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Nikolaos Gyzis

GYZIS TIMELINE

1842 (March 1): Nikolaos Gyzis (ma ọ bụ, na German, Nikolaus Gysis) a mụrụ na obodo Sklavochori, n'àgwàetiti Tinos, na Gris.

1854: Gyzis malitere ịmụ akwụkwọ na oflọ Akwụkwọ nke Arts na Athens, ebe o nwere n'etiti ndị nkuzi ya onye ọzịza onye Nazaret nke German bụ Ludwig Thiersch.

1862: E nyere Gyzis akwụkwọ mmụta site na Evangelistria Foundation nke Tinos.

1865: Gyzis mechara rute na Munich, bụ ebe ọ nọrọ ruo oge ndụ ya niile. N'ọnwa Ọktọba, ọ gara klas nkwadebe nke Hermann Anschütz na Munich Academy.

1868: Gyzis nabatara na klas nke Karl von Piloty na Munich Academy of Fine Arts.

1869: Agba okpukpe mbụ ya, Joseph ke Mkpọrọ, Gyzis nyeziri ya na Evangelistria Foundation nke Tinos.

1872: Mgbe obibi ogologo oge na mba ọzọ, Gyzis gara Greece ọzọ na nke mbụ ya.

1873: Gyzis gara njem na Anatolia ya na onye omenkà Nikiforos Lytras.

1874: Gyzis laghachiri na Munich, ya na Lytras, gbazitere ụlọ ahụ nke rụburu ọrụ dị ka ụlọ ọrụ ihe osise nke German na Theosophist Gabriel von Max.

1875: Gyzis ghọrọ onye otu Art Association "Allotria," nke ọtụtụ ndị German dị mkpa esonyekwara.

1880: A họpụtara Gyzis ka ọ bụrụ onye na-asọpụrụ na Academy of Fine Arts na Munich, mgbe afọ abụọ gasịrị, ọ malitere ịrụ ọrụ ebe ahụ dịka onye inyeaka nkuzi.

1884 (July 27): E hiwere German Theosophical Society. O mere nzukọ nke abụọ ya n'otu afọ ahụ (August 9) na villalọ Gabriel von Max's Ammerland.

1888: Gyzis ka a hoputara prọfesọ na Munich Academy.

1893 (August 28): N'akwụkwọ ozi o degaara ọgọ ya nwanyị bụ Ourania Nazou, Gyzis kwupụtara na ya echepụtala echiche okpukpe ọhụrụ.

1894: Gyzis malitere soro Anna May, enyi na nwa klas nwa ya nwanyị Penelope.

1898: Site n'enyemaka Anna May, Gyzis họọrọ ụfọdụ n'ime eserese ya na oji na ọcha maka ihe ngosi emere na Glaspalast na Munich n'otu afọ ahụ.

1900 (July 20): Emere Ngosipụta Kwa Afọ na Glaspalast; Lee, Onye Na-alụ Ọlụlụ Na-abịa so na ọrụ Gyzis gosipụtara.

1901 (Jenụwarị 4): Gyzis nwụrụ na Munich. Ihe ngosi ncheta mere na Glaspalast (site na June ruo Ọktọba) ebe ọrụ Gyzis gosipụtara n'akụkụ nke ndị ọzọ na-ese ihe abụọ nwụrụ anwụ n'oge na-adịbeghị anya, Arnold Böcklin na Wilhelm Leibl.

1910 (August 25): Rudolf Steiner nyefere ndị otu Theosophical Society na Munich okwu ihu ọha na Gyzis.

1911 (Disemba): Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944) bipụtara Na Mmụọ na Art.

1928: Ahazi nnukwu ihe ngosi nke ọrụ Gyzis na Atens.

BIOGRAPHY

Nikolaos Gyzis (1842-1910) bụ onye na-ese akwụkwọ Gris, ndị ya na ha dịkọrọ ndụ nwere ekele dị ukwuu maka ikike ọ nwere ike ịbanye na ya. ihe ndị ọ na-ekwu okwu ya sitere na ihe nketa Greek oge ochie, ihe osise Byzantine, na usoro Jugendstil kachasị ọhụrụ. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Ọ nọrọ ndụ ya niile na Munich, Germany, na mbido na-agụ akwụkwọ ebe ahụ tupu ọ bụrụ onye prọfesọ na Academylọ Akwụkwọ Ọchịchị Na-ahụ Maka Ezigbo Ihe site na 1888 ruo mgbe ọ nwụrụ na 1901. A na-ahụta ya dịka onye nnọchi anya nke ụlọ akwụkwọ Munich ngagharị, na ọrụ ya nwere mmetụta dị ukwuu na nrụpụta nka Greek n'oge fin de siècle na mmalite nke narị afọ nke iri abụọ. N'ime ụmụ akwụkwọ ya na Academy bụ onye nwe obodo Austrian na-ebipụta akwụkwọ bụ Alfred Kubin (1877-1959), onye omenkà ama ama ama na German bụ August Heitmüller (1873-1935), onye nrụpụta setịpụrụ Ernst Julian Stern (1876-1954), onye Romania ihe osise bụ fantefan Popescu (1872- 1948), na onye osise Polish bụ Tadeusz Rychter (1873-1943?), Onye mechara bụrụ Anthroposophist. Ọrụ Gyzis na-agwụ, na-agbagharị n'etiti agụmakwụkwọ na ihe nnọchianya ọhụụ, mere ka obi dị ndị ọgbọ ya, karịsịa Gris (Katsanaki 2016). Mgbe Gyzis nwụsịrị na 1901, eserese eserese ya dọtara uche nke Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925), n'oge ahụ onye Theosophist a ma ama na onye ga-eme n'ọdịnihu Anthroposophy. Ọ masịrị eziokwu ahụ bụ na onye na-ese ihe, na meridian nke ọrụ nka ya, hapụrụ ọdịnala ọdịnala ọdịnala ndị a na-ahụkarị maka prọfesọ na andlọ Akwụkwọ ahụ ma kwaga n'ụdị nke ime mmụọ, gụnyere ndị mmụọ ozi dị iche na ndị ọhụụ 1951: 419-21). [Foto dị n'aka nri]

A mụrụ Gyzis, na March 1, 1842, na ezinụlọ ndị Ọtọdọks n'obodo Sklavochori, n'àgwàetiti Tinos, nke bụkwa ebe nwere ikike Katọlik dị ike na ọnụ ọgụgụ Katọlik dị ukwuu. Tinos, agwaetiti nke Northern Cyclades, maara nke ọma maka ndị na-ese ihe na ndị na-ese akwụkwọ ya, ma na-anọgidekwa bụrụ ụlọ okpukpe dị oke mkpa, karịsịa mgbe nchọtara na 1823 nke akara akwụkwọ ebube nke Virgin Panagia na mkpọmkpọ ebe nke otu ụka ochie nke a raara nye John John Baptist, na ntọala nke Chọọchị Panagia Evangelistria na 1880 (Missirli 2002: 339). Kemgbe narị afọ nke iri na itoolu, Tinos ka bụ ebe a ma ama nke njem njem Marian na njem nleta okpukpe, ọ dị mkpa ka Gris yie nke Lourdes maka ndị Katọlik na France.

Gyzis biri na Athens na 1850 na, site na 1854, malitere ọmụmụ ya na Ụlọ Akwụkwọ nke Arts. Otu n'ime ndị nkụzi ya bụ onye Germany na-ese onyinyo ihe gbasara okpukpe, otu akụkụ nke ndị Nazarene, Ludwig Thiersch (1825-1909), bụ onye a na-ekwu maka iwebata ihe ndị dị n'Ebe Ọdịda Anyanwụ n'ime ọdịnala ọdịda anyanwụ nke Ebe Ọwụwa Anyanwụ. Dị ka Kaiser si kwuo, Thiersch nwere nchegbu banyere echiche Slavic nke "Sobornost" (nke a sụgharịrị ịbụ "nkwekọrịta" ma ọ bụ "obodo"), na Chọọchị St. Nikodemos na Atens (Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke Russia), nke ọ na-achọ mma , gosipụtara nchegbu a (Kaiser 2014). Ndị na-akwado "Sobornost" na-akwalite nghọta nke Chọọchị dịka ebe dị n'otu dị iche iche dị iche iche nke Ndị Kraịst na, n'aka nke ọzọ, na-enye ihe ọzọ na-eme ka mmadụ bụrụ onye a na-achịkwaghị achịkwa site n'ịkwado ọdịdị nke ịhụnanya zuru ụwa ọnụ na ịdị n'otu na-ejighị n'aka. Ya mere, a na-ahụkarị okpukperechi na okpukpe ndị e mere ka ha nwee nkwalite n'okpuru oghere dị egwu. Ọbụna mgbe Gyzis kwagara Munich, ọ ka nọgidere na-edekọ ihe na Thiersch, na-eji nkwurịta okwu na-atụgharị ya na isiokwu dịgasị iche iche (Kaiser 2014: 195).

Site n'enyemaka nke enyi ya Nikiforos Lytras (1832-1904), bụkwa onye omenkà Greek a ma ama nke gụrụ akwụkwọ na Munich Academy, Gyzis bịara mata onye ọchụnta ego Tinian bụ Nikolaos Nazos (onye mechara bụrụ ọgọ ya), onye tinyere aka. maka ya na Evangelistria Foundation, na-enweta ego nke agụmakwụkwọ (Missirli 2002: 341). Evlọ ọrụ Evangelistria nke Tinos kwadoro mmata ọdịbendị site na ịnye ndị ntorobịa nwere nka na ndị ọkpụ ihe onyinye mmụta, si otú a na-enye ha ohere ịnata ọzụzụ na ebe nka nka dị mkpa na mba ofesi, iji mee ka echiche ọdịbendị ha dịkwuo omimi ma webata ha na Gris. Mgbe oge ụfọdụ gasịrị, a kwadoro akwụkwọ mmụta Gyzis na 1865 na site na ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri nke Syros, site na Trieste, Vienna na Salzburg, o mechara rute Munich, ebe ọ nọrọ ruo oge ndụ ya niile. N'ọnwa Ọktọba nke otu afọ ahụ, ọ gara klas nkwadebe nke Hermann Anschütz (1802-1880) na Munich Academy na, otu afọ mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, onye Hungary na-ese ihe bụ Alexander von Wagner (1838-1919) zụrụ ya. Na 1868, a nabatara Gyzis na klas nke Karl von Piloty (1826-1886) na Munich Academy of Fine Arts. Na 1869, Gyzis nyere ihe osise okpukpe mbụ ya, Joseph ke Mkpọrọ (1868), na Evangelistria Foundation (ebe ọ ka dị), dịka ihe nrịba ama ekele maka nkwado ya. Otu afọ mgbe e mesịrị, ọrụ okpukpe ọzọ, Judith na Holofernes (1869), e dechara. Ihe omuma a na nke mmezi nke ihe ndi ozo a bu ihe omuma nke von Piloty, bu otu n'ime ndi German kachasi anya nke ihe a na-akpo akuko (Didaskalou 1999: 143).

Na 1872, mgbe ọ nọrọ ogologo oge na mba ọzọ, Gyzis gara Greece ọzọ na nke mbụ ya wee nata otuto dị ukwuu maka nka nka. N'afọ sochirinụ, Gyzis soro Lytras gaa Anatolia. Na 1874, ọ laghachitere na Munich na Lytras, gbazitere ụlọ ọrụ nke onye na-ese German, na mgbe e mesịrị Theosophist, Gabriel von Max (1840-1915) (Missirli 2002: 346). N'otu oge ahụ, Gyzis malitere n'usoro na-ekere òkè na ngosi kwa afọ na nke mba na Glaspalast Munich.

Na 1875, Gyzis ghọrọ onye otu na ndị ọrụ nka “Allotria,” nke ọtụtụ ndị nka nka German dị mkpa sonyekwara (Missirli 2002: 347). Na 1876, Gyzis lụrụ nwa nwanyị Nikolaos Nazos, Artemis Nazou (1854-1929), onye, ​​n'ime afọ na-eso ya, ọ lụrụ mgbe ọ gachara njem na Gris. N'otu oge aha ya dị ka onye na-ese ihe wee tozuo mgbe ọ bidoro igosi ihe osise ya na mba ụwa, dịka Ngosipụta Worldwa Paris nke 1878. Na 1880, a hoputara ya onye na-asọpụrụ otu nke Academy of Fine Arts na Munich, na afọ abụọ emesia ọ malitere ịrụ ọrụ dịka onye enyemaka nkuzi n’ebe ahụ. Na 1888, Gyzis mechara họpụta prọfesọ na Munich Academy, na-akwụ ụgwọ kwa afọ nke akara German 4.200 (Didaskalou 1991: 150). Na 1887, onye ama ama ama ama na Europe nwetara na Europe, gọọmentị Greek nyere ya ọrụ ịhazi ọkọlọtọ maka Mahadum National na Kapodistrian nke Athens. Ọrụ Gyzis dị na njedebe mgbe, na 1896, o mere diplọma maka egwuregwu Olympic mbụ nke oge a ga-eme na Athens. Dị ka onye na-ese ihe si kwuo, isiokwu e gosiri na diplọma bụ "Annunciation of Greece" [Ευαγγελισμός της Ελλάδος] (Drosinis 1953: 210).

Dika enwere ike igosi ya site na ozi ya, site na mmalite nke 1890s gaa n'ihu, Gyzis nwere ụdị nsogbu okpukpe ma ghọọ enwere nnukwu mmasị na nnukwu ọrụ okpukpe (Didaskalou 1993: 188). N’August 28, 1893, n’akwụkwọ ozi Gyzis degaara ọgọ ya nwaanyị bụ́ Ourania Nazou, o kwuru na ya echepụtala echiche okpukpe ọhụrụ. Na 1894, ọ malitere idekọ ya na Anna May (1864-1954), enyi na nwa klas nwa ya nwanyị Penelope (1879-1947). Site n'enyemaka May, na 1898, Gyzis họọrọ ụfọdụ n'ime eserese ya na oji na ọcha maka Mgbakọ Glaspalast nke Munich n'otu afọ ahụ. A na-ahụta eserese dịka ngwaahịa sitere n'ike mmụọ nsọ egwu, ọtụtụ n'ime ha nyochakwara isiokwu okpukpe. Na July 20, 1900, Ngosipụta Kwa Afọ na Glaspalast gosipụtara ọtụtụ ọrụ site na Gyzis, gụnyere Lee, Onye Na-alụ Ọlụlụ Na-abịa. Ihe ngosi a na ihe ndi ozo ndi ozo gosiri na ha nwere ihe ime mmuo na echiche nke onwu na ikpe. Ihe egwu a na-ekenye onye na-ekiri ihe a nwere ike ịbụ akụkụ ụfọdụ n'ihi mmeri ọjọọ ndị Gris na-ata ahụhụ na ihe a maara na Gris dịka Agha Mberede, na-alụ ọgụ na 1897 n'etiti Alaeze Gris na Alaeze Ottoman.

Ihe osise dị iche iche, ọmụmụ ihe, na eserese nke oge a, bụ ndị e chebere ugbu a na nchịkọta onwe ha na ụlọ ngosi ihe mgbe ochie dị na Gris, na-egosi na onye na-ese onyinyo ahụ tụrụ anya ọhụụ ndị ahụ dị iche iche site na ụwa a na-adịghị ahụ anya, dịka egwu ọdịiche dị na "isiokwu ka ukwuu," ya bụ mweghachi nke ọnọdụ ime mmụọ. [Foto dị n'aka nri] Gyzis ejughị afọ na usoro e nyere iwu kama ọ na-achọ ịkọwa "isiokwu ka ukwuu" a site na ịrụ ọrụ na usoro mgbasa ozi dị iche iche ma ọ bụ ịkọ akụkọ ndị a na-atụghị anya ya, jiri nwayọọ nwayọọ na-adọpụ yarn ahụ n'anya onye na-ekiri ya. Ihe osise na eserese, nke na-ebukarị aha ya Okpukpe nke Okpukpe or Ntọala nke Okwukwe (ebe ọ bụ na 1894), na-egosi ndị isi archangels na-atụ egwu dị egwu, na-ejide mma agha na-enwu ọkụ ma na-azọcha agwọ ochie ahụ, Setan (Didaskalou 1991: 124-25) [Foto dị n'akụkụ aka nri]. Maka Gyzis, agha a na-agwụ ike nke o gosipụtara na-eguzogide ọgụ ebighi ebi n'etiti Mmụọ na Ihe, isiokwu nke a na-ekwukarị na Theosophical circles (Petritakis 2013). Gyzis kwusiri okwu a ike na ya Mmeri nke Mmụọ Nsọ, nke a choro dị ka akụkụ nke elu nke mejupụtara buru ibu, nke isiokwu ya bụ New Century (1899-1900), nke a na-echekwa ihe ọmụmụ dị iche iche na ihe osise mmanụ.

Agbanyeghị, eserese kachasị ama ama nke Gyzis, na ọnọdụ a, ekwubuola ya Lee, Onye Na-alụ Ọlụlụ Na-abịa (1899-1900, 2 x 2 m.), Nke nwere isiokwu ya na ọbịbịa nke Onye Na-alụ Ọlụlụ (nke Grik, Nymphios), ọrụ nke Chọọchị Ọtọdọks nke na-anọchite anya nkwadebe maka mbata Mesaịa ahụ. [Foto dị n'aka nri] N'ezie, Gyzis mere ka akwụkwọ na-akpọ Hermeneia (1730-1734) nke Dionysius nke Fourna dere (ihe dị ka 1670 - mgbe 1744 gasịrị), akwụkwọ ọgụgụ nke ihe osise eserese, nke nyere akụkọ ozi ọma banyere ndụ. nke Jizọs Kraịst. Gyzis chọrọ akwụkwọ a n'akwụkwọ ozi 1886 (Kalligas 1981: 176-88; Drosinis 1953: 176-78). Ihe osise a na-egosi Kraịst, onye ọnụ ya na-apụta n'igwe dị iche iche nke ọkụ, bụ nke na-agbanye mgbọrọgwụ na mgbochi na-aga n'ihu n'akụkụ nke ebe a, ebe ndị mmụọ ozi na-anakọta (Petritakis 2014). Ihe ngosi na-egosipụta Ụda Setan a na-atụkwa anya ime ka akụkụ nke ala nke ngwugwu (Kalligas 1981) dị.

Ọrụ okpukpe Gyzis gosipụtara nkà na nkà zuru oke na njirisi geometrical, karịsịa banyere iji okirikiri na ụdị elliptical, nke na-enye echiche nke "nkwekọrịta kwekọrọ" (Kalligas 1981: 72; Petritakis 2016: 89). Marcel Montandon (1875-1940), onye bipụtara akụkọ banyere onye na-ese ihe otu afọ mgbe ọnwụ Gyzis gasịrị, kwadoro okwu ahụ dị n'elu (Montandon 1902: 118). Ọzọkwa, ọkpụkpọ egwu nke na-egwuri egwu, na-agbasi ike, mana ọ ka siri ike na-agafe ọrụ ndị a, na-eme ka onye na-ekiri ya nwee echiche nke ezughi oke. Site na eserese ya nke ejiri ink Indian mee na mpempe akwụkwọ foto, nke a chọrọ ka a hụ ya n'ihu isi iyi (usoro nke Gyzis n'onwe ya chepụtara) onye na-ese ihe ahụ na-akọwa na mbara ụwa ọzọ, dị ka nke ndị mmụọ ime mmụọ na-enyocha. [Foto dị n'aka nri] N'otu aka ahụ, ihe osise na akwụkwọ ojii ejiri nzu, nke o mepụtara, na 1898, site na enyemaka Anna May (Drosinis 1953: 235), kpalite echiche nke njikọta n'etiti eziokwu ụwa na nke ọzọ. A zụtara ndị nke a n'aka gọọmentị Bavaria ma debe ya ugbu a na Staatliche Graphische Sammlung na Munich.

Gyzis nwụrụ na Jenụwarị 4, 1901 na Munich. Onye omenkà German bụ Heinrich Waderé (1865-1950) kpụrụ ihe ncheta ya. Ihe ngosi, ihe ncheta emere na Glaspalast nke Munich site na June rue Oktoba 1901. E gosipụtara ọrụ Gyzis n'akụkụ nke ndị ọzọ na-ese ihe abụọ nwụrụ n'oge na-adịbeghị anya, Arnold Böcklin (1827-1901) na Wilhelm Leibl (1844-1900). Na alụ nwaanyị ọhụrụ yana eserese si Okpukpe nke Okpukpe nọkwa na-egosi. Naanị mgbe afọ iri abụọ na asaa gasịrị, a haziri nnukwu ngosi nke ọrụ Gyzis na Gris, na Iliou Melathron (Heinrich Schliemann's Mansion) na Atens, nke Society of Art Devotees na nwa Gyzis, bụ Telemachus (1884-1964) haziri.

Ajụjụ na-akpali mmasị metụtara mmekọrịta Gyzis na Theosophy, otu mmegharị nke ọtụtụ ndị enyi na ndị enyi ya nwere nnukwu mmasị. Gyzis abanyeghi na German Theosophical Society, ọ dị ka ọ ga-abụrịrị na ọ maara na echiche Theosophical na-agbasa na Gris n'oge ndụ ya. N'ezie, e guzobere Theosophical Society na Atens ọtụtụ oge mgbe e mesịrị, na 1928 (Matthiopoulos 2005: 249). Na 1979, n'oge mkparịta ụka ya na onye nkatọ Greek na onye nlekọta Marilena Kassimati na Munich, Ewald Petritschek (1917-1997, nwa nwa Gyzis na nwa nwoke Penelope Gyzis) kwuru na, na mgbede nke ndụ ya, onye na-ese ihe amaala akwụkwọ Theosophical (Kassimati) 2002: 45-46). Otú ọ dị, n'akwụkwọ ozi ya, Gyzis anaghị ezo aka na akwụkwọ Theosophical ma ọ bụ na-akọwa kpọmkwem echiche Theosophical. Ọzọkwa, akwụkwọ akụkọ Gyzis, nke dị n'aka nwa ya nwoke, Telemachus, gbara ọkụ n'oge mwakpo ikuku na Jenụwarị 7, 1944, n'akụkụ ọdụ ụgbọ elu, na Athens (Didaskalou 1991: 1). Ya mere, ọ ga - abụ ihe dị ize ndụ iji kwubie na Gyzis bụ Ọtọdọks nke Ọtọdọks.

Ọtụtụ ndị na-ese ihe na ndị nwere ọgụgụ isi kesara ihe na-akpali mmasị maka mmụọ mmụọ n'oge ahụ, nke kachasị n'etiti ha bụ Munich Secessionists Albert von Keller (1844-1920) na Gabriel von Max (Loers 1995; Danzker 2010). E hiwere German Theosophical Society na July 27, 1884. Society nwere nzukọ nke abụọ ya n'otu afọ ahụ na August 9, na Gabriel von Max's Ammerland villa, south of Munich, na von Max ghọrọ ndị miri emi n'okwu Theosophical na Spiritualist. Na 1886, agbanyeghị, German Theosophical Society gbasasịrị mgbe esemokwu ahụ gasịrị ebe a na-ebo Madame Helena Blavatsky (1831-1891), onye isi mba ụwa nke Society ebubo na ọ na-eji aghụghọ wepụta akwụkwọ ozi ndị ọ na-azọrọ na ọ na-anata n'aka ndị Nna-ukwu dị omimi. Von Keller na von Max, tinyere dibia Albert von Schrenk-Notzing (1862-1929), hibere Psychologische Gesellschaft (Psychological Society), nke e mere na Society for Psychical Research na England. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, anyị enweghị ike igosi na Gyzis nwere mmekọrịta chiri anya na Psychological Society.

Ma Keller na Gyzis bụ ndị òtù Künstlergesellschaft Allotria (Art Association Allotria), bụ ndị si na nke ahụ mesịrị pụta. Mgbapu Munich. E guzobere Art Association Allotria na 1873 site n'aka Franz von Lenbach (1836-1904), ezigbo ezigbo enyi nke Gyzis, onye dekwara okwu mmeghe nke akwụkwọ Montandon. Ihe a na-ahụbeghị ruo ugbu a bụ eziokwu Gyzis mere na 1895 mkpuchi maka akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ Über Land und Meer (Over Land and See), nke jupụtara na akara Masonic [Image na nri]. Otu onye na-ede akwụkwọ akụkọ ahụ, Ludwig Gärtner, bụkwa onye so na Psychological Society (Petritakis 2013).

Na mkpokọta, akụkọ ihe mere eme Greek hụrụ ọrụ Gyzis anya dị ka onye na-eme mkparịta ụka ya na nka Classical na Byzantine, ụzọ abụọ bụ isi nke ekwuru na ha gafere n'ọchịchị Greek nke oge a. Dị ka Matthiopoulos gosipụtara n'ụzọ ziri ezi, elelela ọrụ Gyzis anya wee nwee nkụda mmụọ site na ọgụgụ isi nke Greek, na agba mbọ na-agba mbọ ịsachapụ ya site na ihe omimi ya na ihe atụ ya: na okwu ndị ọzọ, iji merie ya ime ka ọgbara ọhụụ ”were were echiche na echiche dị iche iche dochie ya (Kaklamanos 1901: 27-28, Matthiopoulos 2005: 541). Kalligas kwusiri ike na “ọrụ okpukpe Gyzis na-eme ka ihe osise ọdịnala Ndị Kraịst nwee ọnụ ọgụgụ ọhụrụ, nke a na-apụghị ile anya dị ka onye Ọtọdọks ma ọ bụ onye Ọdịda Anyanwụ. Ọ bụ ezigbo Onye Kraịst ”(Kalligas 1981: 175). Uche echiche yiri nke a abanyela n'ọhịa nke akụkọ ihe mere eme Greek ruo oge ndị a, na-egbochi nghọta nke ọrụ akara ngosi nke Gyzis na ọnọdụ mmekọrịta ọha na eze na echiche ya (Danos 2015: 11-22). N'iburu ọnọdụ dị na narị afọ nke iri na itoolu na nka na nka na Gris, naanị ndị pere mpe nke ndị omenkà na ndị gụrụ akwụkwọ na Atens na ndị mba Gris nwere ike ịghọta ajụjụ ndị eserese Gyzis jụrụ (Matthiopoulos 2016).

O doro anya na, mgbe onye na-ese ihe ahụ nwụsịrị, na 1901, na ngosipụta ndị na-egosi na ọ na-ese ihe osise ya na Glaspalast, otu "Theosophical aura" malitere gburugburu ọrụ ya. Anna May, nwa akwụkwọ nke Gyzis, keere òkè ụfọdụ na ntụziaka ahụ. Nna ya, Heinrich May (1825-1915), bụ onye dọkịta Gyzis n'oge onye na-ese ihe siri ike na njedebe, mgbe Anna rụrụ ọrụ nke onye na-ese ihe nkiri, onye ndụmọdụ ya ma ọ bụ echiche ya n'okwu dị iche iche ọ ga-arịọkarị.

Margarita Hauschka, nwanne nwanne Anna May, kọrọ na n'ime ebe Anna na Adalbertsstrasse dị, na mpaghara ngalaba nke Munich nke Theosophical Society, e sere foto dị na ya, e chere na o nwere aha Eze nke Chineke (Majestät Gottes), dị ka o doro anya, otu Gyzis ' Lee, Onye Na-alụ Ọlụlụ Na-abịa, ma ọ bụrụ na ọ bụghị otu ọrụ ahụ. Mgbe Tadeusz Rychter, onye na-eto eto na-ese foto si Poland, na-akpabu n'oge mbụ na nke ọdịbendị modernist nke ndọrọ ndọrọ ọchịchị cabaret Kleiner grüner Ballon [Small Green Balloon] na Krakow. na nwa akwụkwọ nke Gyzis, bịara ịgbazite ụlọ ọrụ ahụ wee hụ ihe oyiyi ahụ, ọ matara ya ozugbo wee rịọ ka edebe ya n'ụlọ ahụ. Anna May jụrụ onyinye ahụ, Rychter mechara mee obere ọrụ mbụ (Hauschka 1975: 188). N'ụzọ na-akpali mmasị, mmekọrịta siri ike malitere na nke a, ọ bụ ezie na ndị nne na nna Anna May megidere ya, ebe ha bụ ndị Katọlik siri ike na Rychter bụ ezigbo Theosophist. Anyị nwere ike chebe na ọ bụ mgbe anyị kụzichara Anna May na Theosophy ka Rychter, na ọnwa mbụ nke 1910, kwagara Berlin ịga ụfọdụ okwu nkuzi nke Rudolf Steiner. Ọ ga-abụ n'oge ahụ na Rychter dọtara uche Steiner na onye na-ese akwụkwọ Greek (Petritakis 2016: 84-85). Ọzọkwa, enwere ihe akaebe na, na 1910, otu nke alụ nwaanyị ọhụrụ a na-eme ka ogige alaka ụlọ ọrụ Munich nke Theosophical Society dị mma, ndị òtù ya masịrị ya nke ọma (Bracker 2004: 61).

N'oge 1907 na 1910, Anna May, yana Rychter, rụrụ ọrụ dị ka ndị na-ese ihe maka Steiner's Mystery Plays na Munich, ya bụ, n'oge Steiner nyefere okwu ihu ọha na Gyzis na Munich Theosophical Society (Levy 2003). Ọzọkwa, Mee natara kọmịshọn Steiner maka eserese ga-achọ Johannesbau mma na Munich, onye bu ụzọ nke Goetheanum Steiner ga-emecha rụọ na Dornach, nke dị nso na Basel, Switzerland, dị ka isi ụlọ ọrụ ụwa nke Anthroposophy (Zander 2007: 819). A tụụrụ ya dị ka ihe ngosipụta nke kwesịrị igosipụta ọkwa dị iche iche nke Iso Christianityzọ Kraịst dị omimi, site na Sọlọmọn dị ka onye bu ụzọ tupu Grail dị nsọ wee ruo Rosicrucianism. Ọrụ a na-emetụ n'ọtụtụ ụzọ nke ọrụ okpukpe Gyzis na njedebe, ọkachasị n'ihe nnọchianya na nhazi usoro (Petritakis 2014). Otú ọ dị, echekwara anyị naanị site na nghọta nke nwanne nwanyị May (Hauschka 1975) debere, ebe ọ bụ na eserese mbụ ahụ, otu ugboro na Hamburger Waldorfschule, ụlọ akwụkwọ sekọndrị Anthroposophical dị na Hamburg, bibiri n'oge bọmbụ na Agha Worldwa nke Abụọ ( Hauschka 1975: 187). [Foto dị n'aka nri] Na February 1918, Mee gosipụtara ngosipụta na ngosipụta Munich Das Reich, nke Anthroposophist na alchemist Alexander von Bernus (1880-1965) na-agba, na mgbe e mesịrị, n'otu afọ ahụ, na Glaspalast, n'okpuru aha ikpeazụ May-Kerpen (Petritakis 2016: 84-85). Na 1924, mgbe ọ natara ọrụ site na ụlọ mbipụta akwụkwọ "Christliche Kunst," Rychter na Anna May, bụ nwunye ya ugbu a, kwagara Palestine. Na 1939, akara Rychter furu efu n'oge na-adịghị anya mgbe enyere ya ọrụ iweghachi otu ụka dịdebere Radom, na Poland. N'ụzọ doro anya, ndị Nazi gburu ya na 1943 (Levy 2003; Bracker 2004: 62). Mgbe nke ahụ gasịrị, Anna May biri, dị ka ụdị "recluse," na obere ụlọ Arabia, nke mechara bụrụ ụlọ Anthroposophical mbụ na Palestine, ebe nzukọ maka ndị mba ọzọ na ndị enyi (Gottlieb 1954: 128-29). Anna May na ndị Anthroposophists ndị ọzọ zụlitere mmachi, imirikiti ha bụ ndị Juu si Europe na Central Europe. Ndị a gụnyere Eva Levy si Vienna (amụrụ Eva Rosenberg, 1924-2011), onye mechara, na 1942, lụrụ Anthroposophist a ma ama na ọsụ ụzọ nke Zionist movement, Michael Levy (1913-1998), ma ọ bụ onye nrụpụta ụlọ Bruno Eljahu Friedjung, amụrụkwa na Vienna, na 1906 (Bracker 2004: 62).

Tupu ya na Rychter apụ na Palestine, Anna May nwere njikọ chiri anya na Künstlergruppe Aenigma, nke ya na Rychter gbasoro. Otu a, nke gosipụtara n'etiti 1918 na 1932, bụ Maria Strakosch-Giesler (1877-1970) guzobere, onye bụbu nwa akwụkwọ Kandinsky, na Irma von Duczyńska (1869-1932), ha abụọ natara agụmakwụkwọ agụmakwụkwọ na ndị nwanyị nwere oke mmụọ nwere ọchịchọ ịchọ ọdịmma (Fäth 2015). Ọrụ Gyzis makwaara nke ọma ndị otu na-ese ihe bụ Aenigma, nke bụ Rudolf Steiner na-achịkwa ya na ndị otu ya bụ ndị na-eje ozi na nkuzi ya na ndị na-eso ụzọ ya.

Mgbe Gyzis nwụsịrị, Rudolf Steiner, onye ndu mgbe ahụ nke German Theosophical Society, malitere iso ndị otu egwuregwu oge a na-akpakọrịta ma nwee oke ọkụ iwebata echiche ya banyere nka na ụmụ akwụkwọ ụmụ akwụkwọ na-eto eto bụ ndị gara nkuzi ya, si otú a na-achọta ụzọ iji mee ka ọrụ ya zie ezi. Ọha German. Ndị International Theosophical Congress ọ haziri na Munich na 1907 (Mee 18-21) bụ ndị mmadụ 600 bịara, ọtụtụ n'ime ha si na mba ndị na-asụ German, England, France, na America mana si Russia na Scandinavia (Zander 2007: 1067) -076).

Na 1910, Rudolf Steiner kwupụtara n'ihu ndị òtù Theosophical Society na Munich ihe ngosi ihe omimi nke French Theosophist Édouard Schuré (1841-1929), Ụmụ Lucifer, nakwa dị ka nke Rosicrucian nke ya Ebube nke mmalite (Zander 1998). N’abalị iri abụọ na ise n’ọnwa Ọgọst, ọ kụziri okwu ihu ọha gbasara Gyzis Okwu Steiner na Gyzis dị mkpa, ebe ọ bụ oge mbụ Steiner chere ezigbo echiche banyere onye na-ese ihe nke oge a nke na ọ raara onwe ya dum okwu ihu ọha. Ọbụna o nyere iwu ka imepụta ihe osise nke eserese ahụ na obere usoro, nke echekwara ugbu a na Steiner Archive na Dornach (Petritakis 25: 2016). O yiri ka eserese Gyzis nwere nnukwu mmasị n'etiti ndị enyi Steiner (onye mechara mebe obodo Anthroposophical), nke kachasị Lee, Onye Na-alụ Ọlụlụ Na-abịa, nke Steiner na-enyekarị aka na nkwupụta ya. Steiner na-akpọ ihe osise ahụ "Site na ìhè, ịhụnanya" [Aus dem Lichte, die Liebe]. Ọ bụ n'ụzọ ahụ ka ọ na-ezo aka na ozizi Eastern Christological, nke nwere njikọ chiri anya na echiche nke Sobornost, bụ nke a gbasaa n'ọtụtụ Symbolist, karịsịa na ndị dịka ọkà ihe ọmụma Russia bụ Vyacheslav Ivanov (1866-1949) na onye edemede Alexander Scriabin (1872- 1915) (Petritakis 2018).

N'okwu ya, Steiner dọtara uche ndị na-ege ntị na mpaghara abụọ dị na mbara igwe nke na-enwu n'akụkụ elu nke ọnọdụ Gyzis, na-edozi ya n'ụzọ dabara adaba na ọnọdụ ọmụmụ nke Michelangelo (1475-1564) na Cappella Sistina na Rome. Ọzọkwa, ọ rụrụ ụka na ọnọdụ ahụ na-ekwughachi oge nke Chineke ọhụrụ na-efegharị n'elu iji kee ụwa, ebe Chineke ochie ahụ hapụrụ ịhapụ mkpokoro nke mkpo ala ochie (Steiner 1953). N'oge a, ụzọ Steiner si eche echiche na-esoteric-Christian. Dị ka Max Gümbel-Seiling (1879-1967), onye otu German Theosophical Society na mgbe e mesịrị nke Anthroposophical Society (onye nyere aka na nkwadebe nke Mystery Plays na Munich n'oge Ọchịchị ahụ) chetara, Steiner nwere ngalaba abụọ nke eserese na-a ọzọ cosmological pụtara. Ọ rụrụ ụka na, na okwu Blavatskyan, mbara ala ochie nke dị n'akụkụ aka ekpe nke ihe nkiri ahụ na-ekwughachi oge mbara igwe nke Manvantara (ihe ngosi) na nke ohuru n'ime aka nri, oge nke Pralaya (retraction) (Gümbel-Seiling 1946: 53; Petritakis 2016: 87).

N’ebe ọzọ na nkuzi ya, Steiner kwusiri okwu ike iji agba ọla edo na-acha n’elu ihu na mma agha nke ndị mmụọ ozi, gbasara ya dị ka ngosipụta nke radieshon nke sitere na “Mmụọ nke Elohim”. O jikọtara agba indigo-acha anụnụ anụnụ na ntinye ofufe na ịdị umeala n'obi na uhie na ịdị ọcha. Ebe ọ bụ na ndị German Theosophists bụ ihe ndị mara mma na-adaberekarị na Madonnas nke Raphael (1483-1520), Steiner dọrọ ndị na-ege ya ntị aka ka ndị na-ese ihe na-ese ihe dị iche iche (Steiner 1953: 424). Okwu a dị mkpa, ebe ọ bụ na ọ na-egosi na Steiner na-ahapụ okpuru Rosicrucian ọdịnala ma na-etinyekwu aka na nnwale, mmadụ nwedịrị ike ịsị, ịchụso ihe ndị ọzọ. N'otu aka ahụ, na nkuzi ya banyere nka na Dornach, Steiner ga-akọwakwuru banyere mmekọrịta dị n'etiti-acha anụnụ anụnụ-indigo, nke nwere ogo centrifugal, na odo odo, nke bụ centripetal (Petritakis 2014). Artist Maria Strakosch-Giesler chetara otu Steiner si gosipụta ojiji a na-acha anụnụ anụnụ na ọtụtụ ihe atụ, site na Cimabue (ihe dị ka 1240-1302) na Giotto (1267-1337) ruo Filippo Lippi (1406-1469) (Strakosch-Giesler 1955) : 29; Petritakis 2014).

Ikekwe ọ bụ zutere Steiner na ihe oyiyi Gyzis nke kpaliri ya ịtụrụ ime ma ọ bụ gosipụta echiche ọhụrụ ya na teknụzụ nka, nke gbanyere mkpọrọgwụ na ihe odide nke onye German bụ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) (Halfen 2007). Steiner kwalitere echiche ndị a na nka nka, n'oge dị oke mkpa nke ndụ ya mgbe ọ gbalịrị ịhapụ nke anwansi na echiche mara mma nke onye ndu Theosophical Annie Besant (1847-1933) na iji mee ka mgbanwe mgbanwe nke ọha German dịkwuo mma. (Petritakis 2013). Mmeghachi omume nke Goethe Farbenlehre (tiori nke agba) dị ka "mkpa akụkọ ihe mere eme" maka ndị na-eto eto na-ese ihe, nke gosipụtara ihe atụ nke Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944), onye n'onwe ya gara nkuzi Steiner na onye kwenyere mmetụta nke Theosophy na ọrụ usoro ọmụmụ seminal ya Banyere Ime Mmụọ na Art, gbakwunyere nlọghachi nke Christianity esoteric nke onye osote Anthroposophy (Petritakis 2013, 2016) na-akwalite.

Foto dị iche iche **

** Ihe oyiyi niile nwere njikọ dị ichiiche iji gosipụta ya.

Image #1: Nikolaos Gyzis na ụlọ studio na 1890s. Foto site n'aka Elias van Bommel.

Image #2: Nikolaos Gyzis, Lee, Onye Na-alụ Ọlụlụ Na-abịa (ihe eji akwado ihe, 1899-1900). Mmanụ na-eru na waaaji, Athens, National Gallery, inv. Π.574 / 4.

Image #3: Nikolaos Gyzis, Le, Onye Na-alụ Ọlụlụ Na-abịa (ihe eji akwado ihe, 1899-1900). Mmanụ na-eru na waaaji, Athens, National Gallery, inv. Π.574 / 1.

Image #4: Nikolaos Gyzis, Onyeisi Ndị Mmụọ ozi (ọmụmụ site na Ntọala nke Okwukwe), ca. 1894. Mmanụ na-eru na waaaji, Athens, Museum nke Benaki, inv. Ọ bụ _24317.

Image #5: Nikolaos Gyzis, Lee, Onye Na-alụ Ọlụlụ Na-abịa (1899-1900). Mmanụ na ajiji, Athens, National Gallery, inv. Π.641.

Image #6: Nikolaos Gyzis, Ụda Setan (?), 1890-1900. Ink nke India na foil foto, Atens, National Gallery, inv. Π.628 / 17.

Foto #7: Nikolaos Gyzis, nke na-akọwa ihe a na-akpọ Aha, maka oge Über Land und Meer (1895).

Foto #8: Anna May-Rychter, The Triptych nke Grail, nghọta doro anya nke Margarita Hauschka chebere (nke mbụ a furu efu). Rudolf Steiner Archive, Goetheanum, Dornach.

References

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Ụbọchị Post:
17 April 2017

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