Anya P. Foxen

Mmekọrịta nke onwe onye

NKWUKWỤKWỤKWỤKWỤKWỤKWỤKWỌ NDỊ ỌZỌRỤ

1828: Lahiri Mahasaya mụrụ na Ghurni, India.

1861: Lahiri Mahasaya natara nnabata na Kriya Yoga site na Mahavatar Babaji.

1865: Swami Sri Yukteswav mụrụ na Serampore, India.

1883: Sri Yukteswar natara nnabata na Kriya Yoga site na Lahiri Mahasaya.

1893 (January 5):  Mukunda Lal Ghosh (nke a, Yogananda) mụrụ na Gorakhpur, India.

1906: Yogananda malitere na nke mbụ kriya site na nna ya, Bhagavati Charan Ghosh.

1909: Yogananda zutere guru ya, Sri Yukteswar.

1915: Yogananda gụsịrị akwụkwọ na College nke Calcutta wee banye n'usoro ndị mọnk.

1916: Yogananda guzobere Yogoda Satsanga Brahmacharya Vidyalaya ma weghachite ya na Ranchi.

1920: Yogananda rutere na Boston ikwu okwu na International Conference of Religious Liberals.

1923-1924: Yogananda ji nke nta nke nta gbasaa usoro nkuzi ya wee malite ịdọta ọtụtụ mmadụ.

1924: Yogananda malitere njem nlegharị anya na mba.

1925: Yogananda guzobere isi ụlọ ọrụ Yogoda Satsaga na Mt. Washington na Los Angeles.

1928: Yogananda zutere nsogbu iwu na Miami, FL.

1929: Dhirananda hapụrụ nzukọ ahụ.

1935: Dhirananda gbara Yogananda akwụkwọ maka akwụkwọ ọkwa akwụghị ụgwọ.

1935: Yogananda webatara Self-Realization Fellowship (SRF) wee gawa India.

1936: Sri Yukteswar nwụrụ na Yogananda laghachiri United States iji nọgide na-adịru mgbe ebighị ebi.

1936: Rajarshi Janakananda nyere Encinitas hermitage dị ka onyinye nye Yogananda.

1938: Thelọ Golden Lotus dị na Encinitas agwụchara.

1939: Sri Nerode hapụrụ nzukọ ahụ wee gbaa akwụkwọ maka mmebi.

1942: E mepere Templelọ Nsọ SRF Hollywood.

1942: Goldenlọ Golden Lotus dara site na ugwu dị na Swami's Point.

1946:  Autobiography nke a Yogi e bipụtara.

1950: A raara ọdọ mmiri Lake na Pacific Palisades nye.

1951: Nke atọ nke Autobiography na isi okwu nke SRF bipụtara.

1952 (March 7): Yogananda nwụrụ mgbe ọ na-enye adreesị na Biltmore Hotel na Los Angeles. Rajarshi Janakananda ghọrọ isi nke SRF.

1955: Rajarshi Janakananda nwụrụ na Dayamata ghọrọ isi nke SRF. \

1990-2012: Mkpesa na-aga n'ihu n'etiti SRF na Ananda mere maka ikike nwebisiinka.

2010: Daya Mata nwụrụ na Mrinalini Mata ghọrọ onye isi nke SRF.

2017: Mrinalini Mata nwụrụ na Nwanna (Swami) Chidananda ghọrọ isi nke SRF.

FOUNTER / GROUP HISTORY

Nzorita nke onwe onye (SRF) bụ Paramahansa Yogananda nke 1935 hiwere. A mụrụ Yogananda Mukunda Lal Ghosh [Image na nri] na Jenụwarị 5, 1893, na Gorakhpur dị na steeti Uttar Pradesh, India. Nne Yogananda nwụrụ mgbe ọ dị ihe dị ka afọ iri na otu, bụ nke a kọrọ na ọ gbasiri ike n'ụzọ ime mmụọ. Nna ya, Bhagavati Charan Ghosh, onye na-eso ụzọ nke Lahiri Mahasaya, mere ya ka ọ bụrụ onye mbụ kriya nke Kriya Yoga na 1906.

Nnyocha ime mmụọ nke Yogananda gbasaa n'ụzọ dị ukwuu site n'afọ iri na ụma ya. Ndị nkụzi ime mmụọ mbụ dị ka Swami Vivekananda na Swami Rama Tirtha (karịsịa na ọchịchọ ya ịkọsa ozi yoga na West) ma nwee mmekọ ụfọdụ na ndị Neo-Hindu nke Calcutta nke narị afọ na-emetụta ya. , nke bu site n'aka Brahmo Samaj. Yogananda gara nke nta na Sabour Agricultural College, nke Scottish Church College nke Calcutta, ma mesịa zigaga alaka ụlọ ọrụ Serampore nke College of Calcutta ka ọ dị nso na ashram guru ya. O nwetara akara ugo mmụta Bachelor nke Arts na 1915 wee banye n'usoro iwu ndị mọnk ozugbo ahụ.

Yogananda zutere guru ya, Swami Sri Yukteswar mgbe ọ nọ na Bharat Dharma Mahamandal ashram na Benares na 1909. Ebe ọ bụ na ọ ghọtara na ya bụ ezigbo guru, Yogananda nwetara ọkwa dị elu nke Kriya Yoga si Sri Yukteswar n'afọ ahụ. Yogananda gara Japan na 1916, ma eleghị anya na-enwe olileanya iji ya mee ihe maka ọdịda anyanwụ Westward. Ọ bụ ezie na njem emezughị ihe ịga nke ọma ma ọ laghachiri n'ime otu ọnwa, ọ bụ ihe nkwado maka akwụkwọ mbụ ya, Sayensị nke Okpukpe. Mgbe ọ laghachiri na Calcutta, Yogananda tọrọ ntọala Yogoda Satsanga Brahmacharya Vidyalaya, nke dịgidere dịka nwanne nwanyị India-nzukọ nke SRF. Obere oge ka a kwagara Dihika na Dihika mgbe a nwetara patronage site na Maharaja Chandra Nandy nke Kasimbazar Estate na n'ikpeazụ na Ranchi. Ọ bụ n'ebe ahụ ka Yogananda bu ụzọ kpoo ihe ndị ga-abụ isi ihe nkuzi ya na United States (Foxen 2017b).

Yogananda bịarutere Boston na October nke 1920 iji kwupụta okwu ihu ọha na International Conference of Religious Liberals. Ọ nọgidere n'ebe ahụ ruo ihe dị ka afọ abụọ, na-enye nkwupụta okwu ma na-ekpokọta obere ìgwè ndị na-eso ụzọ, n'ikpeazụ mezie obere n'etiti na-ele Mystic Lake. Yogananda malitere ịmalite mgbasa ozi nkuzi ya na njedebe 1923 na mmalite 1924, na-ejegharị iji nye ọtụtụ nkuzi na New York. Okwu nkuzi ya bụ, ugbu a, na-adọta ndị na-anụ ọkụ n'obi [Image na nri] na ọ kpọrọ enyi ochie ma soro Calcutta, Swami Dhirananda, soro ya. Na 1924, Yogananda malitere njem nlegharị-ụka na-aga n'ihu. Mgbe ọ gafere mba ahụ, ọ gara Alaska tupu ya alaghachi na Seattle na Portland, ma na-aga n'akụkụ osimiri California na Los Angeles.

N'oge na-adịghị anya, Yogananda nwere obi ụtọ na Los Angeles ma guzobe isi ụlọ ọrụ nke Yogoda Satsanga na Mt. Alaka Washington, nke e hiwere iwu na October 25, 1925. East-West magazin, mechara dee ya Mwepụta Mmekọrịta Onwe Onye malitere n'otu afọ. Mgbe obere oge gara aga na ebe obibi ọhụrụ ahụ, Yogananda hapụrụ njem njem ihu ọha ọzọ. Dhirananda, onye nwere oge a jiri aka ya guzosie ike na ọgụgụ isi nke Boston, ka a kpọtụrụ ya ka o weghara ọrụ nke ụlọ ọrụ ahụ.

Dhirananda mebiri mmekọrịta ya na Yogananda n'okpuru ọnọdụ enweghị atụ na 1929. Mgbe ọ kụziiri aha ya ruo afọ atọ, ọ hapụrụ aha onye mọnk na 1932 ma banye na University of Iowa ka ọ gaa doctorate na electroencephalography. Otú ọ dị, Dhirananda, ugbu a bụ Basu Kumar Bagchi, bughachiri na 1935 iji mee ka ikpe megide Yogananda banyere akwụkwọ nkwado nke Yogananda dere dị ka ụdị ụgwọ na nkwụsị na 1929. Ikpe ahụ wetara ọtụtụ ebubo banyere omume na-ezighị ezi na Yogananda ma, n'enweghị obi abụọ na akụkụ ụfọdụ iji gbanahụ nsogbu nke usoro ahụ, Yogananda nọrọ oge ikpe na India na n'ikpeazụ na Mexico. Kpọmkwem tupu ịhapụ mba ahụ na 1935, Yogananda wepụtara mmekọrịta nke onwe onye dị ka ọrụ na-abụghị ọrụ ma nyeghachi ya ihe onwunwe ya nile, tinyere Mt. Washington, na ụlọ ọrụ ahụ, si otú ahụ na-echebe akụ ya (Foxen 2017b).

N'iji Yogananda laghachi India, enwere esemokwu na onye guru ya banyere ihe gbasara ụlọ ọrụ. Otú ọ dị, n'oge njem a, Sri Yukteswar nyere ya aha Paramahansa. Sri Yukteswar nwụrụ na March 9, 1936 na Yogananda hapụrụ India n'oge na-adịghị anya mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, ghara ịlaghachi. Ka ọ dị ugbu a, alaka ụlọ ọrụ America nke nzukọ Yogannda nọ na-enwe ọganihu.

Site na 1937, SRF nwere oke ala asaa na asaa ma na-ebuli elu iji malite ụlọ ọrụ 400,000 na ụlọ ọrụ mmezi, nke gụnyere ụlọ nke nnukwu ụlọ Golden Lotus dị nso na Encinitas. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Onye na-eso ụzọ ya na onye na-anọchi ya, bụ Rajarshi Janakananda, nwere onyinye dị ukwuu nye Yogananda, mgbe ọ lọtara India. E wuru ụlọ nsọ n'elu ugwu nke na-ele oké osimiri ahụ anya, ndị ọkwọ ụgbọala na-ahụ anya na-aga n'okporo ụzọ Oké Osimiri Pacific Coast. O di nwute, ebe nlere anya nke ụlọ nsọ mere ka ihe ka ukwuu n'ime ihe owuwu ahụ na-abanye n'ime mmiri na 1942. Ihe ndi ozo ndi ozo bu ulo oma nke Hollywood, nke meghere onu ya na 1942, dika ezumike nke Golden Lotus na ebe obibi ya, na ebe ugwu Salis na Pacific Palisades, nke raara na 1950. N'oge a, e nwere ihe karịrị ngalaba iri abụọ nke SRF gafee United States.

N'afọ ikpeazụ nke ndụ Yogananda, ọ dị nwayọọ nwayọọ. Na Autobiography wepụtara na 1946, na-ede naanị ihe omume a kpọsara n'ihu ọha oge. Yogananda nwụrụ na March 7, 1952 nke ihe yiri mgbawa mgbe ọ na-ekwu okwu na nri abalị na-asọpụrụ onye nnochite anya India bụ Binay R. Sen na Biltmore Hotel na Los Angeles. Ọdịdị nke ahụ Yogananda dị ogologo oge dị ka ọgbụgba ikpeazụ nye ọnọdụ ya karịrị mmadụ, karịsịa n'etiti ndị na-efe ofufe. Ihe odide site na akụkọ nchịkwa akụkọ nke Yogananda, bụ nke Forest Forest Lawn Memorial Park nyere, gụnyere na njedebe nke mbipụta SRF nile nke Yogananda's Autobiography, na-agba akaebe na "enweghị ọhụụ ọhụụ ọ bụla nke ire ere n'anụ ahụ nke Paramhansa Yogananda na-enye ikpe kachasị njọ na ahụmịhe anyị." Ndị na-arụ ụka na-ekwu na ozu ahụ Yogananda nọ na-emetụta ihe dị ka awa iri abụọ mgbe ọ nwụsịrị nakwa na, ọ bụghị ihe dị iche na ire ọkụ ga-adị ngwa ịbanye na (Angel 1994).

Mgbe Yogananda nwụsịrị, onye ndú gafegara onye na-eso ụzọ ya bụ Rajarshi Janakananda (a mụrụ James J. Lynn) ruo ọnwụ ya n'oge na-adịghị anya mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị 1955. Onye isi oche nzukọ ahụ gafere Sri Daya Mata. A mụrụ Daya Mata Rachel Faye Wright na 1914 na Salt Lake City, Utah. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ọ zutere Yogananda ebe ahụ mgbe ọ na-ekwu okwu nkuzi na 1931 wee ghọọ onye na-eso ụzọ ya mgbe ọ dị afọ iri na asaa. Daya Mata jidere ọnọdụ ahụ ihe karịrị ọkara narị afọ, ruo mgbe ọ gafere na 2010. Sri Mrinalini Mata (onye a mụrụ Merna Brown na Wichita, Kansas na 1931), bụ onye banyere na SRF ndị mọnk obodo na 1946, wee were ọrụ ya. Ọ dị afọ iri na ise wee rụọ ọrụ dị ka onye isi oche nke ọha na eze kemgbe 1966.

ỤLỌDỤ / EKWERE

Usoro nkwenkwe nke Yogananda gosipụtara na ọ bụ ngwakọta nke Advaita Vedanta metaphysics, na-elekwasị anya n'echiche ime mmụọ nke Chineke, a bhakti- na-ekwusi okwu ike banyere nraranye nye chi nke aka, na omume omume rụrụ arụ. Ihe omimi ya meghariri ihe ndi ozo di iche iche, ihe di iche iche na-ekewa n'ime ihe di n'ime mbara igwe di elu, eluigwe na ala di na mbara igwe, na mbara igwe na-eme ka ihe di iche iche di iche iche nke Chineke chetara. Na ime nke a, ọ na-edegharị usoro usoro Theosophical nke jikọtara Vedanta na nke Neo-Platonic Western esotericism. Ebumnuche ihe atụ nke Yogananda kachasị nke ọma Autobiography na-ekwusi ike mgbe nile na ihe nile dị n'ime ụwa nkịtị, mbara igwe, na ọbụna ụwa ndị na-akpata ihe kpatara ya bụ ìhè. N'ihe dị na mbara igwe, ìhè a na-abanye n'ime ihe ndị dị egwu nke "ndị dị ndụ," ma ọ bụ prana (Yogananda 1951).

Dika usoro nke Yogananda si di, ndi mmadu nwere mmuo, ha na-ebuputa ihe onwunwe ha, na-ebi n'uwa di iche iche tinyere chi di iche iche na ala. Ndị dị otú ahụ nwere ike igosipụta ozu ha dị ka ihe oyiyi na-enye ìhè. Ka ọ dị ugbu a, ndị mmadụ zuru oke (ndị dịka Mahavatar Babaji) ndị rịgoro karịa ebe ndị ahụ dị mma, pụkwara igosipụta ụdị ha n'ụzọ kwekọrọ n'echiche ndị India oge ochie avatara. Dị ka Yogananda, Babaji si kwuo, onye na-ahọrọ ịnọgide na-emetụta ya n'agbanyeghị na o mezuru nnwere onwe zuru oke, na-egosi ohere nke anwụghị anwụ nke anụ ahụ (Yogananda 1951).

Ya mere, usoro nke Yogananda na-ejikọta okpukpe Hindu na Iso Ụzọ Kraịst, na-ekwusi ike na Jizọs bụkwa onye a ma ama na-etinye ya na akụkụ Krishna Hindu. SRF na-aga n'ihu na-egosipụta ụdị ọnụ ọgụgụ abụọ a na agbụrụ Yogananda nke nna ukwu Kriya Yoga. Site na ntanye anya, Yogananda na-anọkarị n'agbata Nna mama heaven, bụ ihe nke ofufe ya site n'oge ọ bụ nwata, na ihe e zoro aka na Nna nke Eluigwe, bụ onye ọ ga-achọ ka ya na Chineke na-akụzi (Yogananda 1951).

Yogananda, na-ekwusi ike ọrụ nke onye na-eso ụzọ nke ụwa ma ọ bụ Kriya Yoga (nke Lahiri Mahasaya nọchitere anya ya, bụ onye na-adịghị agbanye nkwa nkwara) gbalịsiri ike ime ka usoro ya nwee ike ịnweta ndị Western. Na mgbakwunye na mgbanwe nke ememe onwe ya, dị ka akọwapụtara n'okpuru, Yogananda nọchiri anya usoro Yogoda dịka okwu banyere nchegbu kwa ụbọchị, gụnyere ọ bụghị naanị nghọta n'onwe ya kamakwa ahụike uche, ahụike anụ ahụ, na mmekọrịta mmadụ na ibe ya (Yogananda na Dhirananda 1928) .

Ọnọdụ SRF, nke na-eso Yogananda, bụ na Kriya Yoga bụ usoro sayensị ebighi ebi iji meziwanye ma mezuo ọdịnihu nke evolushọn nke mmadụ nile ka ha wee ruo n'ókè nke ọkwa. SRF na-edepụta "Nzube na Idezu" ha dị ka ndị a:

Iji kesaa n'etiti mba dị iche iche ihe ọmụma nke usoro sayensị doro anya iji nweta ahụmahụ onwe onye nke Chineke.

Iji kụziere na nzube nke ndụ bụ mmalite, site na mgbalị onwe onye, ​​nke mmadụ na-ejighị ihe ọ bụla n'ime ndụ ya banye na Ịmara Chineke; na nke a iji mee ka ụlọ nsọ na-esonyere Chineke-udo n'ime ụwa dum, na iji gbaa ume ka e guzobe ụlọ nsọ nke Chineke n'otu ụlọ na n'ime obi ụmụ mmadụ.

Iji kpughere nkwekọrịta zuru oke na otu isi nke Iso Ụzọ Kraịst mbụ dị ka Jizọs Kraịst kụziri na mbụ Yoga dịka Bhagavan Krishna kụziri; na igosi na ụkpụrụ nke eziokwu a bụ ntọala sayensị a na-ahụkarị nke ezi okpukpe niile.

Iji gosipụta otu okporo ụzọ Chineke nke ụzọ nile nke ezi nkwenkwe okpukpe ga-emesị mee: okporo ụzọ nke kwa ụbọchị, sayensị, ntụgharị uche na ntụgharị uche na Chineke.

Iji mee ka mmadụ nwere onwe ya pụọ ​​nhụjuanya ya atọ: ọrịa anụ ahụ, ime uche, na amaghị ihe ime mmụọ.

Iji gbaa "echiche dị elu ma dị elu"; na ịgbasa mmụọ nke òtù ụmụnna n'etiti ndị nile site na ịkụzi ihe ndabere ebighi ebi nke ịdị n'otu ha: mmekọrịta ya na Chineke.

Iji gosiputa uche nke kariri aru, nkpuru obi naga uche.

Imeri ihe ojo site na ezi ihe, iru uju site na obi uto, obi ojoo site n'obi oma, omuma site na amamihe.

Iji mee ka sayensi na okpukpere chi dị n'otu site n'ịhụ ịdị n'otu nke ụkpụrụ nduzi ha.

Iji kwado omenala na nghọta ime mmụọ n'etiti East na West, na mgbanwe nke atụmatụ ha kacha mma.

Iji jeere ihe a kpọrọ mmadụ ozi dị ka Onye ka ukwuu.

RITUALS / PRACTICES

Ụkpụrụ SRF bụ isi bụ isi na usoro Kriya Yoga nke usoro ọmụmụ nke Yogananda. Yogananda nọgidere na-ekwusi ike na Kriya Yoga bụ usoro oge ochie nke yogis nke e depụtara na ya dị ka akwụkwọ Bhagavad Gita na Yoga Sutras. A na-ekwu na a furu efu, ma e gosipụtara ya na 1861 ka Lahiri Mahasaya site Mahavatar Babaji anwụghị anwụ (Yogananda 1951).

Ọ bụ ezie na kriyas (nke a sụgharịrị n'ụzọ dị ka "omume") nwere ike itinye yogic asanas (postures), ha n'ozuzu ha nwere ọtụtụ ihe dị iche iche, ya mere ọ ga - abụrịrị ihe mgbagwoju anya. Ọnụ ọgụgụ onye ọ bụla kriyaedere aha na alaka dị iche iche nke ọgbụgba nke Yogananda n'ebe ọ bụla site na 108 ruo asaa na anọ. Yogananda mere ka usoro ahụ dị mfe mgbe ọ na-enye ya ndị na-eso ụzọ ya na United States, kewapụta ya na anọ kriyas na iwepu ma ọ bụ ịgbanwe ọtụtụ n'ime okwu ndị Sanskrit nke metụtara usoro dịgasị iche iche (Foxen 2017a).

N'ozuzu ya, Kriya Yoga gụnyere ụdị ọkọlọtọ nke tantric hatha yoga, nke na-agụnye pranayama (iku ume), mantra nyocha, ọtụtụ mudras (akàrà), na ịchọta anya. Site na omume a, kundalini a na-ebuli ume ike ma na-agbadata na kọlụm nke ọkpụkpụ ahụ, na-agbajiri eriri (nye ya) na n'ikpeazụ ịhapụ ike iji nweta ịdị n'otu na oke. Yogananda kpochapụrụ ụfọdụ omume, dịka ọmụmaatụ ihe achọrọ iji rụọ ọrụ nke ọma khecari mudra (na-agbanye ire iji banye n'ime oghere ntụrụndụ) tupu e kwe ka ọ gafere karịa nke mbụ kriya, ma gbanwee ndị ọzọ, dịka ịtụkwasị onye ọrụ ahụ n'oche karịa omenala padmasana (postus).

Na mgbakwunye na ntughari na mgbanwe, Yogananda tinyekwara mgbakwunye ya na nsụgharị Kriya Yoga. Ihe kachasị ama bụ ihe omume iri atọ na asaa na-eme ka ọkpụkpụ azụ nke usoro Yogoda ya, tinyere usoro ịtụgharị uche na Hong-Saw na Om. Ndị nke abụọ a bụ n'ezie ihe nchịkọta nke Yogananda dịka a na-eme ka ha dịkwuo mfe mgbanwe nke usoro ndị na-apụta n'ebe ọzọ na omume ahụ. Hong-Sau bụ mmemme nke "ham-sa"Mantra kọrọ na Sri Yukteswar kụziri. A na-eji usoro abụọ ahụ eme ihe iji webata onye ọrụ ahụ na nhazi isi na iku ume.

O yiri ka etu ogugu akwukwo ozo n'umu ndu nke Yogananda dị ka ihe mgbakwasị ụkwụ iji kwadebe ozu maka ike siri ike Kriya na-eme. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Yogananda mere ihe ngosi dị ịrịba ama site n'ịtụle otú a pụrụ isi kọwaa omume dị mma n'ihi mgbanwe nke ọdịbendị nke ọdịbendị nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ nakwa nke nkà mmụta ihe omimi nke ọdịbendị. Usoro Yogoda ya, nke a na-eme n'ime ụlọ akwụkwọ Ranchi, jiri ya asanas dị ka ụzọ isi mee ka ike dị n'anụ ahụ site na nhụjuanya obi na ntụrụndụ nke uru ahụ. Mgbe ị na-asụgharị usoro maka ndị na-ege ntị America, Yogananda gbanwere asanas ya na usoro ihe omuma nke ndi Europe, ma n'igosiri ihe omuma a. Ndị a ghọrọ Ọrụ mmepe. Ọ bụ ezie na Yogananda maara onwe ya na onye kwadoro ọdịbendị nke anụ ahụ, SRF anaghị etinye aka n'akụkụ a nke omume o mepụtara. Ọ bụ nwa nwanne ya nwoke nke tọrọ ya bụ Bishnu Ghosh na-eduzi usoro ọmụmụ nke usoro ọmụmụ nke Kriya Yoga nke Yogananda, onye nkuzi ya, Bikram Choudhury, gbasaa n'ụwa dum, n'okpuru akara Bikram Yoga (Foxen 2017b).

Usoro nhazi nke SRF ugbu a chọrọ ka onye ọrụ ahụ nata usoro nhazi ozi mail nke Yogananda, nke gụnyere ihe omume mme ume na nkuzi ndị ọzọ na-ekpuchi ihe niile site na nkà ihe ọmụma na nduzi nri. Mgbe ị gụchara akwụkwọ ozi, onye ọka ahụ nwere ike ịbanye na Kriya Yoga.

NKWUKWU / LEADERSHIP

Yogananda bipụtara SRF na 1935. Ọ nọgidere bụrụ onye ndú na onye ndu ime mmụọ n'oge ndụ ya niile. N'oge ya na America, Yogananda nwere ọtụtụ ndị enyi, ụfọdụ n'ime ha na-eme onwe ha aha n'onwe ha, dịka onye Polish performer-cum-mystic aha ya bụ Roman Ostoja, ma ọ bụ na ọ ga-abụ na ha onwe ha, Hamid Bey bụ onye ga-ahụ Coptic Fellowship na 1937. A na-emekarị ọnụ ọgụgụ ndị ahụ dịka onye isi ọrụ na SRF, na-ekwurịta okwu na Yogananda na ijikwa alaka nke nzukọ ahụ (Foxen 2017b).

SRF ugbu a nwere ihe karịrị 500 ụlọ ọrụ mmemme dị iche iche gburugburu ụwa, gụnyere ụlọ nsọ, nlọghachi, ashrams, ebe etiti, na gburugburu ntụgharị uche. Yogoda Satsanga Society, nke mbụ site n'aka Yogananda na 1917, na-anọgide na nkwonkwo nwanne nwanyị nke SRF ọ bụ ezie na mmekọrịta dị n'etiti ndị abụọ ahụ bụ akụkọ ihe mere eme dịtụtụ.

N'oge ya na India na 1935, Yogananda gosipụtara mmasị na ịtọ ntọala mba dị iche iche n'okpuru aha "Yogoda Satsanga." Nke a kpatara esemokwu Sri Yukteswar, bụ onye jiri aha ahụ bụ "Yogad Satsanga" kpọsaa akụkụ nke ya ulo oru, tinyere ndi ozo n'ime ogugu ndi nwere obi nkoropu nke nhazi. E mechara kwenye na Sga Yukteswar si Yogad Sat Sanga Sova ghọrọ Yogoda Satsanga Society nke India na 1936, bụ nke nọgidere dịka alaka ụlọ ọrụ nke SRF ruo taa. O doro anya na nke ikpeazụ a mere ka ọbara ọjọọ dị n'etiti ndị India nọ na Kriya na ndị na-elekọta SRF nke dị n'Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ Ụwa, na akụkọ banyere akụkọ ụlọ ọrụ ahụ jupụtara na nkọwa zuru ezu nke mgbanwe n'ọchịchị na ikpe iwu (Satyeswarananda 1983, 1991, 1994).

Mgbe Yogananda nwụsịrị, onye ndú nke SRF gafere ọtụtụ ndị na-eso ụzọ, gụnyere (iji mee) Rajarshi Janakananda (1952-1955), Otu Mata (1955-2010), Mrinalini Mata (2010-2017), na Brother (Swami) Chidananda ( 2017-ugbu a). Nzukọ na-elekọtakwa nke Board of Directors. Ọ bụ ezie na a ghọtara ndị ndú ndị a dị ka ndị na-achọpụta onwe ha n'onwe ha, ha anaghị ele ha anya dị ka ndị na-eso ụzọ SRF. A na-ekwu ozizi nkụzi nke Yogananda dịka ọ na-ewere ọnọdụ ya (Williamson 2010).

ISSUES / CHALLENGES

Yogananda nwere ọtụtụ ihe ịma aka n'oge oge ya na United States n'ihi ụjọ na-atụwanye nke ndị Asia si mba ọzọ, na karịsịa ndị nkụzi okpukpe ala ọzọ, n'oge ọkara mbụ nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ. O chere ebubo ebubo banyere inweta ego iji kwado ụlọ ọrụ ya site na ihe ndị na-adịghị mma ma, nke kachasị ama, nwere nkwurịta okwu ya na Miami, Florida kagburu ya n'ihi egwu nke ịgba aghara ma bo ebubo na ọ na-anwa ịchọọ onye uweojii ahụ. Egwu banyere "òtù ndị hụrụ n'anya" gbara gburugburu Mt. Ụlọ ọrụ Washington, nke ndị mgbasa ozi na-akpali akpali.

Ọ bụ ezie na ọtụtụ ndị a na-enyo enyo a na-amaghị na ịkpa ókè agbụrụ na ịkpa ókè agbụrụ, Yogananda nọkwa na-emetụta ma ọ dịkarịa ala abụọ iwu iwu na-akpachi anya n'ime ụlọ nke ya. Nke mbụ bụ ikpe gbara akwụkwọ na 1935 site n'aka onye mbụ ya na ya na-akpakọrịta, bụ Dhirananda. Ejiri a kwadoro na Dhirananda "gbara ume" Yogananda ka ọ bịanye aka dị ka ụdị ụgwọ na nkwụsị mgbe Dhirananda pụtara na mberede na ulo Yogananda nke New York na 1929 tupu ya alaghachi na Los Angeles ma hapụ ụlọ ọrụ ahụ. Ọ bụ ezie na agbakwunyere ọha na eze na-adabere na Dhirananda dị ka enweghị afọ ojuju n'ihi na Yogananda na-emeso ya, kama ịbụ onye na-arụ ọrụ zuru oke, nkatọ na-anọgide na-eche na ọ bụrụ na Yogananda emeghị ihe ọ bụla.

Ụdị akụkọ ndị ahụ ga-ebigide mgbe Nirad Ranjan Chowdhury, onye òtù ọhụrụ nke Yogananda, hapụrụ n'ụzọ yiri nke ahụ afọ iri mgbe e mesịrị. A kpọbatara Chowdhury iji weghara ọrụ Dhirananda na-eduzi etiti ahụ nanị ọnwa ole na ole mgbe ọ gasịrị. N'okpuru aha ahụ bụ Sri Nerode, ọ kụziiri ma nọgide na-elekọta Mt. Ụlọ ọrụ Washington ma soro Yogananda gaa na-akụzi okwu na iri na-esote. N'October nke 1939, ndị ọrụ akụkọ ahụ gbawara akụkọ banyere ọkara nde dollar dolie gbara akwụkwọ site na Chowdhury megide Yogananda. Akwụkwọ akụkọ na-ekwu na Chowdhury boro Yogananda ebubo nke ihu abụọ na-ebi ndụ okomoko nakwa dị ka ndị na-eso ụmụ nwanyị na-eto eto. Ebubebeghị ebubo ahụ ebubo (Foxen 2017b).

Dịka e kwuru na n'elu, Yogananda ma emesịa, ezutewo SRF maka enyemaka nke alaka India nke alaka ọmụmụ Kriya Yoga. Yogananda fervor maka institutionalization abụghị òkè nke ọtụtụ n'ime ndị mmadụ ibe ya, ndị na-ajụ ma ọ bụrụ na òtù ụlọ ọrụ amalitela na Lahiri Mahasaya (Satyeswarananda 1983).

N'ikpeazụ, a na-enyo SRF ebubo na ọ na-ejide ihe nketa nke Yogananda. Ọ bụghị ndị niile na-eso Yogananda soro ma ọ bụ kpebie ịnọgide na nchịkọta nke ndị mọnk SRF. N'ihi ya, ozizi Yogananda na-eme site na ọtụtụ ọnọdụ karịrị usoro iwu nke SRF n'onwe ya. Ọtụtụ mgbe, òtù ndị dị otú ahụ dịka ndị obodo na-eche echiche nke na-ahụ onwe ha ka ha na-ahụ ọhụụ Yogananda nke World Brothershood Colonies, dị ka akọwapụtara na mbipụta mbụ ya Autobiography. Ihe atụ gụnyere ụlọ ọrụ Roy Eugene Davis maka Nghọta Ime Mmụọ, J. Oliver Black Song nke Morning na ClearLight, ndị Michael, Ann Gornik's Polestar, na Norman Paulsen Sunburst (Miller na-abịa 2019).

Ndị kachasị mkpa ma ọ bụ ndị a na-agbawa agbawa bụ Chọọchị Ananda nke Njikọ Onwe Onye, nke na-arụ ọrụ ugbu a dika Ananda Sangha Worldwide, nke Swami Kriyananda hiwere. Kriyananda, a mụrụ James Donald Walters na 1926, sonyere SRF na 1948 ma bụrụ onye na-eso ụzọ kpọmkwem nke Yogananda. A họputara ya dị ka onye isi oche nke Board of Directors SRF ma jee ozi ahụ ruo mgbe Board kpebiri ịrịọ ka ọ hapụ ya na 1962. Kriyananda guzobere Ananda Village nso Nevada City, California na 1968.

Ndị SRF na Ananda nọ na-arụ ọrụ iwu ogologo oge banyere iwu nwebiisinka n'etiti 1990 na 2002. Ọ bụ ezie na SRF nwere ike ịmepụta ikikere nke ọtụtụ akwụkwọ Yogananda yana ihe ndị ọzọ dị ka ụda olu, ihe ndị ọzọ ejirila kpebie ịbanye n'ime ọha na eze ma ọ bụrụ na ịgba akwụkwọ ("Enwere Ike Ịdị Ndụ Ebighị Ebi Bụrụ Ọdịmma nke Onwe?" 2017).

N'oge arụmụka a, Ananda malitere ibipụta mbipụta 1946 mbụ nke Yogananda Autobiography, nke e kpebisiri ike ịbụ na ọha na eze. Dịka akụkụ nke nkenke nkuzi nke SRF na-achịkwa ozizi Yogananda, Ananda kwuru na SRF edeziwo ederede karịrị ókè Yogananda nyere ya n'oge ndụ ya. Nzukọ ahụ na-anọchite anya onwe ya dị ka ihe ọzọ na-eme ka ndị ọzọ nwee nkwanye ùgwù maka nkwalite nke ụlọ ọrụ SRF maka njedebe nke Yogananda.

Foto

Image #1: Foto nke Yogananda na-atụgharị uche, ca. 1924-1928.
Foto #2: Foto nke Yogananda na-akụzi na New York City, 1925.
Image #3: Foto nke Ụlọ Nzukọ Hollywood, 1942.
Image #4: Foto nke Yogananda na Otu Mata na Los Angeles, 1939.
Image #5: Foto nke nkuzi Yogananda asana nye ụmụ nwoke na-eso ụzọ na Encinitas Hermitage, ca. 1940.
Image #6: Ihe mkpuchi Yogananda's Autobiography nke Yogi, 1946.

References

Angel, Leonard. 1994. Enlightenment East na West. Albany: University University of New York Press.

"Eziokwu Ebighị Ebi Bụrụ Ezigbo Ihe?" 2017. Yogananda maka Ụwa. Nweta site na http://www.yoganandafortheworld.com/part-ii-can-eternal-truth-be-private-property na 26 June 2017.

Foxen, Anya P. 2017a. "Yogi Calisthenics: Ihe 'na-abụghị Yoga' Yogic Practice nke Paramahansa Yogananda nwere ike ịgwa anyị banyere okpukpe." Akwụkwọ akụkọ American Academy of Religion 85: 494-526.

Foxen, Anya P. 2017b. Ihe ndekọ nke Yogi: Paramahansa Yogananda na Origins of Modern Yoga. New York: Oxford University Press.

McCord, Gyandev. 2010. "Mkpebi Yogananda na Hatha Yoga." Ìhè ahụ na-amụbawanye, September 10. Nweta site na http://www.expandinglight.org/free/yoga-teacher/articles/gyandev/Yoganandas-Views-on-Hatha-Yoga.php na 26 June 2017.

Miller, Christopher. Na-abịa 2019. “Paramhansa Yogananda’s World Brotherhood Colonies: Models for Environmentally Sustainable and Social Responsible Living.” Na Mgbama Dharmaj, Jeffery Long, Michael Reading, na Christopher Miller dere. Lanham, MA: Akwụkwọ Lexington.

Satyeswarananda Giri, Swami. 1983. Lahiri Mahasay: Nna nke Kriya Yoga. San Diego: Swami Satyeswarananda Giri.

Satyeswarananda Giri, Swami. 1994. Sriyukteswar: A Biography. San Diego: Azụmahịa Sanskrit.

Satyeswarananda Giri, Swami. 1991. Kriya: Ịchọta Ezi Ụzọ. San Diego: Azụmahịa Sanskrit.

Williamson, Lola. 2010. Na-agagharị na America: Hindu-Ntugharị Ntugharị Na-akpali Mmụọ Dị Ka Okpukpe Ọhụrụ. New York: New York University Press.

Yogananda, Paramhansa. 1951. Autobiography nke a Yogi. New York: Library Philosophical.

Yogananda, Swami. 1925. Yogoda ma ọ bụ Ụdị-Ga-eme Nzuzu Ahụhụ. Nkeji nke ise. Boston: Sat-Sanga.

Yogananda, Swami, na Swami Dhirananda. 1928. Yogoda ma ọ bụ Ụdị-Ga-eme Nzuzu Ahụhụ. 9th ed. Los Angeles: Yogoda Sat-Sanga Society.

Ụbọchị Post:
4 August 2017

 

 

 

 

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