Carolyn Morrow Long

Marie Laveau

MARIE LAVEAU TIMELINE

1801 (Septemba 10): A mụrụ Marie Laveau, nwanyị nwere agba na nwa nke ndị ohu Africa, na New Orleans.

1819: Marie Laveau lụrụ Jacques Paris si Haiti.

1824: Jacques Paris nwụrụ ma ọ bụ fuo. A bịara mara Marie dị ka nwanyị di ya nwụrụ Paris.

1827–1838: Marie Laveau nwere ụmụ asaa ya na onye mmekọ ya, Louis Christophe Dominique Duminy de Glapion, onye ọcha Louisiana nke agbụrụ French.

1855 (June 26): Christophe Glapion nwụrụ.

1881 (June 15): Marie Laveau nwụrụ.

BIOGRAPHY

Marie Laveau ghọrọ otu n'ime New Orleans 'ndị kachasị akara ngosi. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Otu nwanyị nwere agba nwere agba sitere na ndị ohu Africa na ndị French na-achị, a mụrụ ya na 1801, mgbe Louisiana ka bụ onye nwe obodo Spanish. Ndụ ya gbasaa site na Louisiana Purzụta site na United States na 1803, Louisiana na-enwe ọganihu site n'ókèala ruo na steeti, site na afọ ndị gbara ọchịchịrị nke Agha Obodo (1861-1865), na oge ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na nke ọgba aghara nke oge nwughari (1863-77) . Ọ nwụrụ na 1881, ka New Orleans na-agbadata n'oge ajọ ịkpa oke agbụrụ na nkewa nke mere na narị afọ nke iri abụọ.

Onye na - eme nchọpụta siri ike iji nweta akwụkwọ ọhụrụ nke New Orleans 'ụlọ nchekwa obodo na nke chọọchị nwere ike ịmepụta biography ziri ezi nke Marie Laveau dị ka nwa amaala nke New Orleans na onye nọ n'ọgbakọ Katọlik na St. Louis Cathedral (lee Long 2006; Long 2016; Fandrich 2005; Ward 2004). N'ụzọ dị iche, akwụkwọ ndị a pụrụ ịdabere na ya nke narị afọ nke iri na itoolu New Orleans Voudou na Marie Laveau ọrụ dịka onye ụkọchukwu Voudou bụ ụkọ. Otutu nghota di iche iche nke Voudou bu ndi ode akwukwo akwukwo na ndi dere akwukwo akuko na akuko. Nke ka mma, mana ka na-ezughị okè, isi okwu bụ nchịkọta nke ajụjụ ọnụ, nke a na-eme n'etiti 1936 na 1941 site na gọọmentị ọrụ na-arụ ọrụ na United States (LWP) na ndị agadi New Orleanians ndị chetara omenala Voudou nke narị afọ nke iri na itoolu. O sitere na akụkọ ndi oru nta akuko, akwukwo, na akuko bu na anyi aghaghi igbiko ihe omuma banyere okpukpe nke Marie Laveau na umuazo ya na New Orleans gbara na iri na itoolu.

Onye bu onye Marie Laveau bu, nwa ya, ubochi ya na onwu ya, na ebe ana-eli ozu ka ekwuputala ya ruo n'ókè a, na odi nkpa igosi akuko banyere ndu ya dika ekpughere n'akwukwo akuko archive na New Orleans. Akụkọ banyere usoro ọmụmụ nne Marie Laveau, yana ndụ ya, na-eme ka a mara banyere ịgba ohu, agbụrụ, okike, na klaasị na New Orleans site na iri na asatọ na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu.

A mụrụ nne nne ochie nke Marie Laveau, nke a na-akpọ Marguerite, na Senegal ma weta New Orleans na ụgbọ mmiri ohu, ebe ọ ghọrọ onye nwe ụlọ Henry Henry Roche-Belaire. Marguerite nwere nwa nwanyị, Catherine (onye ga-aghọrọ nne nne Marie Laveau), ya na nwa nwoke ojii aha ya bụ Jean Belaire. Henry Roche-Belaire nwere ike ịbụ nwa Catherine nke aha ya bụ Marguerite (onye ga-abụ nne Marie Laveau). Na 1795, Catherine zụtara nnwere onwe ya n'aka onye nwe ya. Dị ka nwanyị nweere onwe ya, Catherine kpọrọ nna ya aha ya bụ Henry, ghọọ nwanyị na-enwe ọganihu, ma nye iwu ka e wuo ụlọ na St. Ann Street n'etiti okporo ụzọ Rampart na Burgundy na nkeji nke France, bụ nke ga-emesị ghọọ onye a ma ama dị ka ụlọ Marie Laveau . Nwa Catherine nwanyị bụ Marguerite nọgidere na-eje ozi n'ụlọ nke Roche Henry -Belaire; ọ mesịrị nweta nnwere onwe ya na 1790 (Long 2006: 8-10, 15-19).

A mụrụ nwanne Marie Marie Laveau n'ọdịnihu Marie Laveau na September 10, 1801, e mere ya baptism na St. Louis Cathedral nke dị na Quarter French na September 16. Abanye n'ime ihe ndekọ sacramental dị ka "nwa nwanyị mulatto n'efu nke a mụrụ n'ụbọchị nke iri nke ọnwa a, nwa nwanyị Marguerite, nwa mulatress n'efu, na nna a na-amaghị." Catherine nne nne Marie bụ onye nkuzi ya (Maria 1801; Fandrich 2005: 152). Enweghị nna nna e dekọtara maka nwatakịrị ahụ ma ọ bụ nne ya na nne nne ya, bụ ihe a na-emekarị na ihe ndekọ nke baptism nke ndị nwere agba.

Ọ bụ ezie na edeghị aha na Marie Laveau na baptism baptism, Charles Laveaux mesịrị kweta na Marie dị ka nwa ya nwanyị na ha nọgidere na-enwe ịhụnanya ịhụnanya ruo oge ndụ ya niile. Ma n'oge a tụrụ ime Marie, Marguerite Henry ka na-etinye aka na nwoke ọzọ, Henri Darcantel, na Charles Laveaux nwere mmekọ nwanyị nwere onwe ya nwere onwe ya bụ Françoise Dupart, onye ọ lụrụ na 1802 (Long 2006: 21-24, 30-31; Fandrich 2005: 153; Ward: 40). Ihe ndị a nwere ike ịkọwa ihe mere Marguerite na Charles ejighị mmekọrịta ha na ibe ha. Nwa agbọghọ na-eto eto Marie abanyeghị na mmekọrịta nne ya na Henri Darcantel, ọ pụkwara ịbụ na e zoro ya na nzuzo. O nwere ike ịbụ na a kpọlitere Marie n'ụlọ nne ya ochie na St. Ann Street, bụ ebe Catherine Henry ghọrọ onye bụ isi nne na nna ya.

Na 1819 Marie Laveau lụrụ Jacques Paris, onye na-acha ọbara ọbara bụ onye ọkwá nkà si Saint-Domingue (Haiti). O nwere ike ịbata na New Orleans tinyere mmeri nke ndị bụbu ndị Santo Domingue na-agbapụ na Haitian Revolution (1791-1804). Charles Laveaux sooro nwa ya nwanyị gaa n'ụlọ ọrụ notary iji dozie nkwekọrịta alụmdi na nwunye ya ma nye ya ego, "n'ihi agbụ ọ na-agba maka ya dị ka nwa ya nwanyị nke ọ kwetara." O nyere di na nwunye n'ọdịnihu " onyinye inter vivos na nke a na-apụghị ịgbagha agbagha… nke ọkara nza ahụ nke dị na Faubourg Marigny, "ndị agbata obi agbata site na French Quarter na ala nke bụbu Marigny plant (Paris na Laveaux Marriage Contract 1819; Paris na Labeau Marriage 1819; Long 2006: 47–48; Fandrich 2005: 155–56). Marie na Jacques nwere ụmụ nwanyị abụọ, Felicité na Marie Angèlie. N'ịgbaso ọkwa nke baptizim ha, ụmụ agbọghọ a kwụsịrị na ndekọ ndekọ ochie. O yikarịrị ka ha nwụrụ na nwata (Long 2006: 49; Fandrich: 155-56).

Jacques Paris nwụrụ ma ọ bụ nwụnahụ na 1824, ọ dịghịkwa ọnwụ ma ọ bụ ihe ndekọ ọhụụ a chọpụtala. A kaputara Marie ugbu a n'akwụkwọ akwụkwọ dịka nwanyị di ya nwụrụ Paris. A na-ekwukarị na na oge a, ọ kwadoro onwe ya dị ka onye na-edozi isi. Ọtụtụ ụmụ nwanyị na-acha ọcha na-esochi ọrụ a, ma ọ dịtụghị edepụtara ya dịka akụkọ dị na ndekọ ọnụ ọgụgụ na ndekọ obodo.

Marie Laveau mechara bata n'ime ụlọ ya, ya na Louis Christophe Dominique Duminy de Glapion (1789-1855), onye Louisiana nke ndị nna ochie ndị French. Ebe ọ bụ na ọ bụ nwanyị na-acha ọcha ma na-acha ọcha, ha enweghị ike ịlụ di na nwunye. Ha dịrị ndụ dị ka di na nwunye ruo afọ iri atọ ma nwee ụmụ asaa n'etiti 1827 na 1838: Marie Eloise (ma ọ bụ Helöise) Euchariste, Marie Louise Caroline, Christophe, Jean Baptiste, François, Marie Philomène, na Archange (Long 2006: 53- 56; Fandrich: 58). Naanị Eloise Euchariste na Philomène dị ndụ ruo mgbe ha mere okenye. Mgbe nne nne Catherine Catherine nwụrụ na 1831, Christophe Glapion zụtara ụlọ dị na St. Ann Street site n'aka ya ma nọgide na ụlọ ezinụlọ Laveau-Glapion ruo ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ otu narị afọ (Henry 1831; Long: 60-63; Fandrich: 160- 61).

Ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ndị New Orleanians niile na-eme nke ọma, gụnyere ndị nwere agba nwere onwe ha, nwere ndị ohu. Marie Laveau sokwa. N’agbata 1828 na 1854, Laveau na Glapion zụtara ma ree ndị ohu asatọ. Marie Laveau n'onwe ya rere otu nwanyị na nwa ya na 1838, wee ree nwanyị ọzọ na 1849. Christophe Glapion, dị ka ọtụtụ ndị n'oge ahụ, nọ na-atụgharị uche n'ọtọsị, ịgbazinye ego, na ụlọ. Enweghi onye ọchụnta ego nwere ọgụgụ isi karịsịa, na ngwụcha 1840s ji ya nnukwu ụgwọ. O rere otu ohu na 1849. N ’nrụgide kpụ ọkụ n’ọnụ nke Banklọ Ọrụ Banyere ensmụ amaala nke Louisiana, n’afọ 1850, ọ resịrị enyi ha nwoke Philippe Ross ohu abụọ, onye nwere agba n’onwe ya, ohu nke enyi ezinụlọ Pierre Monette, ma resị ya onye ọzọ ohu ohu ahụ bụ Elihu Creswell (Long 2006: 72-78; Fandrich 2005: 163; Ward 2004: 13, 80-88.)

Christophe Glapion nwụrụ na June 26, 1855. E jidere ụlọ ahịa St. Ann Street, bụ nke dị n'aha ya ma jiri ya ree ahịa na ụlọ ahịa nke ndị ahịa iji mezuo ndị ji ụgwọ ya. N'ụzọ dị mma, enyi enyi ezinụlọ bịara napụta ma zụta ụlọ ahụ, na-ekwe ka Marie Laveau, ụmụ ya nwanyị, na ụmụ ụmụ ya nọgide na-ebi (Long: 80-82). Na ọnwụ Christophe, ọ bụghị naanị na onye enyi ya hụrụ n'anya nwụnahụrụ ya, ya na ndị ezinụlọ ya kpatara nsogbu ego nke ha na-enwetabeghị. Echiche a na-ewu ewu bụ na Marie Laveau nwetara ezigbo akụ na ụba nke omume ya bụ nke ịda ogbenye na-arịwanye elu bụ nke ezinụlọ Laveau-Glapion bi na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu.

Marie na Christophe, ada nke Christophe, Eloise Euchariste Glapion, nwụrụ na mmalite 1860s; otu isi na-egosi 1860 ma onye ọzọ na-enye 1862 ụbọchị ọnwụ ya (Long 2006: 66-67; 200-02; Long 2016: 34-37). Eloise hapụrụ ụmụaka atọ: Adelai Aldina, Marie Marguerite Onesta, na Victor Pierre Crocker, bụ ndị Pierre Crocker mụrụ. Crocker nwụrụ na 1857, ụmụaka nne na nna na-ebulikwa n'ezinụlọ ndị mụrụ ha, bụ Marie Laveau (Long 2016: 37-39).

Nwa nwa nwanyi nke Marie na Christophe, Philomène Glapion, abatala n'etiti ndi otu nwoke na-acha ọcha, Emile Alexandre Legendre, na mgbe nna ya nwuru. Di na nwunye ahụ bi n'otu Faubourg Marigny ma nwee ụmụ anọ dị ndụ: Fidelia, Alexandre, Noëmie, na Blair Legendre. Mgbe onye mmekọ Philomène nwụrụ na 1872, Philomène na ụmụ ya laghachiri n'ime ụlọ Marie Laveau na St. Ann Street (Long 2016: 39-42). Ka ọ dị ugbu a, Marie nọ na-arịwanye elu na ahụike, Philomena lekọtara ya ruo mgbe ọ nwụrụ.

A na-enyocha ọnọdụ anụ ahụ Marie Laveau na njedebe nke ndụ ya site n'ọtụtụ ụzọ. Na 1873, ikpe ziri ezi nke udo bịara n'ụlọ ezinaụlọ ahụ iji were gbaa akaebe ya gbasara nnweta nke enyi ezinụlọ Pierre Monette, onye nwụrụ n'afọ gara aga. N'oge ahụ Marie kwuru na ya dị "ihe dị ka afọ iri asaa…. Ana m arịa ọrịa ruo oge ụfọdụ. Ana m arịa ọrịa nke ukwuu ịhapụ ụlọ m enweghị ike ịga ije ”(Laveau 1873; Long 2016: 40). Na 1875, a Daily Picayune onye nta akụkọ a na-akpọ n'ụlọ obibi Laveau-Glapion. N'ebe ahụ, ọ hụrụ "Marie Lafont [sic], Nwanyị Nwanyị Oge Ochie, ”onye ọ kọwara dị ka“ otu nwanyị toro ogologo, gbasiri ike… ugbu a gbagwojuru anya na nká. Ọdịdị ya bụ ọla nchara gbara ọchịchịrị na ntutu ya na-acha oji, ebe aka ya na-ama jijiji ghọrọ mkpanaka gbagọrọ agbagọ ”(“ Fetish ”1875). Offọdụ ndị okenye obodo gbara ajụjụ ọnụ nke Louisiana Writers 'Project kọwara Marie dị ka "nwanyi na-agba agba," nke nwere ntutu na-acha ọcha na-acha ọcha, onye "dị ka onye amoosu" ma "dị nká na ọ pụghị ịga ije" (Long 2006: 166-67).

Marie Laveau nwụrụ n'ihi ihe ndị sitere n'okike n'ụlọ ya na 152 St. Ann Street na June 15, 1881, ọnwa ole na ole na-erughị afọ asatọ nke ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya. Ọ bụ olulu ozu nna ya, bụ Nna Hyacinth Mignot, nke Katidral St. Louis, mere na 5: 00 pm na June 16. Ọhụụ na Daily Picayune kwuru, sị, "A na-esonyere ndị nwụrụ anwụ gaa n'ili site na ìgwè ndị mmadụ, ndị kasị mara amara na ndị kasị dịrị umeala n'obi n'ịkwanye ndị nwụrụ anwụ ùgwù." A kpọbatara ya n'etiti ọnụ ụlọ ili ya [Foto dị n'akụkụ aka nri ] na ọnwụ nke Marie Laveau "1; ogologo: 1881-175; ogologo 77: 2016-29; Fandrich 31: 2005-171).

Na 1880s na-emesị wee gaa n'ihu na narị afọ gara aga, akwụkwọ akụkọ New Orleans kwuru na ụmụ nwanyị dị iche iche (dị ka Mama Caroline, Madame Frazie, na Malvina Latour) dịka onye edochila ma ọ bụ nwee ihe ịga nke ọma Marie Laveau, mana ọ dịghị ebe anyị na-ahụ aro ọ bụla nke ụmụ ya nwanyị ghọrọ ọhụrụ Voudou Queen ("John John Eve" 1873; "ofufe ofufe" 1875; "A Voudou Dance" 1884). Imirikiti ndị na-akọ LWP mụrụ na 1860s na 1870s. Ụfọdụ n'ime ha chetara Marie dị ka agadi nwanyị, ma ndị ọzọ kwuru okwu banyere otu nwanyị toro eto, nke mara mma, gbasiri ike, n'etiti nwoke, onye nwere ọdịdị dị mfe, ọdịdị Caucasian, na ogologo ntutu ojii dị mkpụmkpụ. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Onye ọ bụla kwuru banyere ọmarịcha ije ya, na-ekwu na ọ "jere ije dị ka o nwere obodo ahụ." Nwanyị a bi n'ụlọ Laveau-Glapion dị na St. Ann Street ma ha mara "Marie Laveau" (Long 2006: 190–205; Fandrich 2005: 17–80; Ward: 163-67). Ndị odee mechara dee ya “Marie nke Abụọ.”

Ihe ndekọ nke ụlọ ochie na ịgba akaebe nke ndị na-agwa ndị LWP na-arụ ụka megide ekwe omume na onye ndú ọhụrụ nke obodo Voudou bụ Eloise ma ọ bụ Philomène Glapion. Dị ka anyị hụworo, Eloise nwụrụ na iri afọ atọ na 1860 ma ọ bụ 1862. Philomena nọgidere na-ebi na ụlọ Laveau-Glapion ruo ọnwụ ya na 1897; site n'akụkọ nile ọ bụ nwanyị a maara nke ọma, nke a maara dị ka Madame Legendre, onye kwuru na ya kpọrọ Voudou ("Fiction Journalitious" 1886; "Mgbanwe" 1890; Long 2006: 202-04). Ọ bụ ezie na enwere ike ịbụ "Marie nke Abụọ," njirimara ya bụ ihe omimi. Mbụ bụ Marie Laveau na nke ọzọ, nwa agbọghọ (ma eleghị anya ọbụna ọtụtụ ndị ọzọ) ejikọtawo ịghọ otu onye, ​​onye a ma ama bụ Voudou Queen.

NDỊ NA-ECHICHE NA NDỊ NA-ECHICHE / ỤLỌRỤ (CATHOLICISM NA VOUDOU)

N'ime ndụ ya na ọrụ ya, Marie Laveau nwere otu ụkwụ n'ụwa nke Chọọchị Katọlik na otu n'ime ụwa nke Voudou. Ọ ga-achọpụta na Katọlik na Voudou dị iche iche, ma ọ bụghị esemokwu, ụzọ nke ije ozi nke mmụọ ndị na-achị ụwa.

Marie Laveau bụ onye so na St. Louis Cathedral ndụ ogologo oge, ebe e mere ya baptism ma lụọ ma gaa Mass mgbe niile. Ọ hụrụ na e mere ụmụ ya baptism n'ebe ahụ, ma guzoro dịka nne na nna mgbe a na-eme baptism nwa nwanne ya na nwa nwa ya (Long 2006: 22, 47-48, 66). Ọ bụ onye ụkọchukwu nke katidral duziri olili ozu ya, a kpọbatara ya na Senti Louis Cemetery No. 1.

A ma ama Marie maka ọrụ ebere ya na ọrụ obodo. Ọ na-enye ndị ogbenye, nri na-acha odo odo na ndị na-arịa ọrịa ọgbụgbọ na-ahụ maka ọrịa na-arịwanye elu n'obodo ahụ, na-akwado ịzụ ụmụ nwa na-enweghị nna na Chọọchị Katọlik maka Ụmụaka Nwanyị Na-enweghị Nwanyị, ma nyekwa ndị uwe ojii n'efu na-ebo ebubo maka obere mpụ. Ọ gara leta ndị mkpọrọ a tụrụ mkpọrọ, ebe ịchụàjà dị iche iche na mkpụrụ ndụ ha, ma soro ha kpee ekpere n'oge ikpeazụ ha. O nyekwara ndị na-amabughị ebe obibi ha aka (ili nke nna ya)Usoro Picayune maka New Orleans 1897: 32-33; Journal des Seances 1852: 109; Long 2006: 53-54, 84-85, 151-64; Long 2016: 58-59). Ihe ndị a na-egosipụta ihe a maara na Chọọchị Katọlik dịka Corporal Works of Mercy, bụ nke a na-akụziri ndị kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi inye onye agụụ na-agụ nri, nye onye akpịrị na-aṅụ mmiri, yikwasị ndị gba ọtọ, chebe ndị na-enweghị ebe obibi, leta ndị ọrịa, gaa na tụọ ndị nwụrụ anwụ mkpọrọ.

Ụfọdụ ndị edemede na-ekwu na dị ka Marie Laveau ghọrọ agadi ma nwee ike, ọ hapụrụ Voudou ma ghọọ onye Kristian. A Daily Picayune onye nta akụkọ nke gara leta ya na 1875 kwupụtara ya na-ekwu na ya anaghịzi eje ozi na ndị mmụọ Voudou, kama ọ bụ "onye kwere ekwe na okwukwe dị nsọ" ("Fetish" 1875). Ekwughachiri ihe a na 1885, mgbe akwụkwọ akụkọ New Orleans mara mma kwuru na mgbe ọ mere agadi, "Marie Laveau jụrụ ajọ omume ya ma sonye na chọọchị ahụ" (Akwụkwọ edemede nke akụkọ ihe mere eme 1885: 66). Otú ọ dị, ọ dị mma edekọ na ọ bụ onye Katọlik kwadoro maka ndụ ya nile.

A maghị kpọmkwem otú ma ọ bụ na ọ bụ afọ ole Laveau bịara ọrụ ya dị ka onye ụkọchukwu nke Voudou. Nne nne ya bụ Catherine Henry, site n'aka ndị nne na nna obodo Afrika, ma ọ bụ ndị na-acha agba na-abata na New Orleans si Haiti na mmalite narị afọ nke iri na itoolu. Site na 1830s ya bụ onye isi nke otu ndị omempụ, nke ka ọtụtụ n'ime ụmụ nwanyị Voudou ọgbakọ. Ihe ka ọtụtụ n'akụkọ na-ekwu na, na mgbakwunye na ezi onyinye ime mmụọ ya, Marie nwere ịma mma pụrụ iche, àgwà mara mma, na ihe ngosi maka ngosi. [Foto dị n'aka nri] O mepụtara n'etiti ndị ohu na ndị nweere onwe ha na agba na ndị ọcha New Orleanians na ndị nleta na obodo ahụ, ndị nabatara ya n'ememme ya ma gụọ ya n'etiti ndị ahịa ya.

Marie Laveau na ndị na-eso ụzọ ya na-eme ihe a maara dị ka New Orleans Voudou, naanị ụmụ amaala American North America nke okpukpe okpukpe Afro-Katọlik na-adịkarị na Caribbean na South America (Long 2001: 37-70; Long 2006: 93-36). Mgbe a na-ekpughere ndị Africa n'omenala Katọlik, ha chọtara ọtụtụ ihe ha nwere ike ịkọ. Ihe kachasị dị ka ọtụtụ usoro nkwenkwe nke Africa bụ ihe dị nro nye Chineke bụ Nna, na chi ndị Africa bụ ndị na-arụ ọrụ n'etiti ndị mmadụ na onye kachasị elu bụ ndị a kọwara na Mary nne Nnezi na ìgwè ndị nsọ. Ememe, egwu, uwe na ọrụ ebube nke Chọọchị Katọlik dị ka ndị maara nke ọma n'Africa bụ ndị nkwenkwe okpukpe kwadoro ịkụ abụ, ịgba egwú, ịgba egwú, ụdị ejiji dị iche iche, na iji mmụọ na-emepụta mmụọ. Site na usoro nke ịgbaziri ego na mmezi, ha na-eme ka Katọlik gbanwee iji gboo mkpa nke ha, na-akpata mgbanwe nke Haitian Vodou, Cuban Santería, Brazil Candomblé, na New Orleans Voudou. Isi nduzi nke okpukpe ndị a na-emetụta n'Africa bụ ihe dị n'etiti onye ọ bụla, obodo, gburugburu ebe obibi, na chi.

Site na akwụkwọ akụkọ dị na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu na ajụjụ ọnụ nke ndị Louisiana Writers Project na-eme, anyị na-amụta na Marie Laveau nwere obere ọrụ izu ụka maka ọgbakọ ya, nyere ndụmọdụ maka ndị ahịa ọ bụla, ma duzie ememme St. John's Eve Voudou kwa afọ. Lake Pontchartrain ma ọ bụ Bayou St. John.

Ụlọ na St. Ann Street abụghị naanị ụlọ obibi Laveau-Glapion, ọ bụkwa ọrụ ụlọ ụka Marie Laveau. Ụlọ ime ụlọ jupụtara na ebe ịchụàjà nke kandụl, ihe oyiyi nke ndị nsọ, okooko osisi, mkpụrụ osisi, na onyinye ndị ọzọ. N'ebe a, Laveau na-elekọta nzukọ abalị ụtụtụ Friday, nke otu ìgwè nke ndị na-eso ụzọ ya kachasị mma nyere aka. Egwú nke ndị na-eto eto na-abụ abụ, tinyere otu okenye nwoke na-egwuri egwu, nyere egwu ahụ. Ndị niile nọ ugbu a yi uwe ọcha. A na-edozi osisi, nri, mmanya, kandụl, na mkpụrụ ego na ákwà ọcha na ala ma ọ bụ n'ala, dịka omenala a na-akpọ "ịkwasa oriri maka mmụọ." Ọrụ ahụ malitere site n'ekpere Katọlik, dịka Na-ekele Mary na Nna Anyị. Laveau na-awụsa mmiri nke mmanya ma ọ bụ mmanya, na-ekele ntụziaka anọ ahụ, na-agbakwa ugboro atọ n'elu ala "n'aha nke Nna, Ọkpara, na Mmụọ Nsọ." Mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, ndị ga-eso ya ga-abụ abụ na ịgba egwú. Emere ememe ndi a nile iji kpokuo ndi mmuo ka ha ba n'ime aru nke ndi kwesiri ntukwasi obi ma nye ndi okenye ndu. Nri nri na - esochi òkè okpukpe nke ọrụ ahụ ("Ụgha ọzọ" (1850; nke Ndị Nwụrụ Anwụ "1850;" Ihe Nlekọta nke Mmebi "1850;" Mgbakọ Ndị Na-akwadoghị "1850;" Ndị Njọ na Mbụ Obodo "1820; Long 1850: 1850-1850).

Na mgbakwunye na ijide ọrụ maka ọgbakọ ya, Marie Laveau nyekwara ndụmọdụ na ememme maka ndị ahịa ọ bụla. Ndị na-akọwa LWP kwuru banyere ememe iji dọta ma chịkwaa onye hụrụ n'anya, mee ka alụmdi na nwunye, melite azụmahịa, ma merie n'ụlọikpe, yana ndị maka nzube ọjọọ (Long 2006: 117-18). Dị ka akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ bipụtara na New York Times mgbe ọ nwụsịrị, Marie Laveau natara "ndị nwoke kachasị ukwuu nke Louisiana na ndị ọbịa a ma ama… ndị ọka iwu, ndị omebe iwu, ndị ọrụ ubi, na ndị ahịa, [ndị] niile bịara ịkwanyere ha ùgwù ma chọọ ọfịs ya" ("The Dead Voudou Queen" 1881).

Ihe kachasị mkpa nke ememe ndị ahụ mere n'ehihie (June 23) nke ụbọchị oriri nke St. John Baptist. Mmiri John na adaba na okpukpu nke okpomọkụ, nke a kwenyere na Europe oge mbụ tupu oge ụwa na ụwa nke mmụọ. Ndị ikom na ndị inyom nabatara ụma ọkụ iji dọta mmụọ dị mma ma chụpụ ndị ọjọọ, chebe anụ ụlọ na ndị ọrịa, ma hụ na owuwe ihe ubi na-aga nke ọma. Ndị kwere ekwe na-etinyekwa onwe ha n'omume dị nsọ ndị e chere na ha ga-enwe ọdịiche dị iche iche na ọgwụgwọ. Emere ememe nke St. John Baptist na abalị a nke ememe okpukpe ọgọ mmụọ (Frazer 1922: 724). O nwere ike ịbụ na ndị France na ndị Spanish na-eme ememe nke St. John's Eve, na n'oge ụfọdụ ndị na-abụghị ndị Africa nabatara ya. (John John ka na-eme ememe na France na Spen, French French, na nke mbụ French na Spanish nke Latin America na Caribbean.)

Dị ka akwụkwọ ndị e biri ebi na ajụjụ ọnụ LWP, Marie Laveau duziri ememme a, nke dọtara ọtụtụ narị mmadụ, site n'oge ụfọdụ na 1830 ruo mgbe 1870. Ihe ndekọ ndị a dịgasị iche iche, ma ha niile na-akọwa ọmarịcha ọkụ, ịgba egwu, ịbụ abụ, ịgba egwú, ịsa ahụ, na oriri oriri ("Worship Fetish" 1875; "St. John's Eve" 1875; "Day Voudous Day" 1870; "Ị Dous Incantation "1872;" Ndị na-agba ọsọ ndụ "1874; Long 2006: 130-33).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Ka ọ na-erule na njedebe nke narị afọ nke iri na itoolu, echiche nke Marie Laveau amaalarịrị. Ụfọdụ ndị nta akụkọ na ndị edemede a ma ama n'ógbè ahụ kwadoro ezi omume ọma ya, ma ndị ọzọ kwuru na ọ kwadoro nkwenkwe ụgha nke ndị a na-agbagwoju anya ma mee ka ọdịda nke ụmụ agbọghọ na-amaghị ihe na-akwa iko na-agba akwụna site na ọrụ ya dị ka onye ọchịchị.

Marie Laveau hụrụ ọtụtụ mmadụ n'anya ma kwanyere ya ùgwù site na enyemaka ya ma ọ bụ mara aha ya maka ịbanye na ọrụ ebere. O nwekwara ndị na-asọpụrụ ya, onye ọ tụrụ egwu ya, kwaa ya emo, ma mee ka ọ bụrụ onye mgbaasị, onye aghụghọ, na onye na-elekọta ụlọ akwụna. Na 1850, a mara ya Daily Picayune dị ka "isi nke ndị inyom Vudou" ("Curious Charge of Swindling" 1850). A Kwa Ụbọchị onye nta akụkọ na-enweghi ụdị obiọma na 1859 mgbe ọ kpọrọ ya "ọhụụ ndị na-achị ndị na-amaghị na nkwenkwe ụgha dịka Queen of the Voudous" ("Recorder Long's Court" 1859). Na 1869, na Akwụkwọ Mgbasa Ozi kọrọ na ya na-atụ anya na ọ ga-abụ na a ga-eme ememme okpomọkụ nke St. John's "akara site n'ọchịchị nke eze ọhụụ na-anọchite anya Marie Laveau" ("Voodooism" 1869). Ndị na-ede akwụkwọ akụkọ nọgidere na-ekpuchi ememe nke St. John's Eve na 1870s-1890s, na-edekarị akụkọ "orgy" nke na-egosi ịṅụbiga mmanya ókè, ịṅụbiga mmanya ókè, ịgba egwu, ofufe ekwensu, njikwa agwọ, ịṅụ ọbara, àjà anụmanụ, na ịkwa iko. Ọbụna ụfọdụ na-ekwu na Marie Laveau nọ ("Dance Cungi" 1887; "A Voudou Dance" 1884; "Dance of the Voodoos" 1896; "Fate and Mystery" 1874; "Fetish Worship" 1875; "Na-eme otu abalị nke ya "1872;" St. John's Eve "1887;" St. John's Eve "1873;" St. John's Eve "1875;" Ihe Ndị Na-eme Ihe Ọjọọ "1874;" Ihe Ịgba Egwuregwu Ahụ "1872;" Nzuzo efu "1874; Vagaries "1874).

Mgbe Marie Laveau nwụrụ na June 15, 1881, aha ya bụ nke mere na ncheta na ọhụụ apụta ọ bụghị nanị na akwụkwọ akụkọ New Orleans kamakwa na New York Times. N'ime oge nwughari a, akwụkwọ akụkọ ọhụrụ New Orleans na-anọchite anya ya Nkebi Obodo na Daily Picayune, jụrụ echiche na Laveau bụ n'ezie onye ụkọchukwu na-adịghị mma, na-akọwa ya kama ịbụ nwanyị nke mara mma, ọgụgụ isi, na charisma bụ onye na-asọpụrụ Chineke, na-emesapụ aka, na onye na-agwọ ọrịa.

Onye nta akụkọ maka Obodo Nkebi, ikekwe Lafcadio Hearn (1850-1904), dere, sị: "Ọ bụ ụmụ nwanyị ole na ole nwekwuo ọmịiko, ole na ole ndị ọzọ, ndị a hụrụ n'anya karịa Marie Laveau," nakwa na "ihe ọ bụla akụkọ akụkọ ụgha kwuru banyere ya, ọ dịkarịa ala na ọ tọrọ ya ụtọ nkwanye ùgwù na ọmịiko nke ọtụtụ puku mmadụ mara ya, nke ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị ya na enyi ya nọ n'oge nsogbu dị oké njọ, ndị na-arịa ọrịa nabatara na onyinyo nke ọnwụ ma na-elekọta ya na ahụike na ike "(" Wayside Notes "1881). Na Daily Picayune kwuru banyere ọrụ ebere ọ na-emere ndị ogbenye, bụ́ ndị “a na-anabata nri na ebe obibi mgbe ọ bụla n'abalị ma ọ bụ n'ehihie,” nakwa banyere ikike ya dị ka ọrịa na-acha odo odo na onye nọ n'ọrịa ọgbụgbọ na ọnyụnyụ na ịmara banyere “àgwà ịgwọ ọrịa bara uru nke ahịhịa ndị obodo.” Laveau “rụsiri ọrụ ike n’akwụsịghị akwụsị” iji kasie ndị mkpọrọ a mara ikpe ikpe, soro ha kpee ekpere n’oge ikpeazụ ha ma na-agba mbọ ịzọpụta ha n’elu osisi (“Ọnwụ nke Marie Laveau” 1881). Na-ekwuputa akwụkwọ akụkọ New Orleans, ndị New York Times kwubiri na Marie Laveau bụ “otu n’ime ụmụ nwanyị kacha maa mma biri n’ụwa,” na-akwa arịrị, sị: “Ugbu a, egbugbere ọnụ ya emechibidoro ruo mgbe ebighị ebi… ebe ọ na-enweghị ike ịgụ ihe ma ọ bụ ide ihe, ọ nweghị akwụkwọ iberibe nke ga-eme ka ọ kọọ ihe omume nke ndụ ya na-atọ ụtọ” ("Nwụrụ Anwụ Voudou Queen" 1881).

N'ụzọ dị iche, akwụkwọ akụkọ na-achọghị nchebe na New Orleans, nke Times na Democrat, were ụda olu. (Cheta na n'oge ahụ, ndị ọchịchị Democratic ahụ kwadoro ọdịiche na nlọghachite na ndị isi obodo nke agha-agha.) Ụbọchị ole na ole mgbe Laveau nwụsịrị, Times gbara otu n'ime akụkọ akụkọ St John's Eve, "Voudou Vagaries — The Spirit of Marie Laveau to be Propitiated by Midnight Orgies on the Bayou." N'ịgbaso arụrụala banyere "ofufe nzuzu nwa nwanyi" na "ụmụ nwanyị rụrụ arụ na ụmụ nwoke ka njọ," akụkọ ahụ kwupụtara: "N'abalị taa bụ St. John's Eve, na n'akụkụ Bayou St. John… ihe niile fọdụrụ na ndị ochie Voudou clan ga- na-ezukọ iji kwanyere ncheta oge eze ha bụ Queen Marie Laveau… site na ị ofụbiga mmanya oke na-agba ọkụ ”(“ Voudou Vagaries ”1881). Na Democrat ejiri Marie Laveau dị ka "onye na-emegharị ihe na mkpụrụ obi nke ihe ọjọọ na-adịghị mma nke ndị na-adịghị ahụ anya; ya nwere ike ịkọ na ọdịda nke ọtụtụ nwanyị na-eme omume ọma, "na-egosi na Marie bụ" onye na-enye iwu "bụ onye nyere ụmụ agbọghọ na-acha odo odo maka ndị ọcha (" A Sainted Woman "1881;" Marie Lavaux "1881).

Ka ọ na-erule na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu, New Orleans abanyela n'oge a mara aha Jim Crow ajọ mbunobi na agbụrụ. Ndị edemede abụọ a ma ama, George Washington Cable na Henry Castellanos, nwere echiche dịgasị iche nke Marie Laveau, ọ bụ ezie na ha abụọ katọrọ omume Voudou.

George Washington Cable (1844-1925), na 1886 ya Magazin Century "Creole Slave Songs", nwere obi ọmịiko mgbe ọ na-akọwa nleta ya na onye ụkọchukwu a na-eme ememe tupu ya anwụọ, na-ekwupụta na ọ "hụrụ mgbe ọ dị nká, onye a ma ama bụ Marie Laveau." N'ụlọ ya na St. Ann Street ,

na etiti obere ime ụlọ nke ala cypress ya ochie na-ehicha… nọdụ, na-ama jijiji na-adịghị ike… ahụ ya hulatara, na ọhịa ya, isi awọ ndị amoosu na-acha odo odo na-agbadoro gburugburu olu ya na-acha odo odo, Queen of the Voudous. Ma otu onye nwere ike ọ gaghị enyere aka ma hụ na ihu ahụ, nke mebirila emebi ugbu a, adịworị mma ma na-enye iwu. Onyinye na-enweghị atụ nke ịma mma mara mma ka dị n'egedege ihu ya, ọkụ na-acha ọkụ nke ochie na-achasi ike, anya na-enwu gbaa, na ụdị ezighi ezi dị mma, imi obere mmiri, yana ọbụlagodi banyere ọnụ ya dị jụụ, ahụhụ na-ata ahụhụ.

Ọ nwere ike nwee mmasị na Laveau, mana ọ jụrụ Voudou nke ọma, na-akọwa ya dị ka "ọchịchịrị na nke jọgburu onwe ya dị ka anụ ọhịa kachasị mma nwere ike ime ka ofufe nke agwọ. N'ihi ya, ọ bụ nnupụisi, omume rụrụ arụ jọgburu onwe ya, na ọbụlagodi na French West Indian ihe dị otu narị afọ gara aga-amachibidoro Orud nke ndị Voudous ”(Cable 1886: 807–28).

Henry Castellanos siri ike na nkwenye nke Marie Laveau na isiokwu 1894, "Ndị Nwụrụ: History, Mysteries, and Practices," nke pụtara na New Orleans Times-Democrat. Dị ka Castellanos si kwuo, aha ọma Marie dị ka onye na-eme anwansi dabeere n'echiche efu: “Nke a bụ nkwenkwe ụgha nke ndị anyị… na ụlọ ya jupụtara na ndị ọbịa sitere na klaasị ọ bụla na ụmụ nwanyị ndị nọ n'ọkwá dị elu… ndị ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị na ndị na-azọ ọkwa ọchịchị… na egwuregwu all [ha niile] ịchọ enyemaka site n'ike o chere na ọ karịrị ike mmadụ. Ọ baghị uru ikwu na ọ bụ onye aghụghọ wayo? Ma ego wụsara na akpa ya ”(Castellanos 1894). Na nchịkọta akụkọ akụkọ 1895 ya, New Orleans dị ka ọ dị, Castellanos zoro aka na Marie Laveau dịka "aha ọjọọ Bawd, bụ onye na-ejikọta ihe omimi nke Africa na nkwenkwe ụgha na ofufe nke Virgin Virginie, nke a na-ekwu maka ọtụtụ afọ dị ka ihe dị mkpa mgbe, n'eziokwu, ọ bụ ihe ọzọ ma ọ bụ onye nduhie "Castellanos kwupụtara echiche na Marie bụ onye na-edozi isi site na ọrụ," na-enyere aka na ndị enyi na-enyere ndị na-eto eto-na ndị ochie coquettes aka-n'ịhụnanya ha. "Dị ka Cable, Castellanos denigrated Voudou:" òtù ahụ dị omimi nke ndi mmadu bu ndi mmadu, ndi sitere na oke ohia nke Afrika ma tinye ha n'etiti anyi, "ndi ha na ha

ụkpụrụ nzuzu na emume ndị ọzọ, mere nnukwu ọganiihu n’etiti ndị ala anyị na ndị amaghị ama n’oge mbido narị afọ a. Agbụrụ nke Voudous… kwesịrị ka azọpụ ya… yana ọganiru nke mmepeanya anyị ka elu bụ na a ga-enwe olile anya na oge awa ahụ erubeghi anya mgbe njedebe ikpeazụ nke mbibi ya na nke dị ize ndụ ga-ekpochapụ ruo mgbe ebighị ebi (Castellanos 1895: 90–101, 113).

Ọ bụghị nanị ndị edemede White kwuru echiche a. Ụfọdụ n'ime ndị ọkachamara na ndị gụrụ akwụkwọ na-akụzi ihe na New Orleans nwekwara echiche na-adịghị mma banyere Marie Laveau na Voudou. Ndị òtù okpukpe ime mmụọ nke Henry Louis Rey bụ Cercle Harmonique kpọrọ Voudou "nkwenkwe ụgha," kpọọkwa Marie Laveau dịka la sorcière (onye amoosu) (Daggett 2017: 43, 70).

Ọkara nke mbụ nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ ahụ hụrụ ọmarịcha embellishments na reiterations nke Marie Laveau akụkọ. A ghọtara na ọ bụ egwu na-atụ egwu ma na-emenye ụjọ. Akwụkwọ French ochie nke Mgbanwe ghọrọ voodoo, okwu nke gunyere ihe nile sitere n'okpukpe nke Afrika na Louisiana na Haiti na anwansi ndi mmadu nke ndi South West. Ọ na-apụta ugbu a na okwu ndị dị ka "voodoo economics" na "voodoo sayensị" iji gosipụta aghụghọ ụgha mumbo-jumbo. Marie Laveau, ihe mgbagwoju anya nke anwansi anwansi na mma na mmekorita nwoke, bu ihe di nma. Akwukwo akụkọ banyere ndi 1870s-1890s kwadoro n'akwukwo akuko nke Marie Laveau, a na-akuko akuko nke George Washington Cable, Lafcadio Hearn, na Henry Castellanos.

Anyị ahụwo na ọ dịghị akwụkwọ ọ bụla nke narị afọ nke iri na itoolu na-atụ aro na Marie Laveau nọchiri anya obodo ya dị ka onye ndú nke obodo Voudou. Ọ bụ nanị na 1920s-1940s ka akụkọ a malitere, a kwukwara na dị ka Marie Laveau ghọrọ nsogbu site na nká, nwa ya nwanyị ji nwayọọ nwayọọ dochie anya ya, "Marie II," na-ekepụta na nwanyị nke na-adịghị emebi emebi ịma mma chịrị dị ka Queen of the Voudous ruo oge nke iri afọ nke iri abụọ. A na-echekarị na "Marie nke Abụọ" bụ Marie Laveau, bụ okenye nwanyị Marie Laveau, bụ Marie Eloise Euchariste Glapion, a mụrụ February 2, 1827. Ndị na-akwado ndị a kachasị emetụta akụkọ a bụ Lyle Saxon, Herbert Asbury, na Robert Tallant.

Lyle Saxon (1891-1946), onye na-ewu ewu na New Orleans na ndị obodo nwoke, nwere mmasị na akụkọ banyere Marie Laveau na Voudou, ha abụọ jikọtara ya na nsonye 1928 ". Ezigbo New Orleans. N'isi ya na Marie Laveau, anyị buru ụzọ chọpụta echiche na enwere Marie Laveaus abụọ. Dị ka Saxon si kwuo, Marie Laveau bụ “Eze Nwanyị Voodoos” ahụ. Mgbe di ya nwụsịrị, Jacques Paris, “Marie sooro onye ozi Christophe Glapion…. Ọtụtụ ụmụ [Marie na Christophe] mụrụ, n'etiti ha Marie, onye bụ ada nwanyị, kpọrọ aha nne nne ya, Laveau. Amuru ya na abali abuo nke onwa Februwari, 1827. ” Nke a bụ ụbọchị ọmụmụ nke Eloise Glapion. "Dị ka obere nwa agbọghọ," Saxon gara n'ihu, "anyị chọpụtara na ndị uwe ojii maara ya dị ka onye ọrụ anwansi. A bịara mara ya nke ọma dị ka Voodoo Queen ma ọbụlagodi taa a na-eji aha ya egwu ụmụaka ”(Saxon 1928: 237–46, see on 243).

Herbert Asbury (1889-1963) bụ New Yorker bụ onye mepụtara usoro akụkọ ihe mere eme na New York, San Francisco, Chicago, na New Orleans. The Quarter nke French: Akụkọ Na-eme Nkọwapụta nke New Orleans Underground e bipụtara na 1936. Asbury chịkọtara ihe dị iche iche site na ebe dịgasị iche iche e biri ebi ma jiri ha mee ka ha bụrụ ihe na-atọ ụtọ ma dị ukwuu. Ọ dị na Asbury The French Quarter na akụkọ banyere "onye a ma ama Marie Laveau" mere n'ezie.

N'oge ntorobịa ya bụ Marie Laveau bụ onye a ma ama n'etiti ndị nwere agba agba maka ịma mma ya, ọkachasị maka ọdịdị nke ụdị ya. Site na ọrụ ọ bụ onye na-edozi isi, yana ụdị nnabata a nabatara n'ụlọ ndị nwanyị na-acha ọcha ejiji, ebe ọ mụtara ọtụtụ ihe nzuzo nke ọ na-alaghị azụ n'iji ya mee ihe. Dika uzo di ezigbo nma o mere dika onye na-acho ndi ozo, na-enye umuaka quadroon na octoroon maka obi uto ha Ọ ghọrọ onye otu nke òtù nzuzo Voodoo ihe dị ka oge di ya nwụrụ, ọ [burukwa ọrụ nke] Queen ọkara afọ iri na abụọ gachara.

Banyere ebubo "Marie nke Abụọ," Asbury dere na Marie Laveau "nwere nwa nwanyị na Febụwarị 1827… onye akpọrọ Marie," mana ọ gara n'ihu ịsị na nwa nwanyị a nọchiri anya nne ya (Asbury 1936: 254–83, kwuru na 266).

Na 1936, Lyle Saxon ghọrọ onye nduzi nke Ụlọ Ọrụ Louisiana na-ede akwụkwọ ma nọgide na nke a ruo mgbe usoro ihe omume ahụ kwụsịrị na 1942. Dị ka anyị hụworo, Saxon nwere mmasị dị ukwuu na okpukpe okpukpe na nke mgbagwoju anya Afro-Creole, na n'okpuru nduzi ya, LWP mere mgbalị mbụ iji kọwaa eziokwu banyere Marie Laveau. Onye nwere ike iche na jubilation nke Saxon nwere ike ịmepụta usoro nke ndị na-arụ ọrụ ubi ike ịchọ obodo na ụlọ akwụkwọ chọọchị maka ndị nna nna na ụmụ Marie Laveau, tinye akwụkwọ akụkọ maka isiokwu ndị dị mkpa, ma chọpụta ma jụọ ndị okenye obodo.

E kenyere onye ọrụ LWP bụ Catherine Dillon ka ọ chịkọta akwụkwọ nke akwụkwọ archival, akwụkwọ akụkọ, na ajụjụ ọnụ n'ime akwukwo "Voodoo" ogologo oge. N'okwu ndị kasị mkpa, "Marie the Great" na "Marie Mysterious," Dillon sụgharịrị isi ihe ndị a isi mepụta akụkọ nke mbụ Marie Laveau na onye nọchiri ya. Ọ bụ Catherine Dillon dere aha "Marie I" na "Marie II" (Dillon 1940).

Ihe odide "Voodoo" nke dillon apughi ihu akwukwo. Robert Tallant (1909-1957), na ngọzi nke Lyle Saxon, ketara ọrụ ahụ, nke e bipụtara na 1946 dị ka Voodoo na New Orleans. Ekeputara ihe omumu banyere ozizi Dillon na nwa nwanyi ya di na Marie Laveau na-edochi anya ya, si otú a mee ka o chee na o churu dika Voudou Queen, na-adi nma mgbe nile, ihe kariri otu narị afo. O hotara "akụkọ ndị a ma ama" site na akwụkwọ akụkọ ndị dị na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu, edemede ndị edemede na akwụkwọ nta akụkọ nke George Washington Cable, Lafcadio Hearn, na Henry Castellanos, ma tinye akwụkwọ nyocha nke LWP ajụjụ ọnụ, jiri akọ na ịkụfe ihe nkwenye nke ụfọdụ eziokwu na akụkọ dị iche iche nke e ji mara New Orleans Voudou dị ka ịṅụbiga mmanya ókè, ịkwa iko nke ịgba alụkwaghịm. Nkwado akwadoghị echiche onwe onye banyere Marie Laveau, mana o nyere echiche na ọ na-ehota ya site na nyocha ya na ndị òtù obodo nwere echiche sitere na mmasị maka egwu na iwe (Tallant 1946).

Na narị afọ nke iri abụọ na ise, a hụrụ nkwenye nke Vudou ka ọ bụrụ okpukpe, Marie Laveau sikwa n'ụdị na-atụ ụjọ, onye amoosu na-adabere na chi nwanyị a hụrụ n'anya nke New Orleans. Ma n'agbanyeghi na mmuta a bu ohuru Marie dika ichoputa mara mma, ihe ndi Marie Laveau na Voudou kwuru bu ihe di obere site na ulo akwukwo iji merie ihe omuma di mkpa maka ichoputa eziokwu. Nke a gbanwere na 1990s na 2000s, mgbe ndị ọkà mmụta malitere ịkwaga na stereotypes na nyochaa ọrụ Marie Laveau (Duggal 1991; Fandrich 1994; Sussman 1998; Bibbs 1998, Ward 2004; Fandrich 2005; Long 2006). Ihe omumu bu ihe omumu nke onye nkuzi nke okpukpe bu F Fryrich (2005) na onye nyocha ihe omuma bu Martha Ward (2004).

N'ihe gbasara 1994 nke Fandrich, "Mysterious Voodoo Queen Marie Laveaux: Ọmụmụ banyere Nduzi Ndị Nwanyi na Narị Afọ Iri na Narị Afọ New Orleans," bụ ọgwụgwọ mbụ nke Marie Laveau nke dabeere na nchọpụta archival kemgbe ọrụ nke Ụlọ Ọrụ Louisiana Writers. Dị ka ndị edemede oge mbụ, Fandrich kọwara Marie Eloise Euchariste Glapion dịka onye nọchiri ya. Fandrich kwupụtara echiche bụ na Marie Laveau na Christophe Glapion bụ ndị na-eme ihe nchịkwa nke zụrụ ndị ohu ka ha wee nwee ike ịtọhapụ ha (Fandrich 2005: 176-79, na-arụ ọrụ ịgba ohu na-ahụ 163, 295N56; lee nyochaa Fandrich na Hageman 2002: 1, 9 ). Akwụkwọ Fandrich 2005, Mysterious Voodoo Queen Marie Laveaux, bu nchighari ya.

Onye na-ahụ maka ihe banyere ọrịa bụ Martha Ward dere 2004 biography, Queen Voodoo: Ndụ Mmiri nke Marie Laveau. Ward wepụtara Marie Laveau dị ka "ụmụ nwanyị abụọ nwere otu aha-nne na nwa," bụ ndị duuru "ndụ dị ize ndụ na nzuzo" dịka ndị na-akwado ndị na-elekọta mmadụ na ndị ndú okpukpe nke obodo Afro-Creole. Ọ mara nwanyị a ("Marie nke abụọ") dika Eloise Glapion, onye, ​​dị ka Ward si kwuo, biri na 1870s. Dị ka Ward si kwuo, ụmụ nwanyị abụọ ahụ nyeere ezinụlọ ndị ohu aka ịhapụ ohu, na-emegide iwu ịgba ohu, na ndị uwe ojii, ma ọ bụ na-akwụ ụgwọ ndị ọkàikpe na ndị uweojii n'ihi ndị na agba. Dị ka Fandrich, Ward kwetara na Marie Laveau na Christophe Glapion zụtara ndị ohu iji tọhapụ ha (Ward 2004: mmalite, 80-88, 165-66, 129-37).

Ndị dere banyere Marie Laveau na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu na tupu narị afọ nke iri abụọ na-ele ya anya dị ka ihe ọjọọ ma ọ bụ ezigbo mma. Nye ụfọdụ, ọ bụ aghụghọ nke aghụghọ nke jiri mma ya na ọgụgụ isi ya mee ka ụmụ nwanyị ndị na-adịghị ike na-eduhie ma na-eduga ndị inyom na-adịghị ike ịghọ ndụ nke ịgba akwụna, ma nye ndị ọzọ na ọ bụ nwanyị bụ Onye Kraịst nke ukwuu obiọma na mmesapụ aka. N'akụkụ nke arụmụka a, a ghọtara Voudou dịka ụdị ofufe dị mma. Ndị edemede na-adịbeghị anya anaghị ese esemokwu n'etiti Marie Laveau bụ onye Katọlik dị nsọ, onye nọọsụ na onye na-agwọ ọrịa na-enye ndị ogbenye na nkasi obi nye ndị mkpọrọ, na Marie Laveau bụ onye ụkọchukwu nke okpukpe Afro-Katọlik dị adị.

Mkpụrụ obi ka dị ndụ na New Orleans, na ọtụtụ ndị nọ n'ọrụ ndị nchụàjà, ndị nchụàjà, ụlọ nsọ, na ọgbakọ. N'afọ ndị na-adịbeghị anya, obodo New Orleans Voudou enyela Marie Laveau ọkwa nke a lwa, ma ọ bụ chi ọzọ. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ruo ihe karịrị afọ iri abụọ, onye ụkọchukwu Sallie Ann Glassman, nke malitere na Haitian Vodou, na ọgbakọ ya na-eme ememe St. John's Eve site na ịmecha mgbakwasị ụkwụ n'isi mmiri ígwè dị na Bayou St. John (Wooten 2015 ). A gwara ndị na-agụ ya ka ha weta onyinye maka Marie Laveau, onye a na-asọpụrụ ebe ịchụàjà. N'èzí ọnụ ụzọ Glassman's Island of Salvation Botanica na New Orleans Healing Center na St. Claude Avenue, e nwere ụlọ nsọ Marie Laveau nke nwere ihe oyiyi nke Marie na ebe ịchụàjà ebe ndị na-efe ofufe nwere ike ikpe ekpere na ịhapụ ọpụrụiche.

Na 2017, e nwere ụfọdụ mkparịta ụka na New Orleans maka ịkwado ihe ncheta nke Marie Laveau iji dochie otu n'ime ihe oyiyi nke ndị isi mgbakọ na-ewepụ na May. N'akwụkwọ akụkọ, na mgbe e mesịrị na Facebook, a tụrụ aro na Marie Laveau ga-abụ ezigbo nhọrọ maka nnukwu kọlụm dị n'etiti Lee Circle ma ọ bụ maka isi PGT Beauregard na mbụ n'ọnụ ụzọ nke Park Park n'akụkụ Bayou St. John. Ndị ọzọ kwuru na nke a agaghị adị mma n'ihi na Marie Laveau nwere ndị ohu.

Marie Laveau enweghị akwụkwọ. O tinyere aka na akwụkwọ X. Ndị na-ede akụkọ akụkọ akụkọ na ndị na-ede akwụkwọ akụkọ bịara leta nnukwu onye ụkọchukwu n'oge o mere agadi, mana o nyeghị ajụjụ ọnụ ọ bụla. Ya mere, anyi enweghi ihe edere ede ma obu okwu ndi ozo banyere ozizi ya ma obu ozizi ya. Na njedebe, njirimara ya nọgidere na-agwụ ike. Ọ bụ onye na-agwọ ọrịa na onye nkwado nke ndị 1881 obituaries, ndị aghụghọ na ndị nnabata nke ndị na-akatọ ya, ndị na-achọ ịchọta nwoke na nwanyị na-achọ ịchọta nwoke na nwanyị na-egosi na ndị na-ede akwụkwọ na narị afọ nke iri abụọ, onye ndú okpukpe nke nwanyị na onye ọrụ ịgba ohu na-emegide onwe ya. ya, dị ka ọhụụ ndị obodo New Orleans Voudou dị n'oge a, na-adị na mpaghara nke lwa?

Foto

Image #1: Foto dị na Marie Laveau, Louisiana State Museum, New Orleans. A na-ekwu na ọ bụ na 1837 ka a na-egbu akwa ochie ahụ site na ihe osise ama ama nke ụmụ amaala America, George Catlin, ka ọ na-eleta New Orleans. A na-enyefe ihe osise ahụ n'aka Louisiana State Museum n'etiti 1911 na 1922, n'oge a ka otu onye ọrụ ihe ngosi nka bụ Frank Schneider dere ya. Ihe osise Catlin furu efu mgbe onye nwe ya, bụ onye ahịa New Gas, Gaspar Cusachs, weghachiri ya. A maghị ebe a na-ese ihe osise mbụ, ọ bụkwa akwụkwọ Schneider nke na-adabere na Louisiana State Museum.
Image #2: Na June 16, 1881, Marie Laveau dinara n'etiti etiti ili ili ya na St. Louis Cemetery No. 1. Ndị na-eso ụzọ ya malitere ịrịọ mmụọ ya site na ịhapụ onyinye ma dọta X X n'elu ili ya. Ọbịbịa ahụ ghọrọ ezigbo njem nleta na narị afọ nke iri abụọ, ndị ọbịa na-enweghị ncheta malitere ịdọrọ red Xs na agba, lipstick, na akara aka na-adịgide adịgide bụ ndị meriri ili ahụ ma mee ka ihe odide ndị ahụ ghara ịkọ. Na njedebe nke 2013, onye na-eji mgbidi na-ese ihe na-eli ozu n'abalị ma na-esere ili ahụ dum na teecha pink latex. Nke a, tinyere nhụjuanya ndị ọzọ na-eli ozu, mere ka Ụlọ Ọrụ Nchịkwa Ihe nke Archdiocese nke Katọlik nke New Orleans kwụsị nanị ma ọ bụrụ na otu ndị na-esonyere ya na onye nduzi nduzi. Foto si n'aka David Johnson.
Image #3: Carolyn Long. "Di na Nwunye." 2015. N'ebe a, "Marie I" nọchiri anya ya dị ka nwanyị meworo agadi, nke gbara akpụ, na "Marie nke Abụọ" dị ka ụmụ agbọghọ ndị na-eto eto karịa ndị Europe. Ahụ ha na-apụ. N'elu aka ekpe bụ onyinyo nke Mater Salvatoris, nke a na-ejikọta n'okpukpe Voudou na nwa nwanyị dị ike bụ Ezili Dantò na Marie Laveau I. N'aka nri bụ Mater Dolorosa, nke jikọrọ Ezili Freda, chi nke ịhụnanya na nwanyị , na Marie II. Site n'ikike nke Carolyn Long.
Foto 4: Carolyn Long. "Tea na Marie." Collage. 2012. Marie Laveau na-egosi na tii ya na mmadụ abụọ n'ime ndị na-efe ya, otu nwanyị sitere n'Africa na otu nwanyị nke Europe. A na-ekpuchi tebụl ahụ site na ikpu kpakpando na karama nke Elu John Onye Na-enye Aka, a na-agbanye mgbidi ya na ihe oyiyi nke ndị nsọ Katọlik, ọtụtụ dị mkpa na Voudou na New Orleans. Site n'ikike nke Carolyn Long.
Foto #5: Onye ụkọchukwu Vodou bụ Sallie Ann Glassman na Vodou nchụàjà Gary Lertalee Howell na Marie Laveau Shrine na New Orleans Healing Center, 2372 St. Claude Avenue, New Orleans, n'oge ememe Vodou na August 19, 2017. Site n'aka Catherine Wessinger.

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Ụbọchị Post:
27 October 2017

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