John S. Haller

Echiche Ọhụrụ

OZI Echiche Ọhụrụ

1838: Phineas Parkhurst Quimby malitere usoro ọgwụgwọ ọ kpọrọ usoro uche.

1859: Quimby kwagara Portland, Maine, ebe o mepụtara nkwupụta na omume nke ọgwụgwọ ime mmụọ yana ebe ndị ọrịa ya gụnyere Emma na Sarah Ware, Julius na Annetta Dresser, Mary Baker Patterson, na Warren Felt Evans.

1863: Quimby bu ụzọ jiri okwu ahụ mee ihe Sayensị Ndị Kraịst.

1869: Warren Felt Evans dere Uche Uche.

1874: Mary Baker Eddy dere Sayensị na Ahụike.

1875: Theosophical Society guzobere na New York City site na Helena Petrovna Blavatsky na Henry Steel Olcott.

1886: Luther M. Marston, MD si n'aka Mary Baker Eddy wee guzobe Mental Science na Christian Healing Association.

1886: Emma Curtis Hopkins si na Mary Baker Eddy wezuga ma dezie usoro ohuru na ọgwụgwọ Metaphysical ya na Christian Seminary Theological Seminary.

1888: Malinda Elliot Cramer guzobere Home College of Divine Science na akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ Mmekọrịta.

1889: Homeopath na Swedenborgian William Holcombe, MD, zoro aka na okwu ahụ bụ "Echiche Ọhụrụ" na ya Echiche echebara echiche banyere Sayensị Ndị Kraịst.

1889: Charles na Myrtle Fillmore guzobere Unity School of Christianity wee bido ibipụta akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ Echiche nke Oge A.

1892: E hiwere International Divine Science Association.

1893: E mere nzukọ omebe iwu nke okpukpe.

1894: E hiwere Procopeia Society na Boston.

1894:  Echiche Ọhụrụ bụ aha otu magazin a na-ebipụta na Melrose, Massachusetts.

1895: E guzobere ụlọ ọgbakọ Metaphysical nke Boston wee nakwere okwu ahụ bụ New Thought.

1899: Clublọ Metaphysical jikọtara ya na International Metaphysical League.

1899: Charles Brodie Patterson dere Ederede Ọhụrụ.

1900: Elizabeth Towne, bipụtara ọtụtụ akwụkwọ New Thought yana akwụkwọ akụkọ New Thought a ma ama Nautilus.

1900: William Walker Atkinson dere Echiche-Ebido na Azụmaahịa na Ndụ Kwa Ndụ.

1901: Charles Brodie Patterson dere Gịnị bụ Echiche Ọhụrụ?

1901: Sidney Flowers haziri Tholọ Ọrụ Na-ekwupụta New Thought ma malite ibipụta ya Ọhụrụ Magazine.

1902: Ella Wheeler Wilcox dere Obi nke Ọhụrụ.

1902: William James dere Iche-iche nke Ahụmahụ Okpukpe ma nye aha ahụ "ọgwụgwọ uche" maka òtù New Thought.

1903: Henry Wood dere Echiche ohuru ohuru.

1905: Annie Rix Militz, onye guzobere oflọ nke Eziokwu, dere Ihe Niile Ga-ekwe Omume Ha Kwere.

1905: William Walker Atkinson meghere Atkinson School of Mental Science.

1905: Elwood Worcester haziri Emmanuel Movement iji gboo mkpa ndị ogbenye obodo.

1906: International Metaphysical League gbanwere ghọọ gọọmentị nke ogige New Thought.

1908: International Metaphysical League ghọrọ National New Thought Alliance.

1913: Alka Albert C. Grier guzobere Churchka nke Eziokwu.

1914: National New Thought Alliance gbanwere aha ya na International New Thought Alliance.

1917: Society for Silent Unity ghọrọ Schoollọ Akwụkwọ Unity of Christianity.

1917: Nkwupụta nke cikpụrụ nakweere International New Thought Alliance.

1919: Horatio Dresser dere Akụkọ banyere Echiche Ọhụrụ.

1922: Nona Lovell Brooks, onye nchoputa nke Science Chineke, kwadoro Church of Divine Science na International New Thought Alliance.

1922: Dr. Albert C. Grier guzobere Center for Awakening Conscious.

1925: E guzobere Chọọchị Ime Mmụọ nke Metropolitan nke Kraịst.

1927: Ernest Shurtleff Holmes guzobere Institutelọ Akwụkwọ nke Sayensị Okpukpe na Nkà Ihe Ọmụma.

1930: Seicho-No-Ie, Rev. Masaharu Taniguchi guzobere ngwakọ nke ọnọdụ ime mmụọ nke Japan na New Thought.

1957: Nkwupụta Nkwupụta nke Iwu gbanwere site na International New Thought Alliance.

1980: E hiwere Okwu nke Okwukwe

1990: Ntọala maka Conscious Evolution tọrọ ntọala.

1992: Ejikọtara Njikọ Echiche Ọhụrụ, nke sitere na Sayensị Okpukpe.

1996: E hiwere Association for New New Thought.

2002: International New Thought Alliance gbanwere Nkwupụta Nkwupụta Ya.

2006: Rhonda Byrne wepụtara ihe nkiri ya Ihe Nzuzo.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Harvard psychologist William James, onye edemede nke Iche-iche nke Ahụmahụ Okpukpe (1902), chọtara isi mmalite nke usoro a maara dị ka New Thought to Akwụkwọ Nsọ, Transcendentalism, Berkeleyan idealism, spiritualism, Hindu, na evolutionism. Ọ kọwara ya dị ka "atụmatụ ebumnuche nke ndụ, yana ma a ịkọ nkọ na nke bara uru [nke] a ga-ewere ugbu a dị ka ezigbo ezigbo ikike okpukpe ”(James 1902: 92-93). Isi mmalite nke okwu a, "Echiche Ọhụrụ" e nyerela dị iche iche na onye na-ede uri America / ụkọchukwu Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882), [Foto dị n'aka nri] onye nta akụkọ na transcendentalist Margaret Fuller (1810-1850), Unitarian William Ellery Channing (1790 -1842), na Swedenborgian na homeopathic dibia William Holcombe, MD (1825-1893), ha nile jiri ya mee ihe ngosipụta nke ụkpụrụ a na-ejikarị ma ọ bụ ụkpụrụ nke jikọtara mmezu onwe onye na ntụgharị. Ka ọ na-erule ngwụsị nke narị afọ ahụ, etinyewo okwu ahụ n'akwụkwọ na magazin dịka nke Charles Brodie Patterson Ihe omuma echiche ohuru (1899) na Gịnị bụ Echiche Ọhụrụ? (1901), nke Sidney Flower Ọhụrụ Magazine (1901), Ella Wheeler Wilcox si Obi nke Ọhụrụ (1902), na nke Henry Wood Echiche ohuru ohuru (1903). Oge ihu igwe nke ụkpụrụ dị n'etiti, ọ malitere dị ka usoro ọgwụgwọ na-agwọ ọrịa nke okpukpe tupu ọ banye n'okpukpe na nke ụwa na-akwado echiche ziri ezi na ozioma bara ọgaranya dị ka ọgwụ mgbochi ahụike, omume, na akụ na ụba.

Echiche ohuru nwere ike ọ gaghị adị ma ọ bụrụ na Emerson, onye ozi ya na nke onwe ya dị mfe ma bụrụ nke doro anya, ya bụ, na mmadụ ọ bụla nwere ike iru mmezu n'ụzọ pụrụ iche ya. Onye ọ bụla nwere ọrụ ịdịịrị ya onwe gị na ime emume nke onwe ya. Ihe omuma a nke Yankee na iche echiche uri bu ndi edeputara ndi ohuru nke New Thought kwuputara ihe omuma nke ndi mmadu na ndi mmadu na ndi mmadu, ndi ozo, na ndi ozo. "Ọ bụrụ na mmadụ nwere ike ịgụ Emerson nke ọma na miri emi," ka onye ozi na onye edemede bụ Horatio W. Dresser dere (1866-1954), otu n'ime ndị malitere New Thought, "na-ajụ ugboro ugboro etu amamihe ya ga-esi tinye n'ọrụ ndụ n'ezie. , mmadu nwere ike iweputa ihe kariri akwukwo nke New Thought, ma buru onye rite uru na ya, n'ihi na otutu ndi dere akwukwo kwughachiwo nke oma ihe o tinyegoro "(Dresser 1899: 25-26). Dị ka a pụrụ isi kwuo ya, Emerson nyere echiche maka ịtụgharị uche nke New Thought banyere mkpụrụ obi dị ka onye a na-adịghị ahụ anya, nke na-adịghị anwụ anwụ, nke ime mmụọ, ịdabere na onwe ya na onye nweere onwe ya

Ihe omuma ihe omuma nke New Thought sitere na isi uzo abuo. Otu bụ "sayensị" na-apụta nke ndọta anụ ma ọ bụ mesmerism nke onye malitere ya, dibịa dibịa Swabia Franz Anton Mesmer (1734-1815), [Foto dị n'aka nri] kụziri na eluigwe na ala nwere mmụọ ma ọ bụ mmiri a na-adịghị ahụ anya nke jupụtara na mbara igwe. jikọtara ihe niile dị ndụ na ndị na-adịghị ndụ na nke, n'ọnọdụ ụfọdụ, enwere ike ịhazi ya iji gwọọ ọrịa na arụ ọrụ. Nke ọzọ sitere na edemede cosmographic nke ndị ọkà mmụta sayensị Swedish, ọkà ihe ọmụma na mkpughe Emanuel Swedenborg (1688-1772) onye echiche ya banyere eluigwe na ala nyere ume ọ bụghị site na magnetism anụmanụ kama ọ bụ ihe mmụọ nke mmụọ a maara dị ka Divine Influx, nke jikọtara ihe niile anụmanụ, akwukwo nri, na ịnweta. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Mkpụrụ obi mmadụ, nke bụ akụkụ nke onye ọ bụla mana iche na anụ ahụ, bụ otu ihe ahụ mmụọ dị ka ihe ndị dị na mbara igwe na mmetụta ndị na-esite na Divine Influx. N'aka ndị na-agwọ ọrịa na-adịghị ahụkebe nke America, sayensị nke ụwa nke magnetism anụmanụ na mmiri mmụọ nke Divine Influx ghọrọ ngalaba ịgwọ ọrịa n'ịkọwa njem nke mkpụrụ obi gaa na mmụọ na ezi ahụike (Haller 2012: 18-43).

Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (1802-1866), nke Belfast, Maine, si na Mesmer na Swedenborg wepụtara iji mepụta usoro ọgwụgwọ ya pụrụ iche nke jikọrọ ọdịdị ime mmụọ nke mmadụ na nkuzi Kraịst na usoro ọ kpọrọ "Science of Health" (Dresser 1921: 66-67). [Foto dị n'aka nri] O gosipụtara ihe ọmụma enwetara site na sayensị na site na akụkụ ngosi nke okpukpe. N'iji ihe ọ kpọrọ "usoro ịgbachi nkịtị" iji mepụta mbipụta n'uche ya banyere ọrịa ndị ọrịa, wee nyezie nkuzi ọnụ iji mee ka ndị ọrịa kwenye na iji ikike nke aka ha iji merie ọrịa ha, Quimby wuru usoro ọgwụgwọ siri ike na Portland, Maine. Otu n'ime ndị ọrịa ya a ma ama bụ ndị mepụtara usoro ọgwụgwọ ha bụ Warren Felt Evans, Julius na Annetta Dresser, na Mary Baker Patterson (onye mechara mara dịka Mary Baker Eddy), onye guzobere Christian Science. Otu ihe ha jikọrọ ọnụ bụ ikike nke uche n'ahụ. Nchọpụta nke eziokwu a kpuchiri akara ngosi dị iche iche ha ji agwọ ọrịa. Ka ọ na-erule na narị afọ nke iri abụọ, usoro ịgwọ ọrịa ha ga-etinye echiche nke evolushọn na ike nke ekpughere site na nnabata Kraịst.

Onye edemede ohuru na onye guzobere sanitarium na-agwọ ọrịa na Salisbury, Massachusetts, Warren Felt Evans (1817-1889), gbasoro ụzọ ime mmụọ nke enweghị ọgwụgwọ. Ozugbo onye Quimby na onye Swedenborgian nwere mmasị, ọ webatara akparamaagwa nke Swede na metaphysics na usoro ọgwụgwọ na edemede ya gụnyere Uche Uche (1869), Mkpụrụ obi na ahụ (1875), Iwu Chineke nke ọgwụgwọ (1881), Ọrịa site n'okwukwe (1885), na Esoteric Christianity na Metal ọgwụgwọ (1886). Anszọ Evans [Foto dị n'aka nri] malitere site na nkwenkwe na ụmụ mmadụ nọgidere na-amaghị ohere nke ndụ a, na-ebute enweghị obi ụtọ nke uche na anụ ahụ. Ndozighari nke obi uto a malitere site na onye di n'ime nke natara udi ya site na Influx site na Chi. Ebumnuche dị ọcha mere ka echiche dị ọcha dịgidere na omume a na-apụghị izere ezere na-eme. Ọgwụ anụ ahụ nwere ike rụpụta obere mmụba na ahụ mana ọ bụ itinye ọgụgụ isi nke ọgụgụ isi gosipụtara nke kachasị dị irè ma na-adịgide adịgide. Ma ọdịdị nke ọgwụgwọ gafere dị ka mesmerism, hypnotism, ma ọ bụ ụdị ọzọ ma ọ bụ usoro ọzọ, ọ wetara ntụgharị echiche site n'aka onye na-agwọ ọrịa, onye bụ onye nwere oke echiche na omume, na uche ọrịa nke onye ọrịa. Nye Evans, Jizọs gosipụtara nguzozi kachasị nke mkpụrụ obi na ahụ.

Asọmpi na Evans maka obi na uche nke ịgwọ ọrịa uche bụ Mary Baker Eddy (1821-1910), otu onye ọrịa Quimby, onye kwuru na ya bụ ezigbo onye nchọpụta nke Christian Science. N’usoro edemede, nke kacha mkpa bụ ya Sayensị na Ahụike (1875), Eddy wepụtara usoro ọgwụgwọ nke ihe atụ iji mata ọdịiche ya na ndị niile na-asọmpi ya. Usoro ya, nke gọnariri njehie nke uche na iwu nke ihe, kwuru na ya nwere ikike ịgwọ ọrịa, ọrụ, ọrịa na-adịghị ala ala, na nnukwu ọrịa na-enweghị enyemaka nke ọgwụgwọ nkịtị ma ọ bụ enyemaka sitere na sayensị sayensị. “Ọ bụrụ na Onye Ọkà mmụta sayensị [Christian] ahụ erute onye ọrịa ya site n’ịhụnanya Chineke, a ga-arụ ọrụ ịgwọ ọrịa otu mgbe, ọrịa ya na-apụ n'anya dị ka igirigi tupu anwụ ụtụtụ, "Eddy [Foto dị n'aka nri] mesiri ndị na-efe ya obi ike. Ọ gwụla ma onye ọrịa ahụ ekwetaghị na ihe dị, ntọala nke ọrịa adịgide. Site na iwepu nkwenkwe na-ezighi ezi, onye ọrịa ahụ wepụrụ mmetụta ya (Eddy 1906: 365-66, 379).

Usoro nkuzi Eddy mere ka e guzobe National Christian Scientist Association, nke nyere Bachelor of Christian Science (CSB), Ozizi nke Christian Science (CSD), na Doctor of Divine Science (DSD). Okpukpe ya siri ike dika ozizi nke ihe omuma di iche iche, ikike ya nke oma, na egwu egwu nke Eddy banyere ihe ojoo nke anumanu, dugara n'usoro mmeri nke gunyere Emma Curtis Hopkins (1849-1925), onye dabere na netwọk nke ndị na-agwọ ọrịa nwere ọmịiko. depụta usoro ọhụụ na ọgwụgwọ metaphysical. Themfọdụ n’ime ha bụ Charles na Myrtle Fillmore, ndị ngalaba-nhiwe Unity School of Christianity; Onye na-ebipụta akwụkwọ akụkọ bụ New Thought Elizabeth Towne; Helen Van-Anderson, onye guzobere Boston New Thought Church of the Higher Life; Malinda Cramer, onye nchoputa nke Science Chineke na onye isi oche mbu nke International Divine Science Ministry; Annie Rix Militz, onye guzobere mkpakọrịta Homelọ nke Eziokwu; Onye edemede ọhụrụ Thought William Walker Atkinson; na Ernest S. Holmes, onye guzobere ụka Science Religious. N'ikpeazụ, ụka ụka kachasị ukwuu nke New Thought esiteghị na ụmụ Quimby, kama ọ bụ nhịahụ sitere na usoro ahụ ike Eddy nke ọgwụgwọ akpọrọ Christian Science.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

N’ozi e nyere na Harvard’s School of Theology na 1909, onye isi ụlọ akwụkwọ mahadum bụ Charles Eliot kọwara ihe ndị dị mkpa nke okpukperechi ọdịnihu, na-akọwa na ha ga-abụ ndị na-enweghị ikike, ndị na-agaghị enwe echiche na mmụọ na nnọchi anya nke Chineke, na-agaghị enwe afọ ojuju ma na-agba ọchịchịrị, na-adabereghị na ndị nwụrụ anwụ. na ndị ọkà ihe ọmụma, na ihe na-adịghị akwụsị akwụsị na okike. Okpukpe ọdịnihu ga-anabata asụsụ nke sayensị, gụnyere okwu nkọwa dị ka ike, ike dị mkpa, na ebe ọ bụla; mesie ịhụnanya nile nke Chineke ike; jụ echiche ahụ bụ́ na mmadụ pụrụ ikewapụ site n’ụwa; ma lekwasị anya na nchọpụta nke Chineke site na nghọta onwe onye. Amụma Eliot maka ọdịnihu nke okpukpe na ọnọdụ ime mmụọ ghọrọ nkọwapụta ọhụụ nke New Thought nke akwụkwọ okpukpe na nke ụwa na-ekwusi ike ọgwụgwọ, nchọpụta onwe onye, ​​na ike.

Ka ọ na-etolite, New Thought na-anọchite ụyọkọ chọọchị na nzukọ ndị a na-achọpụtaghị, nkwenkwe na omume ndị metụtara ọhụụ ọhụụ nke uche nke onye ọ bụla bụ ngosipụta nke eluigwe na ala na ebe nchekwube, inwe onwe onye, ​​inwe afọ ojuju, ime ihe ike, na ahụike. -mindness butere obi ojoo ojoo nke ndi mmadu, nsogbu nke aku na uba, na onodu. A tụlere ya megide ụka dị iche iche nke ngwụsị narị afọ nke iri na itoolu na mmalite narị afọ nke iri abụọ, ndị ndu okpukpe na nke ụwa nke New Thought kwadoro “okpukpe” onye kwuo uche ya nke ime ka ụkpụrụ na ebumnuche ya dị mfe dabara nke ọma na mba ahụ na-eto ambivalence banyere nkwenkwe okpukpe na njikọ. Nke a metụtakwara ndị na-eche echiche nke New Thought, bụ ndị nraranye ha nye ezi uche na post-Enlightenment were ọnọdụ nke abụọ na ahụmịhe na-enweghị nghọta, itinye uche, nkwenye, na ngosipụta. Maka ma ndị ụka ya ma ndị na-achọghị ka ha fee ya, ndị na-ekwuchitere New Thought sere onyinyo America dị ka ọha mmadụ na-achịkwa onwe ya nke otu onye na-achịkwa nke omume na-adịghị emerụ emerụ site na klas, agbụrụ, na agbụrụ.

Na 1917, International New Thought Association (INTA) nakweere "Nkwupụta nke Prinkpụrụ," nke gụnyere ntụaka banyere Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst. Na 1957, ewepụrụ amaokwu ndị akọwapụtara banyere Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst ma jiri ịdị n'otu nke Chineke na ụmụ mmadụ dochie ya na njikọta pụrụ iche nke ime mmụọ na ike okike nke echiche. Na 2002, INTA mezigharịrị “Nkwupụta Prinkpụrụ Ya” iji gosipụta ihe ndị a:

Anyị na-ekwenye na Chineke dị ka Uche, Ebighị Ebi, Mmụọ na Nke Kachasị Adị.

Anyị na-ekwenye na Chineke, Onye dị mma, bụ onye kachasị elu, nke zuru ụwa ọnụ, na nke na-adịru mgbe ebighị ebi.

Anyị na-akwado ịdị n'otu nke Chineke na ụmụ mmadụ, n'ihi na ọdịdị nke Chineke bi n'ime ma na-egosipụta site n'aka onye ọ bụla n'ime anyị, site na ịnakwere ya, dịka ahụike, ọkọnọ, amamihe, ịhụnanya, ndụ, eziokwu, ike, ịma mma, na udo .

Anyị na-ekwenye n'ike nke ekpere na ikike nke onye ọ bụla iji nwee ahụmịhe dị omimi na Chineke, na ịnụ ụtọ amara nke Chineke.

Anyị na-akwado nnwere onwe nke mmadụ niile maka nkwenkwe, ma anyị na-asọpụrụ ụdị mmadụ dị iche iche site na imeghe ma gosipụta mmadụ niile, na-ekwenye na ebube nke mmadụ dịka ntọala na ọnụnọ nke Chineke n'ime ha, ya mere, ụkpụrụ nke ochichi onye kwuo uche ya.

Anyị na-ekwenye na anyị niile bụ mmụọ, na-ebi na mbara igwe nke mmụọ nke iwu ime mmụọ na-achịkwa, yana na itinye aka na iwu mmụọ, anyị nwere ike ịgwọ, nwee ọganiihu ma kwekọrịta.

Anyị na-ekwenye na a na-eme ka ọnọdụ uche anyị gaa n'ihu na ngosipụta ma bụrụ ahụmịhe anyị na ndụ kwa ụbọchị.

Anyị na-ekwenye na ngosipụta nke alaeze nke eluigwe ebe a na ugbu a.

Anyị na-ekwupụta ngosipụta nke ụkpụrụ ime mmụọ kachasị elu n'ịhụrịta ibe anyị n'anya na enweghị nkwekọrịta, na-akwalite ọdịmma kachasị elu maka mmadụ niile, na-ezi ihe ma na-agwọ ibe anyị, na-ejere ibe anyị ozi, ma na-ebikọ ọnụ n'udo dịka nkuzi nke Jizọs na ndị nkuzi ndị ọzọ nwere nghọta.

Anyị na-ekwenye na anyị maara banyere ọdịdị nke eziokwu na njikere anyị imezi nkwenkwe anyị kwekọrọ na ya (International New Thought Alliance websaịtị 2017).

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Dika otutu obodo mepere emepe, New Thought toro na onu ogugu site na ikwusi ike uche, oganihu na njuputa nke onwe. Ọ bụ ezie na ụka ya dị iche iche gbalịsiri ike ịkọwa ọhụụ dị n'otu, ihe mepụtara bụ nkwenkwe ndị dabara adaba, mmekọrịta mmekọrịta, na ngwakọ ngwakọ nke sitere na ngwakọta nke echiche na echiche ụgha nke gbabaworo na nkwenkwe dị mfe na chi nke onye ọ bụla na enweghị njedebe ohere site n'ike nke echiche okike, ntụgharị, ike-echiche. Echiche nwere ike nwoghara; ha nwekwara ike na-adọta, na-eme ka ndị ọzọ na-eme ihe ndị ọzọ; na ihe ịga nke ọma ha bụ ihe ịrịba ama nke omume ọma na nsonaazụ nke oke echiche.

Site na echiche elere gafee ọtụtụ ụka ya na mkpakọrịta ndị na-achọghị akwụkwọ na ụlọ obibi akwụkwọ, ndị na-akwado New Thought wepụtara akwụkwọ na akwụkwọ akụkọ ndị nyere aka ịkọwa mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya, nke ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị, na nke okpukpe nke ndụ na ọdịnala ndị America. Kama ịsị na ọ bụ otu usoro iwu na omume a kapịrị ọnụ, ndị na-akwado ya tụụrụ ụfọdụ iwu nke gụnyere okwu ndị dị ka "Iwu nke Ezi Ihe," "Iwu nke Ihe Nleta," "Iwu Ogo," na "Iwu nke Successga nke Ọma.” Ndị na-akwado ya, ọ bụrụhaala na ọ ga-ekwe omume ịkọwa ọkwa nke ihe niile, mesiri nkwenye na Chineke ike dị ka onye dị adị na onye karịrị, onye naanị ya na-agwọ ọrịa, na-akwado ya ma na-eme ka ụwa niile dị n'otu. Ndi mmadu tinyere usoro nke okike, ebe mmadu jere ozi dika onye okike ya na Chineke iji mata odi nma, nkwekorita na oganihu, na ebe sayensi mere ka ikwenye na odi nma nke mmadu.

Dị ka onye nnọchianya nke ụkpụrụ New Thought, Tholọ Nsọ New Thought dị na Cincinnati na 1898 kwuru na ebumnuche ya bụ "ịnye ụka zuru ụwa ọnụ na-enweghị ụkpụrụ, nkwenkwe, ma ọ bụ ememe, ebe mmadụ niile nwere ike ife Chineke na ebe ha nwere ike ịmụ Cikpụrụ na isi nke New Thought na akụkụ ya niile, dị ka Philosophy, okpukpe, sayensị na omume nke ezi uche, ezi uche na ibi ndụ ime mmụọ. ”(New Thought Unity Center) Ka o sina dị, ụka dị iche iche na-arụ ọrụ n'okpuru nche anwụ nke New Thought akụziwo maka ikpe ekpere na ikwu okwu nke a na-kwupụtaghị ekwu, ime mmụọ ime mmụọ na udo, ifesa mmiri, na iri achịcha na ị withụ mmanya na iji okwu ọnụ metụtara ndụ na ihe. Havefọdụ amatala na ha na-eji kaadị Tarot eme ihe gbasara ịgụ kpakpando.

Nnukwu mbipụta nke bịara na mmalite nke nchepụta evolushọn manyere New Thoughters ịtụle ọdịiche dị n'etiti ịhụnanya ha na mmadụ ibe ha na ihe akaebe nke ịda ogbenye, agụụ, na ọrịa n'etiti obere ọha. Kedu iwu ndị na-akọwa ebumnuche na njedebe nke ọmịiko na obiọma n'ebe ndị na-esighị ike n'etiti ọha mmadụ nọ? N'ịbụ onye echiche nke evolushọn na kwenyesiri ike na ọ na-anọchite anya atụmatụ sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ maka mmadụ na ọha mmadụ, ndị na-ekwuchitere echiche nke New Thought gbalịrị iwepụ uche ha pụọ ​​na ezigbo nsogbu gaa na nkwenkwe na a ga-edozi mmadụ niile n'otu ụzọ ma ọ bụ ọzọ. Ka ọ dị ugbu a, onyinye onyinye abụghịzi ihe na-egbochi amara, ihe nke mere ka mgbanwe ọha na eze buru ibu dị oke ụkọ.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Ka New Thought movement gbasaa na mpaghara America, ndị isi ya guzobere njikọ nke ministri siri ike na mmepe onwe onye, ​​usoro ihe atụ na-ajụ, ma na-emegide usoro ahaziri ahazi maka ọrụ na ọrụ ha. N'ịbụ ndị bara ọgaranya na ndụmọdụ ime mmụọ, ha nwetara nri site na nzuko omeiwu nke Okpukpe nke inwa na 1893 na njikọ mmekọrịta nke ọtụtụ n'ime ndị bịara ya nwere maka ezigbo mmụọ nke ndụ na obi ụtọ. Site na ahụmịhe a pụta na International Metaphysical League na 1899, ndị ndị nnọchi anya ya malitere iji okwu ahụ bụ New Thought iji kọwaa echiche ha. Na 1908, Njikọ ahụ gbanwere usoro iwu ya ka ọ bụrụ National New Thought Alliance nke nzukọ ha na-eme kwa afọ na-enye klas na isiokwu ndị dị ka "Chineke n'ime mmadụ," "Nzuzo nke uche," "Nna-ukwu nke Onwe Gị na Worldwa Gị," na "Otu Onye Na-adịghị Achọpụta" ( Uwe 1928: 200). Na 1914, ndị Alliance ọzọ gbanwere aha ya na International New Thought Alliance (INTA), na-akọwapụta nzube ya: “teachkụziri enweghị oke Onye Kachasị Elu; Chi nke mmadụ na ohere ya na-enweghị ngwụcha site na ike okike nke echiche na-ewuli elu na nrube isi na olu nke Indwelling Presence, nke bụ isi iyi nke Mmụọ Nsọ, Ike, Ahụike na Ọganiihu ”(Dresser 1928: 211).

Taa, Echiche Ọhụrụ dị n'ọnọdụ na-agbanwe agbanwe ma ọ bụ na-erughị ala, nke akara dị iche iche na-etolite, na-agagharị, na-edegharị onwe ha, na mgbe ụfọdụ naanị na-apụ n'anya. Ewezuga ihe ịma aka nke ịchụso na ịchọpụta steeti nke otu ya, a ka nwere ajụjụ maka ma ọ ga-etinye otu ndị na-ekerịta nkwenkwe nke New Thought ma ha anaghị akọwa onwe ha dị ka ndị a. Okpukpe ndị ahụ bụ isi, mkpakọrịta, na ụlọ ọrụ ndị na-anakwere nhazi ha ugbu a dị ka akụkụ nke usoro echiche ọhụụ gụnyere:

Ukwuu Life Center, Vancouver, WA; Mgbakwunye New Thought Network, Pacific Grove, CA; Agape International Spiritual Center, Culver, Obodo, CA; Association maka Global New Thought, Santa Barbara, CA; Association of Churches Unity, Summit Lee, MO; Lọ Ọrụ maka Mmata Ọhụrụ, Salem, OR; Njikọ Eziokwu nke Kraịst, Fort Worth, TX; Chọọchị nke Eziokwu, Pasadena, CA; College nke Divine Metaphysics, Moab, Utah; Chineke Science Federation International, MO; Schoollọ Akwụkwọ sayensị Chineke, Washington, DC; Chi dị iche iche nke Chukwu, Cody, WY; Emerson Theological Institute, Oakhurst, CA; Chọọchị mbụ nke Divine Science, New York, NY; Ndị Minista Sayensị Okpukpe Globalwa, Silver Spring, MD; Hillside International Chapel na Eziokwu Center, Atlanta, GA; Oflọ nke Eziokwu, Alameda, CA; Egwuregwu Ọhụrụ Egwuregwu Ndị Mmadụ, Australia; Ndị Ọchịchị Inner Light, Santa Cruz, CA; Institute nke Mind Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan; Ozi Metaphysical International, Sedona, AZ; International New Thought Alliance, Mesa, AZ; Truthlọ Ọrụ Eziokwu Ime Mmụọ International, Stockton, CA; Ndụ Changers International, Hoffman Estates, IL; Truthlọ Nzukọ Ezigbo Eziokwu, East Cleveland, OH; Chọọchị Ime Mmụọ nke Metropolitan nke Kraịst, Kansas City, MO; New Thought Ministri nke Oregon, Wilsonville, OR; Ozi ndi echiche ohuru, Glen Allen, VA; Noohra Foundation, Smyrna, GA; Otu Mmụọ Ozi, Cresco, PA; Ozi Piscean-Aquarian maka echiche ọhụrụ, Asheville, NC; Real Life Today Church, Washington, DC; Seicho-No-Ie, Gardena, CA; Society maka Ọmụmụ nke Metaphysical Religion, Clearwater, FL; Society nke sayensị ndị Juu, New York, NY; Mahadum Southwest, Santa Fe, NM; Emplọ Ọrụ Na-enye Ike Ime Mmụọ, Baltimore, MD; Nkuzi nke Kraịst n’ime, El Cajon, CA; Nghọta Prinkpụrụ maka Better Living Life, Los Angeles, CA; United Centers maka Ime Mmụọ, Golden, CO; United Church Schoolslọ Akwụkwọ, New York, NY; United Divine Sayensị, Largo, MD; Ntọala Universal maka Ndụ Ka Mma, Miami Gardens, FL; Truthlọ Ọrụ Eziokwu Universalwa Maka Ndụ Dị Mma, Miami Gardens, FL; Ebe Eziokwu Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Ka ọ na-erule mmalite narị afọ nke iri abụọ, ahịa maka ndị na-eso ụzọ okpukpe na nke ụwa bụ New Thought hụrụ oke uto na ụzọ ha na-esighi na-agwọ ọrịa. Dika ihe nchoputa nke Calvinism nyere ohere nke nnwere onwe nnabata banyere idi nma nke mmadu, echiche nke ndi mmadu nwetara uzo nke gunyere uche nke uche, aro na nkwenye sitere na okwu, inwe obi ike na idi otu Chineke, na mgbatị nke echiche nke uche gbasiri ike ịgụnye ozioma ọhụụ nke ọganiihu na ọganihu ọ bụla. Ngbanwe a mere ka nzuko nke ulo uka na nke a na-achoghi akwukwo nke megharia ogba aghara, ogba aghara ndi oru, na ịda ogbenye na nkwa nke nkasi obi nke ihe ndi ozo bu ihe ndi mmadu choro.

Ndị na-agba ọganiihu nke New Thought weghaara ego n'ime njedebe n'onwe ya dị ka mmesi obi ike a na-ahụ anya nke ụgwọ ọrụ otuto nke Chineke. Akụnụba, nke na-abụkwaghị ihe ize ndụ nye mkpụrụ obi, ghọrọ ihe a na-akpọ, na-egosi nzọpụta n'ihe metụtara ihe onwunwe. Annie Rix Militz (Militz 1905: 2-3) dere, sị, "Ka obi sie gị ike na Chineke dị njikere inye gị ezi ihe ọ bụla ị ga-enye onwe gị." Charles B. Newcomb si Ihe niile ziri ezi na ụwa (1899), mesiri ndị na-agụ akwụkwọ obi ike na “Wa dịghị ajụghị anyị ihe ọ bụla anyị chọrọ. . . . Ikike ịchọrọ na ike ime ihe bụ otu. Ihe niile bụ nke anyị ozugbo anyị matara ma daba na ndụ ụwa. Emere nke a na-enweghị akwụ ụgwọ ma ọ bụ ụta agbataobi anyị ”(Newcomb 1899: 201-04). Ruo ọtụtụ iri afọ, atụmatụ ndị yiri nke a sitere na peeji nke Charles Fillmore, William Walker Atkinson, Wallace Wattles, Paul Ellsworth, na ndị edemede New Thought ndị ọzọ. MBany bụ onye nkwekọrịta site n'aka Sydney Flower's New Thought Publishing Company na New Thought onye ama ama ama ama ama, Elizabeth Towne (1865-1960). [Foto dị n'aka nri]

Site na igbanwe ihe mmebi aku na uba nke ndi obodo ka ha buru oganihu ma obu odida, ndi ohuru, ndi ndumodu, na ndi amuma ohuru nke New Thought nyere “ozioma nke oganihu” maka ndi mmadu iji gwọ onwe ha. Ndị edemede ya, ihe atụ nke gụnyere Charles F. Haanel, Frank Channing Haddock, Dorothea Brande, Elbert Hubbard, Orison Swett Marden, Bruce Barton, Napoleon Hill, na Dale Carnegie, kwuru banyere ihe ịga nke ọma sitere na ike nke uche na echiche ziri ezi. Okwu ndị gara aga dịka ndọta, ike, ebili mmiri echiche, njikwa uche na ntụnye, bụ nke nweburu ikike pụtara na narị afọ nke iri na iteghete, nyere okwu dịka nnọgidesi ike, ịba ọgaranya, ike iche echiche, ebumnuche, ọdịmma onwe onye, ​​na ikike. Ọgbọ ọhụụ ọhụụ nke ndị asịrị New Thought gosipụtara ndụ na nzọpụta n'ihe gbasara akụ na ụba na ọganihu. Dị ka onye nkatọ Clifford Howard si kwuo na 1910, ọtụtụ n'ime ndị edemede, ndị ọkà okwu, na ụlọ obibi akwụkwọ ọhụụ kachasị ọhụrụ nke New Thought mere ka ndị na-ere ọgwụ patent "na-ere ahịa ike nke Chineke" (Page 1910, XIX: 846-50).

Site na 1920s gaa n'ihu, ndị edemede New Thought na ndị nkuzi na-akpali akpali (ma ndị nke ụwa na ndị okpukpe) tụgharịrị ahụike na ọdịmma ime mmụọ n'ime ike iji dọta, kwenye, nwee mmetụta na ịchịkwa ndị ọzọ. Onye tụkwasịrị onwe ya obi nke Emerson bịara na-ere ihe nzuzo. Nke Charles F. Haanel Nna-ukwu Key Sistem (1917), nke Robert Collier Ihe nzuzo nke oge (1926), na Napoleon Hill si Iwu nke Ịga nke Ọma (1925) rụrụ ụka na 'mkpịsị ugodi' nke ihe ọ bụla mmadụ chọrọ bụ na ịzụlite ikike ọgụgụ isi. Bruce Barton si Nwoke Onweghi Onye Maara (1925) ire ahia site na ndu na omume nke Jisos. Ọ bụ ezie na okwu ahụ bụ "echiche bụ ihe" bụ ahịrịokwu a na - ahụkarị n'etiti ndị na - akwado echiche New Thought, William Walker Atkinson (1862-1932), otu n'ime ndị nnọchi anya kachasị emetụta ọhụụ nke New Thought, kụziri na ahịrịokwu ziri ezi ka "echiche bụ ike. ” Site na njikwa kwesịrị ekwesị na mmega nke ndị agha a, enwere ike ime ihe ọ bụla. “Cheedị banyere ya. IHE Ọ B.. Gbalịa ya. Gbalịa ya nke ọma na ị ga-aga nke ọma. Ọ bụ ọrụ nke iwu dị ike ”(Atkinson 1901: 64).

Taa, ndị na-ere ozi nke New Thought na-abịa site na akwụkwọ, akwụkwọ akụkọ, CD, vidiyo, ihe ngosi okwu, mkparịta ụka, ebe obibi, Facebook, na Twitter. Akwụkwọ na vidiyo nke Stephen R. Covey, James Redfield, Deepak Chopra, Jon Mundy, Caroline Myss, Byron Katie, Rhonda Byrne, na Eckhard Tolle na-egosi ọnọdụ dị mma nke nchekwube na ezi ahụike nke gbanyere mkpọrọgwụ na isi echiche. . Imirikiti echiche ha na ihe nzuzo nke ihe ịga nke ọma bụ naanị ịmegharịrị echiche na echiche nke narị afọ nke iri na itoolu ugbu a na-esite n'okwu sitere na njikọta nke nkà ihe ọmụma, nkà mmụta ọgwụ, physics, na akparamaagwa. Chọọchị na ndị otu na mkpakọrịta ndị a na-achọpụtabeghị ọnụ na-ekwu okwu iji kere òkè n'ụdị nchọpụta onwe onye na-agbanwe agbanwe. Oftù Na-ahụ Maka Unitydị n'Otu, Universal Foundation for Better Living in Chicago, the One Spirit ministri, na United Church of Science Science na Mgbakwunye New Thought Network bụ nanị ole na ole n'ime ogwe aka ọrụ nke akụkụ nke echiche ọhụrụ.

Ọganihu na ezi uche na-aga n'ihu na-abụ isi ihe dị mkpa na akwụkwọ nke ọhụụ ọhụụ taa. Magazin Echiche Ọhụrụ, nke INTA bipụtara, nwere isiokwu ndị dị ka "Ọganihu maka Ọgbọ Ọhụrụ," "Njikwa Onwe Onye na Mwepụta Mkpụrụ Obi," "Hụ Wayzọ Gị toga nke Ọma," na "ingnọgide Na-eche." Nke a na-akwado nke a site na mba nke mbubreyo nke iri na itoolu na mmalite nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ na narị afọ nke iri abụọ na itoolu na echiche nke echiche ha site n'aka ndị ozi oge a na ndị na-ekwu okwu mkpali. O doro anya na ọtụtụ akwụkwọ na isiokwu nke Alan Anderson na Deborah Whitehouse, ndị otu n'ime ndị isi nke INTA, na ndị telivishọn dị ka Stephen R. Covey (1932-2012), Gayle M. Delaney (b. 1949) ), Anthony Robbins (b. 1960), Wayne Walter Dyer (b. 1940), Gary Zukav (b. 1942), na Bryan Tracy (b. 1944) na-enye nkuzi na-akpali akpali, teepu vidio, na saịtị Internetntanetị na-enye ozi olileanya, ọgwụgwọ, na ụba maka ndị na-achọ nzube nke ndụ.

Okwu a bu "Ochicho ohuru" enweghi ike iju otutu mkparita uka nke taa banyere ogwugwo, mmuo, ezi echiche, na ozioma nke oganihu. Nke ahụ bụ n'ihi na ejirila akara aha (ntụgharị, "Ihe Nzuzo" nke Rhoda Byrne dochie aha ahụ bụ New Thought), ụghalaahịa (ya bụ, "Nzube nke Ndụ Ebumnuche Rick Warren"), na saịtị Internetntanetị. Ndị na-ekwuchitere ha taa na-aga n’ihu na-ekwu na mmadụ ga-atụkwasị onwe ya obi, zere imere onwe ya ebere, otú ndị ọzọ si ele ihe anya otú o si ele ndị mmadụ anya, na ikwere na ọ ga-ekwe omume. Agbanyeghi na azumazu ahia ha di otutu oge, ha na akuziri ike nke uche imeghachi onodu na onodu nke ndu mmadu.

Foto
Image # 1: Foto nke Ralph Waldo Emerson.
Image # 2: Foto nke Franz Anton Mesmer.
Image # 3: Foto nke Emanuel Swedenborg.
Image # 4: Foto nke Phineas Park Quimby.
Image # 5: Foto nke William Felt Evans.
Image # 6: Foto nke Mary Baker Eddy.
Image # 7: Foto nke Elizabeth Towne.

References

Atkinson, William Walker. 1901. Echiche-Ike na Azụmaahịa na Ndụ Kwa Ndụ. Chicago: Companylọ Ọrụ Nyocha nke Ọrịa.

Eddy, Mary Baker. 1906. Sayensị na Ahụike nwere Igodo nke Akwụkwọ Nsọ. Boston: Ndị nlekọta n'okpuru uche nke Mary Baker G. Eddy.

Uwe ejiji, Horatio W. 1928. Akụkọ banyere Echiche Ọhụrụ. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.

Uwe ejiji, Horatio W., ed. 1921, Ihe odide Quimby; Igosipụta Nchọpụta nke Ọgwụ Ime Mmụọ na Mmalite nke Sayensị Ndị Kraịst. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.

Uwe ejiji, Horatio W. 1899. Olu nke Nnwere Onwe: Na Nyocha na Nkà Ihe Ọmụma nke Individualism. New York: ụmụ GP Putnam.

Haller, John S. 2012. Akụkọ nke Echiche Ọhụrụ: Site na Mmetụta Mkpụrụ Obi na Echiche Ezi uche na Oziọma Ọganihu. West Chester, PA: Swedishborg Foundation Press.

Ebe nrụọrụ weebụ International New Thought Alliance. 2017. “Nkwupụta ofkpụrụ.” Nweta site na  http://www.newthoughtalliance.org/about.html na 1 November 2011.

James, William. 1902. Iche iche nke Ahụmịhe Okpukpe: Ọmụmụ Ihe na indị Mmadụ. New York: Ọbá akwụkwọ nke oge a.

Militz, Annie Rix. 1905. Ihe Niile Ga-ekwe Omume Ha Kwere. Los Angeles: The Master Mind na-ekwusara.

Newcomb, Charles B. 1899. Ihe niile ziri ezi na ụwa. Boston: Lee na Shepard.

New Thought Unity Center weebụsaịtị. 2017. Nweta site na  http://www.ntunity.org/our-history na 30 December 2017)

Peeji, Walter Hines, ed, Ọrụ Worldwa 1900-1932. New York: Doubleday,

Oke Osimiri, Ervin, ed. 1988. Phineas Parkhurst Quimby: Akwụkwọ zuru ezu,  Mpịakọta 3. Marina del Rey, CA: Ndị na-eso ụzọ.

AJỤRỤ AKWỤKWỌ NDỊ

Ahlstrom, Sidney E. 1972. Akụkọ Okpukpe nke Ndị America. New Haven, CT: Mahadum Yale University.

Albanese, Catherine L. 2007. Republic nke Uche na Mmụọ: A Cultural History of American Okpukpe Metaphysical. New Haven, CT: Mahadum Yale University.

Allen, Abel Leighton. 1914. Ozi nke Echiche Ọhụrụ. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell.

Anderson, C. Alan. 1993. Hykpụrụ Agwọ: Horatio W. Dresser na Nkà Ihe Ọhụrụ nke Echiche Ọhụrụ. New York: Garland.

Anderson, C. Alan, na Deborah G. Whitehouse. 2002. Echiche Ọhụrụ: Amụma Ime Mmụọ nke American. New York: Mgbasa Ozi.

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Ụbọchị Post:
31 December 2017

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