Vivianne Crowley

Doreen Valiente

OZI OZI OZI

1922 (Jenụwarị 4): Doreen Valiente mụrụ Doreen Edith Dominy na ndịda ọdịda anyanwụ London dịpụrụ adịpụ nke Colliers Wood, Surrey.

1935: Dominy mere amoosu ya nke mbụ, bụ dibịa iji gbochie nne ya ịbụ onye a na-emegbu ọrụ.

1937: Dominy hapụrụ ụlọ akwụkwọ ebe obibi ndị nọn ahụ wee malite ụlọ akwụkwọ abalị iji zụọ ọzụzụ dị ka onye na-ede akwụkwọ.

1939: Dominy bidoro ịrụ ọrụ dịka onye ode akwụkwọ.

1940–1944: Dominy ghọrọ Onye na-enyere Onye Ọchịchị aka nwa oge wee bụrụ Onye Ọfịs Onye Isi na Nwa Oge na nzuzo mkpebi Bletchley Park oge mkpebi.

1941: Doreen Dominy lụrụ Joanis Vlachopoulos, onye ahịa ụgbọ mmiri. Mgbe e mesịrị n'afọ ahụ, a kọwara ya na ọ na-efu n'ọrụ, ma were ya dị ka mmiri riri ya.

1944: Doreen Vlachopoulos lụrụ Casimiro Valiente.

1945: Valiente kwagara Bournemouth, Hampshire, ebe ọ gbasoro ọdịmma ya ma malite ịme anwansi.

1952: Valiente zutere Gerald Gardner, "Nna Ntọala" nke Wicca.

1953: Valiente bidoro dịka onye ụkọchukwu na onye amoosu site n'aka Gerald Gardner na Edith Woodford-Grimes.

1954: Valiente ghọrọ Nnukwu Onye Nchụàjà nke ọgbụgba ndụ Gerald Gardner.

1956: Valiente kwagara Brighton, nọrọ ebe ahụ ruo ọnwụ ya.

1957: Valiente hapụrụ ubi Gardner mgbe ọ kwenyeghị na ụzọ o si kpọsara ọha mmadụ.

1962: Valiente bipụtara akwụkwọ mbụ ya, Ebe Amoosu Na-ebi.

1971: Valiente kwadoro ntọala nke Pagan Front, nke mechara kpọọ Pagan Federation.

1972: Casimiro Valiente nwụrụ. Doreen Valiente kwagara na ebe obibi ikpeazụ ya, 6 Tyson Place, Grosvenor Street, Brighton.

1973: Valiente bipụtara ABC nke chta Amoosu n'Oge Gara Aga na Ugbu A.

1975: Valiente bipụtara Ime Anwansi.

1975: Valiente zutere onye ikpeazụ ya, William George (Ron) Cooke.

1978: Valiente bipụtara Amoosu maka Echi.

1989: Valiente bipụtara Ihe omumu nke amoosu.

1997: Ron Cooke nwụrụ.

1997: Valiente ghọrọ Onye Nlekọta nke Center for Pagan Studies na Sussex.

1997: Valiente nyere adreesị na Nzukọ Kwa Afọ nke Pagan Federation.

1999 (September 1): Doreen Valiente nwụrụ.

2011: Doreen Valiente Foundation kere.

2013: Onye isi obodo nke Brighton kwuru okwu ihu ọha na emume iji kpughee ihe ncheta na-acha anụnụ anụnụ na "Nne nke Amoosu nke Oge A" na Tyson Place, ụlọ ikpeazụ nke Valiente.

2016: Philip Heselton bipụtara akụkọ doro anya nke Valiente.

BIOGRAPHY

Doreen Edith Dominy Valiente (1922–1999) bụ onye amoosu Britain nke butere ụzọ isi na mmepe Paganism nke oge a na okpukperechi ndị ọgọ mmụọ. Kemgbe ọ nwụrụ, a kọwara ya dị ka nne nke amoosu nke oge a na "nwanyị kachasị nwee nwanyị na akụkọ ntolite Britain nke oge amoosu" (Hutton 2010: 10).

Doreen Valiente [Foto dị n'aka nri] mụrụ Doreen Edith Dominy na 1922 na ndịda ọdịda anyanwụ London dịpụrụ adịpụ nke Colliers Wood, Surrey. Nna ya, Harry Dominy, bụ onye injinịa obodo na onye na-ese ụkpụrụ ụlọ. Nne ya, Edith Annie Dominy, nke a na-akpọ Richardson, si n'ógbè England dị n'ụsọ oké osimiri nke Hampshire. Doreen Dominy nwere obi ụtọ na mgbọrọgwụ nke ezinụlọ ya na New Forest, Hampshire oge ochie Norman ịchụ nta na mpaghara metụtara amoosu. O biri na Hampshire maka akụkụ nke ndụ ya ma jigide ụda olu ime obodo Hampshire.

Na 1937, Dominy hapụrụ ụlọ akwụkwọ ebe obibi ndị nọn ya tupu ya abanye na matrik. Ọ tụrụ anya na ọ ga-agụcha akwụkwọ na kọleji nka, mana nne na nna ya enweghị ike ịkwado ya. Kama nke ahụ, ọ rụrụ ọrụ n'otu ụlọ ọrụ na-akwụ ụgwọ ụlọ akwụkwọ abalị iji na-azụ ọzụzụ. Ka ọ na-erule 1939, nkà ịdebanye akwụkwọ ya zuru ezu iji nweta ọrụ dị ka odeakwụkwọ-ode akwụkwọ. Site na ntiwapụ nke Agha IIwa nke Abụọ, ohere ọhụụ meghere ụmụ nwanyị, na 1940 ọ nwetakwara ọrụ na-atọ ụtọ dịka Onye Nyere Aka na-anọ Nwa Oge na ebe nzuzo nzuzo Bletchley Park.

Na 1941, ọ lụrụ Joanis Vlachopoulos, onye ọkwọ ụgbọ mmiri na-azụ ahịa, mana alụmdi na nwunye ahụ dị mkpụmkpụ mgbe ọnwa ole na ole gachara ka ụgbọ mmiri U-rịrị ụgbọ ya ma kwupụta na ọ na-efu efu, na-eche na mmiri riri ya. Ọ gara n'ihu n'ọrụ ya maka Ọrụ ọgụgụ isi na site na 1944 ka a kwalitere na Office nke Onye Ọchịchị Na-adịru Oge na Enigma na ngalaba nkwupụta D-Day. Na 1944, ọ lụrụ ọzọ Casimiro Valiente, onye agha nke ndị agha Spain na ndị agha France of France (Heselton 2016: 39–54).

Doreen Valiente nwere mmasị na ike karịrị nke mmadụ na anwansi kemgbe ọ bụ nwata. N’oge ọ dị afọ iri na ụma, ọ rụrụ anwansi mbụ ya, nke bụ ihe nchebe nye nne ya na-achọ ọrụ ya. Mmasị ya na anwansi nọgidere na-etolite ma o nwere ike inyekwu oge na nyocha esoteric mgbe Agha Worldwa nke Abụọ gasịrị mgbe ya na di ya laghachiri na Hampshire. Ọ na-enyocha akwụkwọ esoteric na-esiri ike inweta, mụọ Spiritualism, Theosophy, magic magic, na Kabbalah, wee malite iso enyi ya na-eme anwansi (Heselton 2016: 58-66).

Valiente nwere mmasị na ndị amoosu ma ọ nweghị ihe mere ọ ga-eji chee na ndị amoosu ka dị na Britain ruo mgbe 1952 ọ dara na otu akwụkwọ akụkọ banyere Museum of Witchcraft na Isle nke Mmadụ (Valiente 1989: 36). Isiokwu ahụ kọwara amoosu dị ka okpukpe ndị ọgọ mmụọ dịrị tupu oge ndị Kraịst nke na-efe chi nwanyị dị iche iche ofufe ma na-asọpụrụ ọdịnala oge ochie. Nke a nwere mkpali mmetụta uche siri ike nke kpaliri ya idegara ụlọ ihe ngosi nka, nke zigara Gerald Gardner (1884-1964), bụ nke a na-akpọkarị "Nna Ntọala" nke ndị amoosu nke oge a ma ọ bụ Wicca.

Gardner zara site n'ịkpọ Valiente ka ọ zute ya n'ụlọ Hampshire nke Edith Woodford-Grimes (1887–1975), Nnukwu Onye Nchụaja nke a maara dịka "Dafo." Na 1953, Gardner na Woodford-Grimes bidoro Valiente dị ka onye ụkọchukwu na onye amoosu, a kpọbatara ya na onye ọrụ Gardner na London. N’ịghọta ihe ọmụma ya na talent ya, Gardner mere ya n’oge na-adịghị anya Nnukwu Onye Nchụ aja nke ọgbụgba ndụ ahụ wee malite ịkọwa ya n’oge ụfọdụ dịka “isi nke ndị amoosu-òtù nzuzo na Britain” (Heselton 2016: 89).

Nnyocha mbụ nke Valiente pụtara na ọ ghọtara na isi ihe ederede, nke a chịkọtara na olu a na-akpọ Gardner Akwụkwọ nke Onyunyo, ihe sitere na ihe odide anwansi ochie dị ka Igodo nke Sọlọmọn, kamakwa site na isi mmalite nke oge a, gụnyere ihe sitere n'aka onye mgbaasị mgbaasị bụ Aleister Crowley (1875-1947). Valiente kwenyere na ya nwere ike imeziwanye ihe a, yana nkwekọrịta Gardner ji nkà ya dị ka onye edemede na onye edemede iji degharị ma gbakwunye ederede. Ọ belata ịdabere na Crowley ma webata ihe sitere na nchịkọta akụkọ ọdịnala na abụ uri na prose ya. Nke a gụnyere idegharị "The Charge," bụ isi ederede nke nkuzi ime mmụọ Wiccan nke Gardner mepụtara site na isi mmalite nke gụnyere akụkọ ọdịnala ndị America Charles Leland nke ederede amoosu crafttali. Aradia, Ozi nke ndi amoosu (Leland 1899 [1974]).

Gerald Gardner bụ onye nwere mmasị na nkwalite nke Wicca onye chere na ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ mgbasa ozi ọ bụla bụ ezigbo mgbasa ozi. N'onwe ya naturist, ọ kwadoro ịgba ọtọ ma ọ bụ "skyclad" na-arụ ọrụ n'ememe, ọ na-enwekwa ọ forụ maka ndị nta akụkọ na-ese foto nke ndị ụkọchukwu gba ọtọ. Valiente nwere mmụọ dị mma na-eme ka ndụ sie ike na ahụ ma ọ dịghị ajụ ịgba ọtọ n'onwe ya, mana ka ọ na-erule afọ 1957, ọ nọ na-echegbukarị onwe ya na mgbasa ozi ezighi ezi na-emebi okpukpe na-agba ọsọ. Esemokwu ike malitere n'etiti Valiente na Gardner, nke mere ka ọ hapụ ọgbụgba ndụ ahụ mgbe esemokwu kpatara site na mbọ ha na-agba iji mepụta otu "Iwu" maka omume nke ọgbụgba ndụ (Heselton 2016: 98-100). Versiondị nke Gardner chọrọ ịkwụsị ọrụ nke Nnukwu Onye Nchụ aja na ụmụ agbọghọ mara mma nke nwere ike ghara ịma ikike ya aka. Valiente kwuru mgbe e mesịrị na n'oge ahụ amaghị ama okwu ahụ bụ "nwoke na nwanyị", mana nke a bụ otu o si wee lee Gardner "Iwu" (Valiente 1989: 70).

Esemokwu ahụ dị n'etiti Gardner na Valiente kpatara nkewa na ọgbụgba ndụ ahụ, yana ndị otu okenye nwere nlezianya na-akwado ụzọ isi dị ala nke Valiente maka mgbasa ozi na ndị na-eto eto anaghị enwe nsogbu. Valiente na ndị ọzọ hapụrụ iji guzobe ọgbụgba ndụ nke ha.

N’afọ 1956, Valiente na di ya kwagara n’obodo Brighton, Sussex nke dị n’akụkụ osimiri. Na 1962, Valiente wepụtara akwụkwọ mbụ ya, Ebe Amoosu na-ebi, nyochaa omume amoosu na Sussex. Nke a sochiri na 1970s, mgbe Valiente dị afọ iri ise na ise, site na oge nke okike ọhụụ nke hụrụ mbipụta akwụkwọ atọ nke mere ya onye ama ama ama ama na amoosu nke oge a na mba ndị na-asụ Bekee na karịa: ABC nke chta Amoosu n'Oge Gara Aga na Ugbu A (Valiente 1973), Ime Anwansi (Valiente 1975), na Amoosu maka Echi (Ike 1978). N'ime ndị a, o gosipụtara echiche nke ya banyere amoosu ndị ọgọ mmụọ. Ndị a metụtara oge ya na Gardner, kamakwa site na ahụmịhe na-esote na otu ndị nwoke ndị ọzọ na-akwado nsụgharị nke ịta amoosu ha, gụnyere Roy Bowers, nke a na-akpọ Robert Cochrane (Valiente 1989: 117–36).

N’agbanyeghi nnukwu esemokwu nke Valiente na Gerald Gardner, na mbido 1960 ha dị n’udo ma n’ọnwụ ya na 1964 ọ natara akwụkwọ ikike n’uche ya. Ọ nọgidere na-enwe mmekọrịta chiri anya na ọgbụgba ndụ Gardnerian na isonye n'ememe Gardnerian, yana nke okike ya. Na 1979, ya na onye otu ya nke atọ Ron Cooke ghọrọ ndị ji ịnụ ọkụ n'obi sonye n'ọhịa "nnukwu sabbats" nke ndị ọgbụgba ndụ Gardnerian nwere na ndịda England (Crowley 2013). Valiente jigidere ọchịchọ ya igosi na Wicca esiteghị na Gardner malite, kama o nwere mgbọrọgwụ ochie. Na 1980, na nzukọ ọhịa maka emume ndị nwụrụ anwụ, Samhain ma ọ bụ Halloween, ọ nwere ahụmịhe doro anya nke mere ka nyocha ya. Nke a dugara na nchọpụta nke otu onye dị mkpa na nne na nna Gerald Gardner, "Old Dorothy." O nyere aka na nyocha a Zọ Ndị Amoosu, akwukwo nke ya na ya jikotara aka wee meputa ihe omuma nke akwukwo nke Gardnerian Wicca Akwụkwọ nke Onyunyo (Valiente 1984).

N'ime afọ ọ ruru afọ iri isii na asaa, Valiente mepụtara akwụkwọ ikpeazụ ikpeazụ ya, Ihe omumu nke amoosu (Valiente 1989). Nke a gbasoro obere oge onyinye ya na akwụkwọ enyi John Jones, Chta Amoosu: Ọdịnala Emeghari (Valiente 1990). N'ime ndị a, Valiente gosipụtara echiche ya tozuru oke ma nye ihe ndabere maka omume amoosu nke ọ tụlere na ọ bụ eziokwu karịa nke Gardner "ọhụụ ikuku nke Wicca" (Valiente 1990: 7). Ka o sina dị, Valiente gara n'ihu na-akwado “akụkọ ifo ntọala” Gardner dabere na echiche ịhụnanya na enweghị nkwenye nke ọkà mmụta ihe banyere mmadụ bụ Margaret Murray (1863–1963) na amoosu na-anọchite foduru nke okpukperechi tupu oge Ndị Kraịst nke Europe.

Na 1960s na 1970s, Valiente ghọrọ otu n'ime ndị amoosu a kacha mara amara na Britain, na-ede edemede maka akwụkwọ akụkọ na-aza ajụjụ ma na-aza ngwa ngwa maka arịrịọ mgbasa ozi kachasị maka ajụjụ ọnụ. N’agbanyeghi na ekwuputara ndi mmadu nke oma, ndi amoosu ka nwere ajọ mbunobi nke ọha, nkwujọ nke usoro mgbasa ozi kwa oge, na ebubo nke ofufe Setan. Iji gbochie nke a, na 1971 Valiente jikọrọ aka na Madge Worthington na John na Jean Score the Pagan Front, nzukọ na-eme mkpọtụ iji gbochie nkwupụta mgbasa ozi na iso gọọmentị na-arụsi ọrụ ike iji nweta ikike nke ndị ọgọ mmụọ nke ọdịnala ime mmụọ niile ife ofufe na-enweghị ikpa oke. Valiente nwere mmetụta dị ukwuu mana ọ bụghị onye ndú okpukpe n'echiche ahụ. Ọ họọrọ ịrụ ọrụ n'adabereghị na iji kpalie ndị ọzọ idu, kama iburu nzukọ, ọ hapụrụ ọrụ Pagan Front na John Score kwa ụbọchị. Nzukọ ahụ toro ghọọ Pagan Federation, òtù mba ụwa, na onye isi na-anọchite anya Paganism na Britain (Crowley 2013).

Site na 1989 gaa n'ihu, Valiente gara n'ihu na amoosu ya na onye mmekọ ya nke atọ Ron Cooke na ezi ndị enyi. Ka ahụ ike Cooke jụrụ, ọ hapụrụ ihu ọha iji wepụta oge iji lekọta ya. Mgbe ọnwụ ya gasịrị, ọ pụtara n'ihu ọha mgbe ọ ghọrọ Onye Nlekọta nke Center Center for Pagan Studies na Sussex, nke John na Julie Belham-Payne guzobere. N'ebe a, ọ kụziiri ndị na-ege ntị ihe na-anụ ọkụ n'obi ma malite ịghọta ókè mmetụta ya dị. Chesmụ amoosu ka na-agụ ọrụ ya ma na-eme emume ndị o kere. Isi okwu ihu ọha ikpeazụ ya bụ na November 1997 gaa ogbako kwa afọ nke Pagan Federation. N'ebe a, a nabatara ya nke ọma na nkwanye ugwu iji gosipụta onyinye ya na amoosu nke oge a na obodo ndị ọzọ.

Na 1998, ọ dara ọrịa na Septemba 1, 1999 ọ nwụrụ n'ọrịa kansa pancreatic, ebe o nyechara John Belham-Payne akwụkwọ ya na arịa amoosu. Ọnwụ ya kpatara ọnwụ na isi akwụkwọ akụkọ dị n'akụkụ abụọ nke Atlantic, gụnyere New York Times (Martin 1999).

Nkuzi / Omume

Ọrụ nke Gerald Gardner, Aleister Crowley, Robert Cochrane na ndị ọzọ dị mkpa maka omume Valiente na ọ webatara ọtụtụ ihe ọ mụtara, mana ọ na-adabere na ahụmịhe ya na nyocha ya. Otu ihe dị mkpa n’ozizi ya bụ ịhụnanya okike. Ememe nke usoro oge a dị ezigbo mkpa nye ya, na ememe maka ememe oge a bụ otu n'ime isi onyinye ya nye Gardner Akwụkwọ nke Onyunyo. Nye Gardner, ịta amoosu ndị ọgọ mmụọ bụ okpukpe ọmụmụ; mana gịnị, Valiente jụrụ, sị, òtù nzuzo ọmụmụ nke metụtara usoro ugbo na-amasị ndị bi n'oge a? Valiente rụrụ ụka na amoosu abụghị òtù ọmụmụ ma bụrụ okpukpe okike. Ọ masịrị ndị mmadụ n'ihi na ndụ obodo ọgbara ọhụrụ mere ka ndị mmadụ ghara ịbụ ndị ezinụlọ ha na ụwa nke okike wee mebie echiche ha dị ka ndị mmadụ. Ọganihu nke amoosu nke ndị ọgọ mmụọ bụ mmeghachi omume megide ụlọ ọrụ mmepụta ihe na mmetụta nke ịbụ “cog ọzọ na nnukwu igwe na-enweghị uche.” Site na ime ememme izu ike nke oge, ndị mmadụ nwere ike ịchọpụta n'echiche nke ịdị n'otu na okike, "ọ exụ nke na-abịa site na ịkpọtụrụ Onye Universal Life" (Valiente 1964: 6).

Valiente gara n'ihu na-agbanwe omume nke na-anọchite anya ya amoosu "eziokwu" dị nso na otu ndị nkịtị, ndị na-agụghị akwụkwọ na-agụghị akwụkwọ ga-esi mee ya. Ọ bụ ezie na ọ na-asọpụrụ Chineke n'ụdị Gardner kụziri ya (dị ka Chi nwanyị na onye ya na Chineke Horned), ọ masịrị ịmebe iwu ya n'èzí n'ọhịa ndịda England site n'ìhè nke ọnwa na kpakpando na "isi nke ọkụ ọkụ, ifufe nke abalị n'etiti osisi, mkpu ikwiikwii nke ikwiikwii mgbe ụfọdụ n'ọhịa gbara ọchịchịrị "(Heselton 2016: 285). Mmekọrịta chiri anya na ọdịdị na ume okike ndị ọ hụrụ na osisi, na okwute, na gburugburu ala gbara ya gburugburu bụ ntọala nke ọnọdụ ime mmụọ ya.

Omume ya n’ebe chi dị yiri nke ahụ dị n’ihe odide nke dibia ọgụgụ isi Carl Gustav Jung (1875–1961), onye ọ hotara n’ọtụtụ ọrụ ya. Dị ka Jung, o kwenyere na, “Chi na chi nwanyị bụ njirimara nke ike okike; ma ọ bụ ikekwe mmadụ kwesịrị ikwu, nke nnukwu ike, ikike, nke na-achịkwa ma na-eweta ndụ ụwa anyị, nke pụtara ìhè na nke zoro ezo ”(Valiente 1978: 30). Formsdị chi dị ka nke Chi Nwanyị Ukwu nke ndị amoosu fere nwere ike bụrụ na a mụrụ n'echiche mmadụ mana ka oge na-aga ha ghọrọ ihe ochie dị ike na ihe omuma nke mmadu (Valiente 1978: 30). N'otu aka ahụ, oghere dị nsọ nke emume ịta amoosu mere (okirikiri nwere ebe ịchụàjà etiti) na-anọchi anya Valiente a mandala, [Foto dị n'aka nri] akara ngosi archetypal "nke Carl Gustav Jung na-ele anya dị ka ihe dị mkpa nye ndị na-amaghị ama. . . . ihe osise nke na-egosi echiche nke nguzozi nke ime mmụọ. . . ” (Valiente 1973: 65–66).

Agbanyeghị na esemokwu dị iche n'etiti Gardner na Valiente, ndị a yikwara ụka dị iche iche n'ime ọdịnala karịrị akarị. Valiente, Gardner, na Cochrane niile lere amoosu anya dị ka omume anwansi na anwansi, kama dị ka okpukpe ọzọ dị egwu na ụkpụrụ Ndị Kraịst. Nke a zeere òtù okpukpe na usoro ike ha dị iche iche, jụ nkwenye nke okpukpe, ma sọpụrụ ọdịdị nke chi ahụ karịa ihe “karịrị nke” karịrị nke ahụ. Omume na omume ha kụziri nyere ndị na-akwado ya ikike nke sitere na ịkọwapụta dị ka ndị amoosu, ndị nwere ikike pụrụ iche iji chịkwaa ọdịnihu ha na ịgbanwe ụwa gbara ha gburugburu. Ebumnuche dị na nkuzi ahụ bụ ozi ahụ na enwere ike ịnụ ọ andụ na njigide na ebe a na ugbu a, yana na ndụ ebighi Valiente kụziri ịlọ ụwa nakwa na Chi nwanyị ahụ "na-eme ka ọ dị ndụ ọzọ n'oge oge, ruo mgbe anyị chọrọ ụwa a na oge ọzọ" (Valiente 1989: 136). Dị ka Gardner na Cochrane, o kwenyere na ọtụtụ n'ime ndị dọtara amoosu bụ ndị amoosu na ndụ ndị gara aga.

I ndu ndu na iwu

Nwanyị nwere uche siri ike, Valiente ji eziokwu ya, ezi obi ya, uche ya, na nnwere onwe ya (Hutton 1999: 246). Àgwà ọma nke Valiente, nke ịbụ onye ala mebiri echiche na-ezighi ezi nke ndị chere na ndị amoosu ndị ọgọ mmụọ ga-abụrịrị ndị ajọ omume. O nwere obi ike iji nakwere aha ahụ a na-akwa emo nke "amoosu," ma nwee oke ntụkwasị obi ịchụpụ mmekọrịta ọha na eze nke nwere ike ịbụ akara aka nke ndị kwadoro ụdị nkwenkwe a na-arụ ụka. Nkọwa ya doro anya nyere ndị na-achọ ịchọta ụzọ ha na amoosu nke oge a aka ike, na abụ uri ya sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ rịọrọ n'echiche nke ndị na-achọ ime mmụọ nke ndị ọgọ mmụọ nke dabara na okike. Hutton kwuru na Valiente “na-anagide ịdị ukwuu ya bụ n’eziokwu na ọ raara onwe ya nye ya kpam kpam na ịchọsi ike na ikwupụta eziokwu nke ya, n’ime ụwa ebe ndị na-ebinye akara aka nọ na ya nọ n’ọnọdụ nke ihe mgbagwoju anya zuru oke” ( Hutton 1999: 383-84).

Mgbe Valiente nwụsịrị, John na Julie Belham-Payne kpebisiri ike ịzụlite ncheta ya; ha gbara mbọ iji hụ na ọ hụrụ arịa ya niile, nke gụnyere mbido aka Akwụkwọ nke Onyunyo, gara n'ihu ọha. Mgbe o hazichara ọtụtụ ihe ngosi na ogbako ewepụtara maka ọrụ Valiente, na 2011 ndị Belham-Paynes guzobere Doreen Valiente Foundation iji kwalite ncheta ya na nkuzi ya wee bipụta ọrụ ya.

Ọ bụ ezie na ndị ọgọ mmụọ nabatara mkpa Valiente, n'oge na-adịbeghị anya ọ ghọrọ akụkụ a ma ama nke akụkọ ntolite Britain. Na June 2013, afọ iri isii ka mbido ya dị ka onye amoosu, onye isi obodo Brighton kwanyeere Valiente ùgwù n'ihu ọha na emume maka mkpughe nke akara ngosi na-acha anụnụ anụnụ na mpụga nke ụlọ obibi Tyson Ebe nke bụ ụlọ ikpeazụ ya. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ihe ncheta ahụ, nke Center for Pagan Studies nyere, bụ "Doreen Valiente (1922-1999) Onye na-ede uri, Onye edemede na mama nke amoosu nke oge a biri ebe a" (BBC News 2013).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Valiente's autobiography, Ihe omumu nke amoosu, ọ bụghị naanị kọwaa ahụmịhe ya na amoosu nke oge a, kamakwa o gosipụtara ụzọ o si mee ya. Akwụkwọ ahụ na-egosipụta etu mmasị mbụ ya na akụkọ ọdịnala na anwansi si bụrụ ihe ndabere nke omume ya, mana site na 1980s, ọ metụtara ya na mmepe nke ime ihe ike gburugburu ebe obibi na nwanyị. Valiente wepụtara otu isi maka amoosu ndị nwanyị, bụ nke ọ rụrụ ụka na ọ bụ ụmụ nwanyị hiwere usoro ime mmụọ kachasị emetụta n'oge a na ụmụ nwanyị na-eduzi bụ ọdịnihu nke ime mmụọ (Valiente 1989: 179-95).

O kpughere ụfọdụ njem nke ya gaa na nwanyị, na-ede na ọ bụ ezie na ọ dịla anya ọ na-eche na ya bụ onye na-akwado ikike ụmụ nwanyị, ọ bụghị ruo mgbe ọ gụrụ akwụkwọ ndị nwanyị. Tooga oke: Akụkọ gbasara onwe onye nke nwanyị site n'aka Robin Morgan (1978), na ọ tụrụ ya n'anya na n'ọtụtụ obodo, ụmụ nwanyị nwere ọnọdụ naanị dị ka mgbakwunye na ụmụ nwoke ma kụziere ha na ihe dị mkpa "ọ bụrụhaala na ha nwere ike ịmasị ụmụ nwoke" (Valiente 1989: 180). Ọ rụtụrụ aka na mmegharị echichi ụmụ nwanyị na ụka ụka Ndị Kraịst dịka ọmụmaatụ nke etu ụmụ nwanyị si enupụrụ isi isi ọchịchị nwoke isi mana na-ekwu maka Merlin Stone's Akwụkwọ Paradaịs: Mbelata nke ememe ụmụ nwanyị, ọ katọrọ isi okpukpe dị ka Iso forzọ Kraịst maka ịgba ụmụ nwoke ume ma kwado echiche Stone na, "N'oge mmalite okpukpe, Chineke bụ nwanyị" (Stone 1977: 17). Valiente nabatara ọkachasị omume ọma nke ụmụ nwanyị na-ahụ maka ahụ ụmụ nwanyị na ọrụ anụ ahụ. O zoro aka dị ka "mmalite oge tupu amoosu ụmụ nwanyị" (Valiente 1989: 187) Penelope Shuttle na Peter Redgrove's Ogbugbu Amamihe: Onwe nwoke na nwanyị, nke gosipụtara nwanyị na-ahụ nsọ dịka nwanyị nke ike (Shuttle and Redgrove 1978). Valiente rụrụ ụka na ọ ga-abụ na ọbara ịhụ nsọ bụ ihe dị nsọ nye chi nwanyị nke ndị amoosu ma mee ka ndị amoosu nwee ọrụ anwansi (Valiente 1989: 188-89).

Valiente kwuru na ọ bụ ezie na amoosu abụrụla nke “nwanyị,” na mmalite nke mmalite nke amoosu, ebe Chineke na ụmụ nwanyị nwetara ọkwá dị elu, ndị ụkọchukwu “amalitela ịrụ ọrụ ndị nwoke dịka Gerald Gardner mere maka ha ”Na“ ndị ikom na-agba ọsọ ihe na ụmụ nwanyị na-eme dịka ndị ikom nyere ntụziaka ”(Valiente 1989: 182). Valiente toro ndị amoosu nwanyị, dị ka Zsuzsanna Budapest (b. 1940) na Starhawk (b. 1952, Miriam Simos), maka ịgbagha echiche ndị a ma kwado etu ndị amoosu nwanyị si arụ ọrụ na-arụ ọrụ gburugburu ebe obibi (Valiente 1989: 186-87, 189–92).

N'adịghị ka ọtụtụ ndị amoosu nke nwanyị n'oge ahụ, Valiente enweghị ịnụ ọkụ n'obi banyere isi nwanyị, nke ọ tụlere nwere ike ibute oke nha anya nke ọha na eze dịka nna ochie (Valiente 1989: 184). O kwuru na ya ahọpụtabeghị, dị ka ọtụtụ ndị amoosu nke nwanyị, ịjụ mmetụta nwoke site na ịbụ onye otu nkwekọrịta nwanyị niile, mana ọ ghọtara na e nwere okwu banyere ihe omimi na anwansi nke metụtara ụmụ nwanyị, ma jikọta ya Onyinyo nke otu o gha esi buru “mgbe ndi nwanyi chikọbara site n’onwa ọnwa n’egwuregwu n’elu ugwu, ma ọ bụ n’oké ọhịa, na-akpọku mkpụrụ obi nzuzo nke mama ụwa” (Valiente 1989: 195)

Foto

Foto # 1: Doreen Valiente. Site n'ikike nke Doreen Valiente Foundation.
Image # 2: Doreen Valiente na ebe ịchụàjà ya. Site n'ikike nke Doreen Valiente Foundation.
Foto # 3: A na-ewu ihe ncheta na-acha anụnụ anụnụ na Doreen Valiente n'ụlọ mbụ ya, ụlọ elu nke Tyson's Place na Brighton, East Sussex. Foto nke Ethan Doyle White sere. Site n'ikike nke Wikimedia Commons.

References

Akụkọ BBC. 2013. "Brighton amoosu Doreen Valiente ọkọkpọhi Blue e dere ede." BBC News, June 13. Nweta site na www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-england-sussex-22861672 na 8 / 1 / 2018.

Crowley, Vivianne. 2013. "Doreen Valiente." Okpukpo ndi ochichi: Akwụkwọ nke Pagan Federation 189: 25-27.

Heselton, Philip. 2016. Doreen Valiente, Amoosu. Nottingham: Doreen Valiente Foundation na Center for Pagan Studies.

Hutton, Ronald. 2010 [1962]. “Okwu mmalite.” Pp. 9-10 na Doreen Valiente, Ebe Amoosu Na-ebi. Maresfield: Whyte ckszọ egwu / forlọ Ọrụ Maka Ọmụmụ Okpukpe.

Hutton, Ronald. 1999. Ọdịnihu nke ọnwa: A History of False Witchcraft Modern. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Leland, Charles Godfrey, ed. 1974 [1899]. Aradia: Ozi nke ndi amoosu. London: Companylọ ọrụ CW Daniel.

Martin, Douglas. 1999. “Doreen Valiente, 77, nwụrụ; Ndị Nkwado Nwere Ezi Amoosu. ” New York Times, October 3. Nweta site na http://www.nytimes.com/1999/10/03/world/doreen-valiente-77-dies-advocated-positive-witchcraft.html/ na 1 August 2018.

Morgan, Robin. 1978. Tooga oke: Akụkọ gbasara onwe onye nke nwanyị. New York: Akwụkwọ ndị Vintage.

Utgbọ mmiri, Penelope, na Peter Redgrove. 1978. Ogbugbu Amamihe: Onwe nwoke na nwanyị. London: Gollancz.

Nkume, Merlin. 1977. Akwụkwọ Paradaịs: Mbelata nke ememe ụmụ nwanyị. London: Virago.

Ikechukwu, Doreen. 1990. “Okwu mmalite.” Pp. 7-13 n'ime Amoosu: Omenala emere ọhụrụ, nke Evan John Ones na Doreen Valiente dere. London: Robert Hale.

Ikechukwu, Doreen. 1989. Ihe omumu nke amoosu. London: Robert Hale.

Ikechukwu, Doreen. 1984. “Ihe Odide A: Ọchịchọ A Na-achọ Dorothy Ochie.” Pp. 283-93 na Witzọ Witches: Prinkpụrụ, Iwu na Nkwenkwe Witta Amoosu nke Oge A, nke Janet Farrar na Stewart Farrar ,. London: Robert Hale.

Ikechukwu, Doreen. 1978. Amoosu maka Echi. London: Robert Hale.

Ikechukwu, Doreen. 1975. Ime Anwansi. London: Robert Hale.

Ikechukwu, Doreen. 1973. ABC nke chta Amoosu n'Oge Gara Aga na Ugbu A. London: Robert Hale.

Ikechukwu, Doreen. 1964. "Mgbe nri abalị kwusịrị: 'Iri iri na nri nri abalị Pentagram.'" Pentagram: Nyochaa Amoosu. Nọvemba: 5-6.

 

Ihe:
3 August 2018

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