Ethan Doyle White

Ụmụnna Minoan

MINOAN BROTHERHOOD TIMELINE

1947: Edmund 'Eddie' Buczynski mụrụ na Brooklyn, New York.

1954: Gerald Gardner's Ịta Amoosu Taa ebipụtara na Britain, na-eme ka ọha na eze mara Wicca.

1963: Raymond Buckland na nwunye ya Rosemary Buckland guzobere Wnercan Gardnerian na Brentwood, Long Island, nke mbụ a mara amara na Gardnerian na United States.

1971: Buczynski gụrụ nke Gardner Ịta Amoosu Taa.

1972: Buczynski na onye òtù ọlụlụ ya Herman Slater mepere Warlọ Ahịa Warlock, ụlọ ahịa esoteric na Brooklyn Heights.

1972 (Mmiri): Edmund Buczynski ka amalitere n'ime New England Covens nke ndi amoosu ndi omenala.

1972: Buczynski guzobere ọdịnala Wiccan nke a bịara mara dị ka Welsh Traditional Witch. O bu ụzọ malite ọzọ na ọdịnala Ọktọba.

1973: Buczynski ka amalitere n'ime Gardnerian Wicca.

1974: Buczynski sonyeere Chọọchị nke Ebighị Ebi Ebighị Ebi, otu ìgwè Kemetic Pagan.

1977 (Jenụwarị 1): Buczynski guzobere Minoan Brotherhood site na nhazi nke otu Knossos Grove.

1981: Inye oge na-abawanye n'ọmụmụ ihe omumu ya, Buczynski gbadara dị ka onye isi nke Knossos Grove.

1989 (March 16): Buczynski nwụrụ n'ihi nsogbu metụtara ọrịa AIDS na Machị 16.

2012: Michael G. Lloyd si Bull nke Eluigwe ebipụtara, bụ akụkọ ndụ bụ isi nke Buczynski nke mere ka ndị mmadụ nwee ọhụụ. Nkwupụta mmeghe ahụ kwuru na The New York Times.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Okpukpe ndị ọgọ mmụọ nke oge a nke Wicca pụtara n’Ingland n’agbata 1921 na 1954. Onye kacha nwee aha ya bụ Gerald Gardner (1884–1964), onye ọrụ lara ezumike nka lagoro ezumike nka nke kwupụtara na a malitela ya n’otu ndị ọrụ na mpaghara Ọhịa Ọhụrụ n’afọ 1939. [ Foto dị n'aka nri] Ọ bụ ezie na arụmụka na-aga n'ihu ma nkwupụta Gardner bụ eziokwu ma ọ bụ na ọ bụghị, o doro anya na ọ rụrụ ọrụ dị mkpa n'ịkwalite okpukpe n'oge 1950s, ma site na ajụjụ ọnụ na pịa na akwụkwọ ya Ịta Amoosu Taa (1954) na Ihe Amoosu Pụtara (1959). Dị ka ọtụtụ ndị Wiccans oge ochie ndị ọzọ, Gardner kwuru na okpukpe ya bụ nlanarị nke ọdịnala oge ochie tupu oge ndị Kraịst bụ ndị a kpagburu ndị na-eme ya dịka "ndị amoosu" n'oge mmalite oge a. Na ọtụtụ ndị ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme kwuru na e nwere okpukpe dị otu a na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu mana ọ bụ naanị onye nwetara ihe mbụ ya na mmalite nke iri abụọ, mgbe onye na-amụ banyere ọdịnala Ijipt bụ Margaret Murray (1863-1963) bipụtara ọtụtụ akwụkwọ na-akwalite echiche a. Gardner na ndị Wiccans ndị ọzọ malitere ụkpụrụ nke Murray setịpụrụ na ndị ọkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme wee gbanwee okpukpe ha na-eche n'echiche dị ka eziokwu (Hutton 1999).

Garddị dị iche iche nke Gardner nke okpukpe a (nke a maara ugbu a dị ka Gardnerian Wicca) dakwasịrị ụdị ochie nke esotericism Western, gụnyere anwansi emume na Freemasonry. Dị ka ndị bu ya ụzọ, a haziri ya yana usoro mbido, yana ndị otu na-ezukọta na obere otu akpọrọ ọgbụgba ndụ. Dika Gardner kwuputara, Wicca ya bu "okpukpe omumu" nke mesiri ike nke di n'etiti nwoke na nwanyi, nke gosiputara n 'ugha nke chi ya nke Chineke na Chi nwanyi na ntinye nke onye isi nchu aja na onye isi nchu aja na akwukwo o bula. Nke a nwere mmekorita nke mmekọahụ, dịka e gosipụtara na omume anwansi nke a maara dị ka Great Rite nke gụnyere na usoro ememe Gardnerian.

Gardner bụ onye na-eme ụdị omume ahụ ma jụ mbido onye ọ bụla o chere na ya na nwoke idina nwoke (Bourne 1997: 38-39). Ọ bụghị ndị Wiccans niile nwere echiche a. Otu onye Gardnerian bekee bidoro aha ya bụ Alex Sanders (1926–1988) guzobere ọdịnala nke ya, dabere na ihe atụ nke Gardnerian, nke bịara mara dịka Alexandria Wicca. Sanders bụ nwoke na nwanyị ma malite ọtụtụ ụmụ nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke na ọdịnala (Di Fiosa 2010). Onye ọzọ Gardnerian bidoro, Doreen Valiente (1922-1999), onye bụ onye isi nchụ aja nke Gardner ruo ọtụtụ afọ n'etiti afọ ndị 1950, jụkwara echiche a nke iwepu ya dabere na ntụgharị uche mmekọahụ (Valiente 1989: 183).

Ọ bụ Raymond na Rosemary Buckland kpọbatara Gardnerian Wicca na United States na 1963. N'ịbụ ndị a malitere n'ime nkwekọrịta dị na Scotland, di na nwunye ahụ meghere nke ha na Long Island, New York. Gardnerianism gbasaa n'oge na-adịghị anya na mba ahụ, na-akpali ma na-emetụta ọtụtụ ọdịnala ndị ọzọ na-ejikarị ụdị Gardnerian eme ihe ndabere maka ụdị Wicca nke ha (Clifton 2006). Otu n'ime ndị otu a bụ New England Covens of Traditionalist Witches (NECTW), nke Gwen Thomson (1928-1986) guzobere na mbido 1970 (Mathiesen na Theitic 2005).

Onye ọzọ n'ime ndị America ahụ tinyere onwe ya na Wicca bụ Edmund "Eddie" Buczynski (1947-1989), [Foto dị n'aka nri] otu New Yorker na-arụ ọrụ nke sitere na ndị Poland na Italiantali. Buczynski nwere mmasị na nwata na usoro nkwenkwe Ndị Kraịst oge ochie nke Egypt, ma chepụta ememe nke aka ya nke a raara nye chi ha (Lloyd 2012: 6). Na 1971, ọ gụrụ nke Gardner Ịta Amoosu Taa, na-eme kawanye mmasị ya na Wicca (Lloyd 2012: 62). Buczynski bụ nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke, ya na onye ya na ya nọrọ mgbe ahụ Herman Slater (1935–1992) guzobere ụlọ ahịa esoteric, The Warlock Shop, na 1972 na Brooklyn Heights (Lloyd 2012: 108–21). N'ịchụso ọdịnala Wiccan siri ike, ọ zutere Thompson ma sonye na ọdịnala NECTW ya na 1972. Buczynski na Thompson dị nso, n'oge na-adịghị anya ọ ghọrọ nnukwu onye nchụàjà nke North Haven. N'oge na-adịghị anya, mmekọrịta ha na-arụ ọrụ mebiri ka ọ na-akwagide inwe mmekọahụ, ihe Buczynski achọghị ịnabata (Lloyd 2012: 94-100, 123-25).

Afọ ndị sochirinụ gosipụtara ụdị ọchịchọ ịchọ Buczynski. Mgbe ọ hapụrụ NECTW, ọ were usoro ya wee jikọta ya na ihe osise sitere na akụkọ ọdịnala Welsh nke oge ochie iji mepụta ọdịnala Welsh Traditionalist Witchcraft na 1972. Ọtụtụ ndị esotericists sonyeere ya na mbọ ahụ, na ọtụtụ ọgbụgba ndụ na-arụ ọrụ n'oge na-adịghị anya (Lloyd 2012: 122) –34, 145–48). Na 1973, a nabatara ya na Gardnerian Wicca, n'agbanyeghị agbanyeghị nchegbu e welitere n'ime obodo New York Gardnerian na mbido ya enweghị isi n'ihi asambodo na-ezighi ezi nke onye bidoro ya, n'oge na-adịghị anya ọ malitere ọgbụgba ndụ Gardner nke dị mkpụmkpụ (Lloyd 2012: 168–80) 212, 20–283, 84–1974). Na Julaị 2012, e chiri ya echichi dị ka onye ụkọchukwu na Church of the Ebighị Ebi Isi, otu Kemetic Pagan nke na-asọpụrụ chi dị iche iche nke Ijipt oge ochie, agbanyeghị na ọ gbara arụkwaghịm n'ọnọdụ a otu afọ gachara (Lloyd 295: 304-314, 20–2012) ). Ọ laghachiri n'oge na-adịghị anya na Gardnerianism, bụrụ nnukwu onye nchụ aja nke ọgbụgba ndụ na Huntingdon, Long Island (Lloyd 327: 39-378, 82-XNUMX).

Buczynski na-enwekarị nkụda mmụọ site na ihe ọ lere anya dị ka njedebe homophobia na usoro hetero-dominance nke ọdịnala Gardnerian. Ọ chepụtara ọdịnala Wiccan nke gbasoro usoro nhazi nke Gardnerian mana nke emeputara nke oma maka nwoke na nwoke. Nsonaazụ bụ omụnna Minoan, nke e mepụtara na Jenụwarị 1, 1977 site na nguzobe nke otu Knossos Grove ya, bụ ndị zutere n'ụlọ ya na New York City's Middle Village. Ọ dọtara uche na ihe osise na ihe osise nke Minoan Crete, [Foto dị n'aka nri] ọha mmadụ nke Buczynski kwenyere na ọ bụghị naanị ịnagide nwoke idina nwoke ma ọ bụ nke nwere otu nwoke na-edina nwoke ma ọ bụ nwanyị ibe ya (Lloyd 2012: 383-88, 403) . O mechara nye aka ịhazi emume maka nwanyị niile, Minoan Sisterhood, nke ndị enyi ya nwanyị, Ria Farnham na Carol Bulzone guzobere, wee malite ịrụ ọrụ site na mmiri nke afọ 1978. Ọ rụpụtara usoro usoro maka ihe ọ kpọrọ Otu Okpukpe. nke Rhea, oghere nke ndi otu nke hoodmụnna na Nwanne nwanyị nwere ike ịnọkọ maka mmemme ime-nwoke na nwoke; nzukọ ndị dị otú ahụ, na-esighi ike (Lloyd 2012: 418-19). N'agbanyeghị Buczynski nke seminal na ịnweta ọdịnala Minoan na ala, na njedebe 1978 na Knossos Grove anaghị enwe nzukọ, na 1981 ọ tụgharịrị onye ndu ya na Tony Fiara (Lloyd 2012: 460, 482).

N'ọnọdụ Wicca, Buczynski nwere mmasị na nkà mmụta ihe ochie, na-eleta ógbè Mediterenian n'oge dịgasị iche iche na ịchụso ọmụmụ ihe na Mahadum City nke New York's Hunter College na mgbe ahụ Bryn Mawr College (Lloyd 2012: 469, 486-95, 504-05 ). Buczynski butere nje HIV wee nwụọ site na nsogbu metụtara ọrịa AIDS na Machị 16, 1989. Obere oge tupu ọ nwụọ, ọ laghachiri n'ụzọ ọzọ na Roman Katọlik, okpukpe a zụlitere ya (Lloyd 2012: 531–41).

Omụnna Minoan lanarịrị ọnwụ nke onye guzobere ya, mana ọnụọgụ ya belata n'ime afọ iri na-abịanụ. Ka ọ na-erule afọ 2000, ọ bụ naanị otu onye Minos (onye otu ogo nke atọ) nọ na-akụzi ihe. Iji gbanwee ọnọdụ a, ụfọdụ omụnna Minoan malitere ịkwalite ọdịnala na ememme ndị ọgọ mmụọ dịka Starwood, Nchịkọta Mmụọ nke ndị ọgọ mmụọ, na nzukọ dị n’etiti ụmụ nwoke nke ụwa, ebe ndị otu ọzọ kwalitere ya na ịntanetị. Nsonaazụ bụ oge uto ọhụụ maka ọdịnala (Lloyd, nkwukọrịta onwe onye) Na 2004, Lloyd bidoro nyocha maka akụkọ ndụ doro anya nke ndụ Buczynski, nke e bipụtara na 2012. Akwụkwọ ahụ mekwara ka ọdịnala ahụ nwee mmasị; nnọkọ mmemme ya mechara nwee mkpuchi na The New York Times (Kilgannon 2012).

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Dịka usoro mbido, omụnna Minoan na-edebe ọtụtụ nkuzi na omume ya na nzuzo na ndị na-abụghị ndị mbido (Burns 2017: 157). Onye odeakụkọ Wiccan bụ Margot Adler (2006: 130) hotara otu onye otu okenye dịka onye nwere echiche na "dị ka ọdịnala dị omimi anyị ji ihe nzuzo anyị na nzuzo kpọrọ ihe iji chekwaa ịdị nsọ na ịtụnanya nke ọchịchọ mmụọ." N'ihi ya, ọ bụ ihe dị ntakịrị ka a mara n'ihu ọha banyere nkwenkwe nke otu ahụ.

Dị ka okpukpe ndị ọgọ mmụọ ndị ọzọ nke oge a, Minoan Brotherhood na-etinye nnukwu uche na inweta mmụọ sitere na ọha ndị dịrị tupu oge Ndị Kraịst nke Europe na mpaghara ndị agbata obi ya. Karịsịa, Brothertù hoodmụnna na-etinye aka na Bronze Age ọha mmadụ nke Minoan Crete. Na webụsaịtị ya, ọ na - egosipụta onwe ya dịka “ọdịnala nnabata nke ụmụ nwoke nke Craft na-eme ememme Ndụ, Menmụ nwoke Na-ahụ n'Anya, na Ime Anwansi na isi Cretan”. Nghọta nke Brothermụnna banyere okpukpe Minoan oge ochie na-adabere na nkọwa ya nke onye ọkà mmụta ihe ochie bụ onye England bụ Arthur Evans (1851-1941) kwupụtara na mmalite narị afọ nke iri abụọ (Burns 2017: 163).

Dị ka Gardner si gosi, Wicca jidere usoro nhazi nke metụtara ma a Chi nwanyị na Chineke nwere mpi. E debere usoro mmụta okpukpe a n'ime Minoan Brotherhood, mana yana mgbanwe iji gosipụta na ọ dị obere na Minoan. Nkà mmụta okpukpe nke Minoan Brotherhood na-agụnye Nnukwu Nne Nwanyị a maara dị ka Rhea [Foto dị n'aka nri] nke ejiri "emanations" ise mara: ụwa, oké osimiri, mbara igwe, ifo, na agwọ nwanyị. Ejikọtara nke ọ bụla n'ime chi ndị a na chi nwanyị sitere na pantheon Greek oge gboo: ụwa na Gaia, oké osimiri na Aphrodite, mbara igwe na Artemis, ifo na Persephone, na agwọ nwanyị na Athena. Na-amalitekarị ịmata nke ọma na otu n'ime ihe ise ndị a (Burns 2017: 163-64). N'akụkụ nne nke Chukwu bụ Chineke nke nwere mpi, onye nọ na akara nke hoodmụnna dịka Minotaur ma kpọọ ya Asterion (Burns 2017: 164); nke a bụ aha e kere eke nọ n’ime Bibliotheca nke (Pseudo-) Apollodorus, ederede sitere na narị afọ mbụ ma ọ bụ nke abụọ OA.

Nwoke idina nwoke ma ọ bụ nwanyị ibe ya na-ekere òkè dị mkpa n'echiche nke Brothermụnna. Dịka akụkụ nke akụkọ ifo ya, ọ na-akụzi na chi Asterion ghọrọ onye na-elekọta nwoke idina nwoke n'ihi na chi nwanyị Rhea, nke nwere anyaụfụ nke ụmụ nwanyị ndị ọzọ, gbochiri ya ịlụ nwanyị ọ bụla ọzọ (Burns 2017: 164). Ọ bụ ezie na eburu ụzọ lebara nwoke na nwoke ma ọ bụ nwoke na nwanyị anya, webụsaịtị ọdịnala ahụ na-ekwu na hoodtù hoodmụnna na-anabatakwa ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwoke ịdị njikere ịrụ ọrụ n'ime mmekọrịta nwoke na nwoke na nwanyị, n'agbanyeghị na amataghị mmadụ ole ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwoke bụ ndị otu; Otu onye okenye Minoan kwuru na ya amaghị ihe ọ bụla (Lloyd, nkwukọrịta onwe onye)

Otu n'ime ụkpụrụ ụkpụrụ omume kachasị dị n'etiti otu Wiccan bụ ihe akpọrọ "Wiccan Rede" na (dịka nke mbụ Doreen Valiente kwalitere na 1960s) kwenyere na "An 'ọ nweghị nsogbu ọ bụla, mee ihe ị chọrọ." (Doyle White 2015: 157). N'adịghị ka ụfọdụ ụka Wiccan ndị ọzọ, a naghị egosipụta Rede dị ka ihe zuru oke maka ndị òtù membersmụnna niile ịgbaso, mana agbanyeghị na ọtụtụ ndị okenye ọdịnala na-ahụta dị ka ezigbo ndụmọdụ (Alder 2006: 131). N'ebe ya, ihe ọzọ, "Unthụnanya Nye Ihe Nile," na-ebute ụzọ na nkuzi nke hoodtù hoodmụnna (Adler 2006: 130).

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ ọdịnala Wiccan na-ezo aka na otu ha dị ka "ọgbụgba ndụ," na ọdịnala Minoan, okwu a họọrọ bụ "groves," nke bụkwa okwu ndị otu Druidic na-ejikarị arụ ọrụ. N'ihe na-adịghị ahụkebe, oghere ndị Minoan dị iche iche na-eji eme ihe omume ha bụ "temenos" (Burns 2017: 158), okwu sitere na Greek oge ochie. Dị ka ọ dị na ọdịnala ndị ọzọ nke Wiccan, a na-ekwu na oghere na-adịkarị n'ime ụlọ ndị otu karịa ụlọ ndị e wuru (McShee 2018). Mkpokọta ọdịnala Minoan kwuru na emume ndị a na-eme na omenala Minoan na-arụ ọtọ, ma ọ bụ "skyclad," omume nke na-egosi mmalite ya na Gardnerian Wicca.

Dị ka ọ dị na ọdịnala ndị ọzọ nke Wiccan, otù Minoan na-ekwusi ike na ihe ndị ọrụ ya kpọrọ "anwansi," nkwenkwe na ike etheric nke nwere ike iji megharịa iji gbanwee mgbanwe anụ ahụ na eluigwe na ala site na itinye uche nke uche mmadụ, nke a na-elekwasịkarị anya site n'omume ime. A na-eji ngwaọrụ dị iche iche eme ihe n'oge a. Dabere na weebụsaịtị ọdịnala ahụ, ndị a abụghị ihe dị iche na ngwaọrụ eji na ọdịnala Wiccan ndị ọzọ (yabụ nwere ike ịgụnye mma, wand, na chalice) mana ha na-egosipụtakwa atụmatụ pụrụ iche. Burns (2017: 163) kwuru na ihe nzuzo ndị Minoan Wiccans ji mee ihe ngosi eserese sitere na nka Minoan, dịka oke ehi na labrys, ma ọ bụ anyụike abụọ. Buczynski bu ụzọ tinye nke ikpeazụ na ememe Minoan Brotherhood, mana emesịrị kpebie na ọ ga-abụrịrị ngwa ọrụ edobere maka Minoan Sisterhood (Lloyd 2012: 418). Ma labrys ka bụ ihe a na-ahụkarị nke ebe ịchụàjà Brothermụnna, ebe ọ na-anọchite anya ike Chineke nke ndụ na ọnwụ (Lloyd, nkwukọrịta onwe onye)

N'ịdabere na ọdịnala dịgasị iche iche nke anwansi mmekọahụ (Urban 2006), ọdịnala Gardner's Wiccan tinyere ihe nnọchianya mmekọahụ (hetero) n'ime usoro ọdịnala ya, ọkachasị n'ụdị Great Rite. Mmekọahụ yiri nke a na ọdịnala Minoan, n'agbanyeghị na ị na-ewere omume nwoke na nwanyị. Ebe nrụọrụ weebụ ọdịnala ahụ na-ekwu na "mgbaasị nke mmekọahụ bụ isi ihe dị na anwansi Minoan" na nke ahụ kwuru na ememe "nwere ike ịbụ ebubo mmekọahụ, ma bụrụ nke nwoke na nwanyị na-edina nwoke ma ọ bụ nwanyị." Ọ na-emekwa ka o doo anya na mmekọahụ ọ bụla a rụrụ na ọnọdụ nke ememe ahụ bụ nkwenye. Dị ka ụdị Wicca ndị ọzọ, ebe a na-enwe mmekọahụ na-adị iche n'etiti otu dị iche iche, ụfọdụ na-enwe mmekọ nwoke na nwanyị na ndị ọzọ na-edebe ihe ngosi mmekọahụ na ọkwa naanị. Dabere na South Florida kemgbe 2012, themụ nke Minotaur grove dịka ọmụmaatụ kpebiri na ọ gaghị etinye aka na mmekọahụ dị ka akụkụ nke ememe otu, ọ bụ ezie na ọ na-atụle isiokwu ahụ ma na-agba ndị otu ume ka ha jiri aka ha na-agbaso omume ndị dị otú ahụ (McShee 2018).

Akụkụ ugboro ugboro nke Wicca bụ ememme ụbọchị ememme na-egosi akara dị iche iche na oge mgbanwe, a na-akpọkarị Wheel of the Year n'otu oge. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Nke a bụ usoro nke mepụtara n'ime ọdịnala Gardnerian n'oge afọ 1950 (Hutton 2008). Buczynski were sistemu a n'agbanyeghị na gbanwere Sabbats ka ha wee nwee ike ịkọwa ọdịnala nke ọdịnala ndị Gris oge mbụ (Lloyd 2012: 399). Mgbe a na-eme n'otu ụbọchị asatọ ahụ a na-ejikarị eme ihe ọdịnala Wiccan ndị ọzọ, a na-enye Minoan Sabbats aha na mkpakọrịta pụrụ iche ha (Lloyd, nkwukọrịta onwe onye).

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Na ọdịnala Minoan, nnukwu osisi ọ bụla kwụụrụ onwe ya na enweghị ụlọ ọrụ dị elu ma ọ bụ onye isi nchịkwa na-achịkwa usoro ahụ dum. N'ime ya, ọ na-enyo usoro ihe ndozi nke Gardnerian. N'ihe banyere 2006, e nwere òtù Minoan Brotherhood dị iche iche na-arụsi ọrụ ike na California, Florida, Louisiana, Indiana, Michigan, na Washington, tinyere ókèala na Canada (Adler 2006: 130). Ka ọ na-erule afọ 2018, ebe nrụọrụ weebụ ọdịnala Minoan depụtara groves na-arụ ọrụ n'ọtụtụ steeti ndị ọzọ na United States na Germany, Italy, na France. Nke a na-egosi na na narị afọ nke iri abụọ na otu, òtù Minoan hoodtù hasmụnna enwewo oge uto, na-akwado ya n'ụzọ dị ukwuu site na butntanetị kamakwa site na ohere ịkparịta ụka n'ememme Pagan (nkwurịta okwu onwe onye nke Lloyd).

Dị ka ọ dị n'etiti okpukpe ndị ọgọ mmụọ nke oge a, Minoan Brotherhood gosipụtara onwe ya dị ka ndị na-abụghị ndị na-eso ụzọ, n'ihi na ọ naghị aga ozi ọma. N'otu oge ahụ, a naghị emechi ya ndị ọhụrụ, ma ebe ọ bụ na 2002 nwere Yahoo! Otu ndi nke ndi choro nwere ike igosiputa mmasi ma jikoo na ogwe aka ha kacha nso. Enweghị nkwa ọ bụla na ndị nwere mmasị ga-enweta nnabata, nke dabere na ma ọ nwere onye nkuzi ma ọ bụ grove dị njikere ịnabata onye ọhụrụ ahụ. Na nke a, ọ na-egosipụta ọtụtụ ihe ndị ọzọ Wiccan nyere.

Dị ka Gardnerianism n'ihu ya, Minoan hoodmụnna na-ahazi onwe ya gburugburu usoro ogo atọ (Adler 2006: 130), usoro e si na Freemasonry nweta. Ga n'ihu n'ọkwa ọ bụla chọrọ ịnweta ahụmịhe na mmụta ka ukwuu, ma kwe ka ikike na ibu ọrụ ka ukwuu. A na-akpọ ndị ruru ogo nke atọ "Minos" (Burns 2017: 158) ma kwere ka ha nwee ụlọ ha.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

N'ikwekọ n'ụdị ndị ọzọ nke oge a, Minoan Brotherhood na-akwado onwe ya site na ịkọwa oge ochie tupu oge Ndị Kraịst, ụzọ nke ga-ewetara ya ajụjụ dịgasị iche gbasara eziokwu. Mgbe ọ na-emepụta ọdịnala ahụ, Buczynski lekwasịrị anya nke ukwuu n'ihe ọmụmụ ihe ochie na akụkọ ihe mere eme metụtara Krit ma jiri nke a "sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ" mee ka ihe okike ya mara ihe, karịa ịchọ iweghachi okpukpe Bronze Age Cretan kwa se (Lloyd nkwukọrịta onwe onye). Ndị ọkachamara yiri ka ọ maara nke ọma na nke ha bụ okpukpe ọhụrụ emere na 1970s, ma ọ bụghị nlanarị nke sitere na Bronze Age Crete, mana okwu gbasara nkọwa na mmekọrịta nke oge a na oge gara aga ka nwere ike ịdị.

Dị ka ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ dị iche iche, ndị otu Minoan Brotherhood gosipụtara mmasị na mmepe n'ime ihe ọmụmụ ihe ochie, ọkachasị nke mpaghara Aegean, ọ bụ ezie na ọgụgụ ha na isiokwu a ga-abụ nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ (Burns 2017: 158) . N'ihi nke a, Caroline Tully (2018: 76) tụrụ aro ka Brothertù hoodmụnna “na-atụgharị okpukpe Mino n'ụzọ dabara adaba na n'ụzọ ịhụnanya nke, n'agbanyeghị na ọ dabara maka ebum n'uche ha, ọ bụ akụkọ ihe mere eme ezighi ezi." Dịka ọmụmaatụ, ebe agwọ nwanyị ahụ dabere na naanị ihe osise abụọ mara nke ndị na-amụ banyere ihe ochie, bụ ndị achọtara na nkewa ma ọ nwere ike itinye agwọ ọ bụla (Tully 2018: 90-93). N'ịgbakwunye ọgụgụ akwụkwọ ha, ndị otu egosila na ha nwere mmasị na akụkọ ifo nke Minoan Crete, ọkachasị ọrụ Mary Renault, onye edemede nke Eze ahụ Ga-anwụ (Burns 2017: 162).

Ndị ọkachamara nwere ike che ihu na njikọta metụtara oge ochie; ka a na-eme nchọpụta ọhụụ mgbe ochie na ịjụ nkọwa ochie, shouldtù ,mụnna kwesịrị ịgbanwe nkwenkwe nke ya na akara ngosi iji jide? Ihe nzuzo nke otu ahụ na-arụ ọrụ, yana enweghị ntụle agụmakwụkwọ nke ọ nataworo, pụtara na anyị enweghị ike ijide n'aka otu ndị otu Brothermụnna si eme ihe n'okwu ndị a, na nzuzo ma ọ bụ na ọkwa otu. Ọ bụrụ na otu ndị ọzọ dị iche iche nke oge a bụ ihe ọ bụla ị ga-aga, agbanyeghị, anyị nwere ike ịtụ anya echiche dịgasị iche iche ga-abụ. Lloyd (nkwukọrịta onwe onye) na-ekwu na ụfọdụ Minmụnna Minoan nwere nnukwu mmasị na mmepe n'ime agụmakwụkwọ ugbu a na Minoan Crete, na ndị ọzọ nwere afọ ojuju ịdabere na ọrụ agụmakwụkwọ mbụ dị ka Evans, ebe ụfọdụ na-eji ozi anakọtara site na nrọ na ntụgharị uche iji gwa nghọta ha nke ọha mmadụ Bronze Age.

Okwu ọzọ na-eche ihu na otù omụnna Minoan bụ otu o si metụta ụmụ nwoke transgender yana mmekọrịta na / ma ọ bụ ndị na-abụghị mmadụ abụọ. Nke a bụ ọnọdụ chere ọtụtụ ụdị nke Okpukpe Ọgbara Ọhụrụ nke na-arụ ọrụ na nwoke na nwanyị ma ọ bụ nwoke ma ọ bụ nwanyị anya ma mee ka ọ pụta n'ihu arụmụka ọha na eze n'ihi mkparịta ụka na-eto eto gbasara nsogbu transgender na 2010s. N'ihe banyere otù omụnna Minoan, e nwere akara na njirimara nke omume metụtara ụmụ nwoke na ụmụ nwoke nke nwere ike ibute ihe mgbochi nye ndị transmen (Mkparịta ụka onwe onye nke Lloyd). N'iburu ọdịdị ya na nke cellular ya, Minoan Brotherhood apụtaghị na ọ nwere otu mkpebi n'okwu ndị a, ụlọ ọ bụla nwere ike ịnwe nnwere onwe ikpebi ma ọ chọrọ ịhapụ ndị ọzọ na-abụghị ndị nwoke cisgender. Mgbe a gbara ya ajụjụ ọnụ na weebụsaịtị ndị ọgọ mmụọ a ma ama, otu Minoan Wiccan a maara dị ka Ceos (onye ya na ụmụ nwoke nke Minotaur Grove nọ) kwuru na "Ọ bụrụ na onye transman hụrụ ụmụ nwoke n'anya rịọ maka ịtụle, aga m adị njikere ịgwa ha okwu" (McShee 2018). Echiche a gbasapụrụ agbasapụ agbasapụ Ihe doro anya bụ na arụmụka banyere nsonye ma ọ bụ mwepụ nke transgender abụrụla ụfọdụ n'ime ihe kachasị mma n'ime obodo ndị ọhụụ n'oge a, ọkachasị n'ime Dianic Wicca na ụdị nke Goddess movement (Greene 2016), na nke a bụ esemokwu na O yighị ka omụnna Minoan zere kpamkpam.

Foto
Foto # 1: Gerald Gardner, nke a maara dị ka "Nna Wicca."
Foto # 2: Edmund "Eddie" Buczynski, onye guzobere Minoan Brotherhood.
Foto # 3: Archaic Greek akpụrụ akpụ nke nwa okorobịa, Kouros.
Foto # 4: Nnukwu nne nwanyị a maara dị ka Rhea.
Foto # 5: Wheel nke afọ.

References

Adler, Margot. 2006. Idolata Ọnwa: Ndị amoosu, ndị ọrịa, ndị na-efe Chineke na ndị ọzọ na-ekpere arụsị na America, mbipụta nke adi. London: Penguuin.

Bourne, L., 1998. Egwú na Ndị Amoosu. London: Robert Hale.

Burns, Bryan E. 2017. “Cretomania na Ọhụụ Ọhụrụ; Nnukwu nne nwanyị ahụ na nwoke nwere mmasị nwoke na Minoan Brotherhood. ” PP. 157–72 n’ime Cretomania: Ọchịchọ nke oge a maka Minoan Past, nke Nicoletta Momigliano na Alexandre Farnoux dere. London na New York: Routledge.

Clifton, Chas S. 2006. Childrenmụ Ya Zoro Ezo: Nbili nke Wicca na Paganism na America. Lanham: AltaMira.

Di Fiosa, Jimahl. 2010. Mkpụrụ ego maka Ferryman: Ọnwụ na Ndụ nke Alex Sanders. United States: Logos.

Doyle White, E. 2016. Wicca: Akụkọ, Nkwenkwe, na Obodo na inta Amoosu nke Oge A. Brighton na Portland: Sussex Academic Press.

Doyle White, E. 2015. "An 'ya Emerụ Ọ dịghị, Mee Ihe Will Ga -": A Historical Analysis of the Wiccan Rede. " Ime Anwansi, Omume, na chta Amoosu 10: 142-71.

Greene, Heather. 2016. "Mkparịta ụka nke Transgender gụnyere arụrịta ụka na obodo ndị ọgọ mmụọ." Ịgba Ọhịa. Nweta site na https://wildhunt.org/2016/06/transgender-inclusion-debates-re-ignite-in-pagan-community.html na 1 October 2018.

Hutton, Ronald. 2008. “Ememe Ndị ọgọ mmụọ ọgbara ọhụụ: ọmụmụ n’udi ọdịnala.” Ndi mmadu 119: 251-73.

Hutton, Ronald. 1999. Mmeri nke ọnwa: Akụkọ banyere Amoosu Oge Ochie. New York na Oxford: Mahadum Oxford University.

Kilgannon, Corey. 2012. "Na a Party Book, amoosu na a Wiccan Ekpere Gburugburu." The New York Times, August 21. Nweta site na https://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/08/21/at-a-book-party-witches-warlocks-and-a-wiccan-prayer-circle/ na 1 October 2018.

Lloyd, Michael G. 2012. Bull of Heaven: Mythic Life nke Eddie Buczynski na Rise nke New York. Hubbardston: Asphodel Press.

Mathiesen, Robert na Theitic. 2005. Rede nke Wiccae: Adrian Porter, Gwen Thompson na ọmụmụ nke ọdịnala nke amoosu. Nkwupụta: Olympian Press.

McShee, Sean. 2018. “A Lelee otù omụnna Minoan na Ndị ikom‘ Na-ejegharị n’etiti swa ’. Ịgba Ọhịa. Nweta site na https://wildhunt.org/2018/09/a-look-at-the-minoan-brotherhood-and-the-men-who-walk-among-worlds.html na 1 October 2018.

Olọ ọrụ omụnna Minoan. nd “Ajụjụ Ndị A Na-ajụkarị Banyere hoodtù Minmụnna Mino.” Nweta site na http://www.minoan-brotherhood.org/ na 1 October 2018.

Ma, Caroline J. 2018. "The Artifice of Daedalus: Minoica nke oge a dị ka okpukpe na-eleba anya na mmebi iwu nke oge." Pp. 76-102 na New Antiquities: Ngbanwe nke Okpukpe Oge Ochie na Ọhụrụ na Agafe, nke Dylan Burns na Almut Barbara-Renger dere. Sheffield: Equinox.

Urban, Hugh. 2006. Magia Sexualis: Mmekọahụ, Ime Anwansi, na Nnwere onwe na Western Western Esotericism. Oakland: Mahadum California Press.

Ikechukwu, Doreen. 1989. Ihe omumu nke amoosu. London: Robert Hale.

Ụbọchị Post:
2 October 2018

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