James A. Santucci  

Theosophical Society

AKWOSKWỌ NDOS ỌR THE EGO

1831: Helena Petrovna Blavatsky mụrụ na August 12 ma ọ bụ July 31, dị ka kalenda Julian si dị, na Ekaterinoslav (Dnepropetrovsk), Ukraine.

1832 (August 2): Henry Steel Olcott mụrụ na Orange, New Jersey.

1849 (July 7): Blavatsky lụrụ Nikofor Blavatsky (1809 - 1887).

1849–1873: Blavatsky gbahapụrụ di ya wee gaa njem na Europe, Asia, North na South America, na Egypt n’afọ iri abụọ na anọ na-esote ruo mgbe ọ bịarutere US na 1873.

1854: Charles Webster Leadbeater mụrụ.

1873 (July 7): Blavatsky rutere New York City.

1874 (October 14): Blavatsky zutere Olcott maka oge mbụ na ụlọ ugbo Eddy na Chittenden, Vermont iji nyochaa ihe ime mmụọ.

1875: Theosophical Society ka akwadoro ma hazie.

1876: “olili ozu ndị ọgọ mmụọ” na ịkpọ ozu Baron de Palm mere.

1877 (Septemba): Blavatsky's A kpughere Isis e bipụtara.

1878: Theosophical Society gbanwere site na imeghe ọha mmadụ nzuzo.

1878: Theosophical Society jikọtara na Ārya Samāj nke Swāmī Dayānanda.

1878 (June 27): E guzobere Alaka London nke Theosophical Society, nke a maara dị ka "British Theosophical Society nke Arya Samaj nke Aryavart,".

1878–1879: Blavatsky na Olcott hapụrụ ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri New York gawa India na Disemba, tinyere nkwụsị n’ stongland, rute na mbido Jenụwarị.

1879 (Jenụwarị 17): Ndị isi oge ụfọdụ maka New York Theosophical Society, gụnyere General Abner Doubleday dị ka Onye isi ala, họpụtara oge-oge.

1879 (February): Blavatsky na Olcott rutere Bombay.

1879: Isi ụlọ ọrụ nwa oge nke Theosophical Society guzobere na 108 Girgaum Back Road.

1879: Ndị guzobere malitere nkwukọrịta ha na AP Sinnett, onye ndezi nke Ndị Ọsụ .zọ.

1879 (October): Mbipụta mbụ nke Theosophist pụtara.

1880 (May): Njegharị mbụ nke Ceylon mere. Mgbe ha nọ na Ceylon, ndị guzobere pānsil (ntụgharị).

1880 (October): Mahatmas malitere idegara AP Sinnett akwụkwọ. Akwụkwọ ozi ndị a gara n'ihu ruo 1886.

1881: AP Sinnett bụ nnukwu ọrụ mbụ, Ccwa Anwansi, bụ nke e bipụtara.

1882: Isi ụlọ ọrụ na-adịgide adịgide nke Theosophical Society guzobere na Adyar, Madras.

1882: E hiwere Society for Psychical Research.

1882: Anna Bonus Kingsford si Zọ Zuru Okè e bipụtara.

1883: AP Sinnett si Okpukpe Buddha Esoteric e bipụtara.

1883 (May): Anna Bonus Kingsford gụgharịrị aha aha The British Theosophical Society "London Lodge of theosophical Society."

1884: Hermetic Society ghọrọ onye nweere onwe ya pụọ ​​na London Lodge.

1884: Ọrịa Blavatsky dugara ya na arụkwaghịm ya dị ka odeakwụkwọ kwekọrọ na Theosophical Society.

1885 (June): SPR's Hodgson Report na-enyocha Mahatmas, akwụkwọ ozi ha, nsogbu mmụọ, na itinye aka Blavatsky wepụtara.

1886: Ihe odide ederede ezughi oke nke The Ozizi Nzuzo, Emeputara dika Würzburg Manuscript.

1887 (May 19): E guzobere "Blavatsky Lodge nke Theosophical Society" na London.

1888 (October 9): Otu ọhụụ ọhụrụ, "Akụkụ Esoteric nke Theosophical Society," ka Blavatsky kere dị ka "Isi."

1888:  Iwu Nzuzo ebipụta na mpịakọta abụọ.

1891 (May 8): HP Blavatsky nwụrụ mgbe ọ dị afọ iri ise na itoolu.

1891: Annie Besant na William Q. Onyeikpe ahọpụtara dị ka Isi nke Isi nke Schoollọ Akwụkwọ Ọwụwa Anyanwụ nke Theosophy.

1895: Nkewa nke Ngalaba America na Theosophical Society (Adyar) mere.

1896: (March 21): William Q. Onye ọka ikpe nwụrụ.

1906 (May 17): Ebubo ebubo omume rụrụ arụ megide CW Leadbeater, nke dugara na arụkwaghịm ya na Theosophical Society.

1907 (February 17): Onye isi oche nke Theosophical Society, Henry S. Olcott, nwụrụ.

1907: Annie Besant ghọrọ Onye isi oche nke abụọ nke Theosophical Society.

1908 (Disemba): Ebughachiri Leadbeater ịbụ onye otu na Theosophical Society.

1909: Leadbeater chọpụtara Jiddu Krishnamurti dị ka ụgbọ nke Onye Ozizi Worldwa.

1929: Krishnamurti gbawara Order nke Star na nkwupụta ịbụ ụgbọ nke Onye Ozizi Worldwa.

1933 (September 20): Annie Besant nwụrụ.

2014: Tim Boyd ghọrọ onyeisi oche nke Theosophical Society.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Na July 7, 1873 onye kwabatara Russia na n'oge na-adịghị anya ka ọ bụrụ onye ga-akwado ngalaba Theosophical Society, Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891), [Foto dị n'aka nri] rutere na New York City, na-akọwa na akwụkwọ ozi ya na Prọfesọ Hiram Corson na ọ bụ “onye Lodge m zitere n’aha eziokwu na ime mmụọ ime mmụọ nke oge a… ikpughe ihe dị, na ikpughe ihe na-abụghị” (Blavatsky nd: 127–28). Amụrụ na Ekaterinoslav na August 12, 1831 dị ka Helena Petrovna von Hahn, ndụ ya mbụ jupụtara na njem na njem. N’afọ 1848, ọ lụrụ nwoke karịrị afọ iri abụọ okenye ya, Nikofor Blavatsky (1809–1887), onye ọ hapụrụ n’oge na-adịghị anya ịga njem. O kwuru na njem ahụ bụ nyocha maka eziokwu na-enweghị isi na nkuzi anwansi, bụrụ ihe a na-akpọkarị magus, shaman bi na ụwa nke oge a na-achọ eziokwu esoteric ma ọ bụ karịa. Njem njem ya dị ọtụtụ, gụnyere Asia na North America, na-amalite site na mbata ya na New York City ma gbasaa site na afọ 1848 ruo 1873.

Nzukọ mbụ ya na Col. Henry Steel Olcott (1832-1907), [Foto dị n'aka nri] otu n'ime ndị na-akwado ntọala Theosophical Society, mere na ụlọ ọrụ ugbo Eddy na Chittenden, Vermont, ebe akụkọ banyere "ngosipụta nke mmụọ" bụ kọrọ. N'oge na-adịghị anya, ha ghọrọ ezigbo ndị ọrụ ibe na ndị na-emekọ ihe ọnụ na nyocha nke Spiritualism na, mgbe e mesịrị, mgbaasị. Ọ bụ ezie na nzụlite ha na ọdịmma ha dị iche iche, mmekọrịta ha mechara duga ntọala nke Theosophical Society the na-esote afọ, nke e bu ụzọ nye ndụmọdụ na Septemba 7 wee mechie ya na Okwu Mbido nke Onye isi ala ọhụrụ, Col. Olcott nyefere, [Foto dị n'aka nri] na Mott Memorial Hall na Madison Avenue na November 17, 1875 (Olcott 1974a: 136).

Nzube mbụ pụtara na Iwu na Iwu Iwu nke Theosophical Society, “Iji chịkọta ma kesaa ihe ọmụma nke iwu ndị na-achịkwa eluigwe na ala,” na-atụ aro na ihe ọmụma a chịkọtara nwere ike ịbụ ihe a na-ekwu na ihe ezi uche dị na ya. Na ọ nwere ike bụrụ ihe bara uru, echiche nke a na-elegharakarị anya, bụ Blavatsky na-atụ aro ya n'onwe ya, onye rụrụ ụka na ọmụmụ Occultism naanị site na mmụta akwụkwọ ezughi oke; ahụmịhe na omume onwe onye ga-esonyere ọmụmụ ihe a (Blavatsky 1988a: 103). Ọzọkwa, na mbido Septemba 1875, o kwuru na njem na mpaghara Ọwụwa Anyanwụ wouldwa “ga-arụpụta ọsịsọ dị ngwa, nke ka mma, na nke bara uru karịa ọmụmụ ihe siri ike nke akwụkwọ mgbaasị” (Blavatsky 1988b: 133; Deveney 1997: 44 ). Afọ abụọ ka e mesịrị, o dere, sị: “Anyị na-arịọ maka eziokwu n'ihe niile: ebumnuche anyị bụ nghọta zuru oke nke ime mmụọ nke mmadụ nwere ike ime; ịgbasawanye nke ihe omuma ya, iji ikike nke nkpuru obi ya mee ihe, nke uche uche nile nke idi ya ”(Blavatsky 1895: 302; Deveney 1997: 44, note 108). N'ime omume ndị a niile na mmeta ime mmụọ nke pụtara ìhè bụ ikike ịkọwa ahụ astral ma ọ bụ "amụma astral" n'ihi na a na-ewere ya dị ka "mmeri kachasị elu nke anwansi" (Deveney 1997: 17).

N'ezie, ịnwale iji zuo okè n'ụzọ ime mmụọ bụ otu n'ime isi ihe kpatara ya, ma ọ bụrụ na ọ bụghị naanị ihe kpatara ya, kpatara Theosophical Society ghọrọ ọha nzuzo na 1878 ma ọ bụ tupu. Nzuzo kwere ka onye ọrụ ahụ bulie ọrụ a n'enweghị nsogbu nke ndị na-akwadoghị ma ọ bụ ndị na-amaghị mkpa ọ dị. E kwuru na nzukọ nke Theosophical Society dị ka ọha mmadụ nzuzo dị ka akụkụ ikpeazụ nke 1875 ma ọ bụ mmalite 1876 na nzaghachi na Prọfesọ Hiram Corson na-akatọ okwu mmalite nke Olcott nyere na November 17, 1875. Olcott kwuru na Society na-atụle a òtù nzuzo ka “anyị nwere ike ịchụso ọmụmụ ihe anyị nke okwu ụgha na inpertinences [sic] nke ndị ọzọ na-emeghị ka ha kwụsị ”(Deveney 1997: 49, note 123), ndị otu a na-ekwu maka ya bụ otu n’ime ndị sonyere na ntọala Theosophical Society, Charles Sotheran (1847–1902). Nkwuputa nke mgbanwe a na ọha nzuzo pụtara na okirikiri nke ụbọchị Mee 3, 1878, na-akọwa Society dị ka nkewa ụzọ atọ, nkewa nkewa nkewa ụzọ atọ. Ihe nlere maka otu nzuzo na ngalaba nkebi ya nwere ike ịbụ nke sitere n'aka Royal Oriental Order nke Sât B'hai, otu ndị Masonic nke ọtụtụ ndị Theosophists, gụnyere Sotheran, bụ ndị otu (Loft 2018).

Agbanyeghị na ndị guzobere ya (Olcott na Blavatsky) nọrọ na New York naanị afọ atọ, ihe ole na ole dị mkpa mere, ngbanwe gaa otu nzuzo bụ otu n'ime ndị a ime. N'ime otu oge a tụgharịrị ya na nzukọ nzuzo, Society jikọtara ya na Ārya Samāj (nke hibere na 1875) nke Swāmī Dayānanda Sarasvatī (1824-1883), [Foto dị n'aka nri] bụ Theosophical Society na-ahụkwa ebumnuche ha. dị ka ịbụ mmekọrịta na ihe mgbaru ọsọ ya. N'okwu nke Blavatsky, e hiwere Ārya Samāj “iji chekwaa ndị Hindu site n'ekpere arụsị ndị ọzọ, Brâhmanism na ndị ozi ala ọzọ nke Ndị Kraịst" (Blavatsky 1988d: 381). Mkpakọrịta a yiri ka ọ na-akwado nkwupụta a mechara na ebumnuche nke Society bụ ịgbasa echiche nke Ọwụwa Anyanwụ, mana site n'echiche ọhụụ, nke usoro ikpo okwu ọhụrụ nke "hoodmụnna Humanmụ Mmadụ" nke pụtara na mbụ na May 1878 okirikiri "Theosophical Society : Mbido ya, Atụmatụ ya na ebumnuche ya ”(Blavatsky 1988c: 375-78). Okwu a adịkarịghị na akwụkwọ ahụ, mana o yikarịrị ka echiche a ọ malitere ịdị mkpa site na mbipụta nke ọrụ mbụ mbụ nke Blavatsky, Ekpughere Isis, na 1877, nke na-ezo aka n'echiche a (Blavatsky 1982: II: 238).

Ihe omume atọ ọzọ mere n'oge afọ New York: ozu ozu Baron de Palm, mbipụta nke Blavatsky's Ekpughere Isis, na nhazi nke British Theosophical Society.

Thegba ozu Baron de Palm, onye otu Theosophical Society nwụrụ obere oge amachara ya, bụ mmemme abụghị nke dị oke mkpa na akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Society, mana ọrụ “ndị ọgọ mmụọ” nke Olcott na ndị otu ọzọ Theosophical Society chepụtara. na May 28, 1876 na mkpofu ozu ahụ site n'ịkpọ ozu ya na December 6 dị mkpa naanị n'ihi nlebara anya dị ukwuu ọ kpaliri n'etiti ọha mmadụ. Ọ bụrụ na enweghị ihe ọzọ, omume ndị a mere ka ọha mmadụ bụrụ ọha na eze n’oge ọnwa ikpeazụ nke 1876 (Olcott 1974a: 147–84).

N'afọ sochirinụ hụrụ akwụkwọ nke Blavatsky's Ekpughere Isis, otu akwụkwọ gbara akwụkwọ nwere mpịakọta abụọ, nke nwere peeji 1268 iji bụrụ “isi ihe ọmụma banyere omimi nke sayensị na nkà mmụta okpukpe nke oge ochie na nke oge a.” Mbipụta ya na Septemba 1877 mere ka ndị nwere mmụọ mmụọ na ndị nwere mmasị na anwansi na sayensị wee nwee mmasị dị ukwuu n'ihi oke nke mpịakọta na isi ya iji ghọta Nzuzo na ngosipụta ya site na ikpughe amamihe Chineke ruo ugbu a. Dị ka a chịkọtara na Mpịakọta nke abụọ, Blavatsky (1982: II: 590) dere, sị:

Ichikota ihe niile na nkpuru okwu ole na ole, IJU OMA bu Amamihe ime mmuo; okike, mmekorita nke ihe onwunwe, nwa akwukwo na odibo nke onye anwansi. Otu ụkpụrụ dị mkpa gbara ọkpụrụkpụ jupụtara n'ihe niile, na uche mmadụ zuru oke na-achịkwa nke a. Ihe adept nwere ike ime ka mmeghari nke ikike ndi sitere n'okike na osisi na anumanu di na ala. Nnwale ndị dị otú a abụghị igbochi okike, kama ọ bụ nnweta ngwa ngwa; enyere ọnọdụ nke ime ihe siri ike.

A kpughere Isis mesiri ike iji "anwansi" ma ọ bụghị "Theosophy" dị ka akara maka amamihe Chineke, na-ekwusi ike na ọ gụnyere ma nkwa nke nsonaazụ bara uru na mgbakwunye na ihe ọmụma dị mfe nke ikike okike zoro ezo nke gụnyere Wisdom.

Ihe omume nke atọ ga - eme bụ nhazi nke British Theosophical Society nke Arya Samaj nke Aryavart (Olcott 1974a: 473-76; ITYBa: 82-84). Dị ka e kwuworo, nke a mere na June 27, 1878, mkpa ọ dị bụ na ọ bụ alaka mbụ a haziri na Europe. (ITYBa: 97), British Theosophical Society na-anọchite anya mmalite nke nzukọ ụlọ ọrụ nke Society. British Theosophical Society dị mkpa karịsịa n'ihi ọnụọgụ nke ndị ama ama sonyere na Society, gụnyere Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913), William Crookes (1832–1919), na mmadụ abụọ ndị ga-abịa n'afọ ndị na-abịanụ ma na-edu ma gbanwee ọtụtụ nkuzi Theosophical, Annie Besant (1847-1933), na CW Leadbeater (1854–1934).

Oge n'oge nkwadebe nke A kpughere Isis, Olcott bịara na mkpebi iji biri na India kpamkpam (Gomes 1987: 159). Otu n'ime ihe kpatara ya bụ mmekọrịta Olcott na ndị na-ede akwụkwọ Asia, akwụkwọ Asia, na mmeghe Asia na Theosophy (Prothero 1996: 62-63). Otu onye maara, Moolji Thackersey, onye Olcott zutere n'oge dị ka 1870 (Olcott 1974a: 395), sonyeere Theosophical Society na 1877, Asia mbụ na-eme ya. Ọ bụ Thackersey bụ onye mere ka onye nkụzi ya, Dayānanda Sarasvatī (Johnson 1995: 19-20), wee guzobe njikọ nke Society na Ārya Samāj onye nkuzi ya. Dabere na Prothero (1996: 62-63), mkpebi ha ịkwaga India mechara gbanwee ozi nke Theosophical Society site na mgbanwe nke ime mmụọ na nke mbubata amamihe Asia na United States (Ransom 1938: 105).

Site na ngbanwe nke ebumnuche a na ọhụụ, Olcott zubere maka ịga n'ihu na-arụ ọrụ na Society na New York City site na ịpụta "Iwu nke Mba Ọzọ nke 1" na Jenụwarị 1879 na-ahọpụta ndị isi na-arụchitere Olcott na Blavatsky n'azụ mgbe ha lara. Onye ahọpụtara n’oge na-adịbeghị anya, General Abner Doubleday (1819-1893), onye ọchịagha ama ama n’obodo, ka a họpụtara ịbụ Onye isi ala, oge adim. Na mgbakwunye, a họpụtara David A. Curtis, onye nta akụkọ, ka ọ bụrụ odeakwụkwọ kwekọrọ, oge adim, George Valentine Maynard Treasurer, na William Quan Judge Recording Secretary (Ihe mgbapụta 1938: 124).

Ka ọnwa nke iri na asatọ dị na mkpụrụ ụbọchị iri abụọ na asatọ, ndị bidoro hapụ New York City gawa mba Ingland na mbido njem ha, rute n’ụbọchị afọ ọhụrụ. Ha gawara Bombay na February 18, 16, bịarute na February 1879. N’abalị asaa nke ọnwa Maachị, ha guzobere isi ụlọ ọrụ ha mbụ na 25 Girgaum Back Road na Bombay, nke ga-abụkwa ngalaba alaka Bombay nke Society.

Otu n'ime ndị Anglo-India mbụ kelere ma mee enyi bụ Alfred Percy Sinnett (1840-1921), [Foto dị n'aka nri] onye editọ nke Ndị Ọsụ .zọ nke Allahabad, akwụkwọ akụkọ dị egwu nke ndekọ. Sinnett na-ekwukarị banyere mmemme nke ndị guzobere mgbe ha rutere, gụnyere atụmatụ ha ibipụta akwụkwọ akụkọ, Theosophist, mbipụta ya nke pụtara na Ọktoba 1879 (Gomes 2001: 155). Theosophist ka na-aga n'ihu na-ebipụta Adyar, Chennai (nke a na-akpọbu Madras).

Ka ọ na-erule Mee 1880, Blavatsky na Olcott gara njem na Ceylon (Sri Lanka) iji guzobe alaka ụlọ ọrụ nke Society. Mgbe ha nọ na Ceylon, ha abụọ were pānsil (Pāli pañcasīla) ma ọ bụ tụgharịa na okpukpe Buddha na May 25. N’otu ụbọchị ahụ ka e hiwere Galle Theosophical Society (Ransom 1938: 143), nke bụ nke mbụ n’ime ọtụtụ Alaka Sinhalese guzobere.

Aha Blavatsky maka imepụta ihe gbasara mmụọ tupu ọ bịarute India, ikike o ji obi ya gosipụta. Na mgbakwunye, ya ugboro ugboro zoro aka na "Brothersmụnna," "Mahatmas," [<Sanskrit mahā + ātma-: “Onye Mkpụrụ Obi Dị Ukwuu”> mahātma-] ma ọ bụ “Nna-ukwu” dugara n’arịrịọ nke ga-amalite usoro nkwukọrịta site n’akwụkwọ ozi dị n’etiti ụmụnna abụọ ahụ na Sinnett. Ihe kpatara mmasi a bụ n'ihi nkwupụta Blavatsky na ndị Mahatmas, ọkachasị ndị nkuzi ya bụ Koot Hoomi na Morya, bụ ihe mmalite nke nkuzi ya metụtara Amamihe Chineke.

Mmasị na Amamihe Chineke na ọchịchọ ịnwekwuo nkọwa banyere mkpughe ya dugara na Oriakụ Sinnett rịọrọ, na-agwa Blavatsky, "iji nweta akwụkwọ ozi site n'aka otu n'ime Brothersmụnna ahụ." Arịrịọ a, emere na Septemba 29, 1880, mechara rụpụta nloghachi site na Mahatma (Olcott 1974b: 231–32). N'oge na-adịghị anya mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, Sinnett kọọrọ na ya degara otu n'ime ormụnna ma ọ bụ Mahatmas akwụkwọ ozi, nke enyere ya site n'aka Blavatsky. Mgbe ahụ, natara nzaghachi na Ọktoba 17, 1880 site n'aka Nwanna kpọrọ onwe ya "Koot 'Hoomi Lal Singh." Nke a malitere n'akwụkwọ ozi dị n'etiti Sinnett na Mahatmas abụọ (Koot Hoomi [KH] na Morya [M.]) nke gụrụ akwụkwọ ozi karịrị otu narị na iri anọ e nyefere n'etiti 140 na 1880. Ọ bụ ezie na edeghị akwụkwọ ozi ahụ n'ozuzu ha ruo mgbe mkpokọta AT Barker na 1886, ndị Mmetụta nke akwụkwọ ozi ndị enwetara n'etiti 1923 na 1881 bụ n'ihi nsonye nke ọdịnaya ihe ọmụma ha na akwụkwọ Sinnett, Okpukpe Buddha, na 1883. Tụkwasị na nke ahụ, akwụkwọ ahụ gosipụtara njikọta nke na-enweghị mgbe ụfọdụ ihe odide Blavatsky. Ọzọkwa, e webatara ụzọ ọhụrụ ma ọ bụ nke edegharịrị na nkuzi Theosophical, dịka nhazi nke cosmos na nghọta ọhụrụ banyere ịlọ ụwa, yana nkwenye siri ike na nkuzi Vedic, Vedāntic, na Buddhist. Ngosiputa mgbanwe di otua ma gbasaa nke oma na Blavatsky's Iwu Nzuzo '' (Blavatsky 1974), nke, mgbe e bipụtasịrị ya na 1888, ghọrọ isi iyi nke ozizi Theosophical.

Ọ bụ ezie na Theosophists nabatara verac ahụSite na ịdị adị nke Mahatma dị ka ndị ọrụ onwe ha bụ ndị bụ isi iyi nke ozizi Theosophical, ajụjụ mechara bilie, ọkachasị site na Society for Psychical Research (1882) guzobere n'oge na-adịbeghị anya. Nnyocha abụọ nke ihe gbasara mmụọ na-akpata na Theosophical Society: nke mbụ bụ akụkọ "oge na nke mbụ" nke enyere na December 1884 na-esote akụkọ ọha na-enweghị atụ nke onye nchọpụta SPR nyefere, Richard Hodgson (1855-1905), [Foto dị n'aka nri] nke n'afọ na-eso ya (June 1885), butere nsonazụ ndị na-emebi Society na aha Blavatsky.

Nke abụọ ma ọ bụ "Hodgson" Report, kwubiri n'ụzọ doro anya na nkwupụta nke Society na Blavatsky bụ aghụghọ. Hodgson nọrọ ọnwa atọ iji nyochaa nkwupụta nke Society n'isi ụlọ ọrụ ọhụrụ nke Society na Adyar, Madras. Gụnyere nyocha nke Hodgson bụ akwụkwọ ozi ekwere na Blavatsky dere na Coulombs: Madame Coulomb, onye maara ya na onye na-elekọta ụlọ Blavatsky n'isi ụlọ ọrụ Adyar, na di ya, Alexis Coulomb, onye rụrụ ọrụ na ala ahụ dị ka onye ọrụ ubi na ọkwá nkà. Mgbe a chụsịrị ha n'isi ụlọ ọrụ, ha gakwuuru ndị ozi ala ọzọ jikọtara na Magazin Christian College ma kwenye na ndị na-emegide Theosophical Society na Blavatsky, na-azọrọ na Blavatsky mere aghụghọ banyere ihe omume ime mmụọ metụtara ya na akwụkwọ ozi Mahatmas ndị e chere na ọ bụ Blavatsky dere na-ekweta na aghụghọ a ka e bipụtara na Magazin Christian College malite na nke Septemba 1884. Akwụkwọ ha bụ oge zuru oke ka ndị nyocha SPR kpọtụrụ ha na Akuko Mbụ, mana ọ bụghị ime mkpebi doro anya banyere eziokwu ha (Akuko Mbụ, peeji nke 6).

N'akụkọ sochirinụ Hodgson nyochara azịza nke akwụkwọ ozi Blavatsky-Coulomb, gụnyere ọrụ nke "Shrine" ma ọ bụ kabinet dị na "Occult Room" n'isi ụlọ ọrụ Adyar, bụ ebe e nyefere ọtụtụ akwụkwọ ozi ahụ, na ihe ndị ọzọ emere ka a mata na Ccwa Anwansi. Na akụkọ ahụ ọ jụrụ eziokwu nke ọtụtụ ndị akaebe na-ekwu na ịdị adị nke Mahatmas, na-agbakwunye na Blavatsky bụ onye dere akwụkwọ ozi Mahatma n'ezie (Akwụkwọ edemede Mahatma Iji AP Sinnett si Mahatmas M. & KH 1998), ma kwubie na enweghi ezigbo mmetụ nke mmụọ ma ọ bụ nke anwansi nwere ike ịchọpụta ma ọ bụ gosipụta banyere ngwakọta nke mkpụrụedemede ma ọ bụ ụzọ isi napụta ha na Mahatmas (Hodgson 1885: 312–13). Iji mee ka ihe ka njọ maka Blavatsky, Hodgson kpọlitere enyo gọọmentị Britain tupu ya ahapụ New York na ọ bụ onye nledo Russia na nkwupụta na Theosophical Society abụghị ihe ọ bụla karịa nzukọ ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị.

Akụkọ Hodgson, ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ ndị lere ya anya dị ka mkpebi a na-agbagha agbagha na ndị guzobere ya na Society, ka otu narị afọ gachara, onye ọkachamara aka edemede na onye otu SPR, Dr. Vernon Harrison gbara aka. Na ma edemede pụtara na Akwụkwọ akụkọ nke Society for Psychical Research (1986) na na a na-esonụ akwụkwọ (HP Blavatsky na SPR), Harrison nyochara nyocha Hodgson nke akwụkwọ ozi Mahatma wee kwubie na aka aka Blavatsky dị iche na Mahatmas KH na M., na-atụ aro na ọ bụrụ na ọ dere akwụkwọ ozi ndị ahụ, ọ gaghị enwe ike ime "n'amaghị ama na ụma" mana "n'ọnọdụ ọhụụ, ihi ụra, ma ọ bụ ọnọdụ ndị ọzọ gbanwere agbanwe nke ịmara… KH na M nwere ike iwere dị ka ndị mmadụ nke Helena Blavatsky. Banyere Hodgson, Harrison nwere okwu ụfọdụ siri ike maka usoro nyocha ya, na-achọpụta na "Hodgson dị njikere iji ihe akaebe ọ bụla, agbanyeghị obere ma ọ bụ ihe na-enyo enyo, iji gosipụta HPB" yana "eleghara ihe akaebe niile nwere ike iji mee ya anya" (Harrison 1986) : 309; Harrison 1997: viii). Dabere na nchọpụta ndị a, Harrison lere ikpe ahụ megide Blavatsky anya dị ka "B NOTGH PR B PR BOV BOV BOV BOV BOV BOV BOV BOV BOV BOV BOV BOV E gosipụtara na-na Scots"

N'ime oge akụkọ abụọ SPR ahụ, Blavatsky gbara arụkwaghịm ya dị ka odeakwụkwọ kwekọrọ na ya n'ihi ọrịa (Olcott 1972: 229-32), mgbe nke a gasịrị ọ hapụrụ India gaa Europe, mechaa biri na Würzburg site na August 1885. Ọ bụ na Würzburg ka ọ kwadebere ihe odide oge ochie, nke a maara dị ka Akwụkwọ Würzburg, nke ga-emecha mara dị ka Iwu Nzuzo (Olcott 1972: 322-29). Nzube mbụ nke ọrụ ahụ bụ iji dozie ọtụtụ njehie ndị dị na ya A kpughere Isis, ma olee mgbe Okpukpe Buddha Esoteric pụtara na 1883 o kpebiri na nke a ezughi oke na ọ bụghị eziokwu. Emechara Ozizi Nzuzo, nke pụtara naanị na njedebe nke 1888 (Mpịakọta I) na mmalite 1889 (Mpịakọta nke Abụọ), bụ nkọwa kachasị ọhụrụ na nke ziri ezi banyere nkuzi esoteric. Mpịakọta abụọ ahụ nwere peeji 1,473 na, dị ka A kpughere Isis tupu ya, ga-aghọ isi ederede Theosophical na-akọwapụta nkuzi Theosophical (Santucci 2016: 111–21).

Tupu mbipụta nke mpịakọta mbụ nke Ozizi Nzuzo, Blavatsky tinyere ọrụ abụọ dị mkpa: "Blavatsky Lodge nke Theosophical Society" na "Esoteric Section nke Theosophical Society." Blavatsky Lodge bilitere na esemokwu n'etiti ndị isi na ndị otu British Theological Society, ọkachasị n'etiti ndị soro Sinnett na ndị soro Blavatsky na Olcott. Nke a abụghị nke mbụ esemokwu kpatara ọgba aghara na Theosophical Society nke Britain, nke aha ya bụ London Lodge na 1883. Site na 1880 ruo 1885, ọtụtụ ndị otu ya lere Theosophy anya ka ọ bụrụ onye Westernized ma ọ bụ Christian Theosophy karịa, ọ bụghịkwa “okwu nduhie Buddhist ”Ozizi Olcott na ozizi“ Ọwụwa Anyanwụ ”nke Nna-ukwu“ Koot Hoomi, ”ndị nke abụọ a ma ama na Sinnett Okpukpe Buddha Esoteric (Maitland 1913: 104). Nke a Christian Theosophy gosipụtara nke ọma na isi ọrụ Anna Bonus Kingsford (1846-1888), Zọ Zuru Okè, nke e bipụtara na 1882. Sinnett, onye biri na London site na 1883, na-esote afọ ya dị ka nchịkọta akụkọ Ndị Ọsụ .zọ ke India, ama afan̄a ye ndudue oro Kingsford ye Maitland ẹkesiode n̄wed esie. Esemokwu dị n'etiti echiche ndị Kingsford-Maitland banyere Theosophy (ntụgharị, "Esoteric Christianity") na nkuzi nke ndị Nna-ukwu, mechara duga na ndokwa Olcott chepụtara na okike nke “Hermetic Society” nọọrọ onwe ya na 1884, nke masịrị ndị na-eso Kingsford na Maitland. Ndokwa ahụ mere ka o kwe ndị otu ahụ ohere igosipụta Theosophies site na isonye na Hermetic Society na London Lodge, ọnọdụ a machibidoro site na nhazi mbụ (Olcott 1972: 100-01; Maitland 1913: 186, rịba ama 3).

Ọnọdụ dị na London Lodge nọgidere na-adịgide adịgide maka afọ atọ sochirinụ ruo mgbe Blavatsky bịarutere London na 1887, na-eduga na esemokwu ọhụrụ n'etiti ndị Sinnett na ndị otu Blavatsky-Olcott. Nsonaazụ ahụ yiri ihe omume nke 1884, na atụmatụ emere n'oge Mee 1887 iji mepụta Llọ ọhụrụ nke ga-anọghị na London Lodge. Ihe okike nke Blavatsky Lodge bidoro oge ohuru nke Theosophical akụkọ ihe mere eme na Britain site na ịhapụ London Lodge ka ọ bụrụ obere ọnọdụ (Olcott 1975: 26, 450; Sinnett 1922: 87-88). Ọzọkwa, Blavatsky ga-abanye n'otu mpaghara dị naanị n'oge Olcott, nke nlekọta. Ugbu a, ọ na-ebu ọrụ ịgbasa ozizi Theosophical site na ụlọ ọrụ dị iche na ndị isi Adyar Society (gụnyere Blavatsky Lodge, akụkụ Esoteric na-esote, na ngalaba Europe) na site na magazin ọhụrụ ya. lucifa, nke guzobere na Septemba 1887 na Blavatsky dị ka onye nchịkọta akụkọ na onye edemede Mabel Collins (1851–1927).

Ntọala nke "Ngalaba Esoteric nke Theosophical Society" na October 9, 1888, na Blavatsky dị ka Outer Head, bụ akụkụ nke nnwere onwe ya na nchịkwa Adyar. A na-eme nkuzi ya niile na ihe omume ya na nzuzo, ya mere ọ dị ka nchegharị nke Theosophical Society gbanwere na otu nzuzo na 1878. Na nke a, agbanyeghị, ọ bụ nzukọ dị iche n'okpuru onye ndu dị iche. N'ikpeazụ, degharịrị aha Schoollọ Akwụkwọ Ọwụwa Anyanwụ nke Theosophy otu afọ mgbe e mesịrị, na mgbe e mesịrị ka Esoteric School of Theosophy, otlọ Akwụkwọ Esoteric ugbu a na-enwe otu ọnọdụ ahụ-na-Theosophical Society.

A haziri nzukọ ọzọ ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ otu afọ tupu Blavatsky anwụ na 1891, mgbe ọ ghọrọ onye isi nke Ngalaba Europe. E lebara ihe a anya na Nzukọ General General nke British Section Council. A kpaliri ya na "Llọ ndị a na-ejikọtaghị ọnụ na ndị otu ejikọtaghị - na-edo onwe ha n'okpuru ikike ya," yana ndị ngalaba Britain sonyere na atụmatụ a "na a ga-ebufe ikike iwu obodo, nke Colonel HS Olcott gosipụtara ugbu a na Europe. HPB na Council Advisory ya, ndị ahọpụtara ka ha rụọ akụkụ nke ụdị ọrụ a na United Kingdom ”(Old and Keightley 1890: 429). Blavatsky kwetara na nhọpụta ya dị ka Onye isi oche nke Society na Europe, ihe kpatara ebumnuche bụ ka ndị isi alaka ụlọ ọrụ wee mara Blavatsky nke ọma karịa ndị isi na nchịkwa etiti India. Ngalaba Europe ndị sonyeere na ndokwa a gụnyere London Lodge na Lodges niile nke Ngalaba Britain, Hermes Lodge (Paris), Swedish Theosophical Society (Stockholm), Societé Altruiste, Nantes, Corfu Theosophical Society, Spanish Theosophical Society (Madrid), na essatù Odessa. Olcott kwenyere na mkpebi a site na iziga iwu, nke ụbọchị 8 nke July 1890, na-akwado Theosophical Society na Europe. Akụkụ nke usoro a ghọtara na ngalaba Europe nwere nnwere onwe zuru oke dịka Ngalaba America (Olcott 1890: 520).

N'agbanyeghị ikike ọchịchị ọhụrụ ya na afọ ikpeazụ ya, onyinye ya dị ukwuu na Society bụ mmalite nke nkuzi Theosophical. Ka ọ na-agafe na May 8, 1891, otu isi nke akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Theosophical Society bịara na njedebe. Ndị isi a ma ama na-esote ọnwụ Blavatsky nwere njikọ chiri anya na nkuzi ya bụ William Q. Judge (1851-1896), theosophical Voice na America, na Annie Wood Besant (1847–1933), onye na-ewe akwụkwọ n'oge na-adịbeghị anya onye ga-abụ onye na-ekwuchitere ya na onye nnọchi anya olu maka Adyar Society.

Onye ikpe [Foto dị n'aka nri] mụrụ na Dublin na 1851, kwagara America na 1864, ghọrọ onye ọka iwu, na 1875 bụ akụkụ nke otu iri na isii ndị sonyere n'ịtọlite ​​Theosophical Society. Ọtụtụ afọ ka e mesịrị, a tụlere ya, ya na Blavatsky na Olcott, otu n'ime ndị isi atọ guzobere, ọkachasị ndị nọ na okirikiri America (Onyeikpe 2009: xix-xxii). Ihe dị iche n'etiti Onye ọka ikpe na ndị ahụ "guzobere" iri na atọ ahụ bụ nnọgidesi ike na iguzosi ike n'ihe nke Theosophical, ịkwado Theosophy, nhazi nke Theosophical Society na America, na ikike iduzi.

Dika onye otu ndebe iwu nke Theosophical Society, Onye ikpe jere ozi dika Onye Ndụmọdụ nye Society na mbido ya. Ka ọ na-erule oge Olcott na Blavatsky hapụrụ India na 1878, agbanyeghị, Theosophy na America nọ na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma ma na-abanye na ndị otu. E nyere Onye Isi Nchịkwa Iwu, Abner Doubleday ntuziaka sitere n'aka Olcott ka ọ rụọ ọrụ opekempe ruo mgbe a ga-egosipụtapụta ebumnuche nke mmụọ na ebumnuche nke Society. Omume a kwụsịrị na 1884 mgbe Onye ọka ikpe ghọrọ General Secretary nke American Theosophical Society na Doubleday ka na-anọgide dị ka Onye isi ala. Site n'oge a gaa n'ihu, Onye ọka ikpe malitere ikerekwu òkè n'ihe omume nke Society. N'agbanyeghị ike na ike ya na-arịwanye elu, n'oge na-adịghị anya, o zutere onye na-emegide Elliott Coues (1842-1899), onye ọkà mmụta ornithologist na naturalist nke aha ya bụ onye sonyere na Society na 1884 na onye ghọrọ onye isi ọkpụkpọ afọ ole na ole. O guzobere Alaka Gnostic nke Theosophical Society na Washington, DC wee jee ozi dị ka Onye isi oche nke American Board of Control, otu ọhụrụ nke ezubere ịrụ ọrụ nke Alaka America. Ọ bụ nchegbu kachasị mkpa nke Onye ọka ikpe, agbanyeghị, onye na-eme mkpesa mgbe ụfọdụ na ndị nne na nna na-enwe obi ọjọọ n'ebe Onyeikpe nọ. Asọmpi dị n’etiti ha abụọ bụ nke mwakpo site na mwakpo ndị Coues na Blavatsky (ọka ikpe 2010d: 150–51), nke dugara na nchụpụ ya na Society na 1889, si otú a na-enye Onyeikpe ikike iburu ọrụ ka ukwuu na American Theosophy.

Ọ bụ ezie na a na-akwanyere onye ndu Onyeikpe ùgwù nke ukwuu, nsogbu bilitere banyere nduzi nke Theosophical Society na esemokwu sitere na otu esoteric group a maara dị ka HB nke L. (Hermetic Brotherhood nke Luxor). Okwu a bụ ma Theosophical Society ga-arụ ọrụ karịa nzukọ a na-atụghị anya ya (nke dabere na ọmụmụ na nchụso ọgụgụ isi) ma ọ bụ dịka nke bara uru karịa site n'ịkwado usoro ọzụzụ mgbaasị iji nweta ikike metụtara "adepts" dị ka Blavatsky kọwara. O doro anya na ọtụtụ ndị otu họọrọ nke ikpeazụ ahụ mgbe a chọpụtara na ọnụọgụ dị ukwuu, gụnyere ọtụtụ ndị American Board of Control, ndị na-achị achị nke Theosophical Society na 1885 na 1886, bụkwa ndị otu HB nke L. Nke a ihe ịma aka nke HB nke L. jụrụ maka Theosophical Society, karịsịa na America, nwere ike ịbụ isi ihe kpatara Blavatsky ji guzobe Esoteric Section. Ọ bụ iji gbochie “mgbaasị bara uru” nke HB nke L. (Godwin, Chanel, na Deveney 1995: 6-7; Bowen na Johnson 2016: 197).

N'agbanyeghị nsogbu ndị a, Theosophical Society gbasaa na America. E wezụga ihe ịga nke ọma ya, Onye ọka ikpe gara n'ihu ịnakwere echiche ahụ bụ na Aryan Theosophical Society na New York bụ ezigbo Nne na Nna ọ bụghị Theosophical Society na Adyar. Na nzaghachi ajuju banyere “Nne na nna Theosophical Society, ”Onye ọka ikpe zaghachiri na ọ bụrụ na e nwere‘ Nne na Nna ọ bụla ’dị adị, mgbe ahụ ọ bụ Āryan, n’ihi na ndị otu na-ahụ maka ọrụ ya bụ naanị ndị fọdụrụ ebe a maka Ngalaba mbụ ebidoro, ebe Mme. Blavatsky na

Col. Olcott bụ ndị guzobere Alaka a nke ghọrọ ndị Aryan mgbe ha lawara. ” ("Ọrụ Theosophical" 1886: 30). Nkwupụta a ga-eche na ọ dị mkpa n'ihi ihe ndị mere na 1895, mgbe Ngalaba America kwupụtara nnwere onwe ya site na Adyar. Ihe kpatara nkewa a na onye ọka ikpe na onye otu na Theosophical Society, Annie Besant na-adịbeghị anya. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Besant sonyeere Society na May 1889, mana arụmụka arụmụka ya na ime ihe ike mere ya onye ọnụ na-ekwuru na onye nnọchi anya nke Theosophical Society.

Mgbe Blavatsky nwụsịrị na 1891, Besant, onye bụbu Onye isi ala nke Blavatsky Lodge na London, nọchiri Blavatsky dị ka Isi nke Isi nke Akwụkwọ Ọwụwa Anyanwụ nke Theosophy (aha ọhụrụ maka ngalaba Esoteric). Besant keere ọfịs ahụ na WQ Judge, onye bụkwa Onye isi oche nke Aryan Theosophical Society (New York), Secretary General maka ngalaba America, na onye isi oche nke Theosophical Society. Dika onye isi ndi isi nke EST Judge bu onye nochitere anya America, ebe Besant bu onye isi nke ndi ozo nke uwa, nhazi nke agagh adi ogologo oge.

Usoro ihe omume nke mere n’afọ 1893-1895, nke akpọrọ “Ikpe Ikpe” gbadoro ụkwụ n’ikpe onye ọka ikpe na-ezipụ sitere na Mahatmas n’ezi ndị otu, tinyere ebum n’uche ya ime nke a (Forray 2016: 14). Ntụle a gbara onye ọka ikpe na-ekwu maka iziga ozi ndị a mere ka otu kọmitii ikpe mara ya na 1893 na 1894. Ka o sina dị, Oriakụ Besant tụpụtara mkpebi na nzukọ Society na Disemba 1894 na Adyar na Onye ọka ikpe gbara arụkwaghịm osote onye isi ala nke Theosophical Society. Kama ido onwe ha n'okpuru mkpebi a, Onye ọka ikpe na ngalaba America tozuru oke ikwupụta nnwere onwe sitere na Adyar Society n'oge mgbakọ America nke Eprel na Eprel 1895. Nzukọ ọhụrụ e hibere ọhụrụ, "Theosophical Society in America," họpụtara Onye isi oche Onyeikpe maka ndụ (Santucci 2005b) : 1119).

Mgbe ọnwụ Onyeikpe na 1896 gasịrị, Ernest T. Hargrove (1870-1939) ghọrọ Onye isi oche ọhụrụ nke Theosophical Society na America, mana ezi ike nyefere onye isi nke Eastern School of Theosophy metụtara nzukọ a. Emechara ka amata onye Isi nke bụ Katherine Tingley (1847–1929), onye dochiri Hargrove dịka Onye isi ala 1897. Na-esochi mbọ na-enweghị isi iji weghachite ike n'oge mgbakọ 1898, Hargrove hiwere otu nke ya, na-ekwupụta na ọ bụ ezi Theosophical Otu dị na America. Isi ụlọ ọrụ ya dị na New York City, mana aha ya gbanwere aha ya na "Theosophical Society" na 1908 (Greenwalt 1978: 14-19, 37-40).

Ka ọ dị ugbu a, Annie Besant bịara tinye aka na ọrụ nke onye nkuzi na-ewu ewu na onye edemede anwansi na onye nyocha nke mmụọ, Charles Webster Leadbeater (1854-1934) site na 1890 ruo mgbe ọ bara uru na ndị isi oche ya (1907-1933). Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụghị ya onwe ya bụ mmụọ, ọ bụ n'ihi mmetụta ya mere ka ọdịmma ya si n'okpukpe gaa na mgbaasị anwansi n'oge a. Ka ọ na-erule afọ 1895, a malitere imekọ ihe ọnụ iji chọpụta ọtụtụ ihe dị ịtụnanya, gụnyere ịlọ ụwa na ụgbọelu astral. Nsonaazụ nke nyocha ndị a bụ ọtụtụ akwụkwọ edere edekọ gụnyere Ụdị Echiche, Chemistry nke mgbaasị, Na-ekwu okwu banyere ụzọ mgbaasị, na Ndụ nke Alcyone. Mmasị ha gbasakwara ịmalite ịmepụta nkọwa Theosophical nke Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst n'oge dị ka 1898, na-eduga na mbipụta nke Leadbeater's Okpukpe Ndị Kraịst In1899 na nke Besant Esoteric Christian na 1901. Emebiri mmekorita a nwa oge n'ihi ebubo nke omume rụrụ arụ butere Leadbeater na 1906, na-ebute arụkwaghịm na Theosophical Society na May 17 (1906) (Ransom 1938: 360). Site na oge eweghachiri ya na Disemba 1908, Besant nọchiri Olcott dịka Onye isi na June 28, 1907. Ka ọ na-erule ọnwa Ọgọst nke otu afọ, ya na Leadbeater na-eme nyocha mgbaasị ọzọ (Ransom 1938: 373, 377-78). Nnyocha ndị a gụnyere nkwupụta nke nchọpụta nke ndụ gara aga nke ndị mmadụ n'otu n'otu, nghọta ziri ezi banyere ụgbọ elu astral, nkọwa doro anya banyere ihe ndị mejupụtara kemịkal, na ụdị echiche.

Leadbeater ewebatala ihe ndị ọzọ nwere obere ma ọ bụrụ na njikọ ọ bụla na Blavatskyan Theosophy, gụnyere nchọta nke ụgbọ ala maka ọbịbịa "Onye Ozizi Worldwa," iwebata "World Mother," na ntinye nke onye ụkọchukwu na mmemme. n'ọha ka Catholicka Katọlik nke Liberal. Nkewa a n'etiti Theosophy nke Leadbeater na Besant na nke Blavatsky nwere ike ịkpọ "ọgbọ nke abụọ Theosophy" ma ọ bụ dịka esi mata ya na mbụ, "Neo-Theosophy."

Nchọpụta kachasị mkpa Leadbeater mere na 1909 mgbe nwa okorobịa Brahmin, Jiddu Krishnamurti (1896–1986), bụ onye a ga-amata dị ka ụgbọ ala ọdịnihu nke Onye Ozizi futurewa, nke akpọrọ Lord Maitreya na Christ. Agbanyeghị na okwu banyere Nna-ukwu nke Amamihe na-egosi n'etiti mmadụ na-alaghachi na Blavatsky, ịdị adị nke ọdịdị ya bụ ihe ọhụrụ (nke Besant webatara n'ihe dị ka narị afọ gara aga) dịka njirimara Maitreya na Kraịst, nke o doro anya na Leadbeater tụpụtara. 1901. Na njedebe nke 1908 Besant bụ ihe doro anya gbasara "Onye Ozizi na Onye Nduzi" nke ga-agagharị ọzọ n'etiti ụmụ mmadụ. Atụmanya ahụ abaghị uru, mgbe Krishnamurti jụrụ ọrụ ya wee gbazee Order of the Star, nzukọ ahụ nke kwuru okwu ndị a, site na ikwupụta na 1929 na "Eziokwu bụ ala na-enweghị ụzọ" yana site na ịgbanwere Theosophy na onye ndu ya .

Otu nkuzi yiri nke a ewebatara n'ime nkuzi nke Neo-Theosophical metụtara echiche nke "World Mother," nke ọdịnihu ya ga-enyere ya aka site na ụgbọala Srimati Rukmini Arundale (1904–1986), nwunye George Arundale (1878–1945), onye isi ala nke Theosophical Society nke nọchiri Besant dị ka Onye isi ala mgbe ọ nwụsịrị na 1934. Ọ bụ ezie na otu akwụkwọ ahụ metụtara isiokwu ahụ, Leadbeater's Nwanyị Motherwa Dị Ka Akara na Eziokwu, nke e bipụtara na 1928, echiche nke nwanyị jikọtara ma ọ bụ nke jikọrọ ya na Chineke bụ nke amaara nke ọma na onye Meri, Nne Jizọs, na Buddhist bodhisattva Guan Yin. Oriakụ Arundale tụụrụ ime nne ụwa ịbụ onye ya na Indian Jagadamba bụ “Nne nke ụwa” N'adịghị ka Krishnamurti, Rukmini Devi ewereghị ọrụ nke mama ụwa, yabụ na ngagharị ahụ enwetabeghị ewu ewu dị ka nke Onye Ozizi Worldwa.

Ndị Theosophists ndị na-emegide nkuzi Neo-Theosophical lere njikọ aka na Chọọchị Katọlik Liberal anya dị ka nnukwu mmebi nke nkuzi Theosophical nke Mahatmas na Blavatsky. O nwere ike ịbụ ihe na-atọ ụtọ nke nkuzi Neo-Theosophical n'ihi itinye ihe ọtụtụ ndị lere anya dị ka ihe na-emegiderịta onwe ha na nkuzi Theosophical, gụnyere ihe ndị ụkọchukwu na mmemme (sacramental) na nkuzi nke Apostolic Succession. Ntinye nke Catholicka Katọlik nke Liberal ka ewepụtara n'okpuru nduzi Besant, ọrụ ya bụ ịbụ onye ama ama na 1917. N'ime afọ 1920, a gbalịrị ikpokọta nkuzi nke Onye Ozizi Worldwa yana emume nke Catholicka Katọlik Liberal, gụnyere nhọrọ nke iri na abụọ “Ndịozi” nke ụgbọala ahụ. Site na 1929 gaa, na-esochi ịhapụ Krishnamurti nke ọrụ ya, ọnọdụ Chọọchị belatara nke ukwuu, n'agbanyeghị na ọ na-aga n'ihu na-arụ ọrụ, n'agbanyeghị agbanyeghị, dị ka ndị otu Theosophical Society.

E wezụga njem ọ na-eme n'ime nchọpụta anwansi, Besant jikwa onwe ya na-arụ ọrụ na India site na ịkwalite ọtụtụ mgbanwe na ndozigharị, dị ka ịgba ume na imezi mmekọrịta dị n'etiti ndị agbụrụ na agbụrụ, na-akwado ihe kpatara "ndị a chụpụrụ achụpụ" na "ndị a na-enweghị ike ịkọwa," na na-agba ụmụ nwanyị India ume ka ha tinye aka na mpaghara ọha. Omume ndị a mechara duga ya na mgba maka “ịchịisi ụlọ” ndị India. Ozugbo o tinyere aka na ọrụ mgbanwe ndị a, ọ hibere Rulọ Iwu Iwu na 1916 (Nethercot 1963: 219–20, 239–53; Taylor 1992: 304–10), n'i imomi usoro iwu movementlọ Irish. Dị ka ụzọ maka echiche ya, ọ zụtara akwụkwọ ochie na nke guzobere, ndị Madras Ọkọlọtọ, na 1914 wee gbanwee ya Ọhụrụ India, nke bụ “iji gosipụta ezigbo ọchịchị nke Onwe-aka nke India tinyere usoro ndị ọchịchị….” Mgbalị ya mere ka a mata ya dị ka onye ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị kachasị na India n'etiti 1915 na 1919. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ onye a ma ama, Mohandas Gandhi (1869-1948) nọchiri ya na 1920, nke bụ isi n'ihi ọmarịcha usoro ya na ebumnuche ya nye ndị India. Otú ọ dị, Besant gara n'ihu na-ekere òkè n'ọchịchị nke India na 1920s niile ma kwado Nehru Report (aha ya bụ Motilal Nehru [1861-1931]) nke 1928, nke kwadoro Dominion Status maka India. Otú ọ dị, ọnọdụ a dị iche na nwa nwa Motilal, Jawaharlal (1889-1964), nkwado maka nnwere onwe zuru oke.

Ọnwụ Besant na 1933 mere ka Theosophical tinye aka na ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị kwụsị. N'afọ sochirinụ George Arundale nọchiri ya (1934–1945), onye lekwasịrị anya nke ọma n'ihe omume nke Society karịa ọrụ mpụga nke Olcott kwusiri ike (mmaliteghachi Buddhist na Sri Lanka na ịdị n'otu Buddhist) na nkwado Besant maka ndị India - ochichi. N'oge ọrụ ya, nwunye ya, Srimati Rukmini Devi (1984-1986), bụ onye nwere ọrụ n'ịmebe ọdịnala International Academy of the Arts. Emechara mara dị ka Kalakshetra (kalā-kṣetra), “Ubi ma ọ bụ ebe nsọ nke Arts,” ma hiwe ya dị ka Ntọala na 1993, nke ikpeazụ nwere, n’etiti ihe ise ya (“Kalakshetra Foundation Act, 1993” 1994: Isi nke 3) mmaliteghachi na mmepe nke omenaala oge ochie nke India.

Ndị na-esochi Arundales oge bịara mmadụ ise. C. Jinarājadāsa (1875–1953; Onye isi ala site na 1945 ruo 1953), Nilakanta Sri Ram (1889–1973; Onye isi ala site na 1953 rue 1973), John S. Coats (1906–1979; Onye-isi site na 1974–1979); Radha Burnier (1923–2013; Onye isi ala site na 1980–2013), na onye ndu ugbua Tim Boyd (1953-), bụrụ onye isi na 2014.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Ihe atọ nke Society, nke e mepụtara n'ụdị ha ugbu a na 1896, ka a na-ahụta dị ka iwu maka ndị ga-aga ime. Ihe ndị a bụ:

Mepụta ntọala nke Brothertù Universalmụnna Universalwa Nile nke itymụ mmadụ, na-enweghị ọdịiche nke agbụrụ, nkwenkwe, mmekọahụ, ọkwa ma ọ bụ agba.

Gba ume ọmụmụ ihe atụ nke okpukpe, nkà ihe ọmụma na sayensị.

Inyocha iwu nke Nature na ikike a na-akọwaghị na mmadụ.

Ihe mbu gosiputara otu ndi Theosophists kwesiri isi lee kosmos na mmadu anya site na itinye aka na otu esi eme ihe a. Ihe nke abuo na-agba ume nyocha nke isi nke ato nke ihe omuma banyere eziokwu bu eziokwu. Ihe nke ato na-emesi ike, site na ọmụmụ ma ọ bụ site na omume, nke a ga-eji nwee ike ịchọpụta micro-ma ọ bụ macrocosmic siri ike.

Site na mmalite ya, Theosophical Society ararala onwe ya nye ikpughe isi mmalite nke cosmos na mmadụ, ya bụ, ọrụ, gosipụtara ụwa. A na-eche na eluigwe na ala a ma ama gosipụtara na-ekpughe, ma ọ dịkarịa ala akụkụ ụfọdụ, isi mmalite ya, ebe ọ bụ na eluigwe na ala gosipụtara bụ naanị ihe sitere na Unknown na na ọnụnọ nke Isi Iyi na mbara igwe gbanwere ka a kọwara nke ọma site na nkuzi nke panentheism na pantheism. Ama ihe omuma di otua na mba obula mepere anya, ma echekwara ya ma kesasia rue otutu oge site na ndi ozo nke oma. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ naanị akụkụ ụfọdụ ka a maara nkuzi zuru oke taa, edebere ya n'akụkụ ochie na nke dị nsọ nke okpukpe ọdịnala, nkà ihe ọmụma, na sayensị.

Ihe ndị dị na Theosophy nke oge a gụnyere ihe odide nke HP Blavatsky, ọkachasị ọrụ ya, Ozizi Nzuzo. Edere ihe odide ya na nkuzi ya dabere na okpukperechi ochie, nke ihe omuma, na nke sayensi nke nwere ihe omuma nke Amamihe Chineke na nkuzi nke ndi Nna-ukwu ya, ndi edeputara ma hazie na Sinnett Okpukpe Buddha Esoteric. Ọtụtụ ndị Theosophists na-anakwere Blavatsky dị ka isi iyi nke ozizi Theosophical.

Otú ọ dị, ọ bụghị mgbe niile ka ọ dị otú ahụ. Mgbe ọnwụ Blavatsky na ịrị elu nke Annie Besant na onye ọrụ ibe ya, Charles Webster Leadbeater, ewepụtara nkuzi na omume ọhụụ nke dochiri Blavatsky corpus ọtụtụ afọ na mmalite nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ. Oge a, nke a maara dị ka Neo-Theosophy ma ọ bụ Ọgbọ nke abụọ Theosophy, efunahụghị ọtụtụ ihe ọ na-ewu ewu mgbe Krishnamurti kwusịrị ọrụ ya dị ka Onye Ozizi Worldwa nke mechara na ịgbaso ọnwụ Besant na Leadbeater na 1933 na 1934 n'otu n'otu. Ọ bụ ezie na ọrụ ha belatara, ọtụtụ onyinye ha ka na-adọrọ mmasị maka ụfọdụ ndị Theosophists. Nke a kwekọrọ na iwu gọọmentị na-enye ndị òtù ohere ikpebi, na-enweghị mgbochi, onye ọ bụla ha kwenyere kacha mma maka nghọta nkuzi Theosophical. Enweghị nkwenkwe ụlọ ọrụ nke Theosophical Society kwadoro ma ọ nweghị ikike na-ekpebi nkwenkwe ahụ. Akwadoro nke a dịka Mkpebi si n'aka General Council of theosophical Society gafere na 1924.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Ihe e mesiri ike na ihe mbụ nke Theosophical Society, hoodtù Brothermụnna Mmadụ, na-emesi ịdị mma maka mmadụ niile iulateomi. Dika achikota ya site na WQ Judge (2010c: 77), Brothertù hoodmụnna bu ihe omume, obughi nani nkwenye, iji wepu onodu ndi ahu nke na ebuli ihe mgbochi ma me ka esemokwu di iche iche n'ihi agbụrụ, nkwenye, ma obu agba; Truthchọ Eziokwu, ebe ọ bụla ọ bụ achọpụtara n'ụwa; na inwe agụụ maka echiche ndị ahụ e gosipụtara site na Eziokwu. N'ihe doro anya, mmadụ aghaghị izere ime ihe ọjọọ ọ bụla megide ụmụ mmadụ ibe ya na ịkwanyere "oke nha anya nke oke ruru mmadu" (Onyeikpe 2010b: 70). N'ikwu ya n'ụzọ ọzọ, a na-akwado Goldenkpụrụ Ọma n'ihi na a na-ahụta ya dịka Eziokwu sitere n'okpukpe ọdịnala niile.

Ọzọkwa, omume na-arụpụta ihe; ya mere Theosophy na-anakwere nkuzi nke South Asia nke Karma, nke na-akụzi, dị ka nghọta Theosophical nke okwu ahụ si dị, na-ekenye ụgwọ ọrụ ma ọ bụ ntaramahụhụ maka omume ọ bụla, nke ọma ma ọ bụ nke ọjọọ. Dị ka Onyeikpe na-ekwu, "nsonaazụ nke ọrụ dị ka ihe omume ahụ" ((Onyeikpe 2010b: 71).

Omume na-eme ka mmadụ mepee ya, ọ bụkwa akara aka mmadụ ka akọwapụtara ya. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, ọ nweghị ọdịnihu ga-enwe ike ịdị ndụ mmadụ; mmadu aghaghi inwe otutu ndu. Ya mere, mkpa ọ dị ịmụ ọtụtụ nwa ka mmadụ wee nwee ike itolite mmepe mmadụ ruo mgbe emechara ya. Nke a bụ nkuzi nke ịlọ ụwa, nke na-arụ ọrụ dị mkpa na omume Theosophical (Onye ọka ikpe 2010b: 71-72).

Banyere ọrụ ụlọ ọrụ ugbu a nke Society, ọrụ agụmakwụkwọ na ọdịmma kacha mkpa. Olcott Educational Society, nke na-achịkwa Olcott Memorial School na Olcott Memorial High School, bụ nke Henry Olcott guzobere na 1894 iji kwalite agụmakwụkwọ nke ụmụaka dara ogbenye na Chennai. N'afọ sochirinụ Olcott guzobere ọtụtụ ụlọ akwụkwọ maka ndị a jụrụ ajụ ma ọ bụ Panchamas, ya bụ, “klas nke ise.”

Usoro ọrụ nke Theosophical, nke Oriaku Besant guzobere na 1908, bụ mmemme na-arụsi ọrụ ike nke gụnyere ndị otu chọrọ “ịhazi onwe ha maka usoro ọrụ dị iche iche, iji kwalite ihe mbụ nke Society.

Wellọ Ọrụ Ahụike na-elekọta ụmụ ọhụrụ nke ndị nne na-arụ ọrụ na gburugburu Isi ụlọ ọrụ. Mmemme ndị ọzọ gụnyere Traininglọ Ọrụ Ọzụzụ Ndị Nwanyi; na Ogige Ntụrụndụ Besant Scout. Otú ọ dị, isi ọrụ Theosophy Society bụ mgbasa ozi nke Theosophical, ọ bụghị naanị nke Blavatsky kamakwa ndị Society chere na ha kwesịrị ekwesị.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP 

Henry Steel Olcott weghaara ọrụ nke Onye isi ala site na mmalite na 1875 ruo ọnwụ ya na 1907. Ha na Blavatsky, ha buliri ihe kpatara Theosophy site n'ọtụtụ njem na ikwu okwu na India, Asia, na Europe. Otú ọ dị, maka Olcott, ọrụ ya lekwasịrị anya na nhazi, nchịkwa, akụkọ ihe mere eme, na nkwalite nke Theosophical Society. Dị ka onye na-enwe mmasị na ya ma gbanwee gaa Buddha, Olcott kwadoro ịgbachitere ihe kpatara ya. N'adịghị ka Olcott, agbanyeghị, mmasị na ihe omume Blavatsky lekwasịrị anya na-akọwa ma kọwaa Theosophy dị ka usoro nkuzi; o nweghi mmasị na Theosophical Society dị ka nzukọ, ọ bụghịkwa na ọ na-elekwasị anya na ọganihu Buddha.

Annie Besant, Onye isi ala nke abụọ, n'ụzọ ụfọdụ gụnyere ọrụ ndị ntọala abụọ ahụ. O dere ọtụtụ ihe na isiokwu dị iche iche nke Theosophical ma na-etinye aka na ihe ịma aka (nchịkwa, ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, mgbasa, na mkpughe) nke Society. Dị ka Olcott, ọ tinyere ụkpụrụ Theosophical n'ọrụ ọtụtụ ndị na-eme ihe ike mgbe ọ nwụsịrị banyere ndị isi oche. N'ọtụtụ akụkụ, ọ bụ onye ndu nwere ọgụgụ isi na nke na-adọrọ adọrọ nke Society, n'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, anaghị asọpụrụ esemokwu ma n'ime ma na-enweghị Society. Nkwado ya maka Leadbeater n'agbanyeghị ebubo nke ịda mbà n'obi, ọganihu ya nke Krishnamurti dị ka ụgbọ nke Onye Ozizi Worldwa, na nbelata ọnọdụ nke Blavatsky enyereghị ya aka iguzo na ọtụtụ n'ime Society. Ọzọkwa, Besant ga-ekerịta ụfọdụ ụta kpatara nsonye nke ngalaba America na Adyar na 1895.

Ndị isi na-esote ghọrọ ndị nchịkwa karịa ndị na-echepụta ihe ọhụrụ, nsonaazụ na-akpata Theosophical Society ka ọ rụọ ọrụ dị egwu na ọnọdụ ụwa na-elekwasị anya na ọrụ Society a ghọtara, ọmụmụ nke Amamihe Oge Ochie dịka ọ na-egosipụta na nkà ihe ọmụma na okpukpe dị iche iche .

Onye ndu nke Theosophical Society gụnyere Onye isi ala Tim Boyd, Onye isi oche Dr. Deepa Padhi, odeakwụkwọ Marja Artamaa, na Treasurer Nancy Secrest. Isi ụlọ ọrụ ahụ dị na Adyar, Chennai, India. Ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị otu ahụ adịtụbeghị nnukwu, na-agbata n'etiti ndị òtù 25,000 na 30,000. Na 2016, ndị otu dị 25,533. E nwere òtù na Ngalaba Mba iri abụọ na isii, Regionaltù Mpaghara iri na atọ, na ụlọ ọrụ iri na atọ. Ọnụ ọgụgụ ụlọ obibi zuru ụwa ọnụ bụ 898.

Ngalaba Mba kachasị ukwuu bụ India, nke nwere ndị òtù 11,323 na ụlọ obibi 408, na United States na-eso ndị òtù 3,292, ndị ọbịa 38, na ebe 47. Onweghi mpaghara mba ndi ozo kariri ndi otu 1,000, mana ndi Italian na ndi England nwere ihe kariri ndi 900. Hastali nwere ndị òtù 934, ụlọ obibi iri abụọ na itoolu, na ebe iri abụọ; England nwere ndị otu 908 na ụlọ ezumike iri atọ na ise (Nkwupụta Kwa Afọ nke Theosophical Society 2017).

Banyere usoro iwu nke Society, Ngalaba Mba nwere opekata mpe ụlọ asaa nwere opekata mpe mmadụ iri asaa. Ọ bụrụ na ọnụ ọgụgụ ụlọ obibi n'ime Ngalaba Mba dabara n'okpuru ụlọ obibi ise, ngalaba ahụ ga-efunahụ ọnọdụ ya. Enyere ikike ịhọrọ ndị odeakwụkwọ izugbe, bụ ndị a na-ahapụ ka ha bụrụ ndị otu na General Council.

Mkpakọrịta mpaghara bụ obere ụlọ ọrụ. Ọ bụrụ na mba ma ọ bụ ókèala nwere ụlọ obibi ise, dịka ọmụmaatụ, mgbe ahụ obodo ahụ nwere ike “ịhọpụta” dị ka Mpaghara mpaghara. Ihe Nlereanya nke ndị dị otú ahụ entities bụ Canada (ise lodges na anọ Centers) na Ukraine (ise lodges na atọ emmepe).

Presidentiallọ ọrụ ndị isi ala nwere dị ka onye isi onye nnọchi anya Onye isi ala nke Onye isi oche nke Theosophical Society họpụtara. Onye nnọchi anya a na-eduzi azụmahịa na nchịkwa n'okpuru ntuziaka Onye isi ala. Onye nnọchite anya onye isi ala abụghị onye otu Council Council na-ahazi (Artemaa na Kerschner 2018. Nkwukọrịta nkeonwe nke ụbọchị 17 August).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Esemokwu gbara gburugburu Theosophical Society kemgbe ọ malitere, ụfọdụ n'ime ha metụtara ihe Blavatsky kwuru banyere Mahatmas. Arụmụka ndị a nwere ike ibute mmetụta dị n'ime ma ọ bụ nke mpụga. N'ozuzu, ndị dị n'ime bụ ndị a na-ahụ anya karịa mgbe ụfọdụ na-atụ anya n'ọtụtụ ọgbakọ. Ọnụọgụ nke okwu dị n'ime pere mpe ebe a, mana ha na-egosipụtakarị nchegbu metụtara ihe mbụ Society: hoodmụnna. N'akụkụ a, ọ bụ naanị esemokwu ndị nwere mmetụta na obodo esoteric ka a ga-ekwupụta, ndị a ga-egosikwa HP Blavatsky. Kpọmkwem na nke a gụnyere ebubo na ọ bụ onye nledo Russia, na o degharịrị akụkụ ya na akwụkwọ mbụ ya mbụ, Isis ekpughere, na akwụkwọ ndị na - esote, yana ọ bụ ya dere akwụkwọ ozi Mahatma na ọ bụ n'ezie onye okike nke ndị Mahatmic, karịsịa ndị nkuzi ya ebubo, Koot Hoomi na Morya.

Banyere ebubo na ọ bụ onye nledo nke Russia, a na-ebo Blavatsky ebubo na ọ dị otu a kemgbe ọ ghọrọ nwa amaala America na July 8, 1878. Nnyocha ahụ sitere n'aka gọọmentị Britain, bụ nke na-atụ ụjọ banyere ezi ebumnuche ya ịkwaga India. Ebubo a boro ya na Hodgson Report, nke nyekwara ihe kpatara mkpebi ya iji bụrụ onye nledo: iji "zụlite ma na-ebulite ebe niile enwere ike n'etiti ndị amaala enweghị mmasị na ọchịchị Britain." Hodgson kwenyekwara na akụkọ ya na ọ bịara US na 1873 iji nweta ụmụ amaala US n'ihi nchebe ọ na-enye megide nyocha gọọmentị. Agbanyeghị na egosighi onye nledo, enwere ihe akaebe na-egosi na o nyere ọrụ ya dị ka onye nledo na njedebe nke 1872 na akwụkwọ ozi, nke achọpụtara na 1998, nke e degaara Russian "Nkebi nke Atọ," ndị uwe ojii nzuzo Russia Tsar. Ọ bụrụ na akwụkwọ ozi ahụ bụ eziokwu, ọ nweghịkwa ihe mere a ga-eji kwuo ihe ọzọ, ọ na-egosi ebumnuche ma ọ bụrụ na ọ nweghị ihe ọzọ.

Agba nke abụọ metụtara ajụjụ metụtara imebi iwu. Ndi Blavatsky mere ka ihe ndị ọzọ dị na Isis gosipụtara? Otu onye tinyere oge dị ukwuu na okwu a bụ William Emmette Coleman (1843–1909), onye pụtara ìhè na ọ na-arụ ọrụ ịwakpo ụzọ Blavatsky na ebumnobi ya na akwụkwọ akụkọ Spiritualist-Philosophical Journal na Summerland. Agbanyeghị, otu edemede nwere mmetụta kacha pụta na Solovyoff A Modern Priest of Isis. N'isiokwu ya bụ "Isi mmalite nke Madame Blavatsky's Writings" (Ihe Odide C nke akwụkwọ ahụ), Coleman nyochara isi mmalite dị na Isis Unveiled, obere ka nzuzo Doctrine, Voice of the Silence, na Theosophical Glossary. Ọ bụ esemokwu ya na Blavatsky tụkwasịrị obi na akwụkwọ 100 na akwụkwọ akụkọ edepụtara ọkachasị na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu.

Ebubo a egosila na ọ na-emebi aha Blavatsky na Society. Ndị Theosophists nọgidere na-agbachitere Blavatsky. Olcott kwusiri ike na ọ dere Isis site na Astral Light (ụgbọ elu dị elu karịa anụ ahụ nke na-edekọ ihe omume niile na mbara igwe na nke anụ ahụ) site na "mmụọ mkpụrụ obi, sitere n'aka ndị nkuzi ya."

N'agbanyeghi nke a na agbachitere ya, imebi iwu ka dị ka mmetọ aha Blavatsky. Na nso nso a, Otú ọ dị, akwụkwọ edemede MA nke Jake Winchester nyochara ojiji Blavatsky ji ọrụ Samuel Fales Dunlap bụ Vestiges of the Spirit-History of Man, Sod: Mysteries nke Adoni, na Sod: Nwa nke Mmadụ. Nkwubi okwu ya gosipụtara na ohieghari nke Blavatsky, mana ụdị ohi ahụ metụtara ihe ọzọ na iyi ọrụ ọzọ, na-ewere isi mmalite sitere na ọrụ dịka aha atọ ndị a edepụtara n'elu karịa site na isi mmalite. Nke a bụ omume m chere na ọ na-eme karịa oge mmadụ nwere ike iche, mana ọ bụghị ihe dị oke njọ dị ka ịsị dị ka akụkụ nke aka ya na-enweta n'akụkụ ọzọ.

Esemokwu nke atọ metụtara akwụkwọ ozi Mahatma. Agbanyeghi na otutu ndi mmadu natara leta rue oge ufodu ndi ufodu ndi Theosophists na-agbasi ruo taa, ndi edere na Sinnett bu ndi kachasi mkpa ime ka nyocha di n'ime ma na ndi Society. Nkwado nke onye dere akwụkwọ ozi ahụ bụ nke mbụ ebuputara na ebubo nke Oriakụ Coulomb, akọwapụtara ya nke ọma. '' Hodgson Report kwenyere na nkwenye Oriakụ Coulomb na Blavatsky bụ onye dere akwụkwọ ozi ndị a nakwa na Mahatmas n'onwe ha bụ akụkọ ifo. Nkwupụta a ghọrọ echiche kachasị na nnabata nke ndị nkatọ n'èzí, ụfọdụ na ọbụna n'ime Society, gụnyere ọmụmụ nke ebubo nke 1936 (ụmụnne Hare ndị dere akwụkwọ ozi Mahatma?). Nke a bụ ikekwe otu n’ime ihe kpatara na Mahatma Letters enweghị mgbe ọ ghọrọ ewu ewu dịka mmadụ nwere ike ịtụ anya ya, yana ụfọdụ obodo nwere onwe ha na-eleghara ha anya kpamkpam. Dịka e kwuru n'elu, Dr. Harrison egosila na o yighị ka Blavatsky jiri aka ya dee akwụkwọ ozi ndị ahụ. O doro anya na nke a anaghị akwado ya, mana ọ na-ajụ ebumnobi Hodgson na usoro eji arụ ọrụ na Hodgson Report.

Otu okwu ikpeazụ bụ nke m chere na ọ bụ nchegbu nke ndị isi Theosophical na-aga n'ihu: ndị otu na-agbadata nke Society. Na 1997, e nyere ndị òtù Society dị ka 31,667, nke nwere ngalaba National kasị ukwuu, India, na-ekwu na mmadụ 11, 939 na United States, nke abụọ kasị ukwuu na Ngalaba, na-ekwu 4,078. Mba isii kwuru na ndị òtù 1,000 na mba ise nọ n'agbata 500 na 1,000. Edere obere mbelata ka afọ iri gachara, na 29,015, mana site na 2015 ndị ​​otu ahụ jụrụ 25,920. N'afọ sochirinụ, akụkọ kachasị ọhụrụ dịnụ na-enye ọnụọgụgụ 25,533. Agbanyeghị na ndị otu India na-agbanwe agbanwe site na ịnwụ karịa ndị otu puku iri na otu, enweela ịrị elu karịa na United States (ihe dịka pasent iri abụọ sitere na 11,000 ruo 4,078), na New Zealand, England, Australia, na alltali niile na-eso n'okpuru ndị otu 3,292 (Kwa Afọ Nkwupụta nke Theosophical Society 1,000).

Foto
Image # 1: Helena P. Blavatsky.
Image # 2: Colonel. Henry Steel Olcott.
Image # 3: Swāmī Dayānanda Sarasvatī.
Foto # 4: Alfred Percy Sinnett.
Foto # 5: Richard Hodgson.
Foto # 5: William Q. Onye ikpe.
Foto # 6: Annie Besant.

References

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Ụbọchị Post:
11 November 2018

 

 

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