David G. Bromley Izaak Spiers

New Orleans Historic Voodoo Museum

ỌR NEW ỌH NEWR H AKWISTKWỌ AKWORKWỌ AKWORKWỌ AKW .KWỌ AKW .KWỌ

1939: Charles Massicot Gandolfo mụrụ.

1972: Charles na Jerry Gandolfo mepere New Orleans Historic Voodoo Museum.

2001 (February 27): Charles Gandolfo nwụrụ n'ihi nkụchi obi.

2001: Nchịkwa nke ụlọ ihe ngosi nka gbanwere na John T. Martin.

2005: Onye nwe ụlọ ihe ngosi nka nyefere Jerry Gandolfo.

2005 (August 29): Hurricane Katrina tiri New Orleans.

2014: John T. Martin nwụrụ n'ihi nkụchi obi.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY
Vodou a na-eme na New Orleans nke oge a nwere mgbọrọgwụ dị ukwuu na Africa na Haiti (Long 2001, 2016). Vodou nke mbu nke Africa (nke ndi oru nke oge a na-akpo "Okpukpe") bu ụzọ banye Louisiana na ọkara nke mbụ nke narị afọ nke iri na asatọ site na ahia ndị ohu France nke wetara ọtụtụ puku ndị ohu si West Africa (Fandrich 2007). N'ime iri afọ ndị mbụ nke narị afọ nke iri na asatọ, ndị sista Katọlik bịara ịtọghata ndị ohu ohu Louisiana, a chọkwara ka ndị nwere ndị ohu nye iwu na nkuzi na omume Roman Katọlik. Ruo ọtụtụ ọgbọ, ndị ohu ahụ jikọtara ọdịnala ọdịnala Africa na nkwenkwe na omume Roman Katọlik. Haitian Vodou bịarutere Louisiana n'ihi nnupụisi ohu na-aga nke ọma na mmalite 1790s na ime ihe ike na-aga nnwere onwe Haitian na 1804. Ndị America malitere ịkwaga na Louisiana na-esote nkwekọrịta Louisiana chazụta na France na 1803. N'ime ọkara mbụ nke narị afọ nke iri na itoolu, ụfọdụ ndị ohu si Central Africa bụ ndị ebubataburu na steeti na mpaghara ugwu nke South bidoro ịpụta na New Orleans. Ha webatara omume nke Hoodoo, na-eme ka ọdịbendị ahụ sie ike.

Omenala ndị Haitian na ndị Africa Vodou na-arụkọ ọrụ ọnụ na-enwe akụkọ ọdịnala na ọdịiche dị iche (Crocker 2011: 7).

Ndị Okpukpe ahụ ndị a zụlitere na New Orleans Vodou na-ekpe okpukpe ha na nzuzo na nzuzo. Ha na-eke ebe-ichu-aja n’ebe ndi mmadu na-anapu nke ulo ha iji jikoo ndi nna ochie, ma ha n’enyekwa onyinye n’ebe ndi mmadu na-eli. Ndị Vodouists a zụrụ azụ na Haiti na-eme emume kwa izu na ụlọ nsọ ndị ọzọ na kwa ọnwa na oghere ọha. Ọdịdị nke okwukwe ha na-enye ohere maka ndị na-atụgharị mmadụ na oriri ọha na eze nke ọtụtụ emume.

Dị ka, Crocker (2008: 24-25) na-akọwa ihe pụtara na New Orleans nke oge a:

Ka ọ dị ugbu a Vodous abụọ a agbakọtala na obodo New Orleans ma ugbu a ga-ekerịta karịa naanị akụkọ ntolite na aha. Otu abụọ a nwere oghere dịka ili ozu na Congo Square dị nsọ. Onye ọ bụla na-eweghachi oghere dị nsọ na nzuzo na nke ọha na eze, na -emepụta web nke pụtara nke na-agbagha ibe ha

 Ọnọdụ Voudou mechara bụrụ ihe mgbagwoju anya na ọbịbịa nke ụlọ ọrụ ndị njem, dị ka ndị njem nleta na azụmahịa ndị njem nleta na-agwakọta ọdịnala maka ebumnuche azụmahịa (Long 2001). Dị ka Crocker (2011: 6) si kọwaa ọnọdụ a:

Shopslọ ahịa ndị njem na saịtị na-erite uru site na ụdị Vodou abụọ a, na-abanye na akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Okpukpe na New Orleans site na ebe na ndị akụkọ ihe mere eme mgbe ha na-ere ahịa na akara Haitian na usoro. Ha na-agbakọta ha dị ka otu okpukpe dị n'otu ma na-agwakọta na ihe ndị na-akpali akpali ma na-akpali akpali nke na okwukwe ọ bụla adịghị. Ndị ọkachamara na-ere ma na-eme maka ndị njem nlegharị anya na-agbagha usoro ndị a. Akwụkwọ ntuziaka na akwụkwọ njem na-ejegharị site na oghere New Orleans na akụkọ ihe mere eme nke na-etinye oghere dị nsọ maka otu abụọ nke Vodouists. Akụkụ ndị a nke ndị njem nleta na ndị ọrụ na-esonye n'akụkụ dị n'akụkụ obodo ahụ, na -emepụta ọkwa nke nghọta na-enweghị atụ na ahụmịhe nke dị nsọ.

New Orleans Vodou Museum bụ ngwaahịa nke njikọta nke ọdịnala ndị a. Lọ ihe ngosi nka na-anọchi anya ọhụụ nke Charles "Voodoo Charlie" Gandolfo [Foto dị n'aka nri] na nwanne ya nwoke nke nta bụ Jerry Gandolfo, bụ ndị sitere n'ezinụlọ Creole. Ha abụọ bụ ndị bi na New Orleans, mana ọbụghị onye ọrụ Voodoo, ọ bụ ezie na Charles dere na ọdịnala (Gandolfo 1985). Dabere na agbụrụ ezinụlọ, Charles Gandolfo jikọtara Voodoo site n'aka nne nne nne ya. N'ime nnupụisi ohu nke 1791 na Haiti, otu ohu zoro ndị ezinụlọ Gandolfo wee nyere ha aka ịgbaga New Orleans. Otu n'ime ndị a napụtara bụ nne nne, onye, ​​ọ mechara bụrụ narị afọ nke iri na asatọ Voodoo Queen (The Team nd; Tucker 2011).

Charles Gandolfo biri dị ka onye na-ese ihe na onye na-ede ntutu isi na New Orleans n'oge 1970s, nwere ma na-arụ ọrụ "Thelọ Mmanya nke Artist." N'ịchọ ahịa ndị bara uru, ụmụnne abụọ ahụ kpebiri ịmepụta ụlọ ngosi ihe ngosi nke Voodoo n'obodo ahụ, na Jerry Gandolfo bụ isi na-ahụ maka ịchịkọta ihe dị iche iche ghọrọ ihe ndabere maka nchịkọta ụlọ ngosi ihe mgbe ochie. Tupu imeghe ụlọ ebe ngosi nka dị a na-enweta ihe ndị Voodoo bụ ọkachasị na "ụlọ ahịa ọgwụ" na oke ojii, ndị agbata obi. Ọ bụ ụmụnne Gandolfo nwara ịbịakwute nnukwu obodo mgbe ụlọ ihe ngosi nka ha mepere na 1972. Dika Jerry Gandolfo si akowa ihe mbu, obu

a hodgepodge nke arịa dị iche iche nke izi ezi dị iche: nkịta ịnyịnya ọgụ, ụdọ galik, akpụrụ akpụ nke Virgin Mary, ogige nke Mardi Gras beads, isi agụ iyi, ụrọ “Govi” ite maka ịchekwa mkpụrụ obi, na osisi ikpere ikpere osisi nke a na-ekwu na ọ bụ eze nwanyị kacha elu nke voodoo niile: New Orleans nke aka ya Marie Laveau (Tucker 2011).

Ndị ụkọchukwu ahụ sonyeere ndị otu ahụ Voodoo ụkọchukwu, John T. Martin, onye rụrụ ọrụ dị ka onye ndu na ebe ngosi nka.

OKWỤKWỌ / BỤRỤ / RITUALS

The New Orleans Historical Voodoo Museum na-eje ozi dị ka ihe ngosi nka maka ndị njem nleta, ụlọ ahịa ndị njem nleta, na ebe ofufe maka ndị na-eme okpukpe. Ọ bụ ezie na a naghị eme ememme okpukpe mgbe niile, ndị ọkachamara n'otu n'otu na-eji terlọ Alter eme ihe maka ofufe onwe onye. N'oge ụfọdụ ndị a ma ama sitere na ọdịnala dị iche iche emeela ememe na ụlọ ihe ngosi nka (Filian 2011: 44). 

Mambo Sallie Ann Glassman, onye ụkọchukwu nwanyị Santeria Ava Kay Jones, onye na-akụ ọkpọ na onye mgbaasị bụ Louis Martinié, na Voodoo Spiritual Temple guzobere Oswald Chamani niile emeela ememe na New Orleans Historic Voodoo Museum. Gandolfo so na ndị mbụ bidoro omume a ma ama ugbu a nke "ịgwakọta na ịkọ" ọdịnala diasporic dị iche iche nke Africa. A na-anabata ndị nkuzi Yoruba, Paleros (ndị na-arụ ọrụ ọdịnala Cuban sitere na Kongo Palo Mayombe) na ndị mmụọ mmụọ wee gosipụta ha dị ka ndị ụkọchukwu Voodoo. Taa ọtụtụ ndị ọkachamara na-agbaso ndu ya, jiri obi ụtọ na-agwakọta Santeria, Haitian Vodou, na ọdịnala ndị ọzọ na omume.

Thelọ ihe ngosi nka na-emekwa ememme Voodoo na St. John's Eve (June 23) na abalị Halloween (October 31) (Alton 2011).

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Onye mbụ Charles na Jerry Gandolfo bụ ndị tọrọ ntọala ya na 1972, njikwa nyere John T. Martin mgbe Charles Gandolfo nwụsịrị. Ya na ụlọ ihe ngosi nka arụ ọrụ ruo ọtụtụ afọ, na-ezo aka na onwe ya dị ka onye ụkọchukwu Vodou, ma na-enye ọrụ ịkọ ọdịnihu. Na 2005, Jerry Gandolfo weere ikike nke ụlọ ngosi ihe nka. Otu nwoke ato a wuru otutu ulo ebe a na-edebe ihe mgbe ochie. Filian (2011: 44) kwuru na ọnụọgụ ndị ọbịa kwa ụbọchị rịrị elu site na iri atọ na 1972 ruo 138 na 1999.

New Orleans Historical Voodoo Museum [Foto dị n'aka nri] nwere obere obere ohere, nke gụnyere mpaghara mkpọsa n'ihu nke jikọtara ya na paseeji na ime ụlọ ngosi abụọ dị n'azụ. Ime ụlọ abụọ ahụ na njikọta jikọtara na ọtụtụ ihe ụmụnne Gandolfo gbakọtara na mgbakwunye na onyinye ndị njem nleta na ndị ọrụ Vodou hapụrụ. Ihe ndị a na-ere na obere ụlọ ahịa ahụ gụnyere akwụkwọ, kandụl, ihe eji eme ihe maka ite ọgwụ, ụmụ bebi Vodou, akpa Gris, ụkwụ ọkụkọ, akpụkpọ anụ agwọ, Voodoo Love potion, na New Orleans Voodoo Coffin Kits (Risinger nd). N'ime ụlọ Gris-gris enwere "ọkpụkpụ, eserese, ihe eji eme ihe na ngosipụta" (Crocker 2011: 37) Mpaghara a gụnyere nnukwu foto nke Marie Laveau. N'ime ime ụlọ ahụ, enwere Humfo Alter [Foto dị n'aka nri] (humfos ọdịnala ma ọ bụ hounfors bụ ebe ndị ejikọtara ebe a na-edebe chi dị iche iche Vodou na onyinye a na-enye chi ndị emere), kandụl ndị toro ogologo nke Saint, na ọtụtụ ihe akpụrụ akpụ, gụnyere nke "Nwa agbọghọ Virgin Mary na agwọ nọ n'ụkwụ ya" (Crocker 2011: 38). Ndị na-agbanwe agbanwe na-agbanwe mgbe niile dị ka ndị njem nleta na ndị ọrụ Vodou na-ahapụ onyinye ịchụ àjà (okooko osisi, kandụl, sịga, na mmanya na-aba n'anya) maka lwas (mmụọ) ndị ga nyere nsọpụrụ na ihe oriri. Allọ Alter na-adọrọ mmasị karịsịa ebe ọ bụ na ọ na-adọrọ mmasị maka ndị njem nleta na ebe a na-efe ofufe maka ndị ọrụ mpaghara. ngosi azụmahịa nke ọdịnala Vodou:

Obere ihe ngosi nka juputara na eriri galik; ili ozu si n’ebe ili ozu; ebe ịchụàjà ndị jupụtara na chaplet na obere mgbanwe; Drumdị ịkpa afrika, ihe akpụrụ akpụ, na ihe nkpuchi; kandụl na ịnyịnya gbawara; otu mpempe osisi nke Voodoo Queen [Marie Laveau] nke New Orleans nwụrụ kemgbe; na, n'ezie, ọtụtụ ụmụ bebi Voodoo (The Team nd)

A na-ejide ndị na-eme njem nleta na mgbasa ozi nke na-emesi ike na ụjọ na-atụ ụjọ (Alton 2012):

Gburugburu nkpuchi osisi, eserese ndị eze Voodoo na ndị ụkọchukwu a ma ama, nkịta ịnyịnya, eriri galik, isi iyi, okpokoro isi mmadụ, na ụrọ gov (ite maka ịchekwa mkpụrụ obi), mmetụta a na-atụtụ ụjọ.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Oodlọ ihe nkiri Voodoo chere ọtụtụ nsogbu ihu na akụkọ ntolite ya. Ogologo oge a na-eguzogide Vodou site na ndị na-arụ ụka ụka (Nickell 2002) na ndị isi nke ọdịnala okpukpe, ọ bụ ezie na uru ndị njem na-ada na nkwụsi ike ahụ. Lọ ihe ngosi nka dịkwa na ọdịbendị ọdịbendị nke nwere ọdịnala Vodou dị iche iche bụ ndị nwere esemokwu n'etiti ibe ha. Na mgbakwunye, a na-akwado ihe ngosi nka site na ndị na-ege ntị na njem nleta. Ya mere, ihe ngosi nka na-eche nsogbu na-aga n'ihu nke njikwa njirimara na eziokwu (Herczog 2003: 172).

N'ihe bara uru karị, ụlọ ngosi ihe nka dị obere nke ukwuu, ime ụlọ abụọ jikọtara ya na paseeji, mana nnabata nnabata ya pere mpe. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, nleta abawanyela ebe ọ bụ na ntọala ya dị ka isiokwu Vodou aghọwo isiokwu a ma ama na njem nlegharị anya nke New Orleans. Ọnọdụ akụ na ụba 2005 nke bibiri obodo ahụ mebiri nkwụsi ike ego ahụ nke ukwuu. Anderson (2014) na-akọ na

Ndị obodo na-eme atụmatụ na e nwere ndị na-arụ ọrụ voodoo 2,500 ruo 3,000 na New Orleans tupu Ajọ Ifufe Katrina, bụ nke bibiri ndị ogbenye, ndị agbata obi obodo nke voodoo, ọkachasị Ninth Ward, na-amanye ndị bi ka ha kwaga na mba ahụ kpamkpam ma hapụ ihe na-erughị ndị na-eme 300 ọrụ obodo voodoo. Ọtụtụ ụlọ ahịa agaghịzi ahịa…. Ugbu a, afọ itoolu mgbe oké ifufe ahụ gasịrị, e nwere ihe dịka 350 na 400 ndị na-arụsi ọrụ ike, kewara n'etiti ụzọ abụọ kachasị, Haitian na New Orleans.

N'otu aka ahụ, Tucker (2011) na-eme atụmatụ na nleta ihe ngosi nka nke ruru 120,000 kwa afọ dabara na 12,000 na-eso Hurricane Katrina. Thelọ ihe ngosi nka, dị ka obodo gbara ya gburugburu, ya mere, na-eche ihe ịma aka nke iwughachi maka ọdịnihu (Ulaby 2005).

Foto

Image # 1: Foto nke Charles Massicot Gandolfo.
Image # 2: Foto nke ihe ịrịba ama n'ihu New Orleans Historic Voodoo Museum.
Foto # 3: Foto nke Humfo Alter na ime ụlọ ahụ. 

References                          

Alton, Elizabeth. 2012. "The New Orleans Mere Voodoo Museum." Ndị na-emepụta ihe nkiri, October 12. Nweta site na http://entertainmentdesigner.com/news/museum-design-news/the-new-orleans-historic-voodoo-museum/ na 20 July 2018.

Anderson, Stacey. 2014. "Voodoo Na-alaghachi na New Orleans Mgbe Ajọ Ifufe Katrina gasịrị." Newsweek, August 25. Nweta site na http://www.newsweek.com/2014/09/05/voodoo-rebounding-new-orleans-after-hurricane-katrina-266340.html na 20 July 2018.

Crocker, Elizabeth T. 2008. A Atọ n'Ime Otu nke Nkwenkwe na Unitydị n'Otu nke Dị Nsọ: Omume Vodou nke Oge A na New Orleans. MA edemede, Louisiana State University.

Fandrich, Ina. 2007. "Yorùbá Mmetụta Haitian Vodou na New Orleans Voodoo." Akwụkwọ akụkọ Black Studies 37: 775-91.

Filan, Kenaz. 2011. Akwụkwọ New Voodoo New Orleans. Rochester, VT: Akwụkwọ mbibi.

Gandolofo, Massicot. 1985. Voodoo na South Louisiana Pamphlet. New Orleans, LA: New Orleans Historic Voodoo Museum.

Herczog, Mary. 2003. Onye Nta New Orleans nke 2003. New York: Wiley na-ekwusara, Inc.

Ogologo oge, Carolyn Morrow. 2016. "Voudou." Na Encyclopedia nke Louisiana, nke David Johnson dere. Onyinye Louisiana maka Humanities. Nweta site na http://www.knowlouisiana.org/entry/voudou na 20 July 2018.

Long, Carolyn Morrow. 2001. Ndị ahịa ime mmụọ: Okpukpe, Ime Anwansi na Azụmaahịa. Knoxville, TN: Mahadum nke Tennessee Press.

Nickell, Joe. 2002. "Voodoo na New Orleans." Onye na-ajụ ụka 26, Jenụwarị / Febụwarị. Nweta site na https://www.csicop.org/si/show/voodoo_in_new_orleans na 20 July 2018.

Poopu, John. 2014. "John T. Martin, Eke Ọgba Fancier Onye Ozugbo Ran New Orleans Mere Voodoo Museum, Nwụrụ na 72." Times-Picayune, December 2. Nweta site na https://www.nola.com/entertainment/index.ssf/2014/12/john_t_martin_a_python_fancier.html na 13 July 2018.

Na-ebili, Nathan. Nd "New Orleans 'Historic Voodoo Museum: A foto nke" ezigbo "akụkọ ihe mere eme nke New Orleans." Nweta site na https://www.atlasobscura.com/places/new-orlean-s-historic-voodoo-museum na 20 July 2018.

Ndị otu. nd “Voodoo Museum.” Okporo ụzọAmerica.com. Nweta site na https://www.roadsideamerica.com/story/16770 on 13 July 2018 na 20 July 2018.

Tucker, Abigail. 2011. "New Orleans Historic Voodoo Museum." Magazin Smithsonian, June. Nweta site na https://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/the-new-orleans-historic-voodoo-museum-160505840/ na 20 July 2018.

Ulaby, Neda. 2005. "Katrina Na-ekesa Voodoo Community New Orleans." Npr, October 21. Nweta site na https://www.npr.org/templates/transcript/transcript.php?storyId=4967315 na 20 July 2018.

Ụbọchị Post:
23 July 2018

 

 

Share