Paul Easterling

Moorish Science Temple of America

MOORISH SCIENCE TEMPLE OF AMERICA TIMELINE

1886 (Jenụwarị 8): A mụrụ Timoti (ikekwe Thomas) Drew na mpaghara Virginia a na-amaghị ama na Jenụwarị 8; a maghị aha ndị mụrụ ya. James Washington na Lucy Drew nakweere ya mgbe ọ dị obere.

1898-1916: Drew ji oge nwata ya rụọ ọtụtụ ọrụ dị ka onye ọrụ aka, onye ọrụ ugbo na onye ogologo oge na Virginia.

1907 (October 11): A mụrụ Pearl Jones na Waynesboro, Georgia

1912-1914: N'oge a Drew nwere ike ịbanye na Prince Hall Freemason.

1913: Moorish Science Temple of America kwuru afọ a dị ka ụbọchị ntọala ya na aha mbụ ya dị ka Templelọ Nsọ Kenean. Agbanyeghị, ihe akaebe na-egosi na ọ bụ Abdul Hamid Suleiman guzobere Templelọ Nsọ Kenean ahụ; Timothy Drew nwere ike ịga nzukọ ma ọ bụ bụrụ otu.

1916: Drew rụrụ ọrụ dị ka onye na-ebu ụzọ maka ụgbọ okporo ígwè n'okpuru aha Eli Drew.

1917: Eli Drew rụrụ ọrụ dịka onye ọrụ na Port nke Newark.

1918: Drew debara aha maka agha n'oge Agha Worldwa Mbụ.

1918-1923: Drew malitere ịkụzi banyere Egypt Mystery System ma kwuo na ya bụ onye Ijipt Adept na Newark, New Jersey n'okpuru aha ọjọọ Prọfesọ Drew.

1923-1925: Prọfesọ Drew kwuru na ya bụ onye amụma wee malite ịhazi Moorish Holy Temple of Science n'okpuru aha Noble Drew Ali na Chicago, Illinois. Ọzọkwa, oge ụfọdụ n'oge a Pearl Jones kwagara Chicago wee malite ịga nzukọ nke Moorish Temple of Science.

1926: Noble Drew Ali lụrụ Nwanna Nwanyị Pearl Jones-El.d.

1926-1928: Drew Ali weghachitere nzukọ ahụ Moorish Science Temple of America. N'oge a, MSTA nwere Mgbakọ Ọchịchị Mba Afọ mbụ ya na Chicago, Illinois yana asbọchị Mkpado Mbụ.

1929: Noble Drew Ali nwụrụ na Chicago, Illinois mgbe a gbagburu ya ọtụtụ ugboro, ikekwe site na onye iro ma ọ bụ ikekwe ọbụna ndị uwe ojii Chicago.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Dị ka akụkọ ntụrụndụ si kwuo, Noble Drew Ali [guzobere] na ntọala Moorish Science Temple of America na Newark, New Jersey na 1913. Otú ọ dị, mgbe mbụ e kere nzukọ ahụ Ụlọ Nzukọ Kenan. Ụlọ nsọ ndị Kenean bụ nke mbụ nzukọ Muslim / nzukọ dị na United States. N'ime afọ iri mbụ nke akụkọ ihe mere eme, ọ na-etu ọnụ banyere ndị òtù 30,000 gbasasasịrị n'ọtụtụ obodo dị n'etiti ebe ọdịda anyanwụ na n'ebe ugwu (gụnyere Detroit, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Milwaukee, Philadelphia, Lansing, Cleveland, Richmond na Baltimore). Na 1921, òtù ahụ kewara ekewa n'ihi echiche dịgasị iche iche banyere ntụziaka ya na nkà ihe ọmụma ya. N'ikpeazụ, Ali na onye ọzọ na-eguzosi ike n'ihe na-akpọ Ụlọ Nsọ Kenean Ụlọ Nsọ Dị Nsọ nke Mọ Nsọ ma guzobe isi ụlọ ọrụ Chicago dị na 1923. Na Chicago, Ụlọ Akwụkwọ Sayensị nke Moorish toro ngwa ngwa, na-enweta ọtụtụ ndị si na ndị isi obodo ndị kasị daa ogbenye n'obodo Chicago. Nzukọ ahụ mechara gbanwee aha ya n'ụlọ nsọ Moorish Science nke America (MSTA) wee ghọọ ụlọ ọrụ kwadoro maka ịba ọgaranya obodo. Dịka òtù okpukpe na-emepe emepe na Chicago, MSTA nwere Nkwekọrịta Mba Nile nke Mba Nile na 1928. Uzo a mekwara ka otutu ndi di iche iche di iche iche di iche iche, dika ndi isi mba ndi ozo na ndi ntoro ndi ozo (Nance 1996; Pleasant-Bey 2004a).

Ali nwụrụ na 1929, na-ahapụ ụfọdụ ihe omimi metụtara ọnwụ ya. Onwere ike gbuo ya onye otu okpukperechi na-asọrịta mpi, onye ndị uweojii Chicago mechara gbuo ya, ma ọ bụ ndị uwe ojii gburu ya. Ka o sina dị, nzukọ ndị America Moorish gbasiri ike mgbe Ali nwụsịrị, na-ebute ọtụtụ ụzọ dị iche iche. O doro anya, n'etiti ndị na-azọ ọkwa Onye Amụma mgbe Ali nwụsịrị, Bro. Elijah Poole-Bey nke Georgia na Mohamet Farad-Bey nke Arabia, ndị bidoro Nation of Islam ndị a makwaara dịka Elijah Muhammed na Wallace Farad Muhammed. Enwere obere ihe akaebe iji kwado nkwupụta Moors na ndị guzobere Nation of Islam bụbu ndị Moors na-azọ ọchịchị. Ka o sina dị, ọ bụụrụ ụfọdụ mmasị na ịkọ nkọ maka ụfọdụ (Fauset 1971; Nance 1996; Marsh 1996; Turner 2003; Gomez 2005).

Iji kọwaa n'ụzọ doro anya, dị ka akụkọ nhazi si kwuo, ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ozugbo Ali gafere, mmadụ abụọ n'ime ndị ya na ha rụkọtara - John Nyens-El na Wallace D. Farad - kwupụtara na ọ bụ nlọghachi. Onye nke mbu, onye ọkwọ ụgbọ ala Ali, kwuru na ọ tụbọrọ obere oge Ali nwụsịrị, na mgbe ọ tetara, ọ buru akara nke kpakpando na ọhụụ n'anya ya, nke bụ ihe akaebe zuru oke nye ụfọdụ na ọ bụ n'ezie nlọ ụwa nke Noble Drew Ali. . Onye ikpeazu, Farad Muhammad (ya bu, Mohamet Farad-Bey, Wallace D. Farad, na / ma obu Wallace Farad Muhammad), chere na o mere nnosa nke Chineke ma gawa Detroit mgbe Ali gachara ebe o gha achota Obodo efu efu nke Islam na Elijah Poole (Elijah Muhammad). Ihe omuma a bu ihe omuma nke oma dika odighi uzo isi nyochaa uzo nke Farad na Ali ma obu Moorish Science Temple of America, mana nke a na-ebute nchegbu di nma banyere mmekorita mbu nke MSTA na Nation of Islam. N'agbanyeghị nke a, ọ bụ Bro. Charles Kirkman-Bey bụ onye mechara naraghachi nzukọ ahụ obere oge mgbe Mgbakọ Mba nke Abụọ na 1929 (Marsh 1996; Turner 2003; Gomez 2005).

Site na 1930 site na ọtụtụ 1970s, MSTA nọgidere na-enwe ọnụnọ mgbe niile na ebe ndị obodo Amerịka. Okpukorita ndi mmadu enweghi ike itinye aka n'oru Civil Rights / Black Power movement, ma otu nzukọ adighi etinye uche na ya, dika Mba nke Islam. Otú ọ dị, na njedebe nke 1970s, òtù ahụ nwetara akụkọ isi obodo n'ihi omume nke El Ruk'n Moors (nke a makwaara dịka Ụlọ Nzukọ nke Circle Seven El Ruk'n Moorish Science nke America ma ọ bụ El Ruk'n Tribe) , otu ụlọ ọrụ na-akwadoghị ọrụ nke MSTA nke Jeff Fort, bụ onye ndú nke Black P Stone Rangers na-eme njem. Aha ukwu, aha ya bụ Abdul Malik Ka'bah, nwere oké ọchịchọ maka njem n'ụwa. O kwuru na ọbịakwute (ma ọ bụ na-abịakwute ya) n'aka gọọmentị Libyan banyere ire ngwá agha maka nzukọ ụlọ. Mgbalị a mere ka ọ bụrụ ikpe ikpe iri asaa na ise, nke ọ na-eje ozi ugbu a. Ewezuga ihe a merenụ, MSTA ejiriwo nwayọ nọgide na-enwe ọnụnọ na obodo ndịda obodo. Ndị America ndị Moab na - echekwa mgbakọ afọ kwa afọ na obodo ndị nnọchiteanya ma nwee ọtụtụ ụlọ nsọ na United States (Pleasant-Bey 2004a).

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Akụkọ banyere ozizi (akụkọ ọdịnala) nke MSTA na-arụ ụka na ọ sitere na ndị Moab oge ochie nke Akwụkwọ Nsọ na Akwụkwọ Nsọ Hebraic. Otú ọ dị, ndị America Moorish dịkọrọ ndụ na-arụ ụka maka ogologo akụkọ ihe mere eme. Ha kwenyere na a maara alaeze mbụ nke Moor dị ka Lemuria, obodo mepere emepe akụkọ ifo nke a maara dị ka onye ya na Atlantis mara mma. E chere na obodo ndị a dị ọtụtụ nde afọ gara aga, mana ha bibiri onwe ha n'ihi na ike ha na nkà na ụzụ gosipụtara-omume ha. Mbibi nke mmepeanya ndị a dị nnọọ ukwuu nke na ọ fọrọ nke nta ka ọ kpochapụ ụwa, ma site na ndọtị ahapụghị akara ma ọ bụ ọhụụ nke ọdịbendị ha. Agbanyeghị, ndị Lemuri ole na ole lanarịrị ọdachi ahụ wee wagharịa ụwa ruo mgbe ha mechara biri n'akụkụ Ndagwurugwu Naịl nke East Africa nke ugbu a. Okwu ahụ Moor ekwenyere na ọ bụ mgbanwe nke Lemuria (Pimienta-Bey 2002; Pleasant-Bey 2004a).

Ọzọkwa, dị ka akụkọ ndị Moorish America si kwuo, na ndagwurugwu Naịl Moors nke Lemuria ghọrọ ndị Moab nke Akwụkwọ Nsọ. Maka ndị Moorish America, ndị Moab oge ochie, dị ka ndị Kenean, ka achụpụrụ n'ụzọ na-ezighị ezi site na nkwa Akwụkwọ Nsọ-ala Izrel. Mgbe a chụsịrị ha n'ala ha, ndị Moors (ndị Moab) kwagara ma biri na mpaghara dị iche iche na mpaghara Arabian Peninsula na Northern Africa. Site n'ebe ahụ, ndị America Moorish na-etinye na mpaghara Iberian Peninsula dị ka ndị meriri Spain, Portugal na ọtụtụ Southern France. Iji mee ka o doo anya, Moors Ali enweghị njikọ chiri anya na ndị Moab ma ọ bụ ndị Iberian Moors, mana akụkọ a na-enye ha ụzọ iji nye ihe gbara ọkpụrụkpụ maka mmalite ha na akụkọ ntolite ha, yana ụzọ iji gụọ onwe ha n'akụkọ ifo oge ochie (Pimienta-Bey 2002; Obi ụtọ-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

Iji kọwaa nke ọma, ọ dị obere mkparịta ụka banyere ọrụ Moorish nke Spain site na Ali n'ebe ọ bụla n'ihe odide ya, chekwaa maka ederede na-edoghị anya banyere Morocco. Nkwupụta akụkọ ihe mere eme na akụkọ ọdịnala ndị a bụ ngosipụta pụtara ọhụrụ nke nkà mmụta okpukpe Moorish America ma enwere ike ịnye ya nye ndị Moorish American ndị na-eche echiche nke ọkara afọ gara aga. O yikarịrị ka ndị Moorish America hà kwadoro akụkọ ifo Lemurian, akụkọ ifo ndị Moab na akụkọ Moorish-Iberian iji gosipụta ọnụnọ ha na ụwa oge ochie dịka akara nke ọdịbendị dị elu. Nke a bụ ihe ndị America Moorish kpọmkwem, yana ndị Africa America n'ozuzu ha, nwere ike ịkọwa dị ka ihe akaebe nke ụmụ mmadụ na ikike ha nwere iwulite, mmepeanya na ịzụlite. N'ụzọ bụ isi, iwu nke akụkọ ntolite / akụkọ ọdịnala a bụ mbọ iji mee ka ndị mmadụ kwenyere ihe ndị White supremacist kwenyere na echiche ha rụrụ iji mebie mmadụ. Mgbalị dị mma mana nkwupụta akụkọ ihe mere eme na-agbanyeghị (Pimienta-Bey 2002; Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

Tinye na akụkọ ntolite / akụkọ ifo a bụ sistemụ mmụọ nke MSTA kpọrọ Islamism. Maka ndị Moorish America, Islamism bụ ọdịnala na-enweghị njikọ nke kewara n'ime usoro nkwenkwe dị iche iche kemgbe ọtụtụ narị afọ; ya bụ Christianity, Hindu, Buddha and al-Islam. A kwenyere na Islam (ma ọ bụ al-Islam) malitere site na ndụ na ọrụ nke onye amụma Muhammad; Alakụba oge ochie (ma ọ bụ Alakụba, usoro nkwenkwe nke MSTA) emeela agadi ma lekwasị anya na nkuzi nke ndị isi ala Ijipt. Nke a jikọtara na nkwenkwe ha banyere mmalite ha n'oge ochie. Ọzọkwa, ndị Moorish America na-akụzi na al-Islam abụghị ihe mepụtara nke onye amụma Mohammad; kama, ọ bụ nsụgharị nke amamihe nke Mystery System nke Egypt na asụsụ Arabic site n'aka onye amụma Mohammad (Pimienta-Bey 2002; Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

Ọzọkwa, Amụma Alakụba Moorish abụghị ihe dị ka al-Islam, ọ bụ iji gosipụta mkpa na ọdịbendị omenala ndị American America n'oge a tụrụ ya. N'ikwu ya n'ụzọ doro anya, ọ pụtara iji gosipụta ihe Ali kwenyere banyere ndụ ndị America Afrika na okpukpe ụwa n'oge ahụ. Ali kwenyere na ọtụtụ okpukpe dị iche iche n'ụwa na-emekọrịta ihe karịa iche, ya mere, okwu ndị a Islam na Islamism bụ naanị okwu ngosi maka ya nke kwuru eziokwu ahụ. Enweghi oke (ma ọ bụrụ na ihe ọ bụla) na akụkọ ihe mere eme nke Ali nke na-egosi na ọ bụ mgbe ọ bụla na-ekpe okpukpe Ọtọdọks. Ka o sina dị, ndị Moorish America kwenyere n'otu ike Chineke (Allah) yana ndị amụma Abraham (Jesus na Mohammed). Ọzọkwa, maka ndị Moorish America, “Moslem” abụghị naanị aha e nyere ndị na-eso ụzọ nke onye amụma Mohammed, mana aha aha maka ndị niile kwere na Lovehụnanya, Eziokwu, Udo, Nnwere Onwe na Ikpe Ziri Ezi, nke bụ ụkpụrụ nke Moorish American Islam ma obu Islamism. Maka ndị Moorish America, ịbụ Moslem otu ga ebu ụzọ n'anya ịchọta eziokwu, nke ga-enye otu udo na free ha na mmehie; naanị mgbe ahụ ka onye ahụ maara n'ezie ikpe ziri ezi (Pimienta-Bey 2002; Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

Tụkwasị na nke a, ọ bụ ezie na ọ bụ nzukọ ndị Alakụba a na-azọrọ, ihe nnọchianya nke Iso Ụzọ Kraịst jupụtara na nkà mmụta okpukpe Moorish American, karịsịa nke Kraịst. N'akwụkwọ odide Ali, ọ dị ntakịrị ihe e kwuru banyere onye amụma Muhammed. Otú ọ dị, nzukọ ahụ kwenyere na Muhammed nọ na otu ndị amụma nke Ali n'onwe ya bụ akụkụ: Buddha, Moses, Jesus, Muhammad, Ali. N'ikwu ihe kpatara ya, a kwenyere Ali na ya bụ Kraist nke MSTA, a sikwa n'aka otu ọmụmụ ime mmụọ ahụ dị ka Jizọs Kraịst, onye n'onwe ya bụ ihe dị mkpa nke edoziri Ali. Akwụkwọ Nsọ (Pimienta-Bey 2002; Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

Iji kọwaa ọzọ, na Kọwaa 7 Koran, ederede MSTA, edere maka "ndị niile hụrụ Jizọs n'anya" ma na-etinyere na ndụ nke ozioma nke Jizọs Kraịst. Narratives banyere Kraist n'ime Koran ebubo na obu echiche na echiche nke Ali. Ma, na nchoputa, o doro anya na ihe odide sitere n'aka Levitị Dowling Gospel Aquarius. Levi Dowling bụ onye Scottish prodigy na Christian Arts (izi ihe na ịkọwa okpukpe). Dịka nwa okorobịa Dowling dere ma bipụta atụmatụ nkuzi nke ụka maka ụlọ akwụkwọ Sọnde, ozi ụmụaka, yana abụ abụ. Ede Oziọma Aquarius bụ ihe dị mkpa na-ebipụta na Dowling, mbụ na London (1908), na Los Angeles (1909), ọ bụkwa otu n'ime akwụkwọ ndị kọrọ akụkọ banyere ozioma nke Jizọs. Akwụkwọ Nsọ nke Ali na-akọwa ọnụọgụ nke ederede Dowling, nke na-ebute nchegbu nke plagiarism. Otú ọ dị, n'ịhụ njikọ doro anya, ndị America Moorish na-arụ ụka na otu mmụọ nsọ Chineke a kpọrọ Visel (Dowling 1972; Rametherio 1995; Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Ememe nke MSTA na-egosipụta njikọ pụrụ iche ha na okpukpe ndị ọzọ yana nkọwa dị iche iche nke ihe Islamism pụtara ije na site na mgbakwunye ihe ọ pụtara ha ga-abụ Moslem. Iji malite, Islam n'ihi na ndị America Moorish abụghị nanị ihe na-egosi nkwenkwe okpukpe ha, ọ bụ ihe ngosipụta nke na-anọchite anya: M, Iwu Onwe Onye na Nna-ukwu. Okwu a na-ekwu maka mmegharị nke nkwado nke ịchị onwe onye site na idebe iwu, ma nke Chineke ma nke mmadụ. Ọzọkwa, nkọwa American Moorish American nke acronym ISLAM lekwasịrị anya na ikike nke onye dị elu karịa mmadụ dị ala, mkparịta ụka esoteric nke jikọtara usoro nkwenkwe ha na nke Freemasonry. Na mgbakwunye, okwu ahụ bụ "Islam" nke ndị Moorish America na-eji ọ bụghị naanị iji mata usoro nkwenkwe ha kamakwa dị ka ekele n'ozuzu. Iji maa atụ, n’ụlọ arụsị Moorish, ndị Sheikh ahụ ji okwu ahụ kelee ndị na-ege ha ntị Islam!, ndị bịaranụ na-anabata otu Islam !. Islam, ya mere, abughi nani okwu nke na-akowa nkwenye ime mmuo ha, mana o bu kwa mantra nke na-akowa ihe jikotara ha n'uwa (Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

N'iburu na nke a, ndị America Moorish jikọtara onwe ha na ụwa mmụọ site n'ekpere, dika ọtụtụ okpukpe. Iji kọwaa nkọwa, e nwere ihe yiri ya na akara dị iche iche n'ekpere al-Islam na ekpere American Moorish. Ihe yiri nke a bụ ihe na-eche ihu na ọwụwa anyanwụ. Nke a, dika ndi Alakụba al-islam, emere ya ka a na-ekpe ekpere ka ha malite isi n'okwukwe ha. Ihe ndi ozo banyere ekpere Moorish bu ihe puru iche, ma obugh ugbua obula n'eme ka o doo anya. Dịka ọmụmaatụ, n'oge ekpere onye ọ bụla jidere mkpịsị aka aka ya n'aka ekpe ma abụọ n'aka nri na ụkwụ ụkwụ ha na-enwe na ogoji iri ise, dị ka Freemasons. Site na ebe ahụ, "Chineke Nna nke Eluigwe na Ala, Nna nke Ịhụnanya, Eziokwu, Udo, Nnwere onwe na Ikpe ziri ezi; Chineke bụ Onye na-echebe m, Nduzi m, na nzọpụta m n'abali na ehihie, site n'ọnụ Onye amụma Ya, DREW ALI. (Amen) "ka onye ọ bụla kwugharịrị. Ọzọkwa, maka MSTA, ụbọchị mbụ nke ofufe bụ Sunday. A na-emekarị ofufe n'ụlọ mmadụ ma ọ bụ ụlọ / ụlọ ọrụ ahapụtara. A na-enwekarị ofufe ụmụaka site na ndị okenye ma na-elekwasị anya na ibido n'isi Ihe 101, catechism nke MSTA (Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

Ọzọkwa, maka ụmụaka na ndị ọhụrụ na-abata n'ime njem ahụ, ịkpọ aha bụ ihe dị mkpa. Nke a pụtara na onye ọ bụla nke na - ekwupụta ọnọdụ ha nke ndị Amụma America na - enye aha ebo: Bey (onye na-achị achị nke nwere ikike ịchị achị dị ka kwekọrọ na ndụ Chineke ma ọ bụ El) onye na-enweghi ike imepụta ihe na amamihe. Aha ndị a bụ suffix hyphenated. Nke a bụ ikwu na onye amụrụ ma ọ bụ gbanwee na Moorish American Islam na-etinye aha agbụrụ ha na njedebe nke aha nna ha, dịka ọmụmaatụ: John Smith-El ma ọ bụ Jane Smith-Bey (dee: Onye bụbu onye NFL na-anata Antwan Randle-El a zụlitere dị ka onye otu MSTA). Maka ndị Moorish America, nke a bụ ụzọ isi gwọọ uche Africa nke edogola ma megbuo n'okpuru ọchịchị America. Aha agbụrụ ahụ bụkwa ihe nnọchianya nke onye ọ bụla Moorish American na-eburu dị ka ihe ịrịba ama nke National ha, n'ihi na ha bụ akụkụ nke ihe kariri onwe ha (Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

Ihe a na-elekwasị anya na ịkpọ aha maka MSTA bụ mgbalị iji kọwaa ma weghachite njirimara nke onye ọ bụla so na ya. N'otu aka ahụ, ezumike na ememe okpukpe nke ọdịnala ọdịda anyanwụ ma ọ bụ America na-enye nsogbu nye ndị Moorish America. N'ụzọ ihe atụ, ha na-anọchite anya mmegbu maka ndị Africa America ma yabụ ndị America kwesịrị ntụkwasị obi agaghị ahụ ya. N'ihi ya, ndị America Moorish mepụtara ezumike nke aka ha iji mee ememe akụkọ nke ha. Ezumike kachasị mkpa na kalenda Moorish America bụ Jenụwarị 8, ụbọchị ọmụmụ nke onye amụma Noble Drew Ali (October 11, ụbọchị ọmụmụ nke Nwanne nwanyị Pearl Ali, ka ndị Moorish America na-ahụkwa). Otu izu ka e mesịrị, na Jenụwarị 15, a na-ahụ Afọ Ọhụrụ nke Moorish. O doro anya ihe kpatara ụbọchị a na-egosi Afọ Ọhụrụ Moorish dịka ọ na-adabaghị mgbe ọ bụla na Al-Islamic New Year. Otú ọ dị, ọ dị mma ịkọba na dịka Afọ Ọhụrụ nke Ọdịda Anyanwụ, nke a na-ahụ ụbọchị asaa mgbe ụbọchị ọmụmụ Jizọs Kraịst kwuru, a na-ahụ Afọ Ọhụrụ nke Moor ụbọchị asaa mgbe ụbọchị ọmụmụ nke Noble Drew Ali (Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

N'otu aka ahụ, Ememme Amụma American nke Tag Day dị nnọọ ka ememe ụbọchị St. Patrick na Western World. Taa, maka West, na-anọchite anya ụbọchị St Patrick wetara "agwọ" ma ọ bụ druids si Ireland. Dị ka nkwenkwe MSTA si kwuo, ndị Moorish America bụ mkpụrụ nke "agwọ," ma ọ bụ ka mma, ha bụ ndị nnabata nke ihe ọmụma oge ochie nke mere ka egwu bụrụ na e guzobere Chọọchị Katọlik dị na Ireland na narị afọ nke ise nke Oge Ọchịchị . Ọzọkwa, akụkọ banyere druids na Islands Britain n'agbanyeghị nke a, nke a bụ otu ụzọ maka MSTA, n'ihi na ha na-agbasi mbọ ike ịgụ onwe ha n'akụkọ ihe mere eme na akụkọ ifo (Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

Mgbalị ndị Moorish America na-eme iji gụọ onwe ha n'akụkọ ihe mere eme pụkwara ịhụ n'ụzọ doro anya na ọkọlọtọ Amerịka. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ụkpụrụ ọkọlọtọ nke ndị America na-eme nnọọ ka ọkọlọtọ Moroccan dị n'ọtụtụ ụzọ: agba agba, ụdị, na akara. Ma, ọ dịkwa iche iche ma dị iche iche dịka Flag na-egosi na-acha uhie uhie na gburugburu ọcha nke dị n'etiti etinyere na quadrants. N'ime gburugburu bụ akwụkwọ ozi LTP na F nke guzoro maka Ịhụnanya, Eziokwu, Udo na Nnwere onwe. N'okpuru akwụkwọ ozi ndị a, ị na-eji okwu ahụ eme ihe ikpe ziri ezi na agụba ya. N'ikpeazụ, n'okpuru mma agha bụ kpakpando atọ nwere oghere. Na quadrants anọ nke ọkọlọtọ American Moorish na nke 7 gburugburu bu n'obi ichikota uzo anọ di na Moorish Islam, nke bu ndi Kristian, okpukpe Hindu, Buddha na al-Islam. Ụkpụrụ ọkọlọtọ ndị America nke Moorish bụ n'ụzọ doro anya na mmegharị nke Moroccan, mana ọ na-ejikwa ha dị ka ihe njikọ akụkọ ihe mere eme na omenala (Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

Enwere ihe yiri nke a maka ụdị ejiji ha. Uwe na ejiji mara mma, dịka ọ bụla òtù okpukpe, nwere ọnọdụ ya na MSTA. A na-eyi ụdị ejiji ndị America na-akpa ọchị n'oge ofufe. Ndị inyom na-ekpuchi isi ha na ogologo uwe mwụda ogologo, nke na-ekpuchi ha ahụ; ụmụ nwoke na-eyi uwe elu ọcha, uwe ogologo ọkpa na uhie uhie, ihe nnọchianya kachasị nke MSTA. [Foto dị n'aka nri] closdị dịkarịsịrị nso nke Moorish fez bụ fez nke Shriners, nzukọ esoteric dịka Freemason. Agbanyeghị, enwere njirimara abụọ nke Moorish na Shriner fez nke wepụrụ ha iche. Nke mbu, Moorish American fez anaghị egosiputa scimitar; ọ bụ naanị ọbara ọbara na-enweghị mgbakwunye akwụkwọ ozi, akara ma ọ bụ ịchọ mma (belụsọ ndị Sheikh na / ma ọ bụ ndị isi ụlọ nsọ). Nke abuo, nnwere onwe nke tassel. A na-ejikọkarị ọnụ nke fez nke Shriner n'akụkụ aka ekpe (akụkụ nke ezi omume maka ndị Shriners) ebe ejikọtaghị tassel America Moorish. A na-eme ya ka ị na-agbanye isi nke onye ji ya dị ka ihe nnọchianya ihe atụ nke ihe ọmụma dị narị atọ na iri isii zuru ezu nke onye America ọ bụla Moorish nwere. Ọzọkwa, Moorish American fez bụ ọgaranya n'ụzọ ihe atụ maka ọtụtụ ebumnuche. Iji maa atụ, fez na tassel ala na-egosi chalice (iko) nke a ga-eji jupụta n'ọmụma nke ezi omume. Ọ bụ ezie na, mgbe a na-eyi ya n'isi (okpu), ya na elu ya, ọ na-egosi ihe ọmụma nke onye nwe ya nwetara. Dị ka mortarboard nke gụsịrị akwụkwọ na kọleji, fez a na-eyi n'isi na-egosi mmecha (Dannin 2002; Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Ndi otu nhazi nke ndi ndu nke MSTA adighi nma dika o dikwa. Onye amuma Ali bu onu ahia nke emeghari njem a. Drew Ali na-anọchite anya Onye Nzọpụta maka nzukọ na njikọ njikọta n'etiti ahụ (ọgbakọ) na Onye Pụrụ Ime Ihe Niile. Agbanyeghị, n'etiti ndị nnọchi anya ebe obibi / anụ ahụ nke MSTA, Grand Sheik na-arụ ọrụ dị ka isi nhazi. N'okpuru Sheik bụ Onye isi oche na Onye Nkwado Ukwu Sheik. Ọzọkwa, ụlọ nsọ ọ bụla nke Nnukwu Isi na-achịkwa ndị ọrụ ya. Ndị ọrụ ụlọ nsọ ahụ n’otu n’otu bụ ndị isi Gọvanọ na Grand Sheiks, ndị Templelọ Nzukọ Ezumezu andlọ Nsọ na onye enyemaka Grand Sheiks, Onye isi oche, Onye Nlekọta Ego, Ndị Isi nke Azụmaahịa na Ndị Ọrụ Mgbasa Ozi Ọtụtụ n'ime ọnọdụ ndị a jupụtara na usoro ịme ntuli aka nke na-eme na Mgbakọ Mba nke Moorish kwa afọ, nke a na-enwekarị n'etiti etiti Septemba. Mmekọrịta nke mgbakọ a na ọrụ ya dị iche iche dị n'aka ndị isi mgbakọ ahụ, Convention Grand Sheik, Onye isi oche, odeakwụkwọ, Onye na-echekwa ego, na Onye isi oche Onye Nyere Aka, bụ ndị ọrụ ọrụ ha naanị na mgbakọ ahụ (Turner-El 1935; Kirkman- Bey 1946).

Ndi otu n'ime nzukọ a chọrọ ịbịa nzukọ nzukọ MSTA na ihe ọmụma ntọala nke Moorish American catechism, nke gosipụtara ajụjụ na azịza 101 a na-akpọ 101 Igodo. Ihe omumu ndia bu ihe di nkpa banyere ihe omuma nke MSTA. Ha kpuchitere akụkụ niile nke nkà mmụta okpukpe ha ma kwuo akụkọ ihe mere eme. Mba nke Alakụba na Mba nke Chi na (wa (otu abụọ sitere na mbọ mbụ na nkà ihe ọmụma MSTA) nwekwara ụzọ yiri nke ahụ maka usoro mmụta mmụta mmụta okpukpe ha. Mba ahụ nwere catechism nke ajụjụ na azịza 154, ebe Chi na Earths nwere 120. Nkọwa nke catechism ndị a na-ekpughe njikọ ha doro anya (Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b; Knight 2007).

Ozugbo onye na-achọ ịchọrọ ha mezuru ihe ndị ha chọrọ na mbụ, a na-ewepụta kaadị ndị otu. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Kaadị ndị otu nke MSTA malitere ịpụta n'okporo ámá Chicago n'oge ufọt ufọt mbubreyo 1920s. A na-enyefe ha n'aka ndị otu ka enwere ike ịkọwa ha ngwa ngwa dịka ndị na-eso ụzọ Noble Drew Ali. Agbanyeghị, na mbido, ọ ga-ekwe omume na Ali nyere ndị otu ya kaadị ndị a ka ndị mmanye iwu ghara ihiehie ha maka ndị kwabatara. Anti-kwabatara echiche nke mmalite 20th narị afọ na Islamophobia bụ nnukwu nchegbu maka ụfọdụ. Ka o siri dị, kaadị ndị otu MSTA kwupụtara n'atụghị egwu: "AB AM M ONYE B THE ONYE USA" (Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

Maka ndị òtù, ọ dịkwa oké mkpa na onye ọbụla na-eme akụkụ nke ego ha na-akwado nkwado ahụ. Nkwado na nke a na-achọ ka ndị bịaranụ na inye ego na nzukọ yana ịsonye n'ọtụtụ ahịa achụmnta ego nke na-arụ ọrụ iji nọgide na-arụ ọrụ ahụ. Ná mmalite mmepe nke MSTA, òtù ahụ na-akwado onwe ya site na azụmahịa dị iche iche. A gụrụ ndị na-ere ahịa bụ ndị a gbanwere na Moorish American Islam na ihe onwunwe nke Mba Amerịka nke Moorish. Ọzọkwa, ndị Moorish America etinye aka na nhazi na ịzụlite ngwaahịa dị iche iche (dị ka herbs, mmanụ, ihe nsure ọkụ, uwe, na uwe) site na Moorish Manufacturing Corporation, bụ nke Noble Drew Ali guzobere na 1927. Ụlọ ọrụ a nwere ọkachamara n'ọtụtụ ngwaahịa, dị ka Moorish Antiseptic Bath Compound, bụ nke kọrọ na enyere ndị nwere ọtụtụ ọrịa nkịtị (Nance 1996) aka.

Ọzọkwa, ọ bụghị nanị na ndị Moorish America mepụtara ụlọ ọrụ ha na-arụpụta ihe, ha chọkwara inweta ma na-arụ ọrụ ụlọ ahịa na akwa akwa. Agbanyeghị, n'agbanyeghị mbọ niile nke MSTA, ndị uwe ojii Chicago nyochachara 'azụmaahịa ya n'okpuru enyo ha enyo na ha bụ n'ihu maka ịgba chaa chaa na-akwadoghị (ọnụ ọgụgụ na-agba ọsọ) na ịgba akwụna. Enweghi njikọ ọ bụla dị n'etiti azụmaahịa ndị America Moorish na ifo Chicago. O doro anya ma ọ bụrụ na orlọ Ọrụ Na-emepụta Moorish ka dị ma na-arụ ọrụ n'otu ikike ahụ ọ dị na mbụ, mana ndị Moors ka nwere ụzọ ha si enweta ego. Iji maa atụ, Voice American Voice (1943) na Nduzi Moorish (1928), ihe ndekọ abụọ nke mba American Moorish, "ego" dollar. Enweghi mgbasa ozi maka ngwaahịa American Moorish na Voice American Voice; kama, o yiri ka a chọpụtawo nhọrọ ego ọzọ (Nance 1996).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Ụlọ nke Moorish dị na America echewo ihu, na-aga n'ihu na-eche ọtụtụ nsogbu ihu. Ndị a na-agụnye ihe ịma aka nke ọdịdị na-arụ ụka na MSTA, ihe ịma aka nke nkwupụta MSTA nke ọkwá dị elu nke American National Social, na ihe ịma aka nke Mba nke Islam kpuchiri.

Enwere isi okwu gbasara ha gbasara MSTA. Akụkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme na-elekwasị anya na onye a maara dị ka Timothy Drew siri ike ịmeghachi. Dị ka akụkọ ifo nke nzukọ si kwuo, akụkọ Timothy Drew malitere na North Carolina na ebe obibi Cherokee n'ime ime obodo Simpsonbuck County nke dị na 1886, bụ ebe a mụrụ ya na nna na-esote nna-ya na nne nke bụ akụkụ Cherokee na akụkụ Moorish. Akwụkwọ akụkọ America nke Moorish na-ekwu na Cherokees zụlitere ya ruo 1892, mgbe ya na mama ya kwagara Newark, New Jersey iji soro nwanne ya nwanyị biri. N'oge na-adịghị anya mgbe ha kwagara, nne Drew nwụrụ; ya na nna ya ebe ọ bụla a na-ahụghị ya, Drew nọrọ n'okpuru nlekọta nke nwanne mama ya nke na-eme mkparị. O doro anya na nne nna a a na-akpọghị aha gbalịrị ịkụnye nwata Timothy Drew n'ime ọkụ ọkụ, nke mere ka ọ daa ụfụ n'ụzọ anụ ahụ. A kwenyere na Allah chebere ka a ghara igbu ya, ma ọ bụ aka ya ka ọ na-egosi na ọ bụ mmadụ (Abdat 2014; Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

Dika nkuzi nke Moorish America, otu uzo di omimi nke Ali n'adiri nwata ka emere dika umuaka na-ejegharia na otu ndi gypsies. N'oge a, a na-azọrọ na ndị Gypsị zụrụ azụ, ịchọta anwansi na ike nke levitation, na dịka onye ntorobịa Timothy Drew ekwuwo na o gosipụtara ikike ndị pụrụ iche n'ịchịkwa ndị ọkụ na ndị mmụọ na-adịghị ahụ anya. A kwenyere na mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na abụọ Drew nwere ike ịmegharị ihe na-eche echiche, ụdị nwayọọ ekwentị. A na-ewere "onyinye nke Allah," dị ka anwansi ma dugara na-eto eto Drew na-esonye na njem njem. Mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na isii, ikike Drew nwere mmasị n'ebe otu nwanyị na-enweghị atụ nọ (onye a na-akpọghị aha ya) kpọrọ ya gaa Ijipt iji na-amụ akwụkwọ n'ụlọ akwụkwọ Essene, bụ ụlọ akwụkwọ nke usoro ihe omimi oge ochie nke Ijipt (Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

Dị ka akuko si kwuo, ụlọ akwụkwọ Essene bụ ụlọ ọrụ ebe ndị amụma na ndị na-eche banyere ụwa oge ochie mụrụ. Ihe omuma ndi America nke Moorish na-etinye Timothy Drew na North Africa gburugburu n 'onu ogugu nke iri abuo. A kwenyere na ọ gara ụwa iji mụta amamihe nke ndị oge ochie; site na 1902 ruo mgbe 1910 Drew kwuru na ọ gara laa azụ n'etiti United States, Morocco, Egypt na Saudi Arabia dị ka ndị ahịa na-enweta ọzụzụ na ọzụzụ sitere na ndị amụma, ndị na-abụ ndị ọkà mmụta na ndị sheikh nke Islam. Ọzọkwa, mgbe ọ na-agụ akwụkwọ, Drew nwere ụdị ule iji gosipụta ihe ọmụma banyere ihe omimi ndị Ijipt oge ochie ma gosi na ọ bụ onye amụma nke Allah. Ihe nchoputa nke ule a abughi ihe doro anya, ma mgbe Drew gwasiri ya ule a, e bidoro ya n'ime usoro ihe odide nke Essen nke oge ochie, nke di kwa ya bu aha Noble Drew Ali. Site n'ebe ahụ ka e nyere ya ikike ịkụziri ndị America America ihe ọmụma nke iwu dị nsọ. Ọ laghachiri America n'oge ụfọdụ n'etiti 1911 na 1913 iji chọpụta ihe ga-abụ Ụlọ Nzukọ Ezumezu America nke Moorish (Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

N'agbanyeghị agbanyeghị nhazi, agbanyeghị, enwere ihe akaebe na-egosi na Noble Drew Ali emepebeghị MSTA rue mmalite 1920s. Na, ntọala nke nzukọ ahụ nwere ike ọ gaghị abụ na Newark, New Jersey, kama na Chicago, Illinois. Ọdịdị Ali pụtara na Chicago na 1925 bụ naanị ndekọ ederede doro anya nke Noble Drew Ali, amụrụ Timothy Drew. Ozi ndị ọzọ niile tupu Chicago 1925, ụbọchị ọmụmụ ya, njem ya na mpaghara ọwụwa anyanwụ, ọbụlagodi ntọala ụlọ nsọ ndị Kenean na Newark, New Jersey na 1913, bụ nnukwu nkọwa. Agbanyeghị, enwere ozi doro anya banyere onye a maara dị ka Thomas Drew. Ọzọkwa, ihe akaebe na-egosi na onye amụrụ dị ka Noble Drew Ali amụrụghị Timothy Drew si North Carolina, kama a mụrụ ya n'okpuru aha Thomas Drew na Virginia (Abdat 2014).

Thomas Drew adịghị ndụ dị ka Timoti Drew. Thomas Washington na Lucy Drew nakweere Thomas na nwata. Thomas adighi enweta akwukwo akwukwo di iche iche kama o malitere oru na ichota uzo ya n'ime uwa nke gbara afo iri na abua. Ọ rụrụ ọrụ dị iche iche n'etiti obodo Atlantic dị na United States dị ka nwa okorobịa, ma eleghị anya na-egosi na ọ dị n'akụkụ ebe ọwụwa anyanwụ site n'Ụlọukwu Kenan nke Newark, New Jersey, bụ nke Abdul Hamid Suleiman guzobere na 1913. Okwute ya na Ụlọ nsọ ndị Kenean na echiche ndị ọzọ metụtara okpukpe nwere ike ime ka Thomas Drew malite ịtọ ntọala Mọ Nsọ nke Mọ Nsọ n'oge ụfọdụ na mmalite 1920s. Ọzọkwa, Tọmọs nwere ike ịnọ n'okpuru aha ya bụ Timothy maka ọtụtụ ihe kpatara ya: iji zere ihe iwu ahụ, inye ihe omimi maka oge mbụ ya na Chicago, nakwa ma eleghị anya iji zere onwe ya site na nzụlite ya dị obere. Drew abụghị onye mbụ ịkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme ya iji mee ka mmekọrịta ya dị elu, ọ gaghị abụ onye ikpeazụ (Abdat 2014).

Ihe ịma aka nke abụọ maka MSTA bụ nkwupụta nke ọkwá dị elu nke American National Social. Maka Ndi Moorish America, enwere uzo. Nkà ihe ọmụma nke usoro ahụ jụrụ ajụ Negro, Black, ma ọ bụ Acha dị ka aha agbụrụ ma ọ bụ agbụrụ nke onwe ha ma ọ bụ nzukọ. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ha na-arụ ụka na ha ghọtara nke ọma karịa Ndị isi mba Amerịka. Dika usoro nkwenkwe ha si di, o bu onodu ogugu ndi mmadu na ndi mmadu nwere ike inwe na America. Aha a na-enye onye nwere ikike na ikike nile nke nwa amaala ma tinye ha n'elu iwu nke ala ahụ. A nwa amaala, n'aka nke ọzọ, nwere ikikere nile kama ha bụkwa ndị iwu n'okpuru iwu, nke pụtara na a pụrụ itinye ha mkpọrọ ma ọ bụ taa ha ahụhụ maka iwubi iwu, n'adịghị ka mba. Ndị America ndị Moab na-ekwere na ha mba ekwupụta ọkwa na njedebe nke narị afọ nke iri na asatọ ma dị mkpa taa. Na-ezo aka na Nkwekọrịta enyi Thomas Barclay na Sidi Muhammad ibn Abdallah kwadoro n'etiti Morocco site na oge mbubreyo colonial nke United States, ndị Moorish America na-ahụ njirimara ha na ikike ha nwere ịbụ mba dịka okwu iwu nke edepụtara ọtụtụ narị afọ gara aga. Nkwekọrịta a dị ezigbo mkpa nye ndị Moorish America na ọ bụrụ na akpọrọ ha n'ụlọ ikpe, a na-akụziri ha ka ha were otu (ma ọ bụ ihe ọmụma) nke nkwekọrịta ahụ iji gosipụta ọnọdụ ha. "Ihe akaebe" a pụtara na ha anaghị edo onwe ha n'okpuru iwu nke usoro ụlọ ikpe United States, kama kama ọ bụ mba ndị nwere ikike na ohere nile nke ụmụ amaala, n'edughị iwu ọ bụla na-egbochi ha ịnweta ọnọdụ ahụ (Pleasant-Bey 2004a, 2004b).

N'oge ugbu a, ndị òtù MSTA nwere ike ịbụ ndị a ma ama maka vidiyo vidio ha nke metụtara ndị na-eji nsogbu nke ọnọdụ na ụmụ amaala dịka ngwá agha iwu. N'okwu ndị a, ndị òtù MSTA na-abịa n'ụlọikpe eji ejiji nke Nkwekọrịta enyi ma kwuo na ha karịrị iwu ndị ha boro ebubo na ha ga-agbaji. Ihe ịga nke ọma nke nsogbu ha dị na iwu bụ oke; Otú ọ dị, ọbịbịa ha dị nnọọ ka ọ dị ihe karịrị otu narị afọ gara aga na iji asụsụ iwu na iwu kwadoro ikike ha dị ka ndị mba America nke Moorish. Okwenye nke usoro iwu ahụ, n'agbanyeghị nke a, ihe nke a na-egosi na ọ bụ ọkwa nke akụkọ ntolite na iwu nke a na-adịghị ahụkarị na òtù okpukpe.

N'ikpeazụ, MSTA na-eche ihu n'eziokwu na mba nke Alakụba ekpuchiwo MSTA n'agbanyeghị eziokwu ahụ bụ na ndị Moorish America tinyere ụzọ maka nkà ihe ọmụma nke NOI inwe ikike dị otú ahụ dị ike na nsụgharị akụkọ ihe mere eme America. Odi ka ndi choputara NOI, Farad Muhammad na Elijah Poole, maara banyere ndi Moorish America na Science nke omuma ha tupu ha enwee NOI. Ọbụna ọ ga-ekwe omume na otu maọbụ ha abụọ bụ ndị òtù nke nzukọ yana ndị mmekọ nke òtù Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) nke Marcus Garvey. Otú ọ dị, ihe dị oké mkpa banyere mbipụta a bụ eziokwu ahụ bụ na MSTA mepụtara ihe ọhụrụ nke echiche Islam nakwa ịgụ akụkọ nke akụkọ ntolite n'onwe ya nke dikarịrị otu narị afọ ma dugara ntọala ndị ọzọ dị egwu Islam na US na mba (Fauset 1971; 1996 Nance; Marsh 1996; Turner 2003; Gomez 2005).

N'ezie, Ali mepụtara akụkọ ọdịnala nke ndị America na-adabere na otu ịgụ akụkọ ihe mere eme. Usoro a nke ịgụ ihe ma ghọta ihe mere eme bu iji nye ndi mmadu obi ike nke mpako kwesiri ka ha nwe ugwu onwe ha na ulo oru ha. Ihe a na-aguta n'akụkọ ihe mere eme na-egosiputa ihe ndi African American mere, ma ha na-akoghari akuko ochie na amaokwu Abraham iji gua ndi mmadu no n'ime oge ochie. Ịkọ akụkọ ihe mere eme nwere ike ịba uru maka otu ìgwè ndị na-emegbu emegbu bụ ndị na-agbalị ịmepụta echiche nke ịdị. Usoro a nke ịkọwa akụkọ ihe mere eme na-eme ka American American Islam ghọọ usoro nkwenkwe nke na-ekwu okwu ọ bụghị naanị ndị Black na America kamakwa na ndị ọzọ na-emegbu emegbu n'ụwa nile. Ke adianade do, Moorish Islam (Islamism) ọ bụghị nanị na-enye ndị ọzọ okpukpe ọzọ ka Iso Ụzọ Kraịst ma na-al-Islam nakwa, site na-eke ụdị nke Islam na-eguzo dị ka counterpoint ka Arab-ness hegemonic norms. Ihe omuma nke ndi Ala Amrika nke ndi Amrika dika ngbasa nke MSTA agbaghawo echiche nke ibu ndi Muslim. Site na mmepe nke MSTA (nke na-esote NOI na NGE), ọ bụghịzi otu ụzọ isi bụrụ Muslim, ya mere Islam nwere ike ịgwa ndị toro eto na ndị na-eto eto (Knight 2007; Aidi 2014; Khabeer 2016).

Foto

Image #1: Foto nke Noble Drew Ail.
Image #2: The Moorish Science Temple flag.
Foto #3: Otu ìgwè ndị ọkà mmụta nke Moorish Ndị uweojii nọ n'ụlọ uwe ha.
Image #4: Foto nke otu kaadị mba MSTA.
Foto #5: Ngosipụta anya nke MSTA ịjụ njirimara akụkọ banyere ịgba ohu.

References

Abdat, Fathie Ali. 2014. "Tupu Fez: Ndụ na Oge nke Drew Ali, 1886-1924." Akwụkwọ nke agbụrụ na okpukpe 5: 1-39.

Aidi, D. Hisham. 2014. Egwú Egwú: Ọsọ, Alaeze na New Muslim Youth Culture. New York: Akwụkwọ ndị Vintage.

Dannin, Robert. 2002. Black Pilgrimage ka Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Dowling, Levi. 1972. Oziọma Jizọs bụ Kraịst: Ụkpụrụ Ihe Ọmụma na Ebumnuche nke Okpukpe nke Age Age nke Ụwa. Santa Monica, CA: DeVorss & Co., Ndị mbipụta.

Fauset, Arthur. 1971.  Chi ndi ozo nke obodo ukwu: Cultural Religious of the Northern Urban.  Philadelphia: Mahadum nke Pennsylvania Press.

Kirkman-Bey Col. C. 1946. Moorish Science Temple of America: 1946 Minit of Moorish Science Temple of America, Inc. Chicago, IL: Moorish Science Temple of America.

Knight, Michael Muhammad. 2007. Iri ise: Islam, Hip Hop na chi nke New York. Oxford: Akwụkwọ nke Oneworld.

Marsh, Clifton. 1996. Site n'aka ndị Ala Ala Ala Ala Ala Ala Ala Ala: Mgbanwe na Ngbanwe nke Mba Ndị Ala Nwụrụ Achịfu nke Islam na America, 1930-1935. Lanham, Maryland: Akwụkwọ akụkọ Scarecrow.

Nance, Susan B. 1996. "Moslem's Religious Time Religious:" Mkpụrụ Akwụkwọ Moorish na Ihe Ala Islam na 1920s Black Chicago. Toronto: Simon Fraser University.

Pimienta-Bey, Jose. 2002. Othello's Children in the "New World:" Akụkọ Moorish na Ama na Ahụmerika Afrika. Bloomington: 1st Akwụkwọ.

Obi ụtọ-Bey, Elihu. 2004a. Ihe omuma nke Noble Drew Ali: The Exhuming of a Nation. Memphis: Mpempe akwụkwọ asaa.

Obi ụtọ-Bey, Elihu. 2004b. Ihe omuma nke Noble Drew Ali: The Exhuming of a Nation.  Memphis: Mpempe akwụkwọ asaa.

Rametherio, Sri. 1995. Nye Gị I Grant. San Francisco: AMORC.

Turner, Richard B. 2003. Islam na Ahụmerika Afrika.  Bloomington, N'Indiana: Mahadum Indiana Mahadum.

Turner El, GE 1935. "Ihe kpatara anyị ji nọrọ gburugburu asaa." Nduzi nke Moorish, 3.

Ụbọchị Post:
26 September 2017

 

 

 

 

Share