Daniel Wojcik

Madge Gill

MADGE GILL MGBE

1848 (Machị 31): Otu ime mmụọ malitere na Hydesville, New York, ya na ụmụnne nwanyị Fox ahụ Kate (1836-1892), Margaret (1834-1893), na (mgbe e mesịrị) Leah (1811–1890), na-azọrọ na ha na-anata ozi mmụọ. .

1853–1855: onye French na-ede uri na ode akwukwo Victor Hugo (1802-1885) na nwa ya nwoke Charles (1826-1871) weputara eserese ndi ozo di iche-iche na ihe mmuo nke mmuo mgbe ha no n’agha n’agwaetiti Jersey, Channel Islands.

1858: Akwụkwọ akụkọ French bụ akwụkwọ mgbaasị, Mmụọ edemede, bipụtara ihe osise nke mmụọ na ihe osise nke onye ngosi ihe nkiri French bụ Victorien Sardou (1831â € "1908); Onye nchịkọta London nke William. M. Wilkinson bipụtara Ihe E Ji Mụta Mmụọ: Ihe Nkọwa Onwe Onye.

1860s-1870s: Eserese mmụọ na eserese ghọrọ ihe na-ewu ewu, na Georgiana Houghton (1814-1884), Helena Petrovna Blavatsky (1831-1891), na David Duguid (1832-1907) n’etiti ndị mmadụ ama ama na -emepụta nka mmụọ.

1882 (Jenụwarị 19): Madge Gill mụrụ (dị ka Maud Ethel Eades) n'alụghị di na East End nke London.

1891 (Septemba 29): E wetara Maud na Dr. Barnardo's Girls Village Home na Barkingside, ụmụ mgbei.

1896 (July 30): E zigara Maud na Canada na ụmụ mgbei ndị ọzọ dị ka akụkụ nke usoro ọrụ ọrụ.

1900 (November): Maud laghachi England.

1904: Maud bin nwanne nne ya bụ Kate Gill, onye mgbaasị nke ime mmụọ, wee bido mmekọrịta nwa nwoke Kate, Tom Gill.

1906–1907 (Septemba 20): Maud mụrụ nwa nwoke mbụ ya, Lawrence (“Laurie”) Edwin Gill, lụrụ Tom Gill, wee kpọọ onwe ya Madge Gill.

1910 (Eprel 27): Nwa nwoke nke Gill nke abụọ, Reginald ("Reggie") Alfred Gill mụrụ.

1913 (November 8): A mụrụ nwa nwoke nke Gill nke atọ, Leonard Eric Gill ("Bob").

1914–1918: Agha Iwa nke Mbụ mere.

1918–1919: Ọrịa influenza ahụ nke 1918-1919 gburu ihe e mere atụmatụ na mmadụ 20,000,000 ruo 50,000,000.

1915–1925: Ndị otu ime mmụọ nwere mbịaghachi n’oge na mgbe mbibi nke Agha Worldwa Mbụ na ọrịa influenza.

1918 (October 27): Nwa nwoke Gill, Reggie, nwụrụ mgbe ọ dị afọ asatọ site na influenza.

1920 (Jenụwarị / Febụwarị): Gill chọpụtara na sarcoma melanotic wee wepụ anya aka ekpe ya.

1920 (Machị 3): Gill sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ mepụta ọrụ ịjụ ase mgbe ọ nwụsịrị "ọnụnọ" ma nwee ọhụụ. Ọ malitere ide ihe, na-ese ihe, eserese, ịkpụzi agịga, na ọrụ ndị ọzọ na-egosipụta nkọwa nke ike a na-adịghị ahụ anya mechara mata dịka mmụọ Myrninerest

1921 (February): Mgbe amuchara nwa nwanyị, Gill dara ọrịa siri ike ruo ọtụtụ ọnwa.

1923: Ngosipụta mbụ nke ụlọ ọrụ Gill mere.

1926 (March): Akwụkwọ akụkọ Laurie Gill, "Myrninerest the Spheres," nke na-enye akụkọ banyere ahụmịhe nne ya na nka ya.

1932–1946: Gill gara n'ihu na -emepụta ma gosipụta ọrụ ya na mpaghara.

1947 (July – August): Ngosipụta ikpeazụ nke ọrụ Gill mere na East End Academy, London.

1948: Jean Dubuffet guzobere Compagnie de l'Art Brut na Paris, otu nzukọ agbakọtara na ịchekwa obi ọjọọ, ma tinye ọrụ Gill na nchịkọta ahụ.

1950s: Site na mmụọ Myrninerest, Gill gara n'ihu na-arụ ọrụ nke ọma ma mepụta karịa ọrụ 1,000 nke nka ime mmụọ.

1961 (Jenụwarị 28): Gill nwụrụ site na oyi baa na Langthorne Hospital, Leytonstone, London.

1961 (Septemba): Nwa Gill Laurie nyere ihe dịka ọrụ 1,200 nke ọrụ Gill na East Ham County Borough Council.

BIOGRAPHY

Madge Gill (mụrụ Maude Ethel Eades; 1882â € "1961) bụ otu n'ime ndị ọkachamara na-ahụ maka ime mmụọ ma ndị ụfọdụ na-ele ya anya dịka ọdịdị nke nkà mmụta onwe onye. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Jean Dubuffet, Andrà © Breton, na ndị na-akwado nkà na ụzụ, nkà na ụbụrụ nke uche, na n'emeghị ihe n'echeghị echiche. Ndị mmụọ ime mmụọ ndị ọzọ na - aga n'ihu ya n'ịmepụta usoro mgbasa ozi (dịka Victor Hugo, Victorien Sardou, Georgiana Houghton, David Duguid, Hilma af Klint, Augustin Lesage, wdg.), Mana mmepụta ihe ngosi Gill na - arịwanye elu, ngosi na mbipụta n'ụwa.

N'oge ndụ ya, Gill kere ọtụtụ puku ọrụ nka, na ihe ọ kọwara dị ka ọnọdụ ọhụụ. Ejiri usoro geometric na-agbagharị na aghụghọ dị mgbagwoju anya, zigzags na ebe ndị a na-agbagharị agbagharị, ndị na-adọkpụ na mazes, ụzọ steepụ na ụdị ụlọ, [Foto dị n'akụkụ aka nri] na ụmụ nwanyị na-ese n'elu mmiri na-elegharị anya site n'ụdị ectoplasmic na-akpata nsogbu. Ọrụ Gill na-ekpughe ebe obibi ndị ọzọ nke ọ na-ahụ anya na nke a na-eji egwu eme ihe mgbe ọ na-ekwu okwu ya. Ihe ndi ozo abughi ihe ndi ozo, ma elere anya dika ihe akaebe nke ikwurita uka na ndi ozo di iche iche, dika atumatu bu ndi ndu ndi mmadu.

Dị ka ndị mmụọ ime mmụọ ndị ọzọ, Gill ekwughị na ọ bụ nkà ya, kama ọ na-ewere onwe ya dịka arịa anụ nke a pụrụ igosipụta ụwa nke mmụọ. Ngosipụta nke mkpụrụ ndụ 'œproofs' bụ akụkụ dị mkpa nke mmemme ime mmụọ ime mmụọ oge mbụ, na-enye ihe àmà nke ụwa mmụọ, ma ọ bụ site na ncheta ndị dị omimi (dịka ọ dị na ndị nlekọta Fox na mbụ), ntụgharị okpokoro, ọdịdị nke ectoplasm, eserese ime mmụọ na eserese, ederede ederede site n'iji ihe ndozi, foto ndị mmụọ, ma ọ bụ ụdị ihe onwunwe ndị ọzọ. Ihe omuma nke emeputara site na ime ihe omumu nke ihe omuma bu ihe omuma nke ndi mmadu, nke ndi mmadu na-adi na ala nke ndi mmuo ma onye ozo di ndu, ozi ndi ozo ma obu na-emeputa akwukwo na ihe odide ndi ozo Njikwa ihe omuma.

Dị ka Massimo Introvigne na-ekwu, e nwere ma ọ dịkarịa ala atọ ụdị dị iche iche nke nkà mmụọ: 1) - ọrụ ndị yiri ka ọ bụ na akaghị aka mmadụ, ndị mmụọ kwenyere na ha ga-arụ ọrụ ahụ; 2) ihe ngosi nke ndi mmuo kwuru na ha di n'oge ndi ahu bu ndi ndi naju ase; na 3) nka nke ndị na-ajụ ase na mmụọ ha na-eduzi (Introvigne 2017). Arụ ọrụ Gill dabara na nke atọ, ebe a na-ekwu na ọrụ ya bụ nduzi na nchịkwa kpọmkwem nke ógbè mmụọ. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ọ bụ ezie na nkà ya bụ isi ọhụụ nke ụwa mmụọ, ọ gụnyekwara ịkọwa ụkpụrụ ụfọdụ nke ime mmụọ.

A mụrụ Gill (dị ka Maud Ethel Eades) na January 19, 1882 n'alụmdi na nwunye na Walthamstow (East End of London) ka Emma Elizabeth Eades na nna a na-akpọghị aha. E zigara nne ya Emma, ​​bụ onye dị afọ iri abụọ na isii n'oge ahụ, n'ụlọ Joseph na Sarah Leakey iji zere ihere ọha na eze maka nwa ya na-akwadoghị iwu. Emma laghachiri ka ya na ndị mụrụ ya biri, mana ndị Leakeys na-elekọta ndị na-eto eto bụ Maud ka ha bụrụ ndị na-elekọta ya na 1882â € "1891. Na September 1891 Maud tinyere nwa nwanne nne ya bụ Kate Gill, nke na-enweghị ike ịkwado ya, na mgbe ọ dị afọ itoolu ka e zigara Dr. Barnardoâ Girls Village Village na Barkingside. N'ebe a, a kụziiri ya nkà dị iche iche nke ụlọ na ịga ọmụmụ Bible, bụ nke mesịrị metụta nkà ya.

Na 1896, e zigara Maud na ụmụ ndị nne na nna England ndị ọzọ na Canada ka ha bụrụ akụkụ nke ọrụ mmanye a chọrọ iji nye ụmụaka dara ogbenye 'œopportunities' adịghị na England. Ọ na-arụ ọrụ dị ka onye na-elekọta anụ ụlọ na onye ọrụ ugbo maka ezinụlọ dị iche iche n'oge a, wee ghọọ ụlọ ụlọ, ọ gụsiri agụụ ike ịla England, nke o mere na November 1900. Mgbe ọ lọtara, ọ na-arụ ọrụ dị ka nọọsụ na 1904 nọkwa na nwanne ya di ya nwụrụ, Kate Gill na London dị n'ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ. Otu onye na - eme ihe gbasara ofufe ime mmụọ, Kate na - eduzi ya ma kwenyesie ike na ya nwere mmasị na Maudâ na Spiritualism, ọ bụ ezie na nne na nna ime mmụọ ya bụ Caroline Eades (Ayad 2013) nwere ike ịbata na nkwenkwe dị otú ahụ site na mbụ. N'oge a, Maud malitere mmekọrịta na nwa Kate, bụ Tom Gill, ha lụrụ na 1907. Ugbu a Maud na-akpọ onwe ya Madge Gill. Ọ bụ ezie na alụmdi na nwunye ya na-alụ ọgụ ma nwee nsogbu ahụ ike dị iche iche, Madge Gill mụrụ ụmụ nwoke atọ, Laurie, Reggie, na Bob n'etiti 1906 na 1913.

N'ime mmalite afọ ndụ ya, Gill nwetara nsogbu dị ukwuu, site na 1918 ruo 1921 ndụ ya ka njọ site na trauma, iru újú, na ọrịa ndị siri ike. Na 1918, nwa ya nwoke Reggie nwụrụ na ọrịa nrịanrịa ahụ mgbe ọ dị afọ asatọ, ma n'otu oge ahụ, e wepụrụ ezé niile nke Gill n'ihi nsị asaa na-egbu egbu ya. Na 1920, ewepụrụ anya aka ekpe ya ma jiri otu iko kpuchi ya mgbe a chọpụtara ya na sarcoma melanotic. Na 1921, dị nwa na-enwe olileanya maka nwa nwanyị, Gill mụrụ nwa nwanyị dị ime. Nne nke obi ya nwuru anwu nwuru n 'nsogbu mgbe o na - aria oria, o wee na - aria oria ruo otutu onwa, na - enwe obi nkoropu na enweghi nsogbu. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ruo ọnwa atọ na 1922, Gill ghọrọ onye ọrịa na Ụlọ Ọgwụ Lady Chichester maka nsogbu nsogbu, nke gụnyere ụda olu na inwe ọhụụ na abalị (Ayad 2013; Cardinal nd).

Ná mmalite March 1920, Gill ji ike mmụọ nsọ mepụta ihe mgbe ọ nwụsịrị - "ọnụnọ" ma nwee ọhụụ nke Kraịst n'igwe ojii. O natara ntụziaka Chineke iji dee akwụkwọ nke "Rụwish Rites" wee mepụta nka, nke gụnyere eserese, eserese, ịcha mma, ịcha mma, ihe ejiji, uwe, tebụl, na ịkụ egwu piano. Dịka o mechara kọwaa ya,

Enweziri m ume ka m wepụta akwụkwọ m ma rụọ ụdị ọrụ ọ bụla nke ụdị ihe nkiri. . . . Ọ dị iche iche. . . . Enwere m mkpali ime ihe osise na nnukwu onodu calico. Enweghị m ike ịhapụ ya ma mee m na ntanarị 20 foto n'izu, niile na agba. . . . Echere m na ike na-adịghị ahụ anya (Cardinal 1972: 135) na-eduzi m.

O doro anya ma Gill esonyere ohere iji soro ụmụ ya nwụrụ anwụ na-ekwurịta okwu n'oge a, ma na n'etiti 1920s ike a na-adịghị ahụ anya nke na-eduzi ọrụ ya dịka mmụọ Myrninerest, aha nke na-egosi dị ka nbinye aka na ọtụtụ ihe osise ya (mgbe mgbe n'azụ akwụkwọ ezipụ akwụkwọ na akwụkwọ nchịkọta akwụkwọ), nke nwere ike ịmalite site na - "M-inside-restâ €" ma ọ bụ - "Mine na-enweghị obi ụtọ." N'okwu broadsheet, â € œMyrninerest Spheres, â € Nwa nwanyị Gill Laurie na-akọwa usoro mgbasa ozi nke nne ya wee na-echeta usoro ihe nkiri ya, na-ezo aka na mmụọ ime mmụọ na Theosophical. Ndị a gụnyere Ọganihu Ime Mmụọ, akara ngosi oge ochie, asụsụ ndị furu efu, ihe odide ndị dị nsọ, akụkọ ifo ndị Ijipt, ihe odide ederede, ngụkọta mbara igwe, na Bible (Gill 1926; Tibet and Boxer 2013: 1-5). [Foto dị n'aka nri]

Na mgbakwunye na obere nke ya, Gill kere nnukwu ọrụ dị iche iche na-acha akwụkwọ mkpuchi, nke ụfọdụ n'ime ihe karịrị iri atọ n'ogologo. A na-eme nnukwu mkpụrụ ego a, dịka Gill nyochara ákwà ahụ obere ka ọ na-aga n'ihu. Usoro nke okike na ọdịiche dị egwu nke yiri nke ahụ jidere Gill, ebe ọ na-edepụta ihe osise ya n'ụzọ yiri nke ahụ na ngwa ngwa. Ọ na-arụ ọrụ site na nchịkọta nke mbadamba akwụkwọ kaadi 100 wee jupụta ihe karịrị iri na abụọ n'ime ha na atụmatụ ya na mgbede. N'ime ndụ ya nile, Gill kere ọtụtụ puku eserese, mgbe mgbe na-arụ ọrụ n'ọchịchịrị ma ọ bụ na obere ntakịrị oge n'abalị. Mgbe nwa ya nwoke bụ Bob ghọrọ onye na-abaghị uru ruo afọ abụọ mgbe ọ gbasịrị ya n'olu na 1931, ọ nọ n'akụkụ ụra ya na-elekọta ya ma na-ede ma ọ bụ na-ede ihe n'ime abalị nile (Ayad 2013; Cardinal 1972: 137).

Mgbe a jụrụ ya gbasara nkà ya na nnukwu mmepụta ya, Gill kọwara na ọ bụ naanị onye na-ajụ ihe, nakwa na ụdị ọ bụla na echiche ya sitere n'aka nduzi mmụọ ya, Myrninerest. Mgbe ọ na-enyocha ọtụtụ puku aghụghọ ya, otu onyinyo na-apụta ugboro ugboro: nwanyị nwere anya dị anya n'anya ya, imi na-adọrọ adọrọ, na obere egbugbere ọnụ ya, mgbe mgbe n'ime okpu ejiji, gbara ya gburugburu na ụdị ọdịdị dị iche iche. Okwu enigmatic na anya na ihu nke a na-apụtaghachi dị iche iche dị ka ihe dị njọ, egwu, ma ọ bụ ịma jijiji, mgbe ụfọdụ oge na-achọ ịmata, dị jụụ, ma ọ bụ obi ụtọ. Dị ka Gill si kwuo, ihu ọ bụla nke ihu ndị a pụtara ma ọ gwaghị ha ihe ha bụ. Ihe ndị a na-eme ugbu a ma ọ bụ ndị na-enweghị atụ nwere ike [Foto dị n'akụkụ aka nri] na-egosi nduzi mmụọ Gill, ma ọ bụ nwa ya furu efu, ma ọ bụ nne ya na-anọghị ya, ma ọ bụ ụmụ agbọghọ sitere na nwa mgbei nke nwata; ma ọ bụ na ha nwere ike ịnọchite anya foto nke Gill onwe ya, ma ọ bụ nke ọzọ na-agbanwe ego, wepụrụ site na nsogbu nke ndụ ya.

N'ime oge egwu nke ndụ Gill (ọnwụ nwa ya, ọrịa ndị na-agbawa obi, nkwarụ, na nwa ya nwanyị, na alụkwaghịm alụkwaghịm), itinye aka na ya na-enye ihe nkasi obi ma bụrụ ihe mkpali maka creativity. Gill's participation in Spiritualism nyeere ya ụzọ nke nyere ya aka imeri ahụmahụ ya banyere ịhapụ nwata, ọnwụ nke ndị ọ hụrụ n'anya, ọrịa, na nsogbu ndụ ndị ọzọ, ma mepụta ohere nke ịgwọ ọrịa na ọdịmma ruo n'ókè ụfọdụ. Uzo ime mmụọ na akparamagwa onwe ya nke oma nke nka Gill bu ihe n'eziokwu bu na o nweghi ihe di ire n'igh ahia ma obu chekwaa oru ya, na-aza na ya abughi ire, dika o sitere na Myrninerest. Mgbe ọ nwụsịrị na January 1961, a chọtara ọtụtụ puku eserese n'ụlọ ya, na nchịkọta ndị a gbakọtara n'okpuru akwa na cupboards, mgbe mgbe a na-adọwa ma ọ bụ na ọnọdụ ọjọọ. Ọtụtụ n'ime ọrụ ndị a nyeziri Laurie nwa ya na Council nke East Ham County Borough, ebe ndị ọzọ na-ere ahịa.

Emere ọrụ Gill ka emume dị ka ihe atụ nke nka art ("raw art") site n'aka ọtụtụ ndị nwere mmasị, gụnyere Jean Dubuffet (1901-1985), onye guzobere Compagnie de l'Art Brut na 1948 na Paris. Ejiri nzukọ Dubuffet chịkọta ma chekwaa ụdị nka (emesiri kpọọ ya “nka”, ọrụ ndị ahụ nke ndị mmadụ na-enweghị ọzụzụ nka, bụ ndị ọdịbendị nke ụlọ akwụkwọ ahụ “mebaghị” ma dị adị na “ezigbo” ”Ụzọ na-abụghị omenala. Dubuffet gụnyere nka Gill na nchịkọta ya, yana nke ndị mmụọ ime mmụọ ndị ọzọ dịka Augustin Lesage, Laure Pigeon, Jeanne Tripier, na Raphaël Lonné. N'ime afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya, egosila na ọrụ Gill na nka dị iche iche na nka na mba ndị ọzọ, ma kpalite mmụọ dị iche iche na ndị egwu. Ndị a gụnyere onye ọbụ abụ Britain bụ David Tibet, onye otu ya Myrninerest wepụtara ọba: "Jhonn," Babilọn na-arụ ọrụ (2012) na onye kwadoro akwụkwọ akwụkwọ Gill na-akpọ MYRNINEREST (Tibet na onye na-agbanye ọkụ 2013).

Ọrụ Gill dị iche iche na njide ya na mgbagwoju anya, ọ bụ ezie na ọ na-egosipụta ọhụụ pụrụ iche, ọ bụghị kpamkpam "n'èzí" nke ọdịbendị, ebe ọ bụ na e mepụtara ya n'ime ihe gbasara Spiritualism, òtù okpukpe okpukpe zuru ụwa ọnụ nke dọtara ọtụtụ nde ndị kwere ekwe. Ahụmahụ mbụ nke Gill nwere ike ma ọ bụ na ọ gaghị eme n'onwe ya site na mmetụta mmụọ, ma karịa afọ ole ọ mepụtara aha ya na Upton Park dị ka onye na-ajụ ofufe ime mmụọ bụ onye na-enwe oge ezumike n'ụlọ ya, na-ekwu okwu na ndị ndu mmụọ, na-emepụta chaatị ndị na-agụ kpakpando, na-atụgharị ihe ngosi, na-eji ya eme ihe n'ekwe ntị, ma na-enye ndị agbata obi ya amụma. [Foto dị na nri] N'ime ọdịnala nke Spiritualism, Gill abụghị naanị ịmepụta ihe; ọrụ ya bụ njikọta na ndị mmụọ na-enye amamihe, ịgwọ ọrịa, nduzi, na ohere nke transcendence.

Foto dị iche iche **
Ihe oyiyi niile bụ clickable njikọ iji mepụta ihe nnọchiteanya.

Foto 1: Madge Gill, ihe osise onwe ya na ịbịaru mmụọ na ntinye aka nke ndu mmụọ nke Gill, Myrninerest (aka ekpe aka ekpe), ọ dịghị ụbọchị.
Foto 2: Nnukwu ihe osise nke Madge Gill, ọ dịghị ụbọchị (Site natara ikike nchịkọta abcd / Bruno Decharme, Paris).
Foto 3: Madge Gill, ọtụtụ ihu na calico na inks na agba agba, c. 1935.
Foto 4: Madge Gill, ịbịaru ụmụ nwanyị atọ nwere nwa, c. 1940.
Foto 5: Madge Gill, ịbịaru nke nwanyị na nkọwa ndị na-agụ kpakpando, ọ dịghị ụbọchị.
Foto 6: Madge Gill, ịbịaru ihu atọ nke nwanyi, enweghị ụbọchị (Site n'aka David Tibet).
Foto 7: Madge Gill na-abanye na calico na ink ojii na tebụl ya dị n'ụlọ ya na Upton Park, London, c. 1938.

References

Ayad, Sara. 2013. "Madge Gill: A Chronology." Na Madge Gill: Ọhụụ na ọhụụ: Ihe ngosi ngosi, 5 October 2013-26 January 2014, nke Mark De Novellis deziri. Twickenham, UK: Orleans House Gallery.

Cardinal, Roger. 1972. Outsider Art. London: Studio Vista.

Cardinal, Roger. "Ndụ nke Madge Gill." Nweta site na http://madgegill.com/Biography na 12 December 2017.

De Novellis, Mark, ed. 2013. Madge Gill: Ọhụụ na ọhụụ: Ihe ngosi ngosi, 5 October 2013-26 January 2014. Twickenham, UK: Orleans House Gallery.

Gill, Laurie. 1926. "Myrninerest the Spheres." Mba. 1 (March). Broadsheet. E bipụtara ya na nzuzo.

Grant, Simon, Lars Bang Larsen, na Marco Pasi. 2016. Georgiana Houghton: Mkpụrụ mmụọ. London: Pul Holberton.

Introvigne, Massimo. 2017. "Spiritualism na Visual Arts." Okpukpe Okpukpe na Ime Mmụọ, August 2. Nweta site na https://wrldrels.org/2017/08/02/ spiritualism-and-the-visual-arts/ na 23 October 2017.

Peiry, Lucienne. 2001. Art Brut: Ụdị nke Outsider Art. James Frank sụgharịrị ya. Paris: Ụgha.

Rhodes, Colin. 2000. Outsider Art: Achọpụtaghị Nhọrọ. London: Thames na Hudson.

Tibet, David, na Henry Boxer. 2013. Myrninerest. London: The Sphere.

Wojcik, Daniel. 2016. Outsider Art: Ọhụụ Ụwa na Nsogbu. Jackson: University Press nke Mississippi.  

Ụbọchị Post:
5 March 2018

 

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