ. Gburugburu oge nke mmechi nke Shalam Colony na Oahspe Musuem, mbipụta nke akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ kwụsịrị.

Ndị otu okwukwe dị obere ma gbasasịa, na-eme nkwukọrịta n'etiti ndị otu okwukwe dị ka ezigbo ọrụ. Agbanyeghị, ịrị elu nke ịntanetị enyela ohere maka nkwukọrịta ugboro ugboro, na-adị mfe ịnweta n'etiti ndị otu. Ọ bụ ezie na ụfọdụ otu ahụ ahụla ka ọnụọgụ ndị otu na-ebelata kemgbe ọtụtụ afọ, n'ihi ọnwụ nke ndị agadi, ọ dị ka enwere mmasị na Oahspe na òtù okwukwe dị iche iche nyere aka site na nnwetawanye ederede na akwụkwọ ndị Faithist. Ndị Universal Faithists nke Kosmon na-achịkọta ngwa ngwa sitere n'akwụkwọ ndị okwukwe, obodo, na ọha akụkọ ihe mere eme iji chịkọta ebe nchekwa ga-emeghe maka ịnweta ndị gụrụ Oahspe (Universal Faithists of Kosmon website).

Foto

Image # 1: John Ballou Newbrough.
Foto # 2: Ihe mkpuchi nke Oahspe.
Foto # 3: Frances Van De Mmiri .tọ.
Image # 4: Andrew Howland.
Image # 5: Shalam Colony.

References

Anderson, Nkuku. 1940. Afọ asaa nke Gbanwere :wa: 1941-1948. Los Angeles, California: Akwụkwọ akụkọ Kosmon.

Anderson, Nkuku. 1939. Ìhè nke Kosmon: Beingbụ akwụkwọ asaa, nwere amamihe ime mmụọ dị mkpa site na Oashpe. Los Angeles, California: Akwụkwọ akụkọ Kosmon.

"Childrenmụaka Kansas." 1978. obodo 30:35 (Jenụwarị-Febụwarị). Nweta site na  https://religiousstudies.ku.edu/ na 23 February 2019.

“Eloin.” 2018. Mmekọrịta maka webụsaịtị Community Community. Nweta site na https: /www.ic.org/directory/eloin na 24 February 2019.

Greer, Joan. 2007. "Okpukpe Faithmụnna nke Ìhè: Mmalite: Thelọ Okpukpe ahụ." The Best nke Faithist Journal (2013). Nweta site na https://issuu.com/robertbayer/docs/the_best_of_the_faithist_journal na 23 February 2019.

Na-eti mkpu, Jone. 1945. “Shalam: Eziokwu banyere akụkọ ifo.” Akwụkwọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke New Mexico 20: 281-309. (Aha onye edemede bụ nom de plume maka Justine Howland).

Keleher, Julia. 1944. "Ala nke Shalam: Utopia na New Mexico." Akwụkwọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke New Mexico 19: 123-34.

Kestenbaum, Sam. 2018. "Okpukpe E Chefuru Echefu Nweta Nke Abụọ na Brooklyn." The New York Times, June 7. Nweta site na https://www.nytimes.com/2018/06/07/nyregion/a-forgotten-religion-gets-a-second-chance-in-brooklyn.html na 23 February 2019.

Miller, Timoti. 2015. The Encyclopedic Guide to American Intentional Communities: Nke abụọ. Clinton, New York: Richard W. Couper Press.

Ebe nrụọrụ weebụ Ọbá Akwụkwọ Mahadum Ọchịchị New Mexico. "Shalam Colony." Nweta site na http://lib.nmsu.edu/exhibits/shalam/index.shtml na 23 February 2019.

Newbrough, John Ballou. 1891. Oahspe: Akwukwo Nso ohuru n’okwu nke Jehovih na ndi ozi ya. Boston, MA: ahtù Na-ekwusara Oahspe.

Perry, Wallace. 1953. “Ala dị ebube nke Shalam.” Southwest Nyochaa 38: 35-43.

Priestley, Lee. 1988. Shalam: Utopia na Rio Grande, 1881-1907. El Paso, TX: Texas Western Pịa.

Stoes, KD 1958. "Ala nke Shalam." Akwụkwọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke New Mexico 33: 1-23.

Stoes, KD 1958. "Ala nke Shalam." Akwụkwọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nke New Mexico 33: 103-27.

Ebe nrụọrụ weebụ Oahspe Foundation. Nweta site na http://www.eloinforest.org na 25 February 2019.

Ndi okwukwe Universal nke webusaiti Kosmon. 2013. Nweta site na http://www.universalfaithistsofkosmon.org/home.html na 23 February 2019.

Ụbọchị Mgbasa Ozi:
28 March 2019

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